WorldWideScience

Sample records for emissions control pilot

  1. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation.

  2. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  3. Modeling Pilot Pulse Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine; Aponso, Bimal

    2017-01-01

    In this study, behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots from the experimental pool using markedly different control techniques (styles) while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to issue and cease pulse commands. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to perceive and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess' pilot Structural Model. The Pulse Models used in conjunction with the pilot Structural Model closely recreated the pilot data both in the frequency and time domains during closed-loop simulation. This indicates that for the range of tasks and control styles encountered, the models captured the fundamental mechanisms governing pulsive and control processes. The pilot Pulse Models give important insight for the amount of remnant (stick output uncorrelated with the forcing function) that arises from nonlinear pilot technique, and for the remaining remnant arising from different sources unrelated to tracking control (i.e. neuromuscular tremor, reallocation of cognitive resources, etc.).

  4. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  5. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prudich, M.E. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States); Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D. [ETS, Inc., Roanoke, VA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  6. Controlling spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    Control over spontaneous emission of light is of great importance in quantum optics. It is essential for diverse applications such as miniature lasers, light-emitting diodes, and single-photon sources for quantum information. We present experimental studies on spontaneous emission of CdSe quantum...

  7. Control of Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  8. Control of VOCs from printing press air emissions by anaerobic bioscrubber: Performance and microbial community of an on-site pilot unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, D; Ferrero, P; Penya-Roja, J M; Álvarez-Hornos, F J; Gabaldón, C

    2017-07-15

    A novel process consisted of an anaerobic bioscrubber was studied at the field scale for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from a printing press facility. The pilot unit worked under high fluctuating waste gas emissions containing ethanol, ethyl acetate, and 1-ethoxy-2-propanol as main pollutants, with airflows ranging between 184 and 1253 m 3  h -1 and an average concentration of 1126 ± 470 mg-C Nm -3 . Three scrubber configurations (cross-flow and vertical-flow packings and spray tower) were tested, and cross-flow packing was found to be the best one. For this packing, daily average values of VOC removal efficiency ranged between 83% and 93% for liquid to air volume ratios between 3.5·10 -3 and 9.1·10 -3 . Biomass growth was prevented by periodical chemical cleaning; the average pressure drop was 165 Pa m -1 . Rapid initiation of anaerobic degradation was achieved by using granular sludge from a brewery wastewater treatment plant. Despite the intermittent and fluctuating organic load, the expanded granular sludge bed reactor showed an excellent level of performance, reaching removal efficiencies of 93 ± 5% at 25.1 ± 3.2 °C, with biogas methane content of 94 ± 3% in volume. Volatile fatty acid concentration was as low as 200 mg acetic acid L -1 by treating daily average organic loads up to 3.0 kg COD h -1 , equivalent to 24 kg COD m -3 bed d -1 . The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results revealed the initial shift of the domains Archaea and Bacteria associated with the limitation of the carbon source to a few organic solvents. The Archaea domain was more sensitive, resulting in a drop of the Shannon index from 1.07 to 0.41 in the first 123 days. Among Archaea, the predominance of Methanosaeta persisted throughout the experimental period. The increase in the proportion of Methanospirillum and Methanobacterium sp. was linked to the spontaneous variations of operating temperature and load, respectively

  9. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  10. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  11. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  12. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  13. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  14. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  15. Pilot centered requirements in control/display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A method developed for predicting pilot opinion ratings for particular vehicles and tasks using optimal control pilot model is described and an outline of a flight director design procedure based upon the optimal control pilot model is given. Longitudinal and lateral control of a helicopter in hover and in a -6 deg constant ground speed-command landing approach are considered. Emphasis is placed on display design for optimum V/STOL control.

  16. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  17. Method of electron emission control in RF guns

    CERN Document Server

    Khodak, I V

    2001-01-01

    The electron emission control method for a RF gun is considered.According to the main idea of the method,the additional resonance system is created in a cathode region where the RF field strength could be varied using the external pulse equipment. The additional resonance system is composed of a coaxial cavity coupled with a RF gun cylindrical cavity via an axial hole. Computed results of radiofrequency and electrodynamic performances of such a two-cavity system and results of the RF gun model pilot study are presented in. Results of particle dynamics simulation are described.

  18. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions: Pilot project: Cogeneration project in Petroquimica Pajaritos, S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocanegra, J. [PEMEX, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Energy production, energy consumption, areas of greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the context of the Mexican economy and the role CDM projects could play in the Mexican oil industry are discussed. Potential areas of action are in energy efficiency, co-generation, fuel switching, clean fuels, control of methane emissions, carbon dioxide reinjection, synergies and forestry. With regard to CDMs, they could help meet the global goals to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions as proposed in the Kyoto Protocol, provide access to international funds and modern technologies, initiate partnerships to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions through productivity and energy saving projects, and allow the Mexican oil industry to gain a better competitive position in the oil and gas markets of the world. Also described is a pilot project by PEMEX Petroquimica, a subsidiary of Petroleos Mexicanos. This pilot project is designed to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions through cogeneration of steam. The objective of the project is to produce 61.2 tonnes /hour of steam, utilizing the calorific energy from the power plant combustion gases. Expected benefits from the project include reduction of 51,383 tonnes of carbon dioxide per year; reduced power and steam production costs; US$1.3 per year reduction in fuel costs; improved benefits from CDM; and valuable experience that could be implemented in other industrial facilities of PEMEX.

  19. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  20. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near...

  1. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  2. Acidic emissions control technology and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmel, T.E.; Waddell, J.T.; Adams, R.C. (Radian Corp. (US))

    1989-01-01

    This book describes acidic emissions control technology and costs. The objectives are: to identify and characterize stationary combustion and industrial sources of directly emitted acidic materials in the United States; to evaluate the feasibility of control technologies for these sources; and to estimate the costs of applying these control technologies. This book gives results of estimates, using a model plant approach, of costs for retrofitting selected acidic emission control systems to utility and industrial boilers, Claus sulfur recovery plants, catalytic cracking units, primary copper smelters, coke oven plants, primary aluminum smelters, and municipal solid waste incinerators.

  3. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  4. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Harley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation.

    Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass−1 h−1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b, with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production

  5. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  6. Assessment of the controllability of condensible emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shareef, G.S.; Waddell, J.T.

    1990-10-01

    The report gives results of a study to gain insights into the condensible emissions area from an air toxics perspective, with emphasis on controllability and chemical composition of these emissions. The study: compiled existing data on condensible emissions; determined the chemical composition of condensible emissions, where possible; identified source categories that are major emitters of condensibles; evaluated the effectiveness of various control devices in reducing condensible emissions; and evaluated how the performance of currently available control technologies can be improved to better control condensible emissions. Two data bases were developed: the Condensibles Data Base contains 43 emission source categories; the Specialized Condensibles Data Base focuses on the chemical composition of condensible emissions.

  7. Application of Bacillus sp. TAT105 to reduce ammonia emissions during pilot-scale composting of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Furuhashi, Kenich; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2017-12-01

    Thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. TAT105 grows and reduces ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions by assimilating ammonium nitrogen during composting of swine feces. To evaluate the efficacy of a biological additive containing TAT105 at reducing NH 3 emissions, composting tests of swine manure on a pilot scale (1.8 m 3 ) were conducted. In the TAT105-added treatment, NH 3 emissions and nitrogen loss were lower than those in the control treatment without TAT105. No significant difference was detected in losses in the weight and volatile solids between the treatments. Concentration of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacteria in the compost increased in both treatments at the initial stage of composting. In the TAT105-added treatment, bacterial concentration reached ~10 9 colony-forming units per gram of dry matter, several-fold higher than that in the control and stayed at the same level until the end. These results suggest that TAT105 grows during composting and reduces NH 3 emissions in TAT105-added treatment.

  8. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  9. Controlling collective spontaneous emission with plasmonic waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-11-14

    We demonstrate a plasmonic route to control the collective spontaneous emission of two-level quantum emitters. Superradiance and subradiance effects are observed over distances comparable to the operating wavelength inside plasmonic nanochannels. These plasmonic waveguides can provide an effective epsilon-near-zero operation in their cut-off frequency and Fabry-Pérot resonances at higher frequencies. The related plasmonic resonant modes are found to efficiently enhance the constructive (superradiance) or destructive (subradiance) interference between different quantum emitters located inside the waveguides. By increasing the number of emitters located in the elongated plasmonic channel, the superradiance effect is enhanced at the epsilon-near-zero operation, leading to a strong coherent increase in the collective spontaneous emission rate. In addition, the separation distance between neighboring emitters and their emission wavelengths can be changed to dynamically control the collective emission properties of the plasmonic system. It is envisioned that the dynamic modification between quantum superradiant and subradiant modes will find applications in quantum entanglement of qubits, low-threshold nanolasers and efficient sensors.

  10. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  11. Motion-Based Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Control Allocation Technique to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Leonard, Michael W.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Weinstein, Michael; Yildiz, Yildiray

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the maturation of a control allocation technique designed to assist pilots in the recovery from pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). The Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) is designed to enable next generation high efficiency aircraft designs. Energy efficient next generation aircraft require feedback control strategies that will enable lowering the actuator rate limit requirements for optimal airframe design. One of the common issues flying with actuator rate limits is PIOs caused by the phase lag between the pilot inputs and control surface response. CAPIO utilizes real-time optimization for control allocation to eliminate phase lag in the system caused by control surface rate limiting. System impacts of the control allocator were assessed through a piloted simulation evaluation of a non-linear aircraft simulation in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. Results indicate that CAPIO helps reduce oscillatory behavior, including the severity and duration of PIOs, introduced by control surface rate limiting.

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve

  13. Adaptive Controller Adaptation Time and Available Control Authority Effects on Piloting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna; Gregory, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive control is considered for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic of adverse conditions. This experiment looked at how adaptive controller adaptation time to recover nominal aircraft dynamics affects pilots and how pilots want information about available control authority transmitted. Results indicate that an adaptive controller that takes three seconds to adapt helped pilots when looking at lateral and longitudinal errors. The controllability ratings improved with the adaptive controller, again the most for the three seconds adaptation time while workload decreased with the adaptive controller. The effects of the displays showing the percentage amount of available safe flight envelope used in the maneuver were dominated by the adaptation time. With the displays, the altitude error increased, controllability slightly decreased, and mental demand increased. Therefore, the displays did require some of the subjects resources but these negatives may be outweighed by pilots having more situation awareness of their aircraft.

  14. Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2015-03-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50 L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A study of pilot behavior during controlling the lateral directional motion of airplanes in turbulent air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, G.

    1975-01-01

    The pilot behaviors controlling the lateral directional motion of airplanes in turbulent air have been investigated by using the pilot transfer function which has been obtained by the analysis of flight test data. The pilot uses the gains for the aileron manipulation proportionally to bank angle so as to minimize r.m.s. of bank angle. The pilot rudder manipulations are done proportionally to rolling velocity, yawing velocity, and yaw angle. Namely, the pilot carries out the cross control for the rudder.

  16. Asbestos emissions from baghouse controlled sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, C F; Oestreich, D K; Siebert, P; Stockham, J D

    1975-08-01

    There is virtually no information published on the absolute efficiency of baghouses in reducing the emmisions of fine particles of asbestos. This lack of information is unfortunate because serious occupational health problems may result from the common practice of recirculating air to conserve energy. Emission testing has been conducted at five asbestos processing plants where the emissions are controlled by baghouses. The results showed that the mass removal efficiency frequently exceeded 99.00%. Membrane filter samples of the effluent were examined by optical and electron microscope. It was observed that despite the high mass efficiency, the number of fibers emitted, which were greater than 1.5 mum in length, was about 10(4)-10(5) fibers/m3, while the number of fibers less than 1.5 mum was 10(7)-10(8) fibers/m3. The significance of the size of the fibers in terms of probably health impact is briefly discussed.

  17. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of…

  18. From Pilot to the National Emissions Trading Scheme in China: International Practice and Domestic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle climate change and build a low-carbon economy, China has selected seven provinces and cities as carbon trading pilots and plans to establish the national emissions trading scheme (ETS in 2017. However, since China has not yet reached peak carbon emissions, and as a major developing country, the conflict between increasing energy demand and the requirement to reduce emissions brings challenges to the design of a national ETS suitable for China’s development. In this paper, we summarize the current situation of China’s seven ETS pilots with respect to coverage, allowance allocation, transactions, punishment mechanisms and especially the market performance. By analyzing the common practice of three international mandatory schemes, combined with China’s current circumstances and characteristics of market construction and regulation, we emphasize China’s own economic reality, and propose several recommendations for building a suitable and effective national ETS. This paper could provide new perspectives towards scheme design for China and other similar countries.

  19. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S

    2014-01-01

    reports the results of the secondary objective, which was to increase the understanding of possible mechanisms underlying such neck pain and its intervention-related relief. METHODS: In a parallel, single-blinded, randomized controlled study, 55 F-16 pilots were evaluated at baseline and randomized......BACKGROUND: During maneuvering, fighter pilots experience loads of up to 50-70 kg on their necks. Neck disorders are common and have been linked to impairment in muscle control. We conducted an intervention study introducing targeted training for 24 wk that reduced neck pain. The current study...... to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. RESULTS: At follow...

  20. Characterization of size-specific particulate matter emission rates for a simulated medical laser procedure--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Liu, Li C; Esmen, Nurtan A; Conroy, Lorraine M

    2015-05-01

    Prior investigation on medical laser interaction with tissue has suggested device operational parameter settings influence laser generated air contaminant emission, but this has not been systematically explored. A laboratory-based simulated medical laser procedure was designed and pilot tested to determine the effect of laser operational parameters on the size-specific mass emission rate of laser generated particulate matter. Porcine tissue was lased in an emission chamber using two medical laser systems (CO2, λ = 10,600 nm; Ho:YAG, λ = 2100 nm) in a fractional factorial study design by varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse repetition frequency, and power) between two levels (high and low) and the resultant plume was measured using two real-time size-selective particle counters. Particle count concentrations were converted to mass emission rates before an analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific mass emission rate. Particle shape and diameter were described for a limited number of samples by collecting particles on polycarbonate filters, and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine method of particle formation. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in mass emission for the Ho:YAG laser at all size ranges. For the CO2 laser, emission rates were dependent on particle size and were not statistically significant for particle ranges between 5 and 10 µm. When any parameter level was increased, emission rate of the smallest particle size range also increased. Beam diameter was the most influential variable for both lasers, and the operational parameters tested explained the most variability at the smallest particle size range. Particle shape was variable and some particles observed by SEM were likely created from mechanical methods. This study provides a foundation for future investigations to better estimate size

  1. A PILOT DEEP SURVEY FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM fuvAGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C. [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Stute, M. [Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ∼(0.002–0.2) L{sub ⊙} and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ∼(35–160) × 10{sup 6} K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  2. Identification of Time-Varying Pilot Control Behavior in Multi-Axis Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in fly-by-wire control architectures for rotorcraft have introduced new interest in the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior in multi-axis control tasks. In this paper a maximum likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of a pilot model with time-dependent sigmoid functions to characterize time-varying human control behavior. An experiment was performed by 9 general aviation pilots who had to perform a simultaneous roll and pitch control task with time-varying aircraft dynamics. In 8 different conditions, the axis containing the time-varying dynamics and the growth factor of the dynamics were varied, allowing for an analysis of the performance of the estimation method when estimating time-dependent parameter functions. In addition, a detailed analysis of pilots adaptation to the time-varying aircraft dynamics in both the roll and pitch axes could be performed. Pilot control behavior in both axes was significantly affected by the time-varying aircraft dynamics in roll and pitch, and by the growth factor. The main effect was found in the axis that contained the time-varying dynamics. However, pilot control behavior also changed over time in the axis not containing the time-varying aircraft dynamics. This indicates that some cross coupling exists in the perception and control processes between the roll and pitch axes.

  3. Analysis of Controller-Pilot Voice Communications from Kansas City Air Route Traffic Control Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of Controller Pilot Datalink Communications (CPDLC) in domestic en route airspace is a key enabling technology in the Next Generation Air Transportation System. The Federal Aviation Administration plans to implement en route CPDLC ...

  4. Computer simulation of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Zipf, Mark E.; Kucuk, Senol

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to develop a computerized adaptive pilot model for the computer model of the research aircraft, the Harrier II AV-8B V/STOL with special emphasis on propulsion control. In fact, two versions of the adaptive pilot are given. The first, simply called the Adaptive Control Model (ACM) of a pilot includes a parameter estimation algorithm for the parameters of the aircraft and an adaption scheme based on the root locus of the poles of the pilot controlled aircraft. The second, called the Optimal Control Model of the pilot (OCM), includes an adaption algorithm and an optimal control algorithm. These computer simulations were developed as a part of the ongoing research program in pilot model simulation supported by NASA Lewis from April 1, 1985 to August 30, 1986 under NASA Grant NAG 3-606 and from September 1, 1986 through November 30, 1988 under NASA Grant NAG 3-729. Once installed, these pilot models permitted the computer simulation of the pilot model to close all of the control loops normally closed by a pilot actually manipulating the control variables. The current version of this has permitted a baseline comparison of various qualitative and quantitative performance indices for propulsion control, the control loops and the work load on the pilot. Actual data for an aircraft flown by a human pilot furnished by NASA was compared to the outputs furnished by the computerized pilot and found to be favorable.

  5. Pilot visual acquisition of traffic : operational communications from air traffic control operational communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Avionics devices designed to provide pilots with graphically displayed traffic information will enable pilots to acquire and verify the identity of any intruder aircraft within the general area, either before or in accordance with a controller-issued...

  6. A pilot study of traditional indoor biomass cooking and heating in rural Bhutan: gas and particle concentrations and emission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, T; He, C; Knibbs, L D; Mazaheri, M; Morawska, L

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have reported the health effects of biomass fuels in developing countries, relatively few have quantitatively characterized emissions from biomass stoves during cooking and heating. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize the emission characteristics of different biomass stoves in four rural houses in Bhutan during heating (metal chimney stove), rice cooking (traditional mud stove), fodder preparation (stone tripod stove), and liquor distillation (traditional mud stove). Three stage measurements (before, during, and after the activity had ceased) were conducted for PM2.5 , particle number (PN), CO, and CO2 . When stoves were operated, the pollutant concentrations were significantly elevated above background levels, by an average of 40 and 18 times for PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Emission rates (mg/min) ranged from 1.07 × 102 (PM2.5 ) and 3.50 × 102 (CO) for the stone tripod stove during fodder preparation to 6.20 × 102 (PM2.5 ) and 2.22 × 103 (CO) for the traditional mud stove during liquor distillation. Usable PN data were only available for one house, during heating using a metal chimney stove, which presented an emission rate of 3.24 × 1013 particles/min. Interventions to control household air pollution in Bhutan, in order to reduce the health risks associated with cooking and heating, are recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. EUROPEAN EMISSION TRADING SCHEME AT A TURNING POINT – FROM THE PILOT PHASE TO POST-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Carmen Slate

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change action has become a top priority for the European governments and for the European Union. Since the polluters are part of the energy-intensive industries, the mechanisms designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions should focus on the economic sector as a primary source of concern. Therefore, environmental issues interrelate with the economic ones and one viable expression of this relation is the EU ETS, a cap-and-trade mechanism. The ETS started with a pilot phase in year 2005 and will continue with a third phase after 2012, period which coincides with the end of Kyoto’s commitment. Although statistical data prove that the EU ETS is becoming more efficient with each phase, in the absence of global involvement the efforts invested in the scheme will be made in vain.

  8. Feasibility and safety of exercise stress testing using an anti-gravity treadmill with Tc-99m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging: A pilot non-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick; Kayse, Regina; Rudick, Steven; Robbins, Nathan; Scheler, Jennifer; Harris, David; O'Donnell, Robert; Dwivedi, Alok K; Gerson, Myron C

    2017-08-31

    Exercise is the AHA/ACC guideline-recommended stress modality for myocardial perfusion imaging, but many patients are unable to exercise to target heart rate on a conventional treadmill. We examined the feasibility and safety of stress imaging using an anti-gravity treadmill in patients with perceived poor exercise capacity. 49 patients were recruited for stress testing by anti-gravity treadmill (n = 29) or to a regadenoson control group (n = 20). Seventeen anti-gravity test patients (59%) reached target heart rate obviating the need for a pharmacologic stress agent. Adverse effects of the anti-gravity treadmill were limited to minor muscle aches in 5 subjects. Stress myocardial perfusion image quality judged by 3 blinded readers on a 5-point scale was comparable for the anti-gravity treadmill (4.30 ± SD 0.87) vs pharmacologic stress (4.28 ± SD 0.66). Stress testing using an anti-gravity treadmill is feasible and may help some patients safely achieve target heart rate.

  9. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wurtenberger, L. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  10. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis

    2017-07-15

    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p < 0.05) when prevailing wind direction blew from the northeast and the mill towards the NAPS site. Conversely, when prevailing winds originated from the southwest towards the mill, higher median VOC air toxics concentrations at the NAPS site, except carbon tetrachloride, were not observed. Despite study limitations, this is one of few investigations documenting elevated concentrations of certain VOCs air toxics to be associated with P&P emissions in a community. Findings support the need for more research on the extent

  11. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission pollution in Beijing, and discusses the following mitigation strategies: improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through, e.g., Inspection/Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles, and road infrastructure and traffic policies.

  12. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52.987 Section 52.987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon emissions. (a) Notwithstanding any provisions...

  13. Air traffic control in airline pilot simulator training and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Much airline pilot training and checking occurs entirely in the simulator, and the first time a pilot flies a particular airplane, it may carry passengers. Simulator qualification standards, however, focus on the simulation of the airplane without re...

  14. Randomized controlled trial of bottle weaning intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Richard; Bonuck, Karen; Trombley, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    Inappropriate baby bottle use is associated with tooth decay, anemia, and overweight, and it may adversely affect dietary patterns. Parents often do not follow guidance to wean by 18 months of life. We piloted a brief, counseling-based weaning intervention in an urban WIC agency among primarily Hispanic parent/toddler dyads. At baseline (n = 48), toddlers consumed a mean 4.7 bottles/day. At follow-up (n = 39), the intervention group consumed fewer mean bottles/day than controls (0.09 vs 2.0 bottles/day, P < .045). Half the toddlers in the experimental group and one third of the control groups weaned completely. Parents of weaned children were satisfied with the outcome.

  15. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  16. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  17. Cervical Spine Status of Pilots and Air-Controllers of Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Ho; Yun, Chul; Han, Andrew Hogyu

    2017-05-01

    Many countries have developed their own airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) systems for use in surveying their territorial sky in real time. However, a review of the literature suggests that no studies have been conducted to analyze the cervical spine of pilots and air-controllers of AEW&C aircraft. The study subjects were 80 pilots and air-controllers of AEW&C aircraft with a period of service of > 1 yr and had data on physical examinations, simple radiographs and functional scores of the axial skeleton, and questionnaires about lifestyle and working conditions. Information about physical characteristics and experience of neck pain were collected. Functional scores including the neck disability index and short-form 36-item health survey were obtained. Radiological measurements were performed for the C2-7 Cobb angle and degree of forward head posture. Of the 80 subjects, 33 (41.3%) had experienced neck pain and 63 (78.8%) had impaired cervical lordosis. The results of functional and radiological evaluations were not significantly different between pilots and air-controllers. In multivariate analysis, only the age was significantly related to the occurrence of impaired cervical lordosis. However, there were no significant factors related to the occurrence of neck pain. The results of this study suggest that the working environment of pilots and air-controllers of AEW&C aircraft has a negative effect on their cervical spine. Age seemed to be the most significant factor affecting the occurrence of impaired cervical lordosis in these subjects.Shin YH, Yun C, Han AH. Cervical spine status of pilots and air-controllers of airborne early warning and control aircraft. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):476-480.

  18. Pilot case-control study of paediatric falls from windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian D; Quistberg, D Alexander; Shandro, Jamie R; Partridge, Rebecca L; Song, Hyun Rae; Ebel, Beth E

    2011-12-01

    Unintentional falls from windows are an important cause of paediatric morbidity. There have been no controlled studies to identify modifiable environmental risk factors for window falls in young children. The authors have piloted a case-control study to test procedures for case identification, subject enrolment, and environmental data collection. Case windows were identified when a child 0-9 years old presented for care after a fall from that window. Control windows were identified (1) from the child's home and (2) from the home of an age- and gender-matched child seeking care for an injury diagnosis not related to a window fall. Study staff visited enrolled homes to collect window measurements and conduct window screen performance tests. The authors enrolled and collected data on 18 case windows, 18 in-home controls, and 14 matched community controls. Six potential community controls were contacted for every one enrolled. Families who completed the home visit viewed study procedures positively. Case windows were more likely than community controls to be horizontal sliders (100% vs 50%), to have deeper sills (6.28 vs 4.31 inches), to be higher above the exterior surface (183 vs 82 inches), and to have screens that failed below a threshold derived from the static pressure of a 3-year-old leaning against the mesh (60.0% vs 16.7%). Case windows varied very little from in-home controls. Case-control methodology can be used to study risk factors for paediatric falls from windows. Recruitment of community controls is challenging but essential, because in-home controls tend to be over-matched on important variables. A home visit allows direct measurement of window type, height, sill depth, and screen performance. These variables should all be investigated in subsequent, larger studies covering major housing markets.

  19. Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

    2011-08-01

    We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

  20. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  1. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  2. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designation; (4) Engine displacement; (5) Advertised power; (6) Engine tuneup specifications and adjustments... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards... affix at the time of manufacture a permanent and legible label identifying each nonroad engine. The...

  3. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  4. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  5. Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Liu, Zhe; Cox, Steven; Leber, Dennis; Samarov, Dan; Little, John C

    2014-04-01

    The measurement of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from building products and materials by manufacturers and testing laboratories, and the use of the test results for labeling programs, continue to expand. One issue that hinders wide acceptance for chamber product testing is the lack of a reference material to validate test chamber performance. To meet this need, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Virginia Tech (VT) have developed a prototype reference material that emits a single VOC similar to the emissions of a diffusion-controlled building product source with a dynamic emissions profile. The prototype material has undergone extensive testing at NIST and a pilot interlaboratory study (ILS) with four laboratories. The next development step is an evaluation of the prototype source in multiple-sized chambers of 14 laboratories in seven countries. Each laboratory was provided duplicate specimens and a test protocol. Study results identified significant issues related to the need to store the source at a subzero Celsius temperature until tested and possible inconsistencies in large chambers. For laboratories using a small chamber and meeting all the test method criteria, the results were very encouraging with relative standard deviations ranging from 5% to 10% across the laboratories. Currently, the chamber performance of laboratories conducting product VOC emissions testing is assessed through interlaboratory studies (ILS) using a source with an unknown emission rate. As a result, laboratory proficiency can only be based on the mean and standard deviation of emission rates measured by the participating ILS laboratories. A reference material with a known emission rate has the potential to provide an independent assessment of laboratory performance as well as improve the quality of interlaboratory studies. Several international laboratories with different chamber testing systems demonstrated the ability to measure the emission rate

  6. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  7. Emission Facilities - Erosion & Sediment Control Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — An Erosion and Sediment Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control program. The following sub-facility types related to...

  8. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  9. Characterization and Control of Nanoparticle Emission during 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ohhun; Yoon, Chungsik; Ham, Seunghon; Park, Jihoon; Lee, Jinho; Yoo, Danbi; Kim, Yoojin

    2017-09-19

    This study aimed to evaluate particle emission characteristics and to evaluate several control methods used to reduce particle emissions during three-dimensional (3D) printing. Experiments for particle characterization were conducted to measure particle number concentrations, emission rates, morphology, and chemical compositions under manufacturer-recommended and consistent-temperature conditions with seven different thermoplastic materials in an exposure chamber. Eight different combinations of the different control methods were tested, including an enclosure, an extruder suction fan, an enclosure ventilation fan, and several types of filter media. We classified the thermoplastic materials as high emitter (>1011 #/min), medium emitters (109 #/min -1011 #/min), and low emitters (HEPA) filter had the highest removal effectiveness (99.95%) of nanoparticles. Our recommendations for reducing particle emissions include applying a low temperature, using low-emitting materials, and instituting control measures like using an enclosure around the printer in conjunction with an appropriate filter (e.g., HEPA filter) during 3D printing.

  10. Diffusion and Evaporation-Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus

    and sources. This work provides an investigation based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory to obtain a general understanding of the mechanisms involved in the emission from building materials in ventilated rooms. In addition, a generally applicable model for prediction of surface emission...... change rate, local air velocity and local turbulence intensity as the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to these parameters. The experimental results moreover exhibit the behaviour of a diffusion-controlled emission process at the end of the experiments. A simplified version of the model...... proposed was applied to investigate the influence of source diffusion coefficient and air velocity on the concentration distribution. The findings show that the mass transfer coefficient increases in proportion to the velocity when the emission is controlled by evaporation from the surface. As to diffusion-controlled...

  11. Postural control and shoulder steadiness in F-16 pilots: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Britt; Murray, Mike; Chreiteh, Shadi S; Toft, Palle; Jørgensen, Marie B; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-04-01

    During maneuvering, fighter pilots experience loads of up to 50-70 kg on their necks. Neck disorders are common and have been linked to impairment in muscle control. We conducted an intervention study introducing targeted training for 24 wk that reduced neck pain. The current study reports the results of the secondary objective, which was to increase the understanding of possible mechanisms underlying such neck pain and its intervention-related relief. In a parallel, single-blinded, randomized controlled study, 55 F-16 pilots were evaluated at baseline and randomized to a control group (CG; N = 28) or training group (TG; N = 27). Postural control was tested in four different settings: Romberg with open and closed eyes, unilateral stance, and perturbation. Maximal voluntary contraction and force steadiness was measured for shoulder elevation. At follow-up, there was a significant between-group difference in the Romberg test with closed eyes only (95% confidence ellipse area; CG: 761 +/- 311 mm2; TG: 650 +/- 405 mm2). Prior to randomization, there were no significant differences in postural control and steadiness between 30 pilots who experienced neck pain within the previous 3 mo and 25 pilots without such pain. Impaired postural control and steadiness may only be quantifiable in individuals experiencing acute neck pain of certain intensity, and there may be a ceiling effect in the ability to improve these parameters. For individuals with highly developed physiological capacity, a battery of tests with more stringent demands should be considered, e.g., increased number of repetitions, prolonged duration of the tests, or testing with eyes closed.

  12. Impact of Killing in War: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Burkman, Kristine; Madden, Erin; Dinh, Julie; Bosch, Jeane; Keyser, Jessica; Schmitz, Martha; Neylan, Thomas C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of Impact of Killing (IOK), a novel, cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) aimed at reducing mental health symptoms and functional impairment. Participants were 33 combat Veterans with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis who had completed trauma-focused psychotherapy and reported distress regarding killing or feeling responsible for the deaths of others in war. Veterans were randomized to either IOK treatment or a 6-week waitlist condition, after which Veterans could receive IOK. IOK is a 6- to 8-session, weekly, individual, CBT, lasting 60-90 minutes, and focused on key themes, including physiology of killing responses, moral injury, self-forgiveness, spirituality, making amends, and improved functioning. We found that compared to controls (N = 16), the IOK group (N = 17) experienced a significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, general psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life functional measures. Veterans who received IOK reported that the treatment was acceptable and feasible. These results provide preliminary evidence that Veterans can benefit from a treatment focused on the impact of killing after initial trauma therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Meditation for migraines: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca Erwin; Burch, Rebecca; Paulsen, Randall H; Wayne, Peter M; Houle, Timothy T; Loder, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Our objective was to assess the safety, feasibility, and effects of the standardized 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course in adults with migraines. Stress is a well-known trigger for headaches. Research supports the general benefits of mind/body interventions for migraines, but there are few rigorous studies supporting the use of specific standardized interventions. MBSR is a standardized 8-week mind/body intervention that teaches mindfulness meditation/yoga. Preliminary research has shown MBSR to be effective for chronic pain syndromes, but it has not been evaluated for migraines. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 19 episodic migraineurs randomized to either MBSR (n = 10) or usual care (n = 9). Our primary outcome was change in migraine frequency from baseline to initial follow-up. Secondary outcomes included change in headache severity, duration, self-efficacy, perceived stress, migraine-related disability/impact, anxiety, depression, mindfulness, and quality of life from baseline to initial follow-up. MBSR was safe (no adverse events), with 0% dropout and excellent adherence (daily meditation average: 34 ± 11 minutes, range 16-50 minutes/day). Median class attendance from 9 classes (including retreat day) was 8 (range [3, 9]); average class attendance was 6.7 ± 2.5. MBSR participants had 1.4 fewer migraines/month (MBSR: 3.5 to 1.0 vs control: 1.2 to 0 migraines/month, 95% confidence interval CI [-4.6, 1.8], P = .38), an effect that did not reach statistical significance in this pilot sample. Headaches were less severe, although not significantly so (-1.3 points/headache on 0-10 scale, [-2.3, 0.09], P = .053) and shorter (-2.9 hours/headache, [-4.6, -0.02], P = .043) vs control. Migraine Disability Assessment and Headache Impact Test-6 dropped in MBSR vs control (-12.6, [-22.0, -1.0], P = .017 and -4.8, [-11.0, -1.0], P = .043, respectively). Self-efficacy and mindfulness improved in MBSR vs control (13.2 [1.0, 30.0], P

  14. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  15. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  16. Aviation safety and pilot control: understanding and preventing unfavorable pilot-vehicle interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Natl. Research Council Staff

    1997-01-01

    ... of Aircraft-Pilot Coupling on Flight Safety Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-...

  17. Sleep education improves the sleep duration of adolescents: a randomized controlled pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kira, Geoff; Maddison, Ralph; Hull, Michelle; Blunden, Sarah; Olds, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    .... A parallel, two-arm randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted. High school students (13 to 16 years) were randomly allocated to either a classroom-based sleep education program intervention...

  18. UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feltbower, Richard G; Fleming, Sarah J; Picton, Susan V; Alston, Robert D; Morgan, Diana; Achilles, Janice; McKinney, Patricia A; Birch, Jillian M

    2014-01-01

    ...) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15-24 year olds. The pilot case-control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults...

  19. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  20. Dry sorbent injection of trona to control acid gases from a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany L. B. Yelverton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gaseous and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal have been associated with adverse effects on human and environmental health, and have for that reason been subject to regulation by federal and state governments. Recent regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency have further restricted the emissions of acid gases from electricity generating facilities and other industrial facilities, and upcoming deadlines are forcing industry to consider both pre- and post-combustion controls to maintain compliance. As a result of these recent regulations, dry sorbent injection of trona to remove acid gas emissions (e.g. HCl, SO2, and NOx from coal combustion, specifically 90% removal of HCl, was the focus of the current investigation. Along with the measurement of HCl, SO2, and NOx, measurements of particulate matter (PM, elemental (EC, and organic carbon (OC were also accomplished on a pilot-scale coal-fired combustion facility. Gaseous and particulate emissions from a coal-fired combustor burning bituminous coal and using dry sorbent injection were the focus of the current study. From this investigation it was shown that high levels of trona were needed to achieve the goal of 90% HCl removal, but with this increased level of trona injection the ESP and BH were still able to achieve greater than 95% fine PM control. In addition to emissions reported, measurement of acid gases by standard EPA methods were compared to those of an infrared multi-component gas analyzer. This comparison revealed good correlation for emissions of HCl and SO2, but poor correlation in the measurement of NOx emissions.

  1. Pilot-scale concept of real-time wind speed-matching wind tunnel for measurements of gaseous emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3) and odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions associated with animal production is a critical need. Current methods utilizing wind tunnels and flux chambers for measurements of gaseous emissions from area sources such as f...

  2. Switching regulator emission control circuit for ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, F. P., Jr.; Brock, F. J.; Melfi, L. T., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An electron emission control circuit of the switching regulator type operating at 100 kHz has been developed which maintains a constant emission current within 0.1% for a cathode power demand variation of approximately 100%. The power output stage has an efficiency of 67%, and the overall efficiency is 45% when driving a thoria-coated iridium cathode having a nominal resistance at operating temperature of 2.5 ohms. Under optimum conditions, the bus power demand is 1.75 W. The circuit is useful in controlling the electron emission current of ion sources in applications which involve a substantial variation of the cathode work function, such as oxygen partial pressure measurements over a large dynamic range.

  3. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  4. PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Ruka; Bernard, Jean-Philippe

    Measuring precisely the faint polarization of the Far-Infrared and sub-millimetre sky is one of the next observational challenges of modern astronomy and cosmology. In particular, detection of the B-mode polarization from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may reveal the inflationary periods in the very early universe. Such measurements will require very high sensitivity and very low instrumental systematic effects. As for measurements of the CMB intensity, sensitive measurements of the CMB polarization will be made difficult by the presence of foreground emission from our own Milky Way, which is orders of magnitude stronger than the faint polarized cosmological signal. Such foreground emission will have to be understood very accurately and removed from cosmological measurements. This polarized emission is also interesting in itself, since it brings information relevant to the process of star formation, about the orientation of the magnetic field in our Galaxy through the alignment of dust grains. I will first summarize our current knowledge in this field, on the basis of extinction and emission measurements from the ground and airborne experiments and in the context of the recent measurements with the Planck satellite. I will then describe the concept and science goals of the PILOT balloon-borne experiment project (http://pilot.irap.omp.eu). This project is funded by the French space agency (CNES: “Centre National des Etudes Spatiales”) and currently under final assembly and tests. The experiment is dedicated to measuring precisely the linear polarization of the faint interstellar diffuse dust emission in the Far-Infrared in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies. It is composed of a 0.83 m diameter telescope and a Helium 4 deware accommodating the rest of the optics and 2 focal plane arrays with a total of 2048 individual bolometers cooled to 300 mK, developed for the PACS instruments on board the Hershel satellite. It will be operating in two broad photometric

  5. Relation of distortion product otoacoustic emission and tinnitus in normal hearing patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datt Modh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tinnitus, the perception of the sound in the absence of an external acoustic source, disrupts the daily life 1 out of every 200 adults, yet its physiological basis remains largely a mystery. The generation of tinnitus is commonly linked with the impaired functioning of the outer hair cells (OHC inside the cochlea. Otoacoustic emissions are the objective test used to assess their activity. Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the features of Distortion product OtoAcoustic emissions (DPOAE in a group of tinnitus patients with normal hearing and to find out whether there is any difference in DPOAE findings in the tinnitus patients with normal hearing and in persons with normal hearing with no complaint of tinnitus. Materials and Methods: The participants consisted of two groups. The subject group consisted of 16 ears of patients, in which 6 subjects were having tinnitus in both ears while 4 subjects were having tinnitus only in one ear. All subjects were aged between 20 to 60 years with complaint of tinnitus with audiometrically normal hearing. Control group was comprised of 16 audiometrically normal hearing ears of persons who were age and gender matched with the subject groups and had no complaint of tinnitus. Both the subject group as well as control group was subjected for DPOAE test. Findings of both the groups were compared using the unpaired t test. Result and conclusion: It was observed that the amplitudes of DPOAE were significantly lower in tinnitus patients than that of persons without complaint of tinnitus, at a frequency of 1281-1560, 5120-6250, 7243-8837 Hz, which imply that decrease of DPOAEs amplitudes may be related to the presence of tinnitus. It can be concluded that there is association between tinnitus and reduced OHC activity which indicate the OHC of cochlea are involved in the generation of tinnitus.

  6. Maritime routing and speed optimization with emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Gausel, Nora T.; Rakke, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Strict limits on the maximum sulphur content in fuel used by ships have recently been imposed in some Emission Control Areas (ECAs). In order to comply with these regulations many ship operators will switch to more expensive low-sulphur fuel when sailing inside ECAs. Since they are concerned about...

  7. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  8. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...

  9. Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    Erbium is a rare-earth metal that, when incorporated in a solid, can emit light at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. It plays a key role in current day telecommunication technology as the principle ingredient of optical fiber amplifiers. In this thesis the control of the Er spontaneous emission in three

  10. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  11. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  12. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 4: Non-Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating with Native English-Speaking Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    speak in Spanish to Aero México pilots and English to pilots flying for British Airways or Qantas Airways. We explored how the controllers...vocabulary, cadence, and phonetic segments (Fromkin, 1971); third, you develop a set of motor commands in your brain that are sent to the respiratory

  13. Pilot age and geographic region of commuter and air taxi crashes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P; Li, Guohua

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of major airline and general aviation crashes have identified a host of risk factors. We examined risk factors related to crashes involving commuter air carrier and air taxi flights. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of pilot age, total flight time, and geographic region with commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes (14 CFR Part 135) from 1983-2002 in the United States. A total of 2033 commuter air carrier or air taxi crashes from the National Transportation Safety Board aviation crash database were identified as eligible cases. Controls were randomly selected incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aviation incident database coded under Part 135 operation. Relative to controls, commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes were less likely to occur in pilots under 30 yr of age (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.54-0.88) after adjusting for geographic region and total flight time. With adjustment for pilot age and total flight time, the commuter air carrier and air taxi crashes with pilot error were nearly 13 times as likely to be in Alaska as their matched controls (adjusted odds ratio 12.84, 95% confidence interval 5.24-31.45). These results suggest that pilot age may be associated with risk of crash involvement in Part 135 operations. The excess crash risk in Alaska with or without pilot error underscores the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  14. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  15. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (attention due to its toxicity and the emission-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and surface area of 90.25 cm2 g -1). The model result demonstrated that a batch of activated carbon bed was capable of controlling mercury emission for approximately 275 days after which further mercury uptake starts to decrease till it reaches about 500 days when additional control ceases. An increase in bed temperature significantly reduces mercury sorption capacity of the activated carbon. Increase in flue gas flow rate may result in faster consumption of sorption capacity initially but at a later stage, the sorption rate decreases due to reduced sorption capacity. Thus, overall sorption rate remains unaffected. The activated carbon's effective life (time to reach saturation) is not affected by inlet mercury concentration, implying that the designing and operation of a mercury sorption process can be done

  17. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  18. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  19. Verbal workload in distributed air traffic management. [considering pilot controller interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Pardo, B.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of alternative traffic management possibilities on task performance and pilot controller verbal workloads were studied. Two new rule structures - sequencing and advisory - in addition to vectoring were studied in conjunction with CRT pilot displays incorporating traffic situation displays with and without aircraft flight path predictors. The sequencing and advisory systems gave increasing control responsibility to the pilots. It was concluded that distributed management systems could in practice significantly reduce controller verbal workload without reducing system performance. Implications of this conclusion suggest that distributed management would allow controllers to handle a larger volume of traffic safely either as a normal operating procedure or as a failure mode alternative in a highly automated ground centered system.

  20. Pilot/Controller Coordinated Decision Making in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Miller, Ronald c.; Orasanu, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: NextGen technologies promise to provide considerable benefits in terms of enhancing operations and improving safety. However, there needs to be a thorough human factors evaluation of the way these systems will change the way in which pilot and controllers share information. The likely impact of these new technologies on pilot/controller coordinated decision making is considered in this paper using the "operational, informational and evaluative disconnect" framework. Method: Five participant focus groups were held. Participants were four experts in human factors, between x and x research students and a technical expert. The participant focus group evaluated five key NextGen technologies to identify issues that made different disconnects more or less likely. Results: Issues that were identified were: Decision Making will not necessarily improve because pilots and controllers possess the same information; Having a common information source does not mean pilots and controllers are looking at the same information; High levels of automation may lead to disconnects between the technology and pilots/controllers; Common information sources may become the definitive source for information; Overconfidence in the automation may lead to situations where appropriate breakdowns are not initiated. Discussion: The issues that were identified lead to recommendations that need to be considered in the development of NextGen technologies. The current state of development of these technologies provides a good opportunity to utilize recommendations at an early stage so that NextGen technologies do not lead to difficulties in resolving breakdowns in coordinated decision making.

  1. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  2. A Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engines are energy efficient, but their particulate (soot emissions are responsible of severe environmental and health problems. This review provides a survey on published information regarding diesel soot emission, its adverse effects on the human health, environment, vegetations, climate, etc. The legislations to limit diesel emissions and ways to minimize soot emission are also summarized. Soot particles are suspected to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; impact agriculture productivity, soiling of buildings; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. The review covers important recent developments on technologies for control of particulate matter (PM; diesel particulate filters (DPFs, summarizing new filter and catalyst materials and DPM measurement. DPF technology is in a state of optimization and cost reduction. New DPF regeneration strategies (active, passive and plasma-assisted regenerations as well as the new learning on the fundamentals of soot/catalyst interaction are described. Recent developments in diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC are also summarized showing potential issues with advanced combustion strategies, important interactions on NO2 formation, and new formulations for durability. Finally, systematic compilation of the concerned newer literature on catalytic oxidation of soot in a well conceivable tabular form is given. A total of 156 references are cited. ©2010 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 2nd June 2010, Revised: 17th June 2010; Accepted: 24th June 2010[How to Cite: R. Prasad, V.R. Bella. (2010. Review on Diesel Soot Emission, its Effect and Control. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 5(2: 69-86. doi:10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86][DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.5.2.794.69-86 || or local:   http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/794 ]Cited by in: ACS 1 |

  3. Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.

  4. Pilot English Language Proficiency and the Prevalence of Communication Problems at Five U.S. Air Route Traffic Control Centers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prinzo, O. V; Hendrix, Alfred M; Hendrix, Ruby

    2008-01-01

    ...: Controllers send messages to pilots who listen and then recite back their contents. Successful communication requires participants to conduct and understand ATC radiotelephony in the same language...

  5. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Performance and specific emissions contours throughout the operating range of hydrogen-fueled compression ignition engine with diesel and RME pilot fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance and emissions contours of a hydrogen dual fueled compression ignition (CI engine with two pilot fuels (diesel and rapeseed methyl ester, and compares the performance and emissions iso-contours of diesel and rapeseed methyl ester (RME single fueling with diesel and RME piloted hydrogen dual fueling throughout the engines operating speed and power range. The collected data have been used to produce iso-contours of thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency, specific oxides of nitrogen (NOX, specific hydrocarbons (HC and specific carbon dioxide (CO2 on a power-speed plane. The performance and emission maps are experimentally investigated, compared, and critically discussed. Apart from medium loads at lower and medium speeds with diesel piloted hydrogen combustion, dual fueling produced lower thermal efficiency everywhere across the map. For diesel and RME single fueling the maximum specific NOX emissions are centered at the mid speed, mid power region. Hydrogen dual fueling produced higher specific NOX with both pilot fuels as compared to their respective single fueling operations. The range, location and trends of specific NOX varied significantly when compared to single fueling cases. The volumetric efficiency is discussed in detail with the implications of manifold injection of hydrogen analyzed with the conclusions drawn.

  7. Analysis of pilot response time to time-critical air traffic control calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    One of the most important time-critical air traffic control messages for a pilot is one : that required an immediate maneuver for traffic avoidance. This study examines the time : required for an air traffic controller to successfully transmit such a...

  8. 76 FR 13414 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot Longitudinal Data Collection To Inform Public Health--Fragile... Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health...

  9. Neural correlates of apathy in late-life depression: a pilot [(18) F]FDDNP positron emission tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Harris A; Siddarth, Prabha; van Dyk, Kathleen; St Cyr, Natalie; Baune, Bernhard T; Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Lavretsky, Helen

    2017-05-01

    Neurotoxicity associated with amyloid and tau protein aggregation could represent a pathophysiological cascade that, along with vascular compromise, may predispose individuals to late-life depression (LLD). In LLD, apathy is common, leads to worsening of functioning, and responds poorly to antidepressant treatment. Better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of apathy in LLD would facilitate development of more effective diagnostic and treatment approaches. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we performed positron emission tomography scans after injection of 2-(1-{6-[(2-[(18) F]fluoroethyl)(methyl)-amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene) malononitrile ([(18) F]FDDNP), an in vivo amyloid and tau neuroimaging study, in patients with LLD to explore neural correlates of apathy. Sixteen depressed elderly volunteers received clinical assessments and [(18) F]FDDNP positron emission tomography scans. The cross-sectional relationship of [(18) F]FDDNP binding levels with depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and apathy (Apathy Evaluation Scale) were studied using Spearman's correlation analyses because of the relatively small sample size. Age, sex, and years of education were partialed out. Significance levels were set at P ≤ 0.05. [(18) F]FDDNP binding in the anterior cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the Apathy Evaluation Scale total (r = -0.62, P = 0.02; where low Apathy Evaluation Scale score equals greater severity of apathy). This suggests that apathy in LLD is associated with higher amyloid and/or tau levels in the anterior cingulate cortex. None of the regional [(18) F]FDDNP binding levels was significantly associated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total. This pilot study suggests that increased apathy in subjects with LLD may be associated with greater amyloid and/or tau burden in certain brain regions. Future studies in larger samples would elucidate the generalizability of these results, which eventually could lead to

  10. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  11. Manual control theory applied to air traffic controller-pilot cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D.; Clement, W. F.; Hofmann, L. G.

    1972-01-01

    Reduced runway separation standards are among the means which have been proposed for increasing airport capacity. The probability of a blunder will dominate the calculation of safe separation standards. Then the determinant of safe system performance will be the system reaction time comprised of the air traffic controller's detection, decision and communication delays, and the response times of the pilot and aircraft in executing a collision avoidance manuever. Estimates of these times, based on existing data, show that the delays ascribable to the human portions of the man-machine system are comparatively unimportant. New developments in radar, computers, and data links will be required to provide any substantial improvement of the existing system, and the goal of 2500 ft of separation may not be achievable.

  12. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  13. Effects of Different Heave Motion Components on Pilot Pitch Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Zavala, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this paper had two objectives. The first objective was to investigate if a different weighting of heave motion components decomposed at the center of gravity, allowing for a higher fidelity of individual components, would result in pilot manual pitch control behavior and performance closer to that observed with full aircraft motion. The second objective was to investigate if decomposing the heave components at the aircraft's instantaneous center of rotation rather than at the center of gravity could result in additional improvements in heave motion fidelity. Twenty-one general aviation pilots performed a pitch attitude control task in an experiment conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames under different hexapod motion conditions. The large motion capability of the Vertical Motion Simulator also allowed for a full aircraft motion condition, which served as a baseline. The controlled dynamics were of a transport category aircraft trimmed close to the stall point. When the ratio of center of gravity pitch heave to center of gravity heave increased in the hexapod motion conditions, pilot manual control behavior and performance became increasingly more similar to what is observed with full aircraft motion. Pilot visual and motion gains significantly increased, while the visual lead time constant decreased. The pilot visual and motion time delays remained approximately constant and decreased, respectively. The neuromuscular damping and frequency both decreased, with their values more similar to what is observed with real aircraft motion when there was an equal weighting of the heave of the center of gravity and heave due to rotations about the center of gravity. In terms of open- loop performance, the disturbance and target crossover frequency increased and decreased, respectively, and their corresponding phase margins remained constant and increased, respectively. The decomposition point of the heave components only had limited

  14. Control of inhomogeneous materials strength by method of acoustic emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Носов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ambiguous connection between the results of acoustic emission control and the strength of materials makes acoustic-emission diagnosis ineffective and actualizes the problem of strength and metrological heterogeneity. Inhomogeneity is some deviation from a certain norm. The real object is always heterogeneous, homogeneity is an assumption that simplifies the image of the object and the solution of the tasks associated with it. The need to consider heterogeneity is due to the need to clarify a particular task and is a transition to a more complex level of research. Accounting for heterogeneity requires the definition of its type, criterion and method of evaluation. The type of heterogeneity depends on the problem being solved and should be related to the property that determines the function of the real object, the criterion should be informative, and the way of its evaluation is non-destructive. The complexity of predicting the behavior of heterogeneous materials necessitates the modeling of the destructive process that determines the operability, the formulation of the inhomogeneity criterion, the interpretation of the Kaiser effect, as showing inhomogeneity of the phenomenon of non-reproduction of acoustic emission (AE activity upon repeated loading of the examined object.The article gives an example of modeling strength and metrological heterogeneity, analyzes and estimates the informative effect of the Kaiser effect on the danger degree of state of diagnosed object from the positions of the micromechanical model of time dependencies of AE parameters recorded during loading of structural materials and technical objects.

  15. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  16. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  17. A Pilot Study to Evaluate California's Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Using Atmospheric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graven, H. D.; Fischer, M. L.; Lueker, T.; Guilderson, T.; Brophy, K. J.; Keeling, R. F.; Arnold, T.; Bambha, R.; Callahan, W.; Campbell, J. E.; Cui, X.; Frankenberg, C.; Hsu, Y.; Iraci, L. T.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Lehman, S.; Manning, A.; Michelsen, H. A.; Miller, J. B.; Newman, S.; Paplawsky, B.; Parazoo, N.; Sloop, C.; Walker, S.; Whelan, M.; Wunch, D.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration is influenced by human activities and by natural exchanges. Studies of CO2 fluxes using atmospheric CO2 measurements typically focus on natural exchanges and assume that CO2 emissions by fossil fuel combustion and cement production are well-known from inventory estimates. However, atmospheric observation-based or "top-down" studies could potentially provide independent methods for evaluating fossil fuel CO2 emissions, in support of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change. Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 may also improve estimates of biospheric CO2 exchange, which could help to characterize carbon storage and climate change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems. We have been developing a top-down framework for estimating fossil fuel CO2 emissions in California that uses atmospheric observations and modeling. California is implementing the "Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006" to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, and it has a diverse array of ecosystems that may serve as CO2 sources or sinks. We performed three month-long field campaigns in different seasons in 2014-15 to collect flask samples from a state-wide network of 10 towers. Using measurements of radiocarbon in CO2, we estimate the fossil fuel-derived CO2 present in the flask samples, relative to marine background air observed at coastal sites. Radiocarbon (14C) is not present in fossil fuel-derived CO2 because of radioactive decay over millions of years, so fossil fuel emissions cause a measurable decrease in the 14C/C ratio in atmospheric CO2. We compare the observations of fossil fuel-derived CO2 to simulations based on atmospheric modeling and published fossil fuel flux estimates, and adjust the fossil fuel flux estimates in a statistical inversion that takes account of several uncertainties. We will present the results of the top-down technique to estimate fossil fuel emissions for our field

  18. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...

  19. Geographic region, weather, pilot age, and air carrier crashes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G; Baker, Susan P; Rebok, George W

    2009-04-01

    Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis, and commuter air carriers. A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (N = 373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board's aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (N = 746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration's aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions ladjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15-4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37-0.96). Neither pilot age nor total flight time were significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety.

  20. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…

  1. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  2. Piloted Simulator Evaluation Results of New Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaerts, T.J.J.; Smaili, M.H.; Stroosma, O.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.; Joosten, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A high fidelity aircraft simulation model, reconstructed using the Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) of the 1992 Amsterdam Bijlmermeer aircraft accident (Flight 1862), has been used to evaluate a new Fault-Tolerant Flight Control Algorithm in an online piloted evaluation. This paper focuses on the

  3. Gaming and conventional exercises for improvement of arm function after stroke: a randomised controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, A.I.R.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Buurke, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality and/or computerized gaming exercises, may be useful to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. The objective of the present randomized controlled pilot study was to compare the effect of reach

  4. A pilot randomized controlled trial of pioglitazone for the treatment of poorly controlled asthma in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne E; Subramanian, Meenakumari; DeSarno, Michael; Black, Kendall; Lane, Lisa; Holguin, Fernando

    2015-11-26

    Obese asthmatics tend to have poorly controlled asthma, and resistance to standard asthma controller medications. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of pioglitazone, an anti-diabetic medication which can alter circulating adipokines and have direct effects on asthmatic inflammation, in the treatment of asthma in obesity. A two-center, 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial. Treatments were randomly assigned with concealment of allocation. The primary outcome was difference in change in airway reactivity between participants assigned to pioglitazone versus placebo at 12 weeks. Twenty-three participants were randomized to treatment, 19 completed the study. Median airway reactivity, measured by PC20 to methacholine was 1.99 (IQR 3.08) and 1.60 (5.91) mg/ml in placebo and pioglitazone group at baseline, and 2.37 (15.22) and 5.08 (7.42) mg/ml after 12 weeks, p = 0.38. There was no difference in exhaled nitric oxide, asthma control or lung function between treatment groups over the 12 week trial. Participants assigned to pioglitazone gained a significant amount more weight than those assigned to placebo (pioglitazone group mean weight 113.6, CI 94.5-132.7 kg at randomization and 115.9, CI 96.9-135.1 at 12 weeks; placebo mean weight 127.5, CI 108.4 - 146.6 kg at randomization and 124.5, CI 105.4 - 143.6 kg at 12 weeks; p = 0.04). This pilot study suggests limited efficacy for pioglitazone in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma in obesity, and also the potential for harm, given the weight gain in those assigned to active treatment, and the association between increased weight and worse outcomes in asthma. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00634036).

  5. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per

    2009-01-01

    ) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH4 independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol...... emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m-2 h-1 were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO2, CH4...... duct. The stores can also be used as static enclosures. Ventilation can be regulated within the range of 50 to 250 m3 h-1 A gas sampling line enables sampling of odorants using automatic thermal desorption tubes, ammonia using acid traps, and greenhouse gases using gas sampling bags (pooled samples...

  6. A pilot study of changes in otoacoustic emissions after exposure to live music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte; Borg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to document typical sound exposure levels at concerts and to relate them to measurable changes on hearing. Changes in the auditory function of human subjects were measured using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Transient Evoked Otoacou...... to background noise than the TEOAE measurements and may therefore be better suited for field assessments; The estimated exposure levels cannot predict the changes observed in the OAE measurements....

  7. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  8. "APEC Blue": Secondary Aerosol Reductions from Emission Controls in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Wang, Zifa; Wild, Oliver; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Fu, Pingqing; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Zhang, Qi; Han, Tingting; Wang, Qingqing; Pan, Xiaole; Zheng, Haitao; Li, Jie; Guo, Xiaofeng; Liu, Jianguo; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2016-02-18

    China implemented strict emission control measures in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit. We conducted synchronous aerosol particle measurements with two aerosol mass spectrometers at different heights on a meteorological tower in urban Beijing to investigate the variations in particulate composition, sources and size distributions in response to emission controls. Our results show consistently large reductions in secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) of 61-67% and 51-57%, and in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) of 55% and 37%, at 260 m and ground level, respectively, during the APEC summit. These changes were mainly caused by large reductions in accumulation mode particles and by suppression of the growth of SIA and SOA by a factor of 2-3, which led to blue sky days during APEC commonly referred to as "APEC Blue". We propose a conceptual framework for the evolution of primary and secondary species and highlight the importance of regional atmospheric transport in the formation of severe pollution episodes in Beijing. Our results indicate that reducing the precursors of secondary aerosol over regional scales is crucial and effective in suppressing the formation of secondary particulates and mitigating PM pollution.

  9. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  10. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  11. Pilot Mentorship Program for Tobacco Control Researchers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will do so by offering expanded capacity-building opportunities for tobacco control researchers through a parallel mentorship program. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) has identified an initial cadre of awardees who possess excellent tobacco control leadership potential. The idea is to enhance the ...

  12. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  13. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Sandra M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Campbell, Michael J.; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L.; Bond, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms ‘pilot’ and ‘feasibility’ in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms ‘feasibility’ or ‘pilot’ as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term ‘feasibility’ in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention. PMID:26978655

  14. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. (a) Formaldehyde emission levels. All plywood and particleboard materials bonded with a resin...

  15. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  16. Functional neuroimaging of emotional processing in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Courtney A.; Berent-Spillson, Alison; Love, Tiffany; Persad, Carol C.; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Smith, Yolanda R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate emotional processing in women with insulin-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (IR-PCOS) and its relationship to glucose regulation and the mu-opioid system. Design Case-control pilot. Setting Tertiary referring medical center. Patient(s) Seven women with IR-PCOS and five non-insulin-resistant controls, aged 21–40 years, recruited from the general population. Intervention(s) Sixteen weeks of metformin (1,500 mg/day) in women with IR-PCOS. Main Outcome Measure(s) Assessment of mood, metabolic function, and neuronal activation during an emotional task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and mu-opioid receptor availability using positive emission tomography (PET). Result(s) We found that insulin-resistant PCOS patients [1] had greater limbic activation during an emotion task than controls (n = 5); [2] trended toward decreased positive affect and increased trait anxiety; [3] after metformin treatment, had limbic activation that no longer differed from controls; and [4] had positive correlations between fMRI limbic activation during emotional processing and mu-opioid binding potential. Conclusion(s) Patients with IR-PCOS had greater regional activation during an emotion task than the controls, although this resolved with metformin therapy. Alterations in mu-opioid neurotransmission may underlie limbic system activity and mood disorders in IR-PCOS. Clinical Trial Registration Number NCT00670800. PMID:23557757

  17. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  18. Cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events among airline pilots: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, I Made Ady; Larsen, Peter D; Aldington, Sarah; Griffiths, Robin F; Ellis, Chris J

    2012-05-01

    A cardiovascular risk prediction score is routinely applied by aviation authorities worldwide. We examined the accuracy of the Framingham-based risk chart used by the New Zealand Civil Aviation Authority in predicting cardiovascular events among airline pilots. A matched case-control design was applied to assess the association of 5-yr cardiovascular risk score and cardiovascular events in Oceania-based airline pilots. Cases were pilots with cardiovascular events as recorded on their medical records. Each case was age and gender matched with four controls that were randomly selected from the pilot population. To collect data before the events, 5-yr retrospective evaluations were conducted. Over a 16-yr study period we identified 15 cases of cardiovascular events, 9 (60%) of which were sudden clinical presentations and only 6 (40%) of which were detected using cardiovascular screening. There were 8 cases (53%) and 16 controls (27%) who had a 5-yr risk of > or = 10-15%. Almost half of the events (7/15) occurred in pilots whose highest 5-yr risk was in the 5-10% range. Cases were 3.91 times more likely to have highest 5-yr risk score of > or =10-15% than controls (OR = 3.91, 95% CI 1.04-16.35). The accuracy of the highest risk scores were moderate (AUC = 0.723, 95% CI 0.583-0.863). The cutoff point of 10% is valid, with a specificity of 0.73, but low sensitivity (0.53). Despite a valid and appropriate cutoff point, the tool had low sensitivity and was unable to predict almost half of the cardiovascular events.

  19. Diesel Emissions Control--Sulfer Effects Project (DECSE): Summary of Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-02-01

    This summary describes a government and industry cost-shared project to determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be used to lower emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter.

  20. A pilot's opinion - VTOL control design requirements for the instrument approach task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents pilot opinion supported by test data concerning flight control and display concepts and control system design requirements for VTOL aircraft in the instrument approach task. Material presented is drawn from research flights in the following aircraft: Dornier DO-31, Short SC-1, LTV XC-142A, and Boeing-Vertol CH-46. The control system concepts and mechanizations employed in the above aircraft are discussed, and the effect of control system augmentation is shown on performance. Operational procedures required in the instrument approach task are described, with comments on need for automation and combining of control functions.

  1. Monitoring methane emission of mud volcanoes by seismic tremor measurements: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Albarello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for estimating methane emission at mud volcanoes is here proposed based on measurements of the seismic tremor on their surface. Data obtained at the Dashgil mud volcano in Azerbaijan reveal the presence of energy bursts characterized by well-determined features (i.e. waveforms, spectra and polarization properties that can be associated with bubbling at depth. Counting such events provides a possible tool for monitoring gas production in the reservoir, thus minimizing logistic troubles and representing a cheap and effective alternative to more complex approaches. Specifically, we model the energy bursts as the effect of resonant gas bubbles at depth. This modelling allows to estimate the dimension of the bubbles and, consequently, the gas outflow from the main conduit in the assumption that all emissions from depth occur by bubble uprising. The application of this model to seismic events detected at the Dashgil mud volcano during three sessions of measurements carried out in 2006 and 2007 provides gas flux estimates that are in line with those provided by independent measurements at the same structure. This encouraging result suggests that the one here proposed could be considered a new promising, cheap and easy to apply tool for gas flux measurements in bubbling gas seepage areas.

  2. Hearing loss in civilian airline and helicopter pilots compared to air traffic control personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony S; Arva, Per

    2009-10-01

    In order to investigate possible hearing loss as a consequence of aviation noise, a comparative analysis of audiometric data from Norwegian Air Traffic Control (ATC) personnel, airline (fixed-wing) pilots, and helicopter pilots was performed. The results may be of use in giving advice regarding preventive measures. Male ATC, airline, and helicopter pilots were selected randomly from the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) medical files. There were 182 subjects included in the study: 50, 81, and 51 subjects for ATC, helicopter, and airline pilots, respectively. Two audiograms with a 2-3-yr interval were analyzed for each individual. Age correction was performed using data from ISO 7129. Threshold changes per year for the frequencies 3, 4, and 6 kHz were examined in particular after age correction. For all three groups, mean hearing threshold levels were above (worse than) ISO 7129 predictions for most frequencies. As expected, hearing thresholds increased with age in the group as a whole. Looking at the 3-, 4-, and 6-kHz frequencies in particular, all groups had small but highly significant increases in hearing thresholds at 4 kHz between the first and second audiogram. The mean hearing thresholds for this group of aviation personnel are higher than International Standard ISO-7129 would predict according to age. Highly significant changes in hearing threshold after age correction, indicating possible noise-induced hearing loss, were found in all groups at 4 kHz. The fact that helicopter pilots had similar hearing loss to their other aviation colleagues indicates that current hearing protection for these pilots is effective in counteracting the increased noise levels in helicopters.

  3. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  4. How to Set the Allowance Benchmarking for Cement Industry in China’s Carbon Market: Marginal Analysis and the Case of the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG benchmarking for allocation serves as rewards for early actions in mitigating GHG emissions by using more advanced technologies. China Hubei launched the carbon emission trading pilot in 2014, with the cement industry represented as a major contributor to the GHG emissions in Hubei. This article is set to establish a general benchmarking framework by describing and calculating the marginal abatement cost curve (MACC and marginal revenue and then comparing the different GHG benchmarking approaches for the cement industry in the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot (Hubei ETS case. Based on the comparison of three GHG benchmarking approaches, the Waxman-Markey standard, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS cement benchmarking, and the benchmarking approach applied in California Cap-and-Trade program, it is found that; (1 the Waxman-Markey benchmark is too loose to apply in Hubei as it provides little incentive for companies to mitigate; (2 the EU ETS benchmark approach fits the current cement industry in Hubei ETS; and (3 the GHG benchmarking standard in the California Cap-and-Trade Program is the most stringent standard and drives the direction of the future development for Hubei ETS.

  5. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  6. Quality control of positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals: An institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Jaya; Vatsa, Rakhee; Garg, Nitasha; Bhusari, Priya; Watts, Ankit; Mittal, Bhagwant R

    2013-10-01

    To study quality control parameters of routinely prepared positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals. Three PET radiopharmaceuticals fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG), N-13 ammonia (N-13 NH3), and Ga-68 DOTATATE (n = 25 each), prepared by standardized protocols were used. The radionuclide purity, radiochemical purity, residual solvents, pH, endotoxins, and sterility of these radiopharmaceuticals were determined. The physical half-life of radionuclide in radiopharmaceuticals, determined by both graphical and formula method, demonstrated purity of radionuclides used. pH of all PET radiopharmaceuticals used was in the range of 5-6.5. No microbial growth was observed in radiopharmaceutical preparations. The residual solvents, chemical impurity, and pyrogens were within the permissible limits. All three PET radiopharmaceuticals were safe for intravenous administration.

  7. Scar imaging using multislice computed tomography versus metabolic imaging by F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Girish; Al-Shehri, Halia; deKemp, Robert A; Ali, Iftikhar; Alghamdi, Abdul Aziz; Klein, Ran; Scullion, Andrew; Ruddy, Terrence D; Beanlands, Rob S; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2013-09-30

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) FDG PET is an established metabolic imaging technique to assess myocardial viability. Delayed iodinated contrast enhancement (DE) of myocardium on computed tomography (CT) has also been shown to be an anatomical marker of nonviable myocardium. A pilot study was undertaken to determine quantitative and qualitative agreement between metabolic viability imaging and scar imaging using FDG PET and multislice CT respectively. Fifteen patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction were recruited in the study. All patients underwent same day FDG PET and DECT to evaluate myocardial viability. The images were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively using a 17 segment model. DECT diagnosed viability in 57% (146/255) whilst PET in 51% (129/255) of segments. The per-segment agreement between DECT and FDG PET on qualitative analysis was 70% (Kappa: 0.40). The agreement in quantitative measurements between the two techniques for viability showed modest correlation [Pearson ρ: 0.63; Pcorrelate modestly with metabolic FDG PET, both qualitatively and quantitatively. Although in our study quantitative analysis offered superior agreement compared to qualitative with DECT, further studies are needed to determine its incremental value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  9. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; hide

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  11. Optimal Pilot and Payload Power Control in Single-Cell Massive MIMO Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hei Victor; Bjornson, Emil; Larsson, Erik G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper considers the jointly optimal pilot and data power allocation in single-cell uplink massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Using the spectral efficiency (SE) as performance metric and setting a total energy budget per coherence interval, the power control is formulated as optimization problems for two different objective functions: the weighted minimum SE among the users and the weighted sum SE. A closed form solution for the optimal length of the pilot sequence is derived. The optimal power control policy for the former problem is found by solving a simple equation with a single variable. Utilizing the special structure arising from imperfect channel estimation, a convex reformulation is found to solve the latter problem to global optimality in polynomial time. The gain of the optimal joint power control is theoretically justified, and is proved to be large in the low SNR regime. Simulation results also show the advantage of optimizing the power control over both pilot and data power, as compared to the cases of using full power and of only optimizing the data powers as done in previous work.

  12. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  13. Eliminating non-renewable CO2 emissions from sewage treatment: an anaerobic migrating bed reactor pilot plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2006-10-20

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate at pilot scale a high level of energy recovery from sewage utilising a primary Anaerobic Migrating Bed Reactor (AMBR) operating at ambient temperature to convert COD to methane. The focus is the reduction in non-renewable CO(2) emissions resulting from reduced energy requirements for sewage treatment. A pilot AMBR was operated on screened sewage over the period June 2003 to September 2004. The study was divided into two experimental phases. In Phase 1 the process operated at a feed rate of 10 L/h (HRT 50 h), SRT 63 days, average temperature 28 degrees C and mixing time fraction 0.05. In Phase 2 the operating parameters were 20 L/h, 26 days, 16 degrees C and 0.025. Methane production was 66% of total sewage COD in Phase 1 and 23% in Phase 2. Gas mixing of the reactor provided micro-aeration which suppressed sulphide production. Intermittent gas mixing at a useful power input of 6 W/m(3) provided satisfactory process performance in both phases. Energy consumption for mixing was about 1.5% of the energy conversion to methane in both operating phases. Comparative analysis with previously published data confirmed that methane supersaturation resulted in significant losses of methane in the effluent of anaerobic treatment systems. No cases have been reported where methane was considered to be supersaturated in the effluent. We have shown that methane supersaturation is likely to be significant and that methane losses in the effluent are likely to have been greater than previously predicted. Dissolved methane concentrations were measured at up to 2.2 times the saturation concentration relative to the mixing gas composition. However, this study has also demonstrated that despite methane supersaturation occurring, micro-aeration can result in significantly lower losses of methane in the effluent (<11% in this study), and has demonstrated that anaerobic sewage treatment can genuinely provide energy recovery. The goal of demonstrating a

  14. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  15. The influence of air traffic control message length and timing on pilot communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Daniel; Rodvold, Michelle

    1993-01-01

    The present paper outlines an approach to air traffic control (ATC) communication that is based on theories of dialogue organization and describes several steps or phases in routine controller-pilot communication. The introduction also describes several kinds of communication problems that often disrupt these steps, as well as how these problems may be caused by factors related to ATC messages, the communication medium (radio vs. data link) and task workload. Next, a part-task simulation study is described. This study focused on how problems in radio communication are related to message factors. More specifically, we examined if pilots are more likely to misunderstanding longer ATC messages. A more general goal of the study is to show that communication analysis can help trace where problem occur and why.

  16. Task-Oriented and Relationship-Building Communications between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By questioning the lopsided attention on task-oriented factors in air traffic controller-pilot communication, the current study places an equal weighting on both task-oriented and relationship-building communications, and investigates how each type of communication influences sustainable performance in airline operation team. Results show that both task-oriented and relationship-building communications in terms of sustainability of team process predicted greater communication satisfaction at work. Also, both task interdependence and shared leadership influenced both types of air traffic controller-pilot communication. However, only relationship-building communication had a direct influence on perceived work performance whereas task-oriented communication had not. Along with task-oriented factors, this study raises the relationship-oriented factors as important resources for the sustainable team performance in airline industry.

  17. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  18. Personalized smoking environment cue reactivity in smokers with schizophrenia and controls: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Tidey, Jennifer W.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to smoking cues increases craving to smoke and negatively changes mood in smokers with schizophrenia (SWS). This pilot study compared reactivity to real-world smoking environments versus neutral environments in SWS (n = 10) and non-psychiatric control smokers (CON; n = 10). Results indicate that both SWS and CON experienced increases in smoking urges when viewing images of their smoking environments and that SWS tended to report greater increases in withdrawal-related negative mood t...

  19. National Spill Control School. A pilot program in environmental training. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.

  20. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European emission control areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N.P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the

  1. Effect of Playful Balancing Training - A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Jessen, Jari Due

    2013-01-01

    We used the modular playware in the form of modular interactive tiles for playful training of community-dwelling elderly with balancing problem. During short-term play on the modular interactive tiles, the elderly were playing physical, interactive games that were challenging their dynamic balance......, agility, endurance, and sensor-motoric reaction. A population of 12 elderly (average age: 79) with balancing problems (DGI average score: 18.7) was randomly assigned to control group or tiles training group, and tested before and after intervention. The tiles training group had statistical significant...

  2. Controllers and Pilots Play a Key Role in Runway Safety Initiatives Through Real-Time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, Mike; Bender, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new and innovative way to evaluate runway safety initiatives for airports is through the use of interactive real-time simulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates an integrated suite of simulators that can give both pilots and tower controllers the ability to simultaneously "try out" ideas in the safety of virtual reality. In February of 2003, the FAA conducted a demonstration in the NASA facilities for Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) of a concept to reduce runway crossings and enhance the efficiency of the airport. Currently DFW experiences about 1,700 runway crossings per day, which contribute to arrival and departure delays and the potential for runway incursions. The proposed concept included the addition of new perimeter taxiways on the East and West sides of the airport. Through use of NASA's unique simulation capabilities, DFW controllers and commercial pilots provided expert feedback on the safety and operational implications by directly experiencing the proposed changes. Overall, the data collected from the participants and the simulators demonstrated that the concept would improve operations at DFW, if implemented. Improvements were observed in many areas including departure rates, taxi duration, runway crossings, and controller and pilot communications.

  3. Preoperative therapeutic programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.J.; Lamberts, H.; Reutelingsperger, I.M.M.D.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Veldman, A.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Investigation of the feasibility and preliminary effect of a short-term intensive preoperative exercise programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled pilot study. Setting: Ordinary hospital in the

  4. Mesalazine in the initial management of severely acutely malnourished children with environmental enteric dysfunction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Hünten-Kirsch, Barbara; Laving, Ahmed M R; Munyi, Caroline W; Ngari, Moses; Mikusa, Jenifer; Mulongo, Musa M; Odera, Dennis; Nassir, H Samira; Timbwa, Molline; Owino, Moses; Fegan, Greg; Murch, Simon H; Sullivan, Peter B; Warner, John O; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    .... In this pilot double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, 44 children with severe acute malnutrition and evidence of EED were assigned to treatment with mesalazine or placebo for 28 days...

  5. Mesalazine in the initial management of severely acutely malnourished children with environmental enteric dysfunction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Hünten-Kirsch, Barbara; Laving, Ahmed M R; Munyi, Caroline W; Ngari, Moses; Mikusa, Jenifer; Mulongo, Musa M; Odera, Dennis; Nassir, H Samira; Timbwa, Molline; Owino, Moses; Fegan, Greg; Murch, Simon H; Sullivan, Peter B; Warner, John O; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    .... In this pilot double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, 44 children with severe acute malnutrition and evidence of EED were assigned to treatment with mesalazine or placebo for 28 days during...

  6. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and

  7. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  8. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Johnson, David K; Van Sciver, Angela; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Honea, Robyn A; Wilkins, Heather M; Brooks, William M; Billinger, Sandra A; Swerdlow, Russell H; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361.

  9. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  10. The role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in gestational trophoblastic tumours: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting Chang; Wu, Yen Ching; Wu, Tzu I. [University College of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Yen, Tzu Chen; Chang, Yu.Cheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Li, Yiu Tai [Kuo General Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tainan (Taiwan); Ng, Koon Kwan [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Jung, Shih Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Anatomic Pathology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Lai, Chyong Huey [University College of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Taoyuan (Taiwan); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taoyuan (Taiwan)

    2006-02-01

    We conducted a pilot trial to evaluate the value of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTTs). Patients with placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT), high-risk GTT (World Health Organisation score {>=}8, disease onset at postpartum or greater than 6 months after antecedent pregnancy), metastatic GTT, recurrent/resistant GTT after chemotherapy, or post-molar GTT with unexplained abnormal {beta}-hCG regression and patients undergoing re-evaluation after salvage treatment were enrolled. PET was undertaken within 1 week after computed tomography (CT). Clinical impacts of additional PET were determined on a scan basis. A total of 14 patients were recruited. Sixteen PET scans were performed, with one patient having three serial studies. Benefits of additional PET were seen in 7 of 16 (43.8%) scans; these benefits included disclosure of chemotherapy-resistant lesions (n=2), exclusion of false-positive CT lesions (n=1), detection of an additional lesion not found by conventional imaging (n=1) in high-risk GTT at the start of primary chemotherapy, and confirmation of complete response to treatment for PSTT or to salvage therapy for recurrent/resistant GTT (n=3). On the other hand, in two instances there were false-negative PET findings, six scans yielded no benefit, and one showed an indeterminate lesion. Our preliminary results suggest that {sup 18}F-FDG PET is potentially useful in selected patients with GTT by providing precise mapping of metastases and tumour extent upfront, by monitoring treatment response and by localising viable tumours after chemotherapy. A larger study is necessary to further define the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in GTT. (orig.)

  11. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  12. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  13. Cost-effective control of SO2 emissions in Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cofala, J.; Amann, M.; Gyarfas, F.; Schoepp, F.; Boudri, J.C.; Hordijk, L.; Kroeze, C.; Li Junfeng,; Dai Lin, D.; Panwar, T.S.; Gupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite recent efforts to limit the growth of SO2 emissions in Asia, the negative environmental effects of sulphur emissions are likely to further increase in the future. This paper presents an extension of the RAINS-Asia integrated assessment model for acidification in Asia with an optimisation

  14. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  15. New trends in emission control in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy; Radzimirski, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This book discusses recent changes in the European legislation for exhaust emissions from motor vehicles. It starts with a comprehensive explanation of both the structure and range of applicability of new regulations, such as Euro 5 and Euro 6 for light-duty vehicles and Euro VI for heavy-duty vehicles. Then it introduces the most important issues in in-service conformity and conformity of production for vehicles, describing the latest procedures for performing exhaust emissions tests under both bench and operating conditions. Subsequently, it reports on portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) and their application for assessing the emissions of gaseous and particulate matter alike, under actual operating conditions and in all transport modes. Lastly, the book presents selected findings from exhaust emissions research on engines for a variety of transport vehicles, such as light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles, as well as non-road vehicles, which include farm tractors, groundwork and forest machinery, diese...

  16. Postural control deficits in people with fibromyalgia: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Postural instability and falls are increasingly recognized problems in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to determine whether FM patients, compared to age-matched healthy controls (HCs), have differences in dynamic posturography, including sensory, motor, and limits of stability. We further sought to determine whether postural instability is associated with strength, proprioception and lower-extremity myofascial trigger points (MTPs); FM symptoms and physical function; dyscognition; balance confidence; and medication use. Last, we evaluated self-reported of falls over the past six months. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we compared middle-aged FM patients and age-matched HCs who underwent computerized dynamic posturography testing and completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR) and balance and fall questionnaires. All subjects underwent a neurological and musculoskeletal examination. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and explore the relationships between variables. The relationships between subjective, clinical and objective variables were evaluated by correlation and regression analyses. Results Twenty-five FM patients and twenty-seven HCs (combined mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 48.6 ± 9.7 years) completed testing. FM patients scored statistically lower on composite sensory organization tests (primary outcome; P < 0.010), as well as with regard to vestibular, visual and somatosensory ratio scores on dynamic posturography. Balance confidence was significantly different between groups, with FM patients reporting less confidence than HCs (mean ± SD: 81.24 ± 19.52 vs. 98.52 ± 2.45; P < 0.001). Interestingly, 76% to 84% of FM patients had gastrocnemius and/or anterior tibialis MTPs. Postural stability was best predicted by dyscognition, FIQR score and body mass index. Regarding falls, 3 (11%) of 27 HCs had fallen only once during the past 6 months, whereas 18 (72

  17. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E Heimpel

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Predicting field N2O emissions and controlling factors in a Swiss grassland using a mid-infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Infrared reflectance spectroscopy, alternative to conventional analysis methods, is used to analyze soil physical and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic technique to determine the spatial and temporal changes and variability in controlling factors of soil N2O emissions under various management practices. In this study, we selected an intensively managed grassland in Chamau, Switzerland as a pilot site. The perennial grassland is situated in the pre-alpine lowlands of Switzerland at 400 m a.s.l., and managed for forage production. Management practices include 4 to 6 times mowing per year. One to two weeks after mowing, the grassland is fertilized with cattle slurry. Gas and soil (0-20 cm depth) samples were collected from April to September 2013. The soil samples were air-dried and ball-milled for spectrum measurements in the MIR (= 4000-400 cm-1). We developed and tested a site-specific calibration model to quantify soil factors affecting daily N2O emissions, namely mineral N concentrations, dissolved organic carbon, pH, and gravimetric water content. Soil MIR databases could be applied to large-scale biogeochemical modeling of N2O emissions to improve our understanding of related mechanisms, encompassing its high spatial and temporal variation. We also discuss potential MIR spectroscopy applications in regional soil assessment and GHG accounting under climate change.

  20. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction or...

  1. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  2. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  3. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  4. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  5. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  6. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain). Dept. of Chemical & Environmental Engineering

    2009-06-15

    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  7. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  8. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) for response assessment after radiation therapy of cervical carcinoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongula, J E; Bakers, F C H; Vöö, S; Lutgens, L; van Gorp, T; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Slangen, B F M

    2018-01-02

    Advanced stage cervical cancer is primarily treated by radiotherapy. Local tumor control is a prerequisite for cure. Imaging after treatment is controversial. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computer tomography (PET-CT) shows great promise for detecting metastases. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is superior in depicting anatomical details. The combination of PET-MRI could result in more accurate evaluation of cervical cancer treatment outcome. The aim of this pilot study is to share our initial experience with PET-MRI in the evaluation of treatment response in cervical cancer after radiation treatment. Ten patients with cervical carcinoma (FIGO ≥IB2) were prospectively evaluated. Eleven weeks (median; range 8-15 weeks) after radiation therapy, treatment response was evaluated by PET-MRI. The PET, MRI, and combined PET-MRI images were evaluated for the presence of local residual tumor and metastasis. Diagnostic performance was assessed by area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for evaluation of local residual tumor. The readers were blinded for outcome data. Local residual disease, metastasis, diagnostic confidence, and change of opinion were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. The reference standard consisted of pathology and/or follow-up according to the clinical guidelines. Three out of ten patients had local residual abnormalities suggestive for tumor residue after radiation treatment. The availability of both PET and MRI resulted in an increase in diagnostic confidence in 80-90% of all patients. Change of opinion was observed in 70% and change of policy in 50%, especially in the group with residual tumor. The diagnostic accuracy increased significantly for the radiologist if PET-MRI was combined (AUC .54 versus .83). PET-MRI shows promise for evaluation of treatment response after radiation for cervical cancer, especially increasing diagnostic confidence, while potentially increasing diagnostic

  9. In Vivo Monitoring of the Antiangiogenic Effect of Neurotensin Receptor-Mediated Radiotherapy by Small-Animal Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Maschauer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurotensin receptor (NTS1 has emerged as an interesting target for molecular imaging and radiotherapy of NTS-positive tumors due to the overexpression in a range of tumors. The aim of this study was to develop a 177Lu-labeled NTS1 radioligand, its application for radiotherapy in a preclinical model and the imaging of therapy success by small-animal positron emission tomography (µPET using [68Ga]DOTA-RGD as a specific tracer for imaging angiogenesis. The 177Lu-labeled peptide was subjected to studies on HT29-tumor-bearing nude mice in vivo, defining four groups of animals (single dose, two fractionated doses, four fractionated doses and sham-treated animals. Body weight and tumor diameters were determined three times per week. Up to day 28 after treatment, µPET studies were performed with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD. At days 7–10 after treatment with four fractionated doses of 11–14 MBq (each at days 0, 3, 6 and 10, the tumor growth was slightly decreased in comparison with untreated animals. Using a single high dose of 51 MBq, a significantly decreased tumor diameter of about 50% was observed with the beginning of treatment. Our preliminary PET imaging data suggested decreased tumor uptake values of [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in treated animals compared to controls at day 7 after treatment. This pilot study suggests that early PET imaging with [68Ga]DOTA-RGD in radiotherapy studies to monitor integrin expression could be a promising tool to predict therapy success in vivo. Further successive PET experiments are needed to confirm the significance and predictive value of RGD-PET for NTS-mediated radiotherapy.

  10. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Leman A.M.; Jajuli Afiqah; Feriyanto Dafit; Rahman Fakhrurrazi; Zakaria Supaat

    2017-01-01

    Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to i...

  11. Randomised controlled pilot trial of mindfulness training for stress reduction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardino, Christine M; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Bower, Julienne E; Lu, Michael C; Smalley, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    This randomised controlled pilot trial tested a six-week mindfulness-based intervention in a sample of pregnant women experiencing high levels of perceived stress and pregnancy anxiety. Forty-seven women enrolled between 10 and 25 weeks gestation were randomly assigned to either a series of weekly Mindful Awareness Practices classes (n = 24) with home practice or to a reading control condition (n = 23). Hierarchical linear models of between-group differences in change over time demonstrated that participants in the mindfulness intervention experienced larger decreases from pre-to post-intervention in pregnancy-specific anxiety and pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA) than participants in the reading control condition. However, these effects were not sustained through follow-up at six weeks post-intervention. Participants in both groups experienced increased mindfulness, as well as decreased perceived stress and state anxiety over the course of the intervention and follow-up periods. This study is one of the first randomised controlled pilot trials of a mindfulness meditation intervention during pregnancy and provides some evidence that mindfulness training during pregnancy may effectively reduce PRA and worry. We discuss some of the dilemmas in pursuing this translational strategy and offer suggestions for researchers interested in conducting mind-body interventions during pregnancy.

  12. Arterial foci of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose are associated with an enhanced risk of subsequent ischemic stroke in cancer patients: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Solène; Desandes, Emmanuel; Meneroux, Benoit; Djaballah, Wassila; Mandry, Damien; Netter, Fanny; Wahl, Denis; Fay, Renaud; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2011-02-01

    Imaging of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) hybrid systems allows detecting arterial FDG foci, which relate to inflammatory and presumably unstable atherosclerosis, and is increasingly used in cancer patients among whom many are at risk for ischemic events. However, the link between an enhanced arterial FDG uptake and subsequent ischemic events remains to be clearly established. This pilot study aimed at determining whether the prior arterial FDG uptake in cancer patients presenting a subsequent stroke was higher than that of stroke-free controls. Patients referred to FDG PET/CT for conventional oncologic indications were retrospectively included and compared between: (i) 7 case-patients with subsequent hospitalizations for documented ischemic stroke and (ii) 16 event-free controls, matched to the case-patients according to age, gender, and cancer site. Stroke was related with previous arterial FDG foci when detected on the aortic arch (stroke patients, 86% vs. Controls, 31%; P = 0.03) and especially on carotid bifurcations (stroke patients, 71% vs. Controls, 6%; P = 0.006); and among the 5 case-patients with stroke from carotid territory, 4 (80%) had FDG foci on ipsilateral carotid bifurcations. This pilot study shows that the previous detection of FDG foci on aortic arch and especially on carotid bifurcations of cancer patients is associated with the risk of subsequent ischemic stroke. A further confirmation on larger populations is needed.

  13. Probiotics and vitamin C for the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool: a randomised controlled pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Garaiova, I.; Muchová, J; Nagyová, Z; Wang, Duolao; Li, J. V.; Országhová, Z; Michael, D. R.; Plummer, S.F.; Ďuračková, Z

    2014-01-01

    Background:\\ud This pilot study investigates the efficacy of a probiotic consortium (Lab4) in combination with vitamin C on the prevention of respiratory tract infections in children attending preschool facilities.\\ud \\ud Subjects/methods:\\ud In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study with children aged 3–6 years, 57 received 1.25 × 1010 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 (NCIMB 30156), Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 (NCIMB 30157), Bifidobacterium bifi...

  14. Design of pilot-assisted load control valve with load velocity control ability and fast opening feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a design of pilot-assisted load control valve with load velocity control ability and fast opening feature based on static and dynamic modeling. Traditional load control valves do not have the load velocity control ability and its opening feature is very poor because the high spring stiffness comes along with the pressure–spring balance–based principle. Some improvement has been done by employing a two-stage pressure–pressure balance principle to make a load control valve to achieve load velocity control ability while the opening feature was not improved much. In this design, another pressure–pressure balance principle is proposed to make the load control valve achieve load velocity control ability and fast opening closing feature at the same time. Static modeling method based on force balance and Bernoulli orifice pressure-flow equation is used to design the load velocity control ability of the valve. Dynamic modeling method based on Newton’s second law and fluid continuity equation is used to optimize the parameters to give the proposed load control valve a fast opening feature. An actual load control valve was developed according to the above methods and the test results show both good load velocity control ability and fast opening feature of the design, which validates the potentiality of the proposed design in many applications.

  15. Advanced Catalytic Converter in Gasoline Enginer Emission Control: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emission from automobile source has become a major contributor to the air pollution and environmental problem. Catalytic converter is found to be one of the most effective tools to reduce the overwhelming exhaust pollutants in our environment. The development of sustainable catalytic converter still remains a critical issue due to the stringent exhaust emission regulations. Another issue such as price and availability of the precious metal were also forced the automotive industry to investigate the alternatives for producing a better replacement for the material used in catalytic converter. This paper aims at reviewing the present development and improvement on the catalytic converter used on the reduction of exhaust emission in order to meet the regulations and market demand. The use of new catalyst such as to replace the noble metal material of Platinum (Pt, Palladium (Pd and Rhodium (Rh has been reviewed. Material such as zeolite, nickel oxide and metal oxide has been found to effectively reduce the emission than the commercial converter. The preparation method of the catalyst has also evolved through the years as it is to ensure a good characteristic of a good monolith catalyst. Ultrasonic treatment with combination of electroplating technique, citrate method and Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO has been found as the latest novel preparation method on producing an effective catalyst in reducing the exhaust emission.

  16. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper emission factors (EFs) for particulate matter (PM) and some sub-components as well as gaseous substances were investigated in two onboard measurement campaigns. Emissions from two 4-stroke main engines were measured under stable-load conditions. The impact of varying engine load on the emissions was investigated on one of the engines, and the impact of fuel quality on the other, where heavy fuel oil (HFO) with sulphur content 1% and 0.5% and marine gas oil (MGO) with sulphur content 0.1% were used. Furthermore, emissions from one auxiliary engine were studied. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range of 0.3 to 2.7 g kg-1 fuel with the lowest values for emissions from the combustion of MGO, and the highest values for HFO with a sulphur content of 1%. The PM mass size distribution was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range of 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 # kg-1 fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of the particle number were non-volatile. The most abundant component of the PM mass was organic carbon, making up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EFs for organic carbon (OC) were 0.6 g kg-1 fuel for HFO and 0.2 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. Elemental carbon (EC) made up 10-38% of the PM mass, with no significant differences between HFO and MGO fuels. The concentrations of metals on sampled filters were investigated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and the detected metal elements in exhaust when using HFO was concluded to originate from both the fuel (V, Ni, Fe) and the lubricant (Ca, Zn), while for the case of MGO combustion, most of the metals were concluded to originate from the lubricants. The measured emission factors for sulphate particles, EF (SO2-4), were low, ca. 0.1-0.2 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 1% sulphur, 0.07-0.09 g kg-1 fuel for HFO with 0.5% sulphur and 0.003-0.006 g kg-1 fuel for MGO. This corresponds to 0

  17. Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Fino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbons (HC and oxides of nitrogen (NOx. Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM, which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.

  18. Venous leg ulcer healing with electric stimulation therapy: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C; McGuiness, W; Wilson, S; Cooper, K; Swanson, T; Rooney, D; Piller, N; Woodward, M

    2017-03-02

    Compression therapy is a gold standard treatment to promote venous leg ulcer (VLU) healing. Concordance with compression therapy is, however, often sub-optimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of electric stimulation therapy (EST) to facilitate healing of VLUs among people who do not use moderate-to-high levels of compression (>25 mmHg). A pilot multicentre, single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomised (2:1) to the intervention group or a control group where EST or a sham device was used 4 times daily for 20 minutes per session. Participants were monitored fortnightly for eight weeks. The primary outcome measure was percentage of area (wound size) change. In the 23 patients recruited, an average redution in wound size of 23.15% (standard deviation [SD]: 61.23) was observed for the control group compared with 32.67 % (SD: 42.54) for the intervention. A moderate effect size favouring the intervention group was detected from univariate [F(1,18)=1.588, p=0.224, partial eta squared=0.081] and multivariate repeated measures [F(1,18)=2.053, p=0.169, partial eta squared=0.102] analyses. The pilot study was not powered to detect statistical significance, however, the difference in healing outcomes are encouraging. EST may be an effective adjunct treatment among patients who have experienced difficulty adhering to moderate-to-high levels of compression therapy.

  19. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  20. Developing leadership capacity for guideline use: a pilot cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Wendy A; Davies, Barbara L; Graham, Ian D; Tourangeau, Ann; Woodend, A Kirsten; Lefebre, Nancy

    2013-02-01

    The importance of leadership to influence nurses' use of clinical guidelines has been well documented. However, little is known about how to develop and evaluate leadership interventions for guideline use. The purpose of this study was to pilot a leadership intervention designed to influence nurses' use of guideline recommendations when caring for patients with diabetic foot ulcers in home care nursing. This paper reports on the feasibility of implementing the study protocol, the trial findings related to nursing process outcomes, and leadership behaviors. A mixed methods pilot study was conducted with a post-only cluster randomized controlled trial and descriptive qualitative interviews. Four units were randomized to control or experimental groups. Clinical and management leadership teams participated in a 12-week leadership intervention (workshop, teleconferences). Participants received summarized chart audit data, identified goals for change, and created a team leadership action. Criteria to assess feasibility of the protocol included: design, intervention, measures, and data collection procedures. For the trial, chart audits compared differences in nursing process outcomes. 8-item nursing assessments score. Secondary outcome: 5-item score of nursing care based on goals for change identified by intervention participants. Qualitative interviews described leadership behaviors that influenced guideline use. Conducting this pilot showed some aspects of the study protocol were feasible, while others require further development. Trial findings observed no significant difference in the primary outcome. A significant increase was observed in the 5-item score chosen by intervention participants (p = 0.02). In the experimental group more relations-oriented leadership behaviors, audit and feedback and reminders were described as leadership strategies. Findings suggest that a leadership intervention has the potential to influence nurses' use of guideline recommendations

  1. Emission control with route optimization in solid waste collection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid waste collection processes are usually carried out by using trucks with diesel engine. In solid waste collection process, the trucks emit to environment different emissions from its exhausts. For this reason, in solid waste collection process, it is necessary that route optimization should be performed in order to decrease ...

  2. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane emissions carried out in the Arctic, particularly those...

  3. On-off and PI Control of Methane Gas Production of a Pilot Anaerobic Digestion Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Haugen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A proposed feedback control system for methane flow control of a real pilot anaerobic digestion reactor fed with dairy waste is designed and analyzed using the modified Hill model, which has previously been adapted to the reactor. Conditions for safe operation of the reactor are found using steady-state responses of dynamic simulations, taking into account the upper limit of the volatile fatty acids (VFA concentration recommended in the literature. The controllers used are standard process controllers, namely the on-off controller and the PI controller. Several PI controller tuning methods are evaluated using simulations. Two methods are favoured, namely the Skogestad method, which is an open loop method, and the Relaxed Ziegler-Nichols closed loop method. The two methods give approximately the same PI settings. Still, the Skogestad method is ranged first as it requires less tuning time, and because it is easier to change the PI settings at known changes in the process dynamics. Skogestad's method is successfully applied to a PI control system for the real reactor. Using simulations, the critical operating point to be used for safe controller tuning is identified.

  4. A cognitive behavioral smoking abstinence intervention for adults with chronic pain: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Townsend, Cynthia O; Hays, J Taylor; Ebnet, Kaye L; Gauvin, Thomas R; Gehin, Jessica M; Laures, Heidi J; Patten, Christi A; Warner, David O

    2014-03-01

    Current evidence suggests it may be difficult for patients with chronic pain to quit smoking and, based on previous formative work, a 7-session individual and group-based cognitive behavioral (CB) intervention was developed. The primary aim of this randomized controlled pilot trial was to test the hypothesis that abstinence at month 6 would be greater among patients with chronic pain who received the CB intervention compared to a control condition. Upon admission to a 3-week interdisciplinary pain treatment (IPT) program, patients were randomized to receive the CB intervention (n=30) or the control condition (n=30). The 7-day point prevalence of self-reported smoking status was assessed at week 3 (upon completion of the 3-week IPT program) and at month 6 in an intent-to-treat analysis. At week 3, 30% (n=9) of patients in the CB condition were abstinent from smoking compared to 10% (n=3) in the control group (P=.104). At month 6, 20% (n=6) of patients who received the CB intervention were abstinent compared to none in the control group (P=.024). At week 3, a significant group by time interaction effect was found where the CB patients experienced greater improvements in self-efficacy from baseline compared to the control group (P=.002). A greater proportion of patients randomized to the CB group completed the IPT program (P=.052). The findings of this pilot trial suggest that integration of a CB-based smoking abstinence intervention into ongoing pain therapy may be an effective treatment for smokers with chronic pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, Daniel W [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Mccormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Toops, Todd J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na + K and 5 ppm Ca + Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  6. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  7. Control strategies for nitrous oxide emissions reduction on wastewater treatment plants operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2017-11-15

    The present paper focused on reducing greenhouse gases emissions in wastewater treatment plants operation by application of suitable control strategies. Specifically, the objective is to reduce nitrous oxide emissions during the nitrification process. Incomplete nitrification in the aerobic tanks can lead to an accumulation of nitrite that triggers the nitrous oxide emissions. In order to avoid the peaks of nitrous oxide emissions, this paper proposes a cascade control configuration by manipulating the dissolved oxygen set-points in the aerobic tanks. This control strategy is combined with ammonia cascade control already applied in the literature. This is performed with the objective to take also into account effluent pollutants and operational costs. In addition, other greenhouse gases emissions sources are also evaluated. Results have been obtained by simulation, using a modified version of Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2, which takes into account greenhouse gases emissions. This is called Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 Gas. The results show that the proposed control strategies are able to reduce by 29.86% of nitrous oxide emissions compared to the default control strategy, while maintaining a satisfactory trade-off between water quality and costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  9. Control over emissivity of zero-static-power thermal emitters based on phase changing material GST

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Kaikai; Lyu, Yanbiao; Ding, Jichao; Lu, Yue; Cheng, Zhiyuan; Qiu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the emissivity of a thermal emitter has attracted growing interest with a view towards a new generation of thermal emission devices. So far, all demonstrations have involved sustained external electric or thermal consumption to maintain a desired emissivity. Here control over the emissivity of a thermal emitter consisting of a phase changing material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) film on top of a metal film is demonstrated. This thermal emitter shows broad wavelength-selective spectral emissivity in the mid-infrared. The peak emissivity approaches the ideal blackbody maximum and a maximum extinction ratio of above 10dB is attainable by switching GST between the crystalline and amorphous phases. By controlling the intermediate phases, the emissivity can be continuously tuned. This switchable, tunable, wavelength-selective and thermally stable thermal emitter will pave the way towards the ultimate control of thermal emissivity in the field of fundamental science as well as for energy-harvesting and thermal contro...

  10. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...

  11. ADDENDUM TO ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is an addendum to a 1996 report, Assessment of Styrene Emission Controls for FRP/C and Boat Building Industries. It presents additional evaluation of the biological treatment of styrene emissions, Dow Chemical Company's Sorbathene solvent vapor recovery system, Occupa...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF STYRENE EMISSION CONTROLS FOR FRP/C AND BOAT BUILDING INDUSTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of several conventional and novel emission control technologies that have been used or could be used to treat styrene emissions from open molding processes in fiberglass-reinforced plastics/composites (FRP/C) and fiberglass boat building ...

  13. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  14. 76 FR 20598 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... going through http://www.regulations.gov your e-mail address will be automatically captured and included...-21-25 ``Control of VOC emissions from reinforced plastic composites production operations,'' which... regulated by and complying with chapter 3745-76, which regulates non-methane organic emissions from existing...

  15. Development and Application of a Virtual NOx Sensor for Robust Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentink, P.; Seykens, X.; Escobar Valdivieso, D.

    2017-01-01

    To meet future emission targets, it becomes increasingly important to optimize the synergy between engine and aftertreatment system. By using an integrated control approach minimal fluid (fuel and DEF) consumption is targeted within the constraints of emission legislation during real-world

  16. Using Press Ganey Provider Feedback to Improve Patient Satisfaction: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newgard, Craig D; Fu, Rongwei; Heilman, James; Tanski, Mary; John Ma, O; Lines, Alan; Keith French, L

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial to assess the feasibility, logistics, and potential effect of monthly provider funnel plot feedback reports from Press Ganey data and semiannual face-to-face coaching sessions to improve patient satisfaction scores. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial of 25 emergency medicine faculty providers in one urban academic emergency department. We enrolled full-time clinical faculty with at least 12 months of baseline Press Ganey data, who anticipated working in the ED for at least 12 additional months. Providers were randomized into intervention or control groups in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention group had an initial 20-minute meeting to introduce the funnel plot feedback tool and standardized feedback based on their baseline Press Ganey scores and then received a monthly e-mail with their individualized funnel plot depicting cumulative Press Ganey scores (compared to their baseline score and the mean score of all providers) for 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference in Press Ganey "doctor-overall" scores between treatment groups at 12 months. We used a weighted analysis of covariance model to analyze the study groups, accounting for variation in the number of surveys by provider and baseline scores. Of 36 eligible faculty, we enrolled 25 providers, 13 of whom were randomized to the intervention group and 12 to the control group. During the study period, there were 815 Press Ganey surveys returned, ranging from four to 71 surveys per provider. For the standardized overall doctor score over 12 months (primary outcome), there was no difference between the intervention and control groups (difference = 1.3 points, 95% confidence interval = -2.4 to 5.9, p = 0.47). Similarly, there was no difference between groups when evaluating the four categories of doctor-specific patient satisfaction scores from the Press Ganey survey (all p > 0.05). In this pilot trial of monthly provider funnel plot

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L; Van De Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were registered to asses both motricity and trunk performance. All tests were administered at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received both sixteen 20-min sessions of tDCS and sixteen 20-min sessions of Sham stimulation. Application method between groups was changed after 4 weeks. A general linear repeated measures model was used to analyse the results of our study. Results revealed an effect on the total score of the Tinetti test (p = 0.049). No significant results were obtained for the RMA (p = 0.166) and the TIS (p = 0.479). This pilot study indicates that 16 tDCS-sessions could have a beneficial effect on balance and gait in stroke patients measured with the Tinetti test. However, further research is needed to elucidate these findings. Implications for Rehabilitation Sixteen sessions of tDCS is beneficial in the recovery of postural control in stroke patients. tDCS has to be applied as soon as possible to enhance beneficial effects.

  18. Randomized, controlled pilot trial of a smartphone app for smoking cessation using acceptance and commitment therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Mull, Kristin E; Kientz, Julie A; Vilardaga, Roger; Mercer, Laina D; Akioka, Katrina J; Heffner, Jaimee L

    2014-10-01

    There is a dual need for (1) innovative theory-based smartphone applications for smoking cessation and (2) controlled trials to evaluate their efficacy. Accordingly, this study tested the feasibility, acceptability, preliminary efficacy, and mechanism of behavioral change of an innovative smartphone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) application for smoking cessation vs. an application following US Clinical Practice Guidelines. Adult participants were recruited nationally into the double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial (n=196) that compared smartphone-delivered ACT for smoking cessation application (SmartQuit) with the National Cancer Institute's application for smoking cessation (QuitGuide). We recruited 196 participants in two months. SmartQuit participants opened their application an average of 37.2 times, as compared to 15.2 times for QuitGuide participants (pacceptance of cravings at baseline (n=88), the quit rates were 15% in SmartQuit vs. 8% in QuitGuide (OR=2.9; 95% CI=0.6-20.7). ACT is feasible to deliver by smartphone application and shows higher engagement and promising quit rates compared to an application that follows US Clinical Practice Guidelines. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Martin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2 and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36 were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health.

  20. Modeling Nitrous Oxide emissions and identifying emission controlling factors for a spruce forest ecosystem on drained organic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongxing; Kasimir, Åsa; Jansson, Per-Erik; Svensson, Magnus; Meyer, Astrid; Klemedtsson, Leif

    2015-04-01

    High Nitrous Oxide (N2O) emission has been identified in hemiboreal forests on drained organic soils. However, the controlling factors regulating the emissions have been unclear. To examine the importance of different factors on the N2O emission in a spruce forest on drained organic soil, a process-based model, CoupModel, was calibrated by the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The calibrated model reproduced most of the high resolution data (total net radiation, soil temperature, groundwater level, net ecosystem exchange, etc.) very well, as well as accumulated measured N2O emissions, but showed difficulties to capture all the measured emission peaks. Parameter uncertainties could be reduced by combining selected criteria with the measurement data. The model showed the N2O emissions during the summer to be controlled mainly by the competition between plants and microbes while during the winter season snow melt periods are important. The simulated N budget shows >100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to be in circulation between soil and plants and back again. Each year the peat mineralization adds about 60 kg N ha-1 and atmospheric deposition 12 kg N ha-1. Most of the mineralized litter and peat N is directly taken up by the plants but only a part accumulates in the plant biomass. As long as no timber is harvested the main N loss from the system is through nitrate leaching (30 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and gas emissions (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1), 55% as NO, 27% as N2O and 18% as N2. Regarding N2O gas emissions, our modeling indicates denitrification to be the most responsible process, of the size 6 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which could be compared to 0.04 kg N ha-1 yr-1 from nitrification. Our modelling also reveal 88% of the N2O mainly to be produced by denitrification in the capillary fringe (c.a. 40-60 cm below soil surface) of the anaerobic zone using nitrate produced in the upper more aerobic layers. We conclude N2O production/emission to be controlled mainly by the complex

  1. UK case control study of brain tumours in children, teenagers and young adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltbower, Richard G; Fleming, Sarah J; Picton, Susan V; Alston, Robert D; Morgan, Diana; Achilles, Janice; McKinney, Patricia A; Birch, Jillian M

    2014-01-08

    Tumours of the central nervous system are the second most common group of childhood cancers in 0-14 year olds (24% of total cancers) and represent a major diagnostic group in 15-24 year olds. The pilot case-control study aimed to establish methodologies for a future comprehensive aetiological investigation among children and young adults. Eligible cases were newly diagnosed with an intracranial tumour of neuroepithelial tissue aged 0-24 years. The pilot recruited patients through Leeds and Manchester Principal Treatment Centres. Controls were drawn from general practice lists. Controls were frequency matched by age and gender. We interviewed 49 cases and 78 controls comprising 85% of the target sample size. Response rates were 52% for cases and 32% for controls. Completion of the questionnaire was successful, with a very small proportion of missing data being reported (5-10%). The age distribution of cases and controls was similar with around three-quarters of interviewed subjects aged 0-14. Half of cases and almost two-thirds of controls reported using a mobile phone with the majority starting between 10-14 years of age. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in cases than controls (Odds Ratio 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-1.2), whilst cases were more likely to be delivered by caesarean section (OR 1.6; 95% CI 0.6-4.4). Cases were significantly more likely to have a birthweight > 3.5 kg compared to controls. Cases were also more likely to come from a family with 3 or more siblings than controls (OR 3.0; 95% CI 0.7-13.6). The majority of participants (>80%) were in favour of taking either blood or saliva to aid molecular epidemiological research. Successful methods were established for identifying and recruiting a high proportion of case subjects, exploiting strong links with the clinical teams at the treatment centres. Control procedures proved more difficult to implement. However, working closely with national clinical and professional research networks will enable improved

  2. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions; Prevention et traitement des emissions d`oxydes de soufre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The conference on the control and treatment of sulfur oxides emissions has held in Le Havre the 4. and 5. december, 1997. The aim of this conference was to promote the information on the different treatment technologies and to contribute on the one hand to the supporting and revival of the environmental protection and on the other hand to the desulfurization programs. It has allowed to recall too the technical and financial support of the Ademe to the manufacturers. (O.M.)

  4. Physical Sciences Facility Air Emission Control Equivalency Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David M.; Belew, Shan T.

    2008-10-17

    This document presents the adequacy evaluation for the application of technology standards during design, fabrication, installation and testing of radioactive air exhaust systems at the Physical Sciences Facility (PSF), located on the Horn Rapids Triangle north of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) complex. The analysis specifically covers the exhaust portion of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems associated with emission units EP-3410-01-S, EP-3420-01-S and EP 3430-01-S.

  5. Bespoke smoking cessation for people with severe mental ill health (SCIMITAR): a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbody, Simon; Peckham, Emily; Man, Mei-See; Mitchell, Natasha; Li, Jinshuo; Becque, Taeko; Hewitt, Catherine; Knowles, Sarah; Bradshaw, Tim; Planner, Claire; Parrott, Steve; Michie, Susan; Shepherd, Charles

    2015-05-01

    People with severe mental ill health are three times more likely to smoke but typically do not access conventional smoking cessation services, contributing to widening health inequalities and reduced life expectancy. We aimed to pilot an intervention targeted at smokers with severe mental ill health and to test methods of recruitment, randomisation, and follow up before implementing a full trial. The Smoking Cessation Intervention for Severe Mental Ill Health Trial (SCIMITAR) is a pilot randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation strategy designed specifically for people with severe mental ill health, to be delivered by mental health nurses and consisting of behavioural support and drugs, compared with a conventional smoking cessation service (ie, usual care). Adults (aged 18 years or older) with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, who were current smokers, were recruited from NHS primary care and mental health settings in the UK (York, Scarborough, Hull, and Manchester). Eligible participants were randomly allocated to either usual care (control group) or usual care plus the bespoke smoking cessation strategy (intervention group). Randomisation was done via a central telephone system, with computer-generated random numbers. We could not mask participants, family doctors, and researchers to the treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was smoking status at 12 months, verified by carbon monoxide measurements or self-report. Only participants who provided an exhaled CO measurement or self-reported their smoking status at 12 months were included in the primary analysis. The trial is registered at ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN79497236. Of 97 people recruited to the pilot study, 51 were randomly allocated to the control group and 46 were assigned to the intervention group. Participants engaged well with the bespoke smoking cessation strategy, but no individuals assigned to usual care accessed NHS smoking cessation services. At 12 months, 35 (69%) controls and 33 (72

  6. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Piloted simulation tests of propulsion control as backup to loss of primary flight controls for a mid-size jet transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Davis, Gloria; Conley, Joe; Hardy, Gordon; Gibson, Jim; Blake, Matthew; Bryant, Don; Williams, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Failures of aircraft primary flight-control systems to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. , DC-1O crash, B-747 crash, C-5 crash, B-52 crash, and others). Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) investigated the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control of several airplanes, including the B-720, Lear 24, F-15, C-402, and B-747. A series of three piloted simulation tests have been conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate propulsion control for safely landing a medium size jet transport which has experienced a total primary flight-control failure. The first series of tests was completed in July 1992 and defined the best interface for the pilot commands to drive the engines. The second series of tests was completed in August 1994 and investigated propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) display requirements and various command modes. The third series of tests was completed in May 1995 and investigated PCA full-flight envelope capabilities. This report describes the concept of a PCA, discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of piloted simulation evaluations of the concept by a cross-section of air transport pilots.

  8. Physical and chemical characterisation of PM emissions from two ships operating in European Emission Control Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldanová, J.; Fridell, E.; Winnes, H.; Holmin-Fridell, S.; Boman, J.; Jedynska, A.; Tishkova, V.; Demirdjian, B.; Joulie, S.; Bladt, H.; Ivleva, N. P.; Niessner, R.

    2013-04-01

    Emissions of particulate matter (PM) from shipping contribute significantly to the anthropogenic burden of PM. The environmental effects of PM from shipping include negative impact on human health through increased concentrations of particles in many coastal areas and harbour cities and the climate impact. The PM emitted by ship engines consists of organic carbon (OC), elemental or black carbon (EC/BC), sulphate, inorganic compounds containing V, Ni, Ca, Zn and other metals and associated water. The chemical composition and physical properties of PM vary with type of fuel burned, type of engine and engine operation mode. While primary PM emissions of species like V, Ni and Ca are supposed to be determined by composition of fuel and lubricant oil, emissions of particulate OC, EC and sulphate are affected both by fuel quality and by operation mode of the engine. In this paper a number of parameters describing emission factors (EFs) of gases and of particulate matter from ship engines were investigated during 2 on-board measurement campaigns for 3 different engines and 3 different types of fuels. The measured EFs for PM mass were in the range 0.3 to 2.7 g/kg-fuel with lowest values for emissions from combustion of marine gas oil (MGO) and the highest for heavy fuel oil (HFO). Emission factors for particle numbers EF(PN) in the range 5 × 1015-1 × 1017 #/kg-fuel were found, the number concentration was dominated by particles in the ultrafine mode and ca. 2/3 of particles were non-volatile. The PM mass was dominated by particles in accumulation mode. Main metal elements in case of HFO exhaust PM were V, Ni, Fe, Ca and Zn, in case of MGO Ca, Zn and P. V and Ni were typical tracers of HFO while Ca, Zn and P are tracers of the lubricant oil. EC makes up 10-38% of the PM mass, there were not found large differences between HFO and MGO fuels. EC and ash elements make up 23-40% of the PM mass. Organic matter makes up 25-60% of the PM. The measured EF(OC) were 0.59 ± 0.15 g

  9. Mindfulness training for loneliness among Chinese college students: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fan, Fu-Min; Huang, Si-Yuan; Rodriguez, Marcus A

    2016-10-05

    Loneliness has been found to predict a wide range of physical and mental health problems. It is suggested that China's One-Child Policy places young Chinese people at a particularly high risk for loneliness. Although loneliness is most prevalent in late adolescence and early adulthood, interventions have primarily targeted children or older adults with limited success. The current study examines a pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness training program among Chinese college students. Participants with elevated loneliness (N = 50, ages 17-25) were randomized into either an 8-week mindfulness training or a control group. Self-reported measures of loneliness and mindfulness were administered at baseline and posttest. The training group also completed a program evaluation form and a 3-month follow-up assessment. Results provided preliminary evidence indicating that the intervention was feasible and effective at reducing loneliness among Chinese college students. Limitations and future directions were discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine Jonathan DeHart...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy High-Speed Marine Diesel Engine ... Performance and Durability Assessment of Two Emission Control Technologies Installed on a Legacy Marine Diesel Engine 2 MARINE ENGINE

  11. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas into r...... Technologies (BAT) and stormwater/CSO management were the most favorable in reducing emissions into the environment.......The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas...

  12. Individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled crossover pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Fiorentino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lavinia Fiorentino1, John R McQuaid2, Lianqi Liu3, Loki Natarajan4, Feng He4, Monique Cornejo3, Susan Lawton3, Barbara A Parker6, Georgia R Sadler5, Sonia Ancoli-Israel31Cousins Center for Psychoneuroimmunology, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, 5Department of Surgery, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA; 6Moores UCSD Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USAPurpose: Estimates of insomnia in breast cancer patients are high, with reports of poor sleep lasting years after completion of cancer treatment. This randomized controlled crossover pilot study looked at the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (IND-CBT-I on sleep in breast cancer survivors.Patients and methods: Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions followed by six weeks of follow up or a delayed treatment control group (no treatment for six weeks followed by six weekly IND-CBT-I sessions. Of these, 14 participants completed the pilot study (six in the treatment group and eight in the delayed treatment control group.Results: Self-rated insomnia was significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the waiting period in the delayed treatment control group. The pooled pre–post-IND-CBT-I analyses revealed improvements in self-rated insomnia, sleep quality, and objective measures of sleep.Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that IND-CBT-I is appropriate for improving sleep in breast cancer survivors. Individual therapy in a clinic or private practice may be a more practical option for this population as it is more easily accessed and readily available in an outpatient setting.Keywords: insomnia, breast cancer, cognitive behavioral therapy

  13. Control of mercury emissions from stationary coal combustion sources in China: Current status and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-11-01

    Coal burning in power plants and industrial boilers is the largest combustion source of mercury emissions in China. Together, power plants and industrial boilers emit around 250 tonnes of mercury each year, or around half of atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in the country. Power plants in China are generally equipped with multi-pollutant control technologies, which offer the co-benefit of mercury removal, while mercury-specific control technologies have been installed in some facilities. In contrast, most industrial boilers have only basic or no flue gas cleaning. A combination of measures, including energy conservation, coal switching and blending, reducing the mercury contents of coals through washing, combustion controls, and flue gas cleaning, can be used to reduce mercury emissions from these stationary combustion sources. More stringent emission standards for the major air pollutants from coal-fired power plants and industrial boiler, along with standards for the previously unregulated mercury, were implemented recently, which is expected to bring significant reduction in their mercury emissions through the necessary upgrades of multi-pollutant and mercury-specific control technologies. Meanwhile, strong monitoring capacity and strict enforcement are necessary to ensure that the combustion sources operate in compliance with the new emission standards and achieve significant reduction in the emissions of mercury and other air pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Probiotics for fibromyalgia: study design for a pilot double-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Pablo; Estévez, Ángeles F; Sánchez-Labraca, Nuria; Cañadas, Fernando; Miras, Alonso; Cardona, Diana

    2017-10-24

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, generalized and diffuse pain disorder accompanied by other symptoms such as emotional and cognitive deficits. The FMS patients show a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Recently it has been found that microbes in the gut may regulate brain processes through the gut-microbiota-brain axis, modulating thus affection, motivation and higher cognitive functions. Therefore, the use of probiotics might be a new treatment that could improve the physical, psychological and cognitive state in FMS; however, no evidence about this issue is available. This paper describes the design and protocol of a double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized pilot study. We use validated questionnaires, cognitive task through E-Prime and biological measures like urine cortisol and stool fecal samples. The trial aim is to explore the effects of eight weeks of probiotics therapy in physical (pain, impact of the FMS and quality of life), emotional (depression, and anxiety) and cognitive symptoms (attention, memory, and impulsivity) in FMS patients as compared to placebo. This pilot study is the first, to our knowledge, to evaluate the effects of probiotics in FMS. The primary hypothesis was that FMS patients will show a better performance on cognitive tasks, and an improvement in emotional and physical symptoms. These results will contribute to a better understanding in the gut-brain axis. Here we present the design and protocol of the study.

  15. Atmospheric emission characteristics and control policies of five precedent-controlled toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Yan; Tian, Hezhong; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Yongxin; Wu, Xuecheng; Zhu, Chuanyong; Gao, Jiajia

    2015-01-20

    A bottom-up inventory of atmospheric emissions of five precedent-controlled toxic heavy metals (HMs), including mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), from primary anthropogenic sources in China is established for the period 2000–2010. Total emissions of HMs demonstrate a gradually ascending trend along with the increase of coal consumption and industrial production, which are estimated at approximately 842.22 t for Hg, 4196.31 t for As, 29272.14 t for Pb, 795.29 t for Cd, and 13715.33 t for Cr for 2010. Coal combustion is found to be the primary source of HMs emissions. Owing to the dramatic differences of coal use by industrial and power sectors among provinces, spatial allocation performs remarkably uneven characteristics, and spatial distribution features are demonstrated by allocating the emissions into 0.5° × 0.5° grid cells with GDP and population as surrogate indexes. Further, HMs emissions from specified anthropogenic sources under three different control scenarios for the target year 2015 are projected, and collaborative and specialized control strategies are proposed to meet the demand of emission reduction goals of different regions. In the future, a whole processes control management system will be the most effective way for control of HMs.

  16. Sample size requirements to estimate key design parameters from external pilot randomised controlled trials: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, M Dawn; Dimairo, Munyaradzi; Shephard, Neil; Hayman, Alex; Whitehead, Amy; Walters, Stephen J

    2014-07-03

    External pilot or feasibility studies can be used to estimate key unknown parameters to inform the design of the definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT). However, there is little consensus on how large pilot studies need to be, and some suggest inflating estimates to adjust for the lack of precision when planning the definitive RCT. We use a simulation approach to illustrate the sampling distribution of the standard deviation for continuous outcomes and the event rate for binary outcomes. We present the impact of increasing the pilot sample size on the precision and bias of these estimates, and predicted power under three realistic scenarios. We also illustrate the consequences of using a confidence interval argument to inflate estimates so the required power is achieved with a pre-specified level of confidence. We limit our attention to external pilot and feasibility studies prior to a two-parallel-balanced-group superiority RCT. For normally distributed outcomes, the relative gain in precision of the pooled standard deviation (SDp) is less than 10% (for each five subjects added per group) once the total sample size is 70. For true proportions between 0.1 and 0.5, we find the gain in precision for each five subjects added to the pilot sample is less than 5% once the sample size is 60. Adjusting the required sample sizes for the imprecision in the pilot study estimates can result in excessively large definitive RCTs and also requires a pilot sample size of 60 to 90 for the true effect sizes considered here. We recommend that an external pilot study has at least 70 measured subjects (35 per group) when estimating the SDp for a continuous outcome. If the event rate in an intervention group needs to be estimated by the pilot then a total of 60 to 100 subjects is required. Hence if the primary outcome is binary a total of at least 120 subjects (60 in each group) may be required in the pilot trial. It is very much more efficient to use a larger pilot study, than to

  17. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    was simulated in paired field plots to accommodate all measurements. One plot had a pre-installed chamber support for N2O flux measurements. Volumetric water content (VWC) was determined in the same position in both sub-plots, i.e., with and without chamber supports. Plant growth was monitored using ratio...... N and VWC it is proposed that nutrient retention and higher salinity in the presence of chamber supports increased water retention. This may have implications for the quantification of N2O emissions from urine patches....

  18. A pilot study for control of hyperendemic cystic hydatid disease in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic hydatid disease (CHD is a global parasitic zoonosis caused by the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The disease is hyperendemic in western China because of poor economic development; limited community knowledge of CHD; widespread, small-scale household animal production; home killing of livestock; and the feeding of dogs with uncooked offal. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A control program focusing on monthly praziquantel (PZQ treatment of all registered dogs and culling unwanted and stray dogs has been designed to control CHD in hyperendemic areas in China. A pilot field control project in two counties (Hutubi and Wensu in Xinjiang, China showed that after 4 years of treatment, the prevalence of dogs with E. granulosus was reduced from 14.7% and 18.6%, respectively, to 0%, and this caused a 90%-100% decrease of CHD in sheep born after commencement of the control program. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The strategy aimed at preventing eggs being released from dogs into the environment by treating animals before adult tapeworms are patent can decrease E. granulosus transmission and considerably reduce hyperendemic CHD. Monthly treatment of dogs with PZQ and culling unwanted and stray dogs have been shown to be an efficient, highly cost-effective and practicable measure for implementation in rural communities. As a result, the Chinese Ministry of Health has launched an extensive CHD control program in 117 counties in western China using this control strategy.

  19. Averaging Level Control to Reduce Off-Spec Material in a Continuous Pharmaceutical Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lakerveld

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The judicious use of buffering capacity is important in the development of future continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The potential benefits are investigated of using optimal-averaging level control for tanks that have buffering capacity for a section of a continuous pharmaceutical pilot plant involving two crystallizers, a combined filtration and washing stage and a buffer tank. A closed-loop dynamic model is utilized to represent the experimental operation, with the relevant model parameters and initial conditions estimated from experimental data that contained a significant disturbance and a change in setpoint of a concentration control loop. The performance of conventional proportional-integral (PI level controllers is compared with optimal-averaging level controllers. The aim is to reduce the production of off-spec material in a tubular reactor by minimizing the variations in the outlet flow rate of its upstream buffer tank. The results show a distinct difference in behavior, with the optimal-averaging level controllers strongly outperforming the PI controllers. In general, the results stress the importance of dynamic process modeling for the design of future continuous pharmaceutical processes.

  20. THE CONTROL OF INCIPIENT STATE TREATING TOOL WEAR WITH USAGE OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Filonenko

    2017-07-01

    one will precede to tool damage, there is a discontinuous of acoustic emission signals amplitudes distribution kurtosis change from stable positive value up to negative value. At the moment of tool disastrous damage the nature of acoustic emission signals amplitudes distribution kurtosis change varies on inverse. Such change of acoustic emission parameters, apparently, is conditioned by originating the processes leading to tool destruction, and, as a consequent, change of treating and treated composite materials conditions interplay. The obtained outcomes have shown that the processing and analysis of regularity of acoustic emission signals amplitudes distribution kurtosis change can be utilized for control of composite materials technological process machining. Thus it is possible to determine and control the moment of processes originating incipient state, which one conduct to destruction of the treating tool.

  1. Composting municipal biosolids in polyethylene sleeves with forced aeration: Process control, air emissions, sanitary and agronomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov, R; Saadi, I; Krassnovsky, A; Hanan, A; Medina, Sh; Raviv, M; Chen, Y; Laor, Y

    2017-09-01

    Composting in polyethylene sleeves with forced aeration may minimize odor emissions, vectors attraction and leachates associated with open windrows. A disadvantage of this technology is the lack of mixing during composting, potentially leading to non-uniform products. In two pilot experiments using biosolids and green waste (1:1; v:v), thermophilic conditions (>45°C) were maintained for two months, with successful control of oxygen levels and sufficient moisture. Emitted odors declined from 1.5-3.8×10 5 to 5.9×10 3 -2.3×10 4 odor units m -3 -air in the first 3weeks of the process, emphasizing the need of odor control primarily during this period. Therefore, composting might be managed in two phases: (i) a closed sleeve for 6-8weeks during which the odor is treated; (ii) an open pile (odor control is not necessary). Reduction of salmonella, E. coli and coliforms was effective initially, meeting the standards of "Class A" biosolids; however, total and fecal coliforms density increased after opening the second sleeve and exceeded the standard of 1000 most probable number (MPN) per g dry matter. Compost maturity was achieved in the open piles following the two sleeves and the final compost was non-phytotoxic and beneficial as a soil additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Single photon emission from site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Hill, Tyler A.; Deng, Hui, E-mail: dengh@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Lee, Leung-Kway; Ku, Pei-Cheng, E-mail: peicheng@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-04

    Single photon emission was observed from site-controlled InGaN/GaN quantum dots. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified by the second-order correlation function up to 90 K, the highest temperature to date for site-controlled quantum dots. Micro-photoluminescence study on individual quantum dots showed linearly polarized single exciton emission with a lifetime of a few nanoseconds. The dimensions of these quantum dots were well controlled to the precision of state-of-the-art fabrication technologies, as reflected in the uniformity of their optical properties. The yield of optically active quantum dots was greater than 90%, among which 13%–25% exhibited single photon emission at 10 K.

  3. The longview diesel emission control system : emissions performance of a combined DPF and NOx reduction catalyst system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, B.; Streichsbier, M. [Cleaire Advanced Emissions Controls, San Leandro, CA (United States)]|[Cummins Emissions Solutions, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diesel engines operating in underground mines must be equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) to control particulate matter (PM). Although wall flow filters offer the desired levels of PM/EC control, the use of precious metals as part of the regeneration strategy has an adverse impact on nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) formation. Therefore, the reductions in PM/EC are offset by increases in NO{sub 2}. This study presented a new system that offers the benefits of a passive regeneration system without the disadvantage of high NO{sub 2} formation. The Longview{sup R} system was initially developed for above ground mine facilities concerned with PM and ozone levels. The system combines HC-SCR with catalyzed DPF to reduce nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. HC-SCR refers to active hydrocarbon dosing upstream of a NOx reduction catalyst. This paper presented details of the system design features as well as emission performance test results. The impact of fuel sulfur level on emissions was also investigated at a Cummins test laboratory. The cycle averaged emissions from the Longview system using ULSD were a 40 per cent reduction in NOx; a 50 per cent reduction in NO{sub 2}; nearly a complete removal of CO; and, a 5 per cent increase in CO{sub 2}. It was determined that the system's fuel injection and NOx reduction catalysts play an important role in NO, NO{sub 2} and NOx emissions. The catalyzed PDF plays an important role in CO, HC and PM reductions. The Longview system is currently being tested in underground mining field trials. tabs., figs.

  4. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  5. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  6. Response surface modeling-based source contribution analysis and VOC emission control policy assessment in a typical ozone-polluted urban Shunde, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Yun; Jang, Carey; Wang, Shuxiao; Gao, Jian; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Minhui; Zhu, Zhenghua; Wei, Hao; Yang, Wenwei

    2017-01-01

    To develop a sound ozone (O3) pollution control strategy, it is important to well understand and characterize the source contribution due to the complex chemical and physical formation processes of O3. Using the "Shunde" city as a pilot summer case study, we apply an innovative response surface modeling (RSM) methodology based on the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling simulations to identify the O3 regime and provide dynamic analysis of the precursor contributions to effectively assess the O3 impacts of volatile organic compound (VOC) control strategy. Our results show that Shunde is a typical VOC-limited urban O3 polluted city. The "Jiangmen" city, as the main upper wind area during July 2014, its VOCs and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions make up the largest contribution (9.06%). On the contrary, the contribution from local (Shunde) emission is lowest (6.35%) among the seven neighbor regions. The local VOCs industrial source emission has the largest contribution comparing to other precursor emission sectors in Shunde. The results of dynamic source contribution analysis further show that the local NOx control could slightly increase the ground O3 under low (10.00%) and medium (40.00%) reduction ratios, while it could start to turn positive to decrease ground O3 under the high NOx abatement ratio (75.00%). The real-time assessment of O3 impacts from VOCs control strategies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) shows that the joint regional VOCs emission control policy will effectively reduce the ground O3 concentration in Shunde. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Measures During the APEC Conference in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shou-bin; Tian, Ling-di; Zhang, Dong-xu; Guo, Jin-jin

    2016-01-15

    Vehicle emission is one of the primary factors affecting the quality of atmospheric environment in Beijing. In order to improve the air quality during APEC conference, strict control measures including vehicle emission control were taken in Beijing during APEC meeting. Based on the activity level data of traffic volume, vehicle speed and vehicle types, the inventory of motor vehicle emissions in Beijing was developed following bottom-up methodology to assess the effectiveness of the control measures. The results showed that the traffic volume of Beijing road network during the APEC meeting decreased significantly, the vehicle speed increased obviously, and the largest decline of traffic volume was car. CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 15.1%, 22.4%, 18.4% and 21.8% for freeways, 29.9%, 36.4%, 32.7% and 35.8% for major arterial, 35.7%, 41.7%, 38.4% and 41.2% for minor arterial, 40.8%, 46.5%, 43.1% and 46.0% for collectors, respectively. The vehicles exhaust emissions inventory before and during APEC conference was developed based on bottom-up emissions inventory method. The results indicated that CO, NOx, HC and PM emissions of vehicle exhaust were reduced by 37.5%, 43.4%, 39.9% and 42.9% in the study area, respectively.

  8. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C. (Cummins, Inc.); Anderson, J.A. (Argonne National Laboratory); Howden, Kenneth C. (U.S. Department of Energy)

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  9. Qat use and esophageal cancer in Ethiopia: A pilot case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Leon

    Full Text Available Qat (Catha edulis chewing is reported to induce lesions in the buccal mucosa, irritation of the esophagus, and esophageal reflux. Case series suggest a possible etiological role in oral and esophageal cancers. This pilot study aimed to generate preliminary estimates of the magnitude and direction of the association between qat use and esophageal cancer (EC risk and to inform the logistics required to conduct a multi-center case-control study.Between May 2012 and May 2013, 73 EC cases (including 12 gastro-esophageal junction cases and 133 controls matched individually on sex, age, and residence were enrolled at two endoscopy clinics and a cancer treatment hospital in Addis Ababa. A face-to-face structured questionnaire was administered. Qat use was defined as ever having chewed qat once a week or more frequently for at least one year. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regression.Only 8% of cases resided in Addis Ababa. Qat use was more frequent in cases (36% than in controls (26%. A 2-fold elevation in EC risk was observed in ever qat chewers compared with never users in unadjusted conditional logistic regression (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.94, 4.74, an association that disappeared after adjusting for differences in tobacco use, consumption of alcohol and green vegetables, education level, and religion (OR = 0.95; 0.22, 4.22. Among never tobacco users, however, a non-significant increase in EC risk was suggested in ever qat users also after adjustment. Increases in EC risk were observed with ever tobacco use, alcohol consumption, low consumption of green vegetables, a salty diet, illiteracy, and among Muslims; the four latter associations were significant.This pilot study generated EC risk estimates in association with a habit practiced by millions of people and never before studied in a case-control design. Results must be interpreted cautiously in light of possible selection bias, with some demographics such as education level

  10. Feasibility of a home-based exercise intervention with remote guidance for patients with stable grade II and III gliomas : A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, K.; Kloek, C.J.J.; Aaronson, Neil K; Janssen, K.; Jones, Lee; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Stuiver, M.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: In this pilot study, we investigated the feasibility of a home-based, remotely guided exercise intervention for patients with gliomas. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with randomization (2:1) to exercise or control group. Subjects: Patients with stable grade II and III

  11. Controlling the COD removal of an A-stage pilot study with instrumentation and automatic process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Elliott, Matt; DeArmond, Jon; Kinyua, Maureen; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2017-06-01

    The pursuit of fully autotrophic nitrogen removal via the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) pathway has led to an increased interest in carbon removal technologies, particularly the A-stage of the adsorption/bio-oxidation (A/B) process. The high-rate operation of the A-stage and lack of automatic process control often results in wide variations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal that can ultimately impact nitrogen removal in the downstream B-stage process. This study evaluated the use dissolved oxygen (DO) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) based automatic control strategies through the use of in situ on-line sensors in the A-stage of an A/B pilot study. The objective of using these control strategies was to reduce the variability of COD removal by the A-stage and thus the variability of the effluent C/N. The use of cascade DO control in the A-stage did not impact COD removal at the conditions tested in this study, likely because the bulk DO concentration (>0.5 mg/L) was maintained above the half saturation coefficient of heterotrophic organisms for DO. MLSS-based solids retention time (SRT) control, where MLSS was used as a surrogate for SRT, did not significantly reduce the effluent C/N variability but it was able to reduce COD removal variation in the A-stage by 90%.

  12. Randomised controlled trial of extraarticular gold bead implantation for treatment of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejrup, Kirsten; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Jacobsen, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial was to determine if implanting gold beads at five acupuncture points around the knee joint improves 1-year outcomes for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Participants were 43 adults aged 18-80 years with pain...... and stiffness from non-specific OA of the knee for over a year. The intervention was blinded implantation of gold beads at five acupuncture points around the affected knee through a hypodermic needle, or needle insertion alone. Primary outcome measures were knee pain, stiffness and function assessed...... acupuncture had greater relative improvements in self-assessed outcomes. The treatment was well tolerated. This 1-year pilot study indicates that extraarticular gold bead implantation is a promising treatment modality for patients with OA of the knee. The new treatment should be tested in a larger trial...

  13. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  14. The influence of meteorological conditions and stringent emission control on high TSP episodes in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Sema; Incecik, Selahattin; Unal, Yurdanur Sezginer

    2003-01-01

    Istanbul has faced serious air pollution problems since the mid-80s. This is mainly due to particulate air pollution coming from poor quality lignite in areas, which are heavily populated and industrialized. As a consequence of severe air pollution problems, stringent control on the emissions in the city started in the year of 1994. In this work, in order to study the relationship between emissions and meteorological conditions, an assessment of air pollution episodes and air pollution potential in the city is presented for the terms at the changed emission schedule as the influence of an emission reduction strategy. The influence of meteorological conditions on the TSP (total suspended particulates) levels is considered for two consecutive winter periods. On this occasion, the city has faced different TSP levels and episode characteristics depending on stringent emission reductions covering the banned, poor-quality lignite and fuel switching. For this purpose, climatological conditions and air quality analyses were performed.

  15. Evolution of NOx emissions in Europe with focus on road transport control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available European emission trends of nitrogen oxides since 1880 and up to present are presented here and are linked to the evolution of road transport emissions. Road transport has been the dominating source of NOx emissions since 1970, and contributes with 40% to the total emissions in 2005. Five trend regimes have been identified between 1880 and 2005. The first regime (1880–1950 is determined by a slow increase in fuel consumption all over Europe. The second regime (1950–1980 is characterized by a continued steep upward trend in liquid fuel use and by the introduction of the first regulations on road traffic emissions. Reduction in fuel consumption determines the emission trends in the third regime (1980–1990 that is also characterized by important differences between Eastern and Western Europe. Emissions from road traffic continue to grow in Western Europe in this period, and it is argued here that the reason for this continued NOx emission increase is related to early inefficient regulations for NOx in the transport sector. The fourth regime (1990–2000 involves a turning point for road traffic emissions, with a general decrease of emissions in Europe during that decade. It is in this period that we can identify the first emission reductions due to technological abatement in Western Europe. In the fifth regime (2000–2005, the economic recovery in Eastern Europe imposes increased emission from road traffic in this area. Western European emissions are on the other hand decoupled from the fuel consumption, and continue to decrease. The implementation of strict measures to control NOx emissions is demonstrated here to be a main reason for the continued Western European emission reductions. The results indicate that even though the effectiveness of European standards is hampered by a slow vehicle turnover, loopholes in the type-approval testing, and an increase in diesel consumption, the effect of such technical abatement measures is traceable

  16. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  17. Effects of shiatsu in the management of fibromyalgia symptoms: a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Susan L K; Berssaneti, Ana A; Marques, Amelia P

    2013-09-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of Shiatsu massage on the symptoms of adult patients with primary fibromyalgia, propose a Shiatsu treatment protocol, verify patient acceptability, and evaluate the feasibility for a larger study. Thirty-four patients aged 33 to 62 years were divided into a Shiatsu group (SG; n = 17), who received full-body Shiatsu twice a week for 8 weeks, and a control group (n = 17), who received an educational booklet. The patients were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks. Pain intensity was evaluated by the visual analog scale, pressure pain threshold by dolorimetry, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, sleep by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and symptoms impact on patient's health by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. The SG was also questioned about adverse effects and level of satisfaction. After treatment, the SG presented statistically significant differences (P < .05) for the change scores of all variables, except state anxiety, compared with the control group. Relative percentage changes were considered clinically relevant for visual analog scale (40.6%), pressure pain threshold (76.4%), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (34.4%), and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (22.30%). No clinically relevant effects were observed for anxiety after treatment. No adverse effects were reported during the treatment, and about 94% of the patients demonstrated satisfaction with Shiatsu. This pilot study showed the potential of Shiatsu in the improvement of pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, sleep quality, and symptoms impact on health of patients with fibromyalgia. The proposed Shiatsu treatment protocol was feasible and well accepted by the patients. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from combustion of a common African biofuel source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie L.; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William T.; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Keita, Sekou; Liousse, Cathy; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repeatable manner. In order to address this gap, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire in West Africa were burned in a highly controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding thermal environment were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing aerosol emissions to be mapped directly onto different phases of combustion. Emissions from pyrolysis were visible as a distinct phase before flaming was established. After flaming combustion was initiated, a black-carbon-dominant flame was observed during which very little organic aerosol was produced, followed by a period that was dominated by organic-carbon-producing smouldering combustion, despite the presence of residual flaming. During pyrolysis and smouldering, the two phases producing organic aerosol, distinct mass spectral signatures that correspond to previously reported variations in biofuel emissions measured in the atmosphere are found. Organic aerosol emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event were found to be representative of the time spent in the pyrolysis and smouldering phases, rather than reflecting a coupling between emissions and the mass loss of the sample. Further exploration of aerosol yields from similarly carefully controlled fires and a careful comparison with data from macroscopic fires and real-world emissions will help to deliver greater constraints on the

  19. Impact evaluation of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Programme - a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St Onge, Renée; Stewart, Susan; Khoshaba, Linda; Horbul, Betty A; Chircoski, Bill

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this impact evaluation was to measure the influence of a government of Ontario, Canada health promotion initiative, the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Pilot Programme (NFVPP), on elementary school-aged children's psychosocial variables regarding fruit and vegetables, and fruit and vegetable consumption patterns. A cluster-randomised controlled trial design was used. The NFVPP consisted of three intervention arms: (i) Intervention I: Free Fruit and Vegetable Snack (FFVS) + Enhanced Nutrition Education; (ii) Intervention II: FFVS-alone; and (iii) Control group. Using the Pro-Children Questionnaire, the primary outcome measure was children's fruit and vegetable consumption, and the secondary outcome measures included differences in children's awareness, knowledge, self-efficacy, preference, intention and willingness to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Twenty-six elementary schools in a defined area of Northern Ontario were eligible to participate in the impact evaluation. A final sample size of 1,277 students in grades five to eight was achieved. Intervention I students consumed more fruit and vegetables at school than their Control counterparts by 0.49 serving/d (P fruit and vegetables at school than Control students by 0.42 serving/d, although this difference was not statistically significant. Among students in both intervention groups, preferences for certain fruit and vegetables shifted from 'never tried it' towards 'like it'. The NFVPP resulted in positive changes in elementary school-aged children's fruit and vegetable consumption at school, and favourable preference changes for certain fruit and vegetables.

  20. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  1. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n=34; control group, n=24. Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118.

  2. Virtual reality for upper extremity rehabilitation in early stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chan Wai; Sien, Ng Yee; Ying, Low Ai; Chung, Stephanie Fook-Chong Man; Tan May Leng, Dawn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of virtual reality (VR) rehabilitation on upper extremity motor performance of patients with early stroke. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation wards. Twenty three adults with stroke (mean age (SD) = 58.35 (13.45) years and mean time since stroke (SD) = 16.30 (7.44) days). Participants were randomly assigned to VR group (n=11) or control group (n=12). VR group received nine 30 minutes upper extremity VR therapy in standing (five weekdays in two weeks) plus conventional therapy, which included physical and occupational therapy. Control group received only conventional therapy, which was comparable to total training time received by VR group (mean training hours (SD):VR = 17.07 (2.86); control = 15.50 (2.79)). The main outcome measure was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). Secondary outcomes included Action Research Arm Test, Motor Activity Log and Functional Independence Measure. Results were taken at baseline, post intervention and 1-month post intervention. Participants' feedback and adverse effects were recorded. All participants improved in FMA scores (mean change (SD) = 11.65 (8.56), Pstroke. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  4. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  5. Laparoscopic Surgical Treatment of Severe Obesity Combined with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized Two-Arm Controlled Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospanov, Oral B.; Orekeshova, Akzhunis M.; Fursov, Roman A.; Yelemesov, Aset A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are serious medical, social, and economic problems of modern society. A pilot randomized two-arm controlled clinical study was conducted to compare laparoscopic plication of the greater gastric curvature combined with Nissen fundoplication (LFN+LGP) versus only Nissen fundoplication (LFN). The…

  6. Promoting the use of outcome measures by an educational programme for physiotherapists in stroke rehabilitation : A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peppen, R.P.S. van; Schuurmans, M.J.; Stutterheim, E.C.; Lindeman, E.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of tutor expertise on the uptake of a physiotherapists' educational programme intended to promote the use of outcome measures in the management of patients with stroke. Design: Pilot randomized controlled trial. Methods: Thirty physiotherapists involved in

  7. Investigating the Use of Coherence Analysis on Mandibular Electromyograms to Investigate Neural Control of Early Oromandibular Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeve, Roger W.; Price, Christiana M.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical method for investigating differences in neural control of jaw movement across oromandibular behaviours is to compute the coherence function for electromyographic signals obtained from mandibular muscle groups. This procedure has been used with adults but not extended to children. This pilot study investigated if coherence analysis…

  8. Emission estimates for some acidifying and greenhouse gases and options for their control in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipatti, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents estimates and options for control of anthropogenic ammonia (NH{sub 3}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and some halocarbon emissions in Finland. Ammonia is an air pollutant which contributes to both acidification and nitrogen eutrophication of ecosystems. Its emissions are mainly caused by livestock manure. In Finland the anthropogenic emissions of NH{sub 3} have been estimated to be approximately 44 Gg in 1985 and 43 Gg in 1990. In the 1990`s the emissions have declined due to the reduced number of cattle and voluntary implementation of emission reducing measures. The impact of NH{sub 3} emissions on acidification is serious but in Finland it is less than the impact of the other acidifying gases sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). All three gases and their transformation products are transported by the atmosphere up to distances of hundreds or even more than a thousand kilometres. NH{sub 3} emissions can be reduced with relatively cost-effective measures and the measures can partly replace the implementation of more costly abatement measures on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions needed to lower the acidifying deposition in Finland. The other gases studied in this thesis are greenhouse gases. Some of the gases also deplete stratospheric ozone. Finnish anthropogenic CH{sub 4} emissions have been estimated to be around 250 Gg per year during the 1990`s. The emissions come mainly from landfills and agricultural sources (enteric fermentation and manure). The significance of other CH{sub 4} sources in Finland is minor. The potential to reduce the Finnish CH{sub 4} emissions is estimated to be good. Landfill gas recovery offers an option to reduce the emissions significantly at negligible cost if the energy produced can be utilised in electricity and/or heat production. Measures directed at reducing the emissions from livestock manure management are more costly, and the achievable reduction in the emissions

  9. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C

    2013-11-19

    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions.

  10. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Behavioral Insomnia Treatment for Chronic Migraine With Comorbid Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Todd A; Walters, A Brooke; Davis, Rachel E; Ambrose, Carrie E; Roland, Malcolm; Houle, Timothy T; Rains, Jeanetta C

    2016-02-01

    Migraine frequently co-occurs with and is triggered by sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, and the large majority of patients with chronic migraine (CM) have comorbid insomnia. Limited evidence suggests that behavioral regulation of sleep may reduce migraine frequency, but studies to date have not assessed the viability of stimulus control and sleep restriction interventions or included objective measurement of sleep parameters. The aim of this study, thus, was to pilot-test the efficacy of a brief behavioral insomnia intervention for adults with CM and comorbid insomnia; headache diaries and actigraphy were included to assess outcomes throughout the trial. This randomized parallel-arm pilot trial recruited adults with both CM and comorbid insomnia. Participants were randomly assigned to three 30-minute biweekly sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) or control treatment. Participants were blinded to treatment and control conditions to control for outcome expectations. Each treatment condition involved training in and daily practice in 5 instructions/skills. The CBTi group learned and practiced skills pertaining to stimulus control and sleep restriction. The control intervention was the same as used by Calhoun and Ford (2007) and involved training in and daily practice of skills pertaining to keeping a consistent food/liquid intake, range of motion exercises, and acupressure. Participants provided outcome data via daily headache diaries, actigraphy, and self-report measures. The primary outcome was reduction in headache frequency at 2 weeks post-treatment and 6-week follow-up; secondary outcomes included other headache parameters, objective actigraphic and subjective changes in sleep, and treatment effect sizes and perceived credibility. Generalized estimating equations with a binomial logit link and inverse probability weights were used to assess the primary outcome among the intent-to-treat sample, and repeated measures generalized

  11. Examining endogenous dopamine in treated schizophrenia using [¹¹C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Borlido, Carol; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-09-20

    Using positron emission tomography (PET) it is possible to estimate endogenous dopamine (DA) occupying D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) in the living human brain. Persons with schizophrenia (SZ) (previously medicated and naïve) have increased endogenous DA occupying D2/3R in the caudate. It is unknown whether currently medicated patients demonstrate increased DA levels at D2/3R. Moreover, DA levels have not been estimated in SZ using agonist radiotracers, which may offer a more sensitive quantification over antagonists. Using the agonist radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO, DA levels were estimated at D2/3R (ΔBP(ND)) in three patients with SZ (male, mean age=30±16). Patients were currently being treated long-term with Olanzapine (147±88 nmol/L). Results were compared to ten healthy controls (HCs). Medicated persons with SZ had greater ΔBP(ND) in the left caudate (U=2, Z=-2.20, p=.03) and right putamen (U=2, Z=-2.20, p=.03). No differences were observed in the ventral striatum or globus pallidus. It is possible to estimate endogenous DA at D2/3R in SZ patients currently taking antipsychotics. Despite medication, patients continue to have increased endogenous DA at D2/3R. This lends more biological support to the clinical observation that relapses in symptoms can occur in the face of complete antipsychotic discontinuation. Future studies with larger samples are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining Endogenous Dopamine in Treated Schizophrenia using [11C]-(+)-PHNO Positron Emission Tomography: A Pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Borlido, Carol; Wilson, Alan; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Background Using positron emission tomography (PET) it is possible to estimate endogenous dopamine (DA) occupying D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) in the living human brain. Persons with schizophrenia (SZ) (previously medicated and naïve) have increased endogenous DA occupying D2/3R in the caudate. It is unknown whether currently medicated patients demonstrate increased DA levels at D2/3R. Moreover, DA levels have not been estimated in SZ using agonist radiotracers, which may offer a more sensitive quantification over antagonists. Methods Using the agonist radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO, DA levels were estimated at D2/3R (ΔBPND) in three patients with SZ (Male, Mage=30±16). Patients were currently being treated long-term with Olanzapine (147±88 nmol/L). Results were compared to ten healthy controls (HC’s). Results Medicated persons with SZ had greater ΔBPND in the left caudate (U=2, Z=−2.20, p=.03) and right putamen (U=2, Z=−2.20, p=.03). No differences were observed in the ventral striatum or globus pallidus. Conclusions It is possible to estimate endogenous DA at D2/3R in SZ patients currently taking antipsychotics. Despite medication, patients continue to have increased endogenous DA at D2/3R. This lends more biological support to the clinical observation that relapses in symptoms can occur in the face of complete antipsychotic discontinuation. Future studies with larger samples are warranted. PMID:25814099

  13. Using Robots at Home to Support Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Elizabeth; Garrett, Jeff; Jepsen, Nicola; Li Ogilvie, Vickie; Ahn, Ho Seok; Robinson, Hayley; Peri, Kathryn; Kerse, Ngaire; Rouse, Paul; Pillai, Avinesh; MacDonald, Bruce

    2018-02-13

    Socially assistive robots are being developed for patients to help manage chronic health conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Adherence to medication and availability of rehabilitation are suboptimal in this patient group, which increases the risk of hospitalization. This pilot study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a robot delivering telehealth care to increase adherence to medication and home rehabilitation, improve quality of life, and reduce hospital readmission compared with a standard care control group. At discharge from hospital for a COPD admission, 60 patients were randomized to receive a robot at home for 4 months or to a control group. Number of hospitalization days for respiratory admissions over the 4-month study period was the primary outcome. Medication adherence, frequency of rehabilitation exercise, and quality of life were also assessed. Implementation interviews as well as benefit-cost analysis were conducted. Intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses showed no significant differences in the number of respiratory-related hospitalizations between groups. The intervention group was more adherent to their long-acting inhalers (mean number of prescribed puffs taken per day=48.5%) than the control group (mean 29.5%, P=.03, d=0.68) assessed via electronic recording. Self-reported adherence was also higher in the intervention group after controlling for covariates (P=.04). The intervention group increased their rehabilitation exercise frequency compared with the control group (mean difference -4.53, 95% CI -7.16 to -1.92). There were no significant differences in quality of life. Of the 25 patients who had the robot, 19 had favorable attitudes. This pilot study suggests that a homecare robot can improve adherence to medication and increase exercise. Further research is needed with a larger sample size to further investigate effects on hospitalizations after improvements are made to the robots. The robots could be

  14. Guided Imagery for Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ann F; Umberger, Wendy A; Palmieri, Patrick A; Alexander, Thomas S; Myerscough, Rodney P; Draucker, Claire B; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2016-07-01

    To determine the effect of guided imagery (GI) on functional outcomes of total knee replacement (TKR), explore psychological and neuroimmune mediators, and assess feasibility of study implementation. Investigator-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. Hospital, surgeon's office, participant's home. 82 persons undergoing TKR. Audiorecordings of TKR-specific GI scripts or placebo-control audiorecordings of audiobook segments. Gait velocity and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) Function scale. Outcomes for 58 participants (29 receiving GI and 29 controls) were analyzed at 6 months after surgery. The most frequent reason for noncompletion was protocol-driven exclusion at 6 months for having the contralateral knee replaced before the study endpoint (n = 15). With imaging ability as a moderator, gait velocity, but not WOMAC Function score, was significantly improved at 6 months in the GI group. Participants in the GI group, but not the control group, had lower WOMAC Pain scores at 3 weeks after surgery than at baseline. Hair cortisol concentration was significantly lower at 6 months after surgery than at baseline in the GI group but not the control group. GI group participants had lower treatment adherence but greater treatment credibility than the control group. Randomized controlled trials of GI in the TKR population are feasible, but inclusion/exclusion criteria influence attrition. Further studies are needed to elaborate this study's findings, which suggest that guided imagery improves objective, but not patient-reported, outcomes of TKR. Hair cortisol concentration results suggest that engagement in a time-limited guided imagery intervention may contribute to stress reduction even after the intervention is terminated. Further investigation into optimal content and dosing of GI is needed.

  15. Modelling global methane emissions from livestock: Biological and nutritional controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The available observations of methane production from the literature have been compiled into a ruminant methane data base. This data base includes 400 treatment mean observations of methane losses from cattle and sheep, and minor numbers of measurements from other species. Methane loss varied from 2.0 to 11.6 percent of dietary gross energy. Measurements included describe the many different weights and physiological states of the animals fed and diets ranging from all forage to all concentrate diets or mixtures. An auxiliary spreadsheet lists approximately 1000 individual animal observations. Many important concepts have emerged from our query and analysis of this data set. The majority of the world's cattle, sheep, and goats under normal husbandry circumstances likely produce methane very close to 6 percent of their daily diets gross energy (2 percent of the diet by weight). Although individual animals or losses from specific dietary research circumstances can vary considerably, the average for the vast majority of groups of ruminant livestock are likely to fall between 5.5 to 6.5 percent. We must caution, however, that little experimental data is available for two-thirds of the world's ruminants in developing countries. Available evidence suggests similar percentage of emissions, but this supposition needs confirmation. More importantly, data is skimpy or unavailable to describe diet consumption, animal weight, and class distribution.

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  17. Under actuated air path control of diesel engines for low emissions and high efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for feedback control using the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) of a diesel engine. The controller effectively counteracts disturbances in NOx and PM emissions while maintaining the fuel efficiency. It is shown that by using a

  18. Does Scapula Taping Facilitate Recovery for Shoulder Impingement Symptoms? A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Osmotherly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Scapula taping is a commonly used adjunctive treatment for shoulder impingement pathology. However, this intervention has not previously been subject to formal investigation. A pilot single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate facilitatory taping as an adjunct to routine physiotherapy management. Twenty-two subjects with unilateral shoulder impingement symptoms were randomized into a taping with routine physiotherapy or a routine physiotherapy only group. The intervention group had scapula taping applied three times per week for the first two weeks of their treatment. All subjects were assessed at baseline, then at 2 and 6 weeks after the commencement of treatment. Pain and functional ability were assessed using the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, range of shoulder elevation, and self-reported pain on elevation. At 2 weeks, the taping group demonstrated a strong trend toward reduced pain both on self-reported activity (SPADI pain subscale mean for taping 27.0 versus 41.5 for control) and pain during measured abduction (mean VAS 22.8 for taped, 46.8 for control), statistical power being limited by small sample size. No similar trend was evident in the SPADI disability subscale. The magnitude of the differences was reduced at 6-week follow-up. This study provides preliminary evidence for a short-term role for scapula taping as an adjunct to routine physiotherapy in the management of shoulder impingement symptoms but also highlights the need for consideration on a case basis relating to risk factors for skin reaction. PMID:20046559

  19. Simulated control in Aspen Dynamics for the production of limonene epoxide at pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeison Agudelo Arenas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution is reported the study and analysis of the control system (simulated for the process of obtaining limonene epoxide. The modelling of the process at pilot scale was implemented in the software Aspen Plus from literature reports. Aspen Dynamics was used for the study of the process control. The model allows observing the behavior of the variables of interest in the process such as outflows from the distillation tower, heat duty, operating temperaturas and purity of the final product (limonene epoxide. The performance of the controllers (level, flow and temperature was evaluated by simulating disturbances (+30% in the feedstream to the process. Sensitivity analysis and preliminary design specifications allow to conclude that according to the simulations it is possible to obtain limonene epoxide (97,5% w/w with this system. The results of this work can be used for more detailed studies of the system, including experimental study designs that help to determine the operating point for the process variables which increase limonene epoxide production.

  20. Model-based control of MF/UF filtration processes: pilot plant implementation and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, J; Marquardt, W

    2009-01-01

    Membrane micro- and ultrafiltration processes are widespread in water and wastewater treatment applications. Owing to the complex filtration mechanisms and the few available measurement information, they are typically operated using simple control approaches. However, two negative consequences are the sub-optimal performance and the relatively inflexible operation despite dynamic operating conditions. In previous publications, a model-based, adaptive run-to-run control approach for filtration processes has been introduced to improve process performance. It exploits the structure of cyclically operated filtration processes, where one cycle comprises a filtration and a backwashing phase. This contribution focuses on the experimental validation of the approach at a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment. Necessary modifications to the approach and details on its implementation are discussed. The controller yields very good results with respect to prediction quality, optimization results, and stability. In addition to improved operational safety, savings of up to 50% are achieved with respect to energy consumption and membrane strain.

  1. Modified step aerobics training and neuromuscular function in osteoporotic patients: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Müller, Karoline; Kilb, Jill-Isabel; Schleese, Lennart; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Bruhn, Sven; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Schober, Hans-Christof; Fischer, Dagmar-C

    2017-02-01

    Training programs directed to improve neuromuscular and musculoskeletal function of the legs are scarce with respect to older osteoporotic patients. We hypothesized that a modified step aerobics training program might be suitable for this purpose and performed a randomized controlled pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large study. Here we report on the training-related effects on neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors. Twenty-seven patients with an age of at least 65 years were enrolled and randomized into control and intervention group. The latter received supervised modified step aerobics training (twice weekly, 1 h per session) over a period of 6 months. At baseline, and after 3 and 6 months neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors, i.e., isometric maximum voluntary torque, rate of torque development and twitch torque parameters were determined in detail in all patients of both groups. Twenty-seven patients (median age 75 years; range 66-84 years) were randomized (control group n = 14; intervention group n = 13). After 3 and 6 months of training, maximum voluntary contraction strength in the intervention group was significantly higher by 7.7 Nm (9.1%; 95% CI 3.3-12.2 Nm, P training program in a large randomized trial. However, a detailed neuromuscular assessment appears feasible only in a subset of participants.

  2. Interpersonal psychotherapy versus brief supportive therapy for depressed infertile women: first pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszycki, Diana; Bisserbe, Jean-Claude; Blier, Pierre; Bradwejn, Jacques; Markowitz, John

    2012-06-01

    Infertility is strongly associated with depression, yet treatment research for depressed infertile women is sparse. This study tested for the first time the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the evidence-based antidepressant intervention with the greatest peripartum research support, as treatment for depressed women facing fertility problems. Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder of at least moderate severity were randomized to either 12 sessions of IPT (n = 15) or brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP; n = 16), our control intervention. Eighty percent of IPT and 63 % of BSP patients completed the 12 sessions of therapy. Patients in both treatments improved. IPT produced a greater response rate than BSP, with more than two-thirds of women achieving a >50 % reduction in scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). IPT also tended to have lower posttreatment scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, and anxiety subscale of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, with between-group effect sizes ranging from 0.61 to 0.76. Gains persisted at 6-month follow-up. This pilot trial suggests that IPT is a promising treatment for depression in the context of infertility and that it may fare better than a rigorous active control condition. Should subsequent randomized controlled trials support these findings, this will inform clinical practice and take an important step in assuring optimal care for depressed women struggling with infertility.

  3. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas

    2009-12-26

    This pilot scale study evaluated the counting accuracy of two people counting systems that could be used in demand controlled ventilation systems to provide control signals for modulating outdoor air ventilation rates. The evaluations included controlled challenges of the people counting systems using pre-planned movements of occupants through doorways and evaluations of counting accuracies when naive occupants (i.e., occupants unaware of the counting systems) passed through the entrance doors of the building or room. The two people counting systems had high counting accuracy accuracies, with errors typically less than 10percent, for typical non-demanding counting events. However, counting errors were high in some highly challenging situations, such as multiple people passing simultaneously through a door. Counting errors, for at least one system, can be very high if people stand in the field of view of the sensor. Both counting system have limitations and would need to be used only at appropriate sites and where the demanding situations that led to counting errors were rare.

  4. Effects of aeration method and aeration rate on greenhouse gas emissions during composting of pig feces in pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Guoxue; Tang, Qiong; Ma, Xuguang; Wang, Gang; Schuchardt, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover ways to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce energy consumption during the composting process. We assessed the effects of different aeration rates (0, 0.18, 0.36, and 0.54 L/(kg dry matter (dm)·min)) and methods (continuous and intermittent) on GHG emissions. Pig feces and corn stalks were mixed at a ratio of 7:1. The composting process lasted for 10 weeks, and the compost was turned approximately every 2 weeks. Results showed that both aeration rate and method significantly affected GHG emissions. Higher aeration rates increased NH3 and N2O losses, but reduced CH4 emissions. The exception is that the CH4 emission of the passive aeration treatment was lower than that of the low aeration rate treatment. Without forced aeration, the CH4 diffusion rates in the center of the piles were very low and part of the CH4 was oxidized in the surface layer. Intermittent aeration reduced NH3 and CH4 losses, but significantly increased N2O production during the maturing periods. Intermittent aeration increased the nitrification/denitrification alternation and thus enhanced the N2O production. Forced aeration treatments had higher GHG emission rates than the passive aeration treatment. Forced aeration accelerated the maturing process, but could not improve the quality of the end product. Compared with continuous aeration, intermittent aeration could increase the O2 supply efficiency and reduced the total GHG emission by 17.8%, and this reduction increased to 47.4% when composting was ended after 36 days. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Can repetitive magnetic stimulation improve cognition in schizophrenia? Pilot data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Rajji, Tarek K; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Blumberger, Daniel M; Arenovich, Tamara; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-15

    Working memory represents a core cognitive domain that is impaired in schizophrenia for which there are currently no satisfactory treatments. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeted over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been shown to modulate neurophysiological mechanisms linked to working memory in schizophrenia and improves working memory performance in healthy subjects and might therefore represent a treatment modality for schizophrenia patients. The objectives were to evaluate the effects of rTMS on working memory performance in schizophrenia patients and evaluate whether rTMS normalizes performance to healthy subject levels. In a 4-week randomized double-blind sham-controlled pilot study design, 27 medicated schizophrenia patients were tested at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (a university teaching hospital that provides psychiatric care to a large urban catchment area and serves as a tertiary referral center for the province of Ontario). Patients performed the verbal working memory n-back task before and after rTMS magnetic resonance image targeted bilaterally sequentially to left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 750 pulses/side at 20 Hz for 20 treatments. The main outcome measure was mean magnitude of change in the n-back accuracy for target responses with active (n = 13) or sham (n = 12) rTMS treatment course. The rTMS significantly improved 3-back accuracy for targets compared with placebo sham (Cohen's d = .92). The improvement in 3-back accuracy was also found to be at a level comparable to healthy subjects. These pilot data suggest that bilateral rTMS might be a novel, efficacious, and safe treatment for working memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryopreserved human amniotic membrane injection for plantar fasciitis: a randomized, controlled, double-blind pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Tidwell, John E; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Treatment options for plantar fasciitis have resulted in varied patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare a novel treatment, cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (c-hAM), to a traditional treatment, corticosteroid. Our hypothesis was that c-hAM would be safe and comparable to corticosteroids for plantar fasciitis in regard to patient outcomes. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, single-center pilot study was completed. Patients were randomized into one of 2 treatment groups: c-hAM or corticosteroid. Patients received an injection at their initial baseline visit with an option for a second injection at their first 6-week follow-up. Total follow-up was obtained for 12 weeks after the most recent injection. The primary outcome measurement was the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). The secondary outcome measurements were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and verbally reported percentage improvement. Data were analyzed between groups for the 2 different cohorts (1 injection versus 2 injections). Twenty-three patients had complete follow-up. Fourteen were randomized to receive corticosteroid and 9 were randomized to receive c-hAM. Three patients in each group received second injections. With the numbers available, the majority of outcome measurements showed no statistical difference between groups. The corticosteroid did, however, have greater FHSQ shoe fit improvement (P = .0244) at 6 weeks, FHSQ general health improvement (P = .0132) at 6 weeks, and verbally reported improvement (P = .041) at 12 weeks in the one-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM had greater FHSQ foot pain improvement (P = .0113) at 18 weeks in the 2-injection cohort. Cryopreserved hAM injection may be safe and comparable to corticosteroid injection for treatment of plantar fasciitis. This is a pilot study and requires further investigation. Level I, prospective randomized trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Isomura, Kayoko; Anson, Martin; Turner, Cynthia; Monzani, Benedetta; Cadman, Jacinda; Bowyer, Laura; Heyman, Isobel; Veale, David; Krebs, Georgina

    2015-11-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically starts in adolescence, but evidence-based treatments are yet to be developed and formally evaluated in this age group. We designed an age-appropriate cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol for adolescents with BDD and evaluated its acceptability and efficacy in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Thirty adolescents aged 12 to 18 years (mean = 16.0, SD = 1.7) with a primary diagnosis of BDD, together with their families, were randomly assigned to 14 sessions of CBT delivered over 4 months or a control condition of equivalent duration, consisting of written psycho-education materials and weekly telephone monitoring. Blinded evaluators assessed participants at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, and at 2-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD, Adolescent Version (mean baseline score = 37.13, SD = 4.98, range = 24-43). The CBT group showed a significantly greater improvement than the control group, both at posttreatment (time × group interaction coefficient [95% CI] = -11.26 [-17.22 to -5.31]; p = .000) and at 2-month follow-up (time × group interaction coefficient [95% CI] = -9.62 [-15.74 to -3.51]; p = .002). Six participants (40%) in the CBT group and 1 participant (6.7%) in the control condition were classified as responders at both time points (χ(2) = 4.658, p = .031). Improvements were also seen on secondary measures, including insight, depression, and quality of life at posttreatment. Both patients and their families deemed the treatment as highly acceptable. Developmentally tailored CBT is a promising intervention for young people with BDD, although there is significant room for improvement. Further clinical trials incorporating lessons learned in this pilot study and comparing CBT and pharmacological therapies, as well as their combination, are warranted. Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy for Adolescents With Body Dysmorphic Disorder; http

  8. Environmental Controls on Wildfire Emission Factors in Alaska during the Summer of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, E. B.

    2016-12-01

    Boreal forests contain significant reservoirs of organic carbon and are subject to severe wildfires. Boreal fire emissions are important to quantify with respect to climate and ecosystem dynamics, especially within the rapidly changing climate of the Northern Hemisphere. The amount and composition of emissions from fires is highly variable and dependent on environmental conditions such as local weather, soil moisture, and land cover type. Emission factors are regularly used to estimate the composition of fire emissions. We investigated environmental controls on boreal forest fire emission factors in Alaska during the summer of 2015. A high-resolution fire emissions inventory was combined with an atmospheric transport model to estimate fire contribution to trace gas variability at an in-situ observational tower. Periods of high fire influence at the tower were identified, and emission ratios for CO, CO2, and CH4 were calculated for these times. Individual fire contributions to the trace gas signals observed at the tower were isolated utilizing the fire emissions inventory combined with an atmospheric transport model. Environmental conditions including soil moisture, meteorology, land and tree cover, fire type (smoldering vs. flaming), and burn severity were associated with individual fires that contributed to the trace gas signal at the tower. We found that soil moisture derived from the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite was correlated with burned area and that local daily meteorological variables, including vapor pressure deficit and temperature, explained some of the variance in emission factors. The results from this study may enable improved estimates of boreal fire emissions during a period of rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  9. Impact of the Volkswagen emissions control defeat device on US public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Speth, Raymond L.; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Dedoussi, Irene C.; Ashok, Akshay; Malina, Robert; Keith, David W.

    2015-11-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has alleged that Volkswagen Group of America (VW) violated the Clean Air Act (CAA) by developing and installing emissions control system ‘defeat devices’ (software) in model year 2009-2015 vehicles with 2.0 litre diesel engines. VW has admitted the inclusion of defeat devices. On-road emissions testing suggests that in-use NOx emissions for these vehicles are a factor of 10 to 40 above the EPA standard. In this paper we quantify the human health impacts and associated costs of the excess emissions. We propagate uncertainties throughout the analysis. A distribution function for excess emissions is estimated based on available in-use NOx emissions measurements. We then use vehicle sales data and the STEP vehicle fleet model to estimate vehicle distance traveled per year for the fleet. The excess NOx emissions are allocated on a 50 km grid using an EPA estimate of the light duty diesel vehicle NOx emissions distribution. We apply a GEOS-Chem adjoint-based rapid air pollution exposure model to produce estimates of particulate matter and ozone exposure due to the spatially resolved excess NOx emissions. A set of concentration-response functions is applied to estimate mortality and morbidity outcomes. Integrated over the sales period (2008-2015) we estimate that the excess emissions will cause 59 (95% CI: 10 to 150) early deaths in the US. When monetizing premature mortality using EPA-recommended data, we find a social cost of ˜450m over the sales period. For the current fleet, we estimate that a return to compliance for all affected vehicles by the end of 2016 will avert ˜130 early deaths and avoid ˜840m in social costs compared to a counterfactual case without recall.

  10. 40 CFR 63.3966 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3966 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction... add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency as part of the performance test...

  11. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assali, S.; Lähnemann, J.; Vu, TTT; Jöns, K.D.; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M. A.; Akopian, N.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Haverkort, J. E.M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the

  12. The challenge to NOx emission control for heavy-duty diesel vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. He

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available China's new "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" set a target for total NOx emission reduction of 10% for the period of 2011–2015. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs have been considered a major contributor to NOx emissions in China. Beijing initiated a comprehensive vehicle test program in 2008. This program included a sub-task for measuring on-road emission profiles of hundreds of HDDVs using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS. The major finding is that neither the on-road distance-specific (g km−1 nor brake-specific (g kWh−1 NOx emission factors for diesel buses and heavy-duty diesel trucks improved in most cases as emission standards became more stringent. For example, the average NOx emission factors for Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV buses are 11.3 ± 3.3 g km−1, 12.5 ± 1.3 g km−1, and 11.8 ± 2.0 g km−1, respectively. No statistically significant difference in NOx emission factors was observed between Euro II and III buses. Even for Euro IV buses equipped with SCR systems, the NOx emission factors are similar to Euro III buses. The data regarding real-time engine performance of Euro IV buses suggest the engine certification cycles did not reflect their real-world operating conditions. These new on-road test results indicate that previous estimates of total NOx emissions for HDDV fleet may be significantly underestimated. The new estimate in total NOx emissions for the Beijing HDDV fleet in 2009 is 37.0 Gg, an increase of 45% compared to the previous study. Further, we estimate that the total NOx emissions for the national HDDV fleet in 2009 are approximately 4.0 Tg, higher by 1.0 Tg (equivalent to 18% of total NOx emissions for vehicle fleet in 2009 than that estimated in the official report. This would also result in 4% increase in estimation of national anthropogenic NOx emissions. More effective control measures (such as promotion of CNG buses and a new in-use compliance testing program are urged to secure the goal of total NOx

  13. Effects of rigorous emission controls on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Yaqi; Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Liming

    2016-07-01

    102 volatile organic compound (VOC) species were measured online using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at an urban site in Beijing in 11 August to 3 September 2015, when a series of rigorous air quality control measures were implemented in Beijing city and neighbouring provinces. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify emission sources from 1h averaged values of VOC data. Based on the online VOC data and the PMF analysis results, the effectiveness of different control measures were investigated. The PMF results were compared with an emission inventory data. Results show that the rigorous air quality restrictions implemented were successful. The averaged ambient VOC mixing ratios during the emission control period and non-control period were 27.53 and 45.42ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 40%. Alkanes were the most abundant chemical group in the two periods, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Almost all quantified VOC species decreased during the control period. Tracers of industrial sources and vehicle exhaust reduced most, including some halocarbons, esters and aromatics. Eight sources were resolved by online PMF analysis for ambient VOCs in Beijing. Contributions of those sources varied significantly during the control and non-control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicle-related sources were most reduced, followed by solvent utilization. Reductions of vehicle-related sources, solvent utilization, secondary formation, fuel combustion, and biogenic were responsible for 65%, 19%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Both PMF results and emission inventory data indicated that the control measure on traffic was very effective in reducing ambient VOCs in Beijing, with the emission reductions of about 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recruitment to online therapies for depression: pilot cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J

    2013-03-05

    Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues. We compared two online interventions with a control without intervention. The pilot RCT had 4 arms, each with 4 British postcode areas: (A) geographically targeted AdWords, (B) adverts placed on local websites by contacting website owners and requesting links be added, (C) both interventions, (D) control. Participants were directed to our research project website linking to two freely available online CBT resource sites (Moodgym and Living Life To The Full (LLTTF)) and two other depression support sites. We used data from (1) AdWords, (2) Google Analytics for our project website and for LLTTF, and (3) research project website. We compared two outcomes: (1) numbers with depression accessing the research project website, and then chose an onward link to one of the two CBT websites, and (2) numbers registering with LLTTF. We documented costs, and explored intervention and assessment methods to make general recommendations to inform researchers aiming to use similar methodologies in future studies. Trying to place local website links appeared much less cost effective than AdWords and although may prove useful for service delivery, was not worth pursuing in the context of the current study design. Our AdWords intervention was effective in recruiting people to the project website but our location targeting "leaked" and was not as geographically specific as claimed. The impact on online CBT was also diluted by offering participants other choices of destinations. Measuring the impact on LLTTF use was

  15. Recruitment to Online Therapies for Depression: Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Lesley; Hewson, Paul; Williams, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Background Raising awareness of online cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) could benefit many people with depression, but we do not know how purchasing online advertising compares to placing free links from relevant local websites in increasing uptake. Objective To pilot a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing purchase of Google AdWords with placing free website links in raising awareness of online CBT resources for depression in order to better understand research design issues. Methods We compared two online interventions with a control without intervention. The pilot RCT had 4 arms, each with 4 British postcode areas: (A) geographically targeted AdWords, (B) adverts placed on local websites by contacting website owners and requesting links be added, (C) both interventions, (D) control. Participants were directed to our research project website linking to two freely available online CBT resource sites (Moodgym and Living Life To The Full (LLTTF)) and two other depression support sites. We used data from (1) AdWords, (2) Google Analytics for our project website and for LLTTF, and (3) research project website. We compared two outcomes: (1) numbers with depression accessing the research project website, and then chose an onward link to one of the two CBT websites, and (2) numbers registering with LLTTF. We documented costs, and explored intervention and assessment methods to make general recommendations to inform researchers aiming to use similar methodologies in future studies. Results Trying to place local website links appeared much less cost effective than AdWords and although may prove useful for service delivery, was not worth pursuing in the context of the current study design. Our AdWords intervention was effective in recruiting people to the project website but our location targeting “leaked” and was not as geographically specific as claimed. The impact on online CBT was also diluted by offering participants other choices of destinations

  16. Computerized patient reported symptom assessment in radiotherapy: a pilot randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B.; Nail, Lillian M.; Lyons, Karen S.; Hribar, Michelle R.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computer-based, patient-reported symptom survey tools have been described for patients undergoing chemotherapy. We hypothesized that patients undergoing radiotherapy might also benefit, so we developed a computer application to acquire symptom ratings from patients and generate summaries for use at point of care office visits and conducted a randomized-controlled pilot trial to test its feasibility. Methods Subjects were randomized prior to beginning radiotherapy. Both control and intervention group subjects completed the computerized symptom assessment, but only for the intervention group were printed symptom summaries made available before each weekly office visit. Metrics compared included the Global Distress Index (GDI), concordance of patient-reported symptoms and symptoms discussed by the physician and numbers of new and/or adjusted symptom management medications prescribed. Results 112 patients completed the study: 54 in the control and 58 in the intervention arms. There were no differences in GDI over time between the control and intervention groups. In the intervention group, more patient-reported symptoms were actually discussed in radiotherapy office visits: 46/202 vs. 19/230. A sensitivity analysis to account for within-subjects correlation yielded 23.2% vs. 10.3% (p=.03). Medications were started or adjusted at 15.4% (43/280) of control visits compared to 20.4% (65/319) of intervention visits (p=.07). Conclusions This computer application is easy to use and makes extensive patient-reported outcome data available at the point of care. Although no differences were seen in symptom trajectory, patients who had printed symptom summaries had improved communication during office visits and a trend towards more active symptom management during radiotherapy. PMID:26471280

  17. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

  18. Massage or music for pain relief in labour: a pilot randomised placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, L; McNabb, M; Mc Court, C; Haines, A; Brocklehurst, P

    2008-11-01

    Research on massage therapy for maternal pain and anxiety in labour is currently limited to four small trials. Each used different massage techniques, at different frequencies and durations, and relaxation techniques were included in three trials. Given the need to investigate massage interventions that complement maternal neurophysiological adaptations to labour and birth pain(s), we designed a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of a massage programme practised during physiological changes in pain threshold, from late pregnancy to birth, on women's reported pain, measured by a visual analogue scale (VAS) at 90 min following birth. To control for the potential bias of the possible effects of support offered within preparation for the intervention group, the study included 3 arms--intervention (massage programme with relaxation techniques), placebo (music with relaxation techniques) and control (usual care). The placebo offered a non-pharmacological coping strategy, to ensure that use of massage was the only difference between intervention and placebo groups. There was a trend towards slightly lower mean pain scores in the intervention group but these differences were not statistically significant. No differences were found in use of pharmacological analgesia, need for augmentation or mode of delivery. There was a trend towards more positive views of labour preparedness and sense of control in the intervention and placebo groups, compared with the control group. These findings suggest that regular massage with relaxation techniques from late pregnancy to birth is an acceptable coping strategy that merits a large trial with sufficient power to detect differences in reported pain as a primary outcome measure.

  19. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  20. [Effects of controlled release fertilizers on N2O emission from paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangmin; Fan, Xiaolin; Liu, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2004-11-01

    With close chamber method, this paper studied the effects of controlled release fertilizer (CRF), non-coated compound fertilizer (Com) and conventional urea (CK) on N2O emission from paddy field. The results showed that within 10 days after transplanting, the ammonium and nitrate concentrations in the surface water of the plot treated with CRF were significantly different from those treated with Com. The partial coefficient between N2O emission rates and corresponding nitrate concentrations in the water was significantly high (r = 0.6834). Compared with Com, CRF was able to reduce N2O emission from the paddy field. Within 100 days after basal application, the N2O emission rate of treatment CRF was only 13.45%-21.26% of Corn and 71.17%-112.47% of CK. The N2O emission of Com was mainly concentrated in 1-25 d after basal fertilization and mid-aeration period, but that of CRF was remarkably lower during same period, while the peak of N2O emission of CK was postponed and reduced. It was concluded that both one-time fertilization of CRF and several-time fertilizations of conventional urea were able to reduce N2O emission from the paddy field.

  1. Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implications for vehicle emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Peng, P.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2015-03-01

    Vehicle emissions are a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce vehicle emissions. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicle emissions, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang tunnel of Guangzhou, in the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4 and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~ 4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 μg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition δ13C value was -25.0‰ on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2‰ was found during fuel combustion. Compared to a previous study in Zhujiang tunnel in 2004, emission factors of PM2.5mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl- and organic compounds decreased by 16.0 ~ 93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle conditions. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emissions, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic

  2. Chemical and stable carbon isotopic composition of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emissions in the PRD region and implication for vehicle emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Bi, X.; Chan, L. Y.; He, J.; Wang, B.; Wang, X.; Sheng, G.; Fu, J.

    2014-11-01

    Vehicle emission is a major source of urban air pollution. In recent decade, the Chinese government has introduced a range of policies to reduce the vehicle emission. In order to understand the chemical characteristics of PM2.5 from on-road vehicle emission in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and to evaluate the effectiveness of control policies on vehicles emission, the emission factors of PM2.5 mass, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic ions (WSII), metal elements, organic compounds and stable carbon isotopic composition were measured in the Zhujiang Tunnel of Guangzhou, the PRD region of China in 2013. Emission factors of PM2.5 mass, OC, EC, and WSOC were 92.4, 16.7, 16.4, and 1.31 mg vehicle-1 km-1 respectively. Emission factors of WSII were 0.016 (F-) ~4.17 (Cl-) mg vehicle-1 km-1, totally contributing about 9.8% to the PM2.5 emissions. The sum of 27 measured metal elements accounted for 15.2% of the PM2.5 emissions. Fe was the most abundant metal element, with an emission factor of 3.91 mg vehicle-1 km-1. Emission factors of organic compounds including n-alkanes, PAHs, hopanes, and steranes were 91.9, 5.02, 32.0 and 7.59 μg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively. Stable carbon isotopic composition δ13C value was measured and it was -25.0‰ on average. An isotopic fractionation of 3.2‰ was found during fuel combustion. Compared with a previous study in Zhujiang Tunnel in year 2004, emission factors of PM2.5 mass, EC, OC, WSII except Cl-, and organic compounds decreased by 16.0-93.4%, which could be attributed to emission control policy from 2004 to 2013. However, emission factors of most of the metal elements increased significantly, which could be partially attributed to the changes in motor oil additives and vehicle condition. There are no mandatory national standards to limit metal content from vehicle emission, which should be a concern of the government. A snapshot of the 2013 characteristic

  3. Dynamic acoustic control of individual optically active quantum dot-like emission centers in heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Matthias; Kinzel, Jörg B; Schülein, Florian J R; Heigl, Michael; Rudolph, Daniel; Morkötter, Stefanie; Döblinger, Markus; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J; Koblmüller, Gregor; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J

    2014-05-14

    We probe and control the optical properties of emission centers forming in radial heterostructure GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowires and show that these emitters, located in Al0.3Ga0.7As layers, can exhibit quantum-dot like characteristics. We employ a radio frequency surface acoustic wave to dynamically control their emission energy, and occupancy state on a nanosecond time scale. In the spectral oscillations, we identify unambiguous signatures arising from both the mechanical and electrical component of the surface acoustic wave. In addition, different emission lines of a single emission center exhibit pronounced anticorrelated intensity oscillations during the acoustic cycle. These arise from a dynamically triggered carrier extraction out of the emission center to a continuum in the radial heterostructure. Using finite element modeling and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory we identify quantum tunneling as the underlying mechanism. These simulation results quantitatively reproduce the observed switching and show that in our systems these emission centers are spatially separated from the continuum by >10.5 nm.

  4. Effect of Mozart music on heel prick pain in preterm infants: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cavaiuolo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of music by Mozart on heel prick procedural pain in premature infants.Background: Painful procedures are routinely performed in the setting of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Pain may exert short- and long-term deleterious effects on premature babies. Many non-pharmacological interventions have been proven efficacious for blunting neonatal pain.Study design: Randomized, controlled trial.Methods: The study was carried out in the NICU of the “G. Rummo” Hospital in Benevento, Italy. The sample consisted of 42 preterm infants, with no hearing loss or significant cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound. They were randomized to receive heel lance during a music condition or a no-music control condition. We set strict criteria for selecting and delivering the music. Baseline and postprocedural heart rate and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were manually recorded. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP score was used to measure the behavioral response to prick. An unpaired t-test was performed for the intergroup comparisons.Results: There were significant differences between groups on heart rate increase, oxygen saturation reduction and PIPP score following the procedure.Conclusions: Listening to Mozart music during heel prick is a simple and inexpensive tool for pain alleviating in preterm stable neonates.

  5. Effect of organic on chemical oxidation for biofouling control in pilot-scale seawater cooling towers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Bloushi, Mohammed

    2017-09-14

    Due to the scarcity of potable water in many regions of the world, the demand for seawater as an alternative evaporative cooling medium in cooling towers (CTs) has increased significantly in recent years. Seawater make-up in CTs is deemed the most feasible because of its unlimited supply in the coastal areas of Gulf and Red Sea. However, the seawater CTs have higher challenges greatly mitigating their performances because it is an open system where biofouling and bio-corrosion occurring within the fillers and piping of recirculation systems. Their pilot-scale CTs were constructed to assess the performance of three types of oxidizing biocides or oxidants, namely chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone, for biofouling control. The test results showed that the addition of organic (5mg/L of methanol (MeOH)) increased the bacterial growth in CT basin. All oxidants were effective in keeping the microbial growth to the minimum. Oxidation increased the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) level from 270 to 600mV. Total residual oxidant (TRO) was increased with oxidation but it was slightly increased with organic addition. Other parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity levels were not changed. However, higher formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) was detected with chlorination and ozonation. This indicates the organic level should be limited in the oxidation for biofouling control in seawater CTs.

  6. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  7. Reducing sexual victimization among adolescent girls: a randomized controlled pilot trial of my voice, my choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Lorelei Simpson; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee

    2015-05-01

    Despite extensive efforts to develop and implement programs to prevent sexual violence, few programs have empirically-demonstrated efficacy. The primary exceptions are programs that emphasize risk-reduction skills; yet even these programs are not consistently effective. This study seeks to add to the literature by evaluating the effects of My Voice, My Choice (MVMC), a 90-minute assertive resistance training program that emphasizes skill practice in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). We hypothesized that MVMC would reduce male-to-female sexual victimization among adolescent girls over a 3-month follow-up period. We also examined whether these results would generalize to other forms of male-to-female relationship violence and to girls' psychological distress. Eighty-three female students from an urban public high school were randomized to MVMC (n=47) or to a wait-list control condition (n=36); 78 provided data over the 3-month follow-up period. Participants assigned to MVMC were less likely than control participants to report sexual victimization during the follow-up period. Our results also suggest that MVMC reduced risk for psychological victimization and for psychological distress among participants with greater prior victimization at baseline. The promising results of this pilot trial suggest that MVMC may help girls evade male-to-female relationship violence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Energy conservation for fatigue management in multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Jalón, E Guiomar; Lennon, Sheila; Peoples, Louise; Murphy, Sam; Lowe-Strong, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    To develop and test the feasibility of an energy conservation programme to manage fatigue in multiple sclerosis. A pilot randomized controlled trial. Community setting. People with multiple sclerosis reporting fatigue. An energy conservation programme was compared to a peer support group. Both interventions were delivered in group format with 2-hour sessions once a week for five weeks. Patients' views about the interventions were sought in discussion groups one week post intervention. The primary feasibility outcomes were recruitment and adherence. Other outcome measures were the Fatigue Impact Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, MS-Impact Scale-29, MS Self-efficacy Scale, Beck's Depression Scale-Fast Screen and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Outcomes were administered at baseline, post intervention, 6-week and 3-month follow-up. Almost 30% of the people approached to take part in the study did not commit to participation because of transport/time issues. Twenty-three patients took part in the study. Three patients dropped out, one reporting adverse effects. A power calculation indicated that a sample of 56 (28 per group) would be required for a main randomized controlled trial. Patients valued peer support and those in the energy conservation group described the programme as useful, but reported difficulties completing some practice activities. An energy conservation programme in the community is feasible and welcomed by people with multiple sclerosis. However, future research needs to consider longer follow-ups and practical issues to improve recruitment rate by accommodating to patients' needs.

  9. Virtual reality in the rehabilitation of the arm after hemiplegic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, J H; Lennon, S; McGoldrick, M C; McNeill, M D J; McDonough, S M

    2012-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of a trial to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality-mediated therapy compared to conventional physiotherapy in the motor rehabilitation of the arm following stroke, and to provide data for a power analysis to determine numbers for a future main trial. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Clinical research facility. Eighteen people with a first stroke, 10 males and 8 females, 7 right and 2 left side most affected. Mean time since stroke 10.8 months. Participants were randomized to a virtual reality group or a conventional arm therapy group for nine sessions over three weeks. The upper limb Motricity Index and the Action Research Arm Test were completed at baseline, post intervention and six weeks follow-up. Outcome data were obtained from 95% of participants at the end of treatment and at follow-up: one participant withdrew. Compliance was high; only two people reported side-effects from virtual reality exposure. Both groups demonstrated small (7-8 points on upper limb Motricity Index and 4 points on the Action Research Arm Test), but non-significant, changes to their arm impairment and activity levels. A randomized controlled trial of virtual reality-mediated therapy comparable to conventional therapy would be feasible, with some suggested improvements in recruitment and outcome measures. Seventy-eight participants (39 per group) would be required for a main trial.

  10. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, Ceren; Konuk, Emre; Cetinkaya, Mustafa; Senay, Ibrahim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cuijpers, Pim; Aker, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Background The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15) or wait-list control (n=14). The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64). The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92). Conclusion The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost-) effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed. PMID:25989952

  11. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Acarturk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective: Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method: Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15 or wait-list control (n=14. The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64. The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92. Conclusion: The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost- effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed.

  12. Dynamic splinting after treatment with botulinum toxin type-A: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jenny M; Francisco, Gerard E; Willis, F Buck

    2009-02-01

    Over 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with a stroke each year, and excessive flexion or extension (hypertonia) of upper extremity joints are common secondary conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type-A and manual therapy, with the adjunct treatment of dynamic splinting on range of motion, spasticity, and elbow flexor hypertonia, in a randomized trial. Thirty-six subjects were recruited for this pilot study and all exhibited hypertonia in elbow flexion. Six patients were excluded due to noncompliance. Testing was done with pre/post active range of motion in elbow extension, and the Modified Ashworth Scale (extension) for spasticity. All patients received the current standard of care: botulinum toxin type-A injections and manual therapy. Experimental patients were randomly assigned adjunct treatment with Elbow Extension Dynasplint. Thirty patients completed the study (mean age [SD] 52+/-17 years). The percentage of change in active range of motion in elbow extension was greater for the experimental than for control subjects (33.5% vs. 18.7%). The Modified Ashworth Scale (extension) scores showed comparable changes of a mean 9.3% improvement for experimental versus 8.6% for the control subjects. This study confirmed the efficacy of botulinum toxin type-A in tone management and occupational therapy in contracture reduction. It also showed the value of dynamic splinting in maintaining gains in range of motion.

  13. Mental techniques during manual stretching in spasticity--a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovend'Eerdt, Thamar J H; Dawes, Helen; Sackley, Cath; Izadi, Hooshang; Wade, Derick T

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effects of using motor imagery during therapeutic stretching in individuals with spasticity. Randomized single-blind controlled pilot trial. Chronic day care unit, neurological rehabilitation unit and in the community. Eleven individuals with spasticity in the arm requiring stretching as part of their normal routine. In addition to their normal stretching routine, subjects in the experimental group received motor imagery during their stretches (n = 6). The control group received progressive muscle relaxation during their stretches (n = 5). The dose varied between 8 and 56 sessions over eight weeks. Resistance to passive movement, measured with a torque transducer, passive range of movement, measured with an electro-goniometer, Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and level of discomfort during the MAS were assessed at baseline and after eight weeks by an independent assessor. These measures were recorded before and after a stretch intervention on both assessments. Participants, therapists and carers tolerated the techniques well. Compliance was variable and adherence was good. Mixed ANOVA showed no difference over time and no difference between the motor imagery and progressive muscle relaxation group on the primary and secondary outcome measures (P>0.05). It is feasible to use motor imagery during therapeutic stretching. Statistical power was low due to the large variability in the population and the small sample size. Post-hoc sample size calculation suggests that future studies of this subject should include at least 54 participants per group. Further research is warranted.

  14. Development and application of a fast method to evaluate emission control effect for different scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Si; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Bao Guo; Du, Hui; Du, Yu; Yin, Wen Jun

    2017-04-01

    The pollutant concentration is determined by emission, meteorological condition and chemical processes. In this study, the meteorological term and chemical term in pollutant concentration continuous equation are combined as the atmospheric comprehensive index (C-index), which describes the impact of atmospheric physical and chemical processes. It is found that the C-index is in approximately direct proportion to pollutant concentration. Thus the parameters in this proportional relationship can be calculated based on the sensitivity experiments with different emission inventories by numeric model (such as CMAQ or CAMx). With the calculated C-index, the pollutant concentration at any emission scenarios can be calculated quickly. The results show that the difference between the concentration calculated by this method and numeric model is less than 10%, which indicates the method is effective and cost free to evaluate different emission control scenarios in practice.

  15. Microcurrent skin patches for postoperative pain control in total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Husseini, T; El-Kawy, S; Shalaby, H; El-Sebai, M

    2007-04-01

    Pain control following painful orthopaedic procedures such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an ongoing challenge, as current pain management techniques often result in under-medication and/or complications. In a study designed to test the effect of the micro-current skin patch (MCT) on pain relief in patients following TKA, we followed 24 patients, randomly divided into two groups, one group receiving MCT plus tramadol hydrochloride (tramadol) for pain relief and a control group receiving only tramadol, for 10 days postoperatively. Tramadol was given intramuscularly in increment doses of 100 mg, as needed, for the duration of the study period. Pain was assessed daily using a visual analogue score (VAS). Other parameters, including the effect of MCT on the dose of tramadol needed for pain relief, the degree of wound healing measured at the end of the follow-up period, category of the wound 10 days postoperatively (1, 2 or 3) and total drain fluid volume, were also assessed. During the 10-day postoperative period there was a progressive decrease in pain in patients of both groups, however the patients of the MCT group showed a consistently lower VAS throughout the observation period, most markedly on those follow-up days with the highest pain scores in patients of the control group. This effect was monitored on the basis of the average dose of tramadol administered per day: 200.0+/-7.0 mg/day in the control group and 63.3+/-15.8 mg/day in the MCT group. Wound healing was better with the application of the MCT patch: grade 1 wounds were observed in 50% of the patients of the MCT group as compared to 8.3% in control group. The total drain volume was lower in patients of the MCT group compared to the controls (1020.8+/-211.6 and 1170.8+/-243.5 ml, respectively). None of the patients indicated that they wished to discontinue MCT therapy. This pilot study shows that MCT therapy led to better pain control with a markedly lower need for tramadol as compared to the

  16. Control of Air Pollution from Aviation: The Emission Standard Setting Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CONCEPTS FOR THC, CO, AND SMOKE CONTROL .... 145 A-4-5 REVERSE FLOW AND PRECHAMBER COMBUSTOR CONCEPT FOR THC AND CO CONTROL...Rudy, 1976) PRIMARY ZONE ENRICHMENT, DELAYED DILUTION, AND AIRBLAST CONCEPTS FOR THC AND CO AND SMOKE CONTROL . Illustration (a) uses increased com...temperatures when sufficient oxygen is available and Conventional combustor emission coro ichnology is typically "quenched" from decom- (HC, CO. and smoke

  17. Cosmic radiation increases the risk of nuclear cataract in airline pilots: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur; Olafsdottir, Eydis; Hrafnkelsson, Jon; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Arnarsson, Arsaell; Jonasson, Fridbert

    2005-08-01

    Aviation involves exposure to ionizing radiation of cosmic origin. The association between lesions of the ocular lens and ionizing radiation is well-known. To investigate whether employment as a commercial airline pilot and the resulting exposure to cosmic radiation is associated with lens opacification. This is a population-based case-control study of 445 men. Lens opacification was classified into 4 types using the World Health Organization simplified grading system. These 4 types, serving as cases, included 71 persons with nuclear cataracts, 102 with cortical lens opacification, 69 with central optical zone involvement, and 32 with posterior subcapsular lens opacification. Control subjects are those with a different type of lens opacification or without lens opacification. Exposure was assessed based on employment time as pilots, annual number of hours flown on each aircraft type, time tables, flight profiles, and individual cumulative radiation doses (in millisieverts) calculated by a software program. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression. The odds ratio for nuclear cataract risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-6.35) for pilots compared with nonpilots, adjusted for age, smoking status, and sunbathing habits. The odds ratio for nuclear cataract associated with estimation of cumulative radiation dose (in millisieverts) to the age of 40 years was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.10), adjusted for age, smoking status, and sunbathing habits. The association between the cosmic radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking status, and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be a causative factor in nuclear cataracts among commercial airline pilots.

  18. A pilot randomised controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy to treat grade III/IV pressure ulcers [ISRCTN69032034

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashby Rebecca L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is widely promoted as a treatment for full thickness wounds; however, there is a lack of high-quality research evidence regarding its clinical and cost effectiveness. A trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III/IV pressure ulcers would be worthwhile but premature without assessing whether such a trial is feasible. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial was to assess the feasibility of conducting a future full trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III and IV pressure ulcers and to pilot all aspects of the trial. Methods This was a two-centre (acute and community, pilot randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either NPWT or standard care (SC (spun hydrocolloid, alginate or foam dressings. Outcome measures were time to healing of the reference pressure ulcer, recruitment rates, frequency of treatment visits, resources used and duration of follow-up. Results Three hundred and twelve patients were screened for eligibility into this trial over a 12-month recruitment period and 12/312 participants (3.8% were randomised: 6 to NPWT and 6 to SC. Only one reference pressure ulcer healed (NPWT group during follow-up (time to healing 79 days. The mean number of treatment visits per week was 3.1 (NPWT and 5.7 (SC; 6/6 NPWT and 1/6 SC participants withdrew from their allocated trial treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.8 (NPWT and 5.0 (SC months. Conclusions This pilot trial yielded vital information for the planning of a future full study including projected recruitment rate, required duration of follow-up and extent of research nurse support required. Data were also used to inform the cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses, which were conducted alongside the pilot trial. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69032034.

  19. Vision, visuo-cognition and postural control in Parkinson's disease: An associative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E; Stuart, S; Lord, S; Del Din, S; Rochester, L

    2016-07-01

    Impaired postural control (PC) is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and is a major contributor to falls, with significant consequences. Mechanisms underpinning PC are complex and include motor and non-motor features. Research has focused predominantly on motor and sensory inputs. Vision and visuo-cognitive function are also integral to PC but have largely been ignored to date. The aim of this observational cross-sectional pilot study was to explore the relationship of vision and visuo-cognition with PC in PD. Twelve people with PD and ten age-matched healthy controls (HC) underwent detailed assessments for vision, visuo-cognition and postural control. Vision assessments included visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Visuo-cognition was measured by visuo-perception (object identification), visuo-construction (ability to copy a figure) and visuo-spatial ability (judge distances and location of object within environment). PC was measured by an accelerometer for a range of outcomes during a 2-min static stance. Spearman's correlations identified significant associations. Contrast sensitivity, visuo-spatial ability and postural control (ellipsis) were significantly impaired in PD (p=0.017; p=0.001; and p=0.017, respectively). For PD only, significant correlations were found for higher visuo-spatial function and larger ellipsis (r=0.64; p=0.024) and impaired attention and reduced visuo-spatial function (r=-0.62; p=0.028). Visuo-spatial ability is associated with PC deficit in PD, but in an unexpected direction. This suggests a non-linear pattern of response. Further research is required to examine this novel and important finding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Water-based exercise for patients with chronic arm lymphedema: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karin; Hayes, Sandi; Speck, Rebecca M; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effect of a water-based exercise program on lymphedema status and shoulder range of motion among women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. This was a single-blinded, randomized controlled pilot trial. Twenty-nine eligible breast cancer survivors (median, 10 yrs after surgery) with arm lymphedema (median, 21% interlimb difference) were included and randomized into the intervention (n = 15) or control (n = 14) group. Twenty-five participants completed the study. The intervention was at least twice-weekly water-based exercise for 8 wks, initially supervised but performed independently during the study period. Outcomes of interest were feasibility as measured by retention and adherence; lymphedema status as measured by optoelectronic perometry, bioimpedance spectroscopy, and tissue dielectric constant; and shoulder range of motion as measured by goniometer. Four participants were not measured at postintervention and were not included in the analysis (retention). Four participants in the intervention group did not perform the minimum water-based exercise criteria set (adherence). No effect was found on lymphedema status. Compared with the control group, median range of motion change for flexion was 6 (1-10) degrees (P < 0.001) and 6 (0-15.5) degrees (P = 0.07) for external rotation.A clinically relevant increase in the intervention group was found for 36% in flexion (P ≤ 0.05) and 57% in external rotation (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. This study shows that water-based exercise is feasible for breast cancer survivors with arm lymphedema and that shoulder range of motion can be improved years after cancer treatment has been completed.

  1. Issues in planning a placebo-controlled trial of manual methods: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Cheryl; Long, Cynthia R; Reiter, Robert; Davis, Charles S; Cambron, Jerrilyn A; Evans, Roni

    2002-02-01

    There are fundamental differences between the administration of medications and the application of manual procedures, such as those used by chiropractors. The objective of this study was to gather preliminary information on how to address these differences in the design of a multisite, randomized placebo-controlled trial of chiropractic care for women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Pilot study for a multisite, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Three chiropractic research clinics in the midwest United States. Thirty-nine (39) women with CPP of at least 6 months' duration, diagnosed by board-certified gynecologists. The active intervention consisted of the chiropractic technique, lumbar spine flexion-distraction, combined with manual Trigger Point Therapy. The placebo intervention consisted of a sham chiropractic procedure performed with an instrument combined with effleurage (light massage). The primary outcome measure was the change in the Pain Disability Index (PDI) from baseline to the end of treatment (6 weeks), assessed by group and site. If the change score was in the same direction at all sites, the results were to be combined to estimate treatment effect size. Patient characteristics were similar to those of patients with CPP in other studies. Recruitment methods, particularly in respect to the eligibility criteria and screening protocols, would require modification in order to recruit an adequate sample for the planned randomized controlled trial. Clinicians followed standardized procedures with apparently minimal deviation, patients in both groups were satisfied with their care and blinding appeared to be successful. PDI change scores were not consistent across sites and so results were not combined and overall treatment effect sizes were not estimated. The technical and personnel resources required to achieve adequate standardization of procedures at multiple sites may make a placebo-controlled trial unfeasible, given our current lack of

  2. Shockwave treatment for medial tibial stress syndrome: A randomized double blind sham-controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Phil; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Up to 35% of runners develop medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) which often results in lengthy disruption to training and sometimes affects daily activities. There is currently no high quality evidence to support any particular intervention for MTSS. This study aims to investigate the effect of shockwave therapy for MTSS. A randomized, sham-controlled, pilot trial in a university-based health clinic including 28 active adults with MTSS. Intervention included standard dose shockwave therapy for the experimental group versus sham dose for the control group, delivered during Week 1-3, 5 and 9. Main outcome measures were pain measured during bone and muscle pressure as well as during running using a numerical rating scale (0-10) and running was measured as pain-limited distance (m), at Week 1 (baseline) and Week 10 (post-intervention). Self-perception of change was measured using the Global Rating of Change Scale (-7 to +7) at Week 10 (post-intervention). Pain (palpation) was reduced in the experimental group by 1.1 out of 10.0 (95% CI -2.3 to 0.0) less than the control group. There were no other statistically significant differences between the groups. Standard dose shockwave therapy is not more effective than sham dose at improving pain or running distance in MTSS. However, the sham dose may have had a clinical effect. Further investigation including a no intervention control is warranted to evaluate the effect of shockwave therapy in the management of MTSS. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical sensor systems for environmental and emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd Spetz, Anita; Darmastuti, Zhafira; Bur, Christian; Huotari, Joni; Bjorklund, Robert; Lindqvist, Niclas; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Jantunen, Heli; Schütze, Andreas; Andersson, Mike

    2013-05-01

    Focusing on environment and health aspects, the importance of monitoring and controlling dangerous gases and particulate matter increases. For this purpose we present a new version of silicon carbide based gas sensors with improved properties and suitable for high temperature and harsh environments such as power plants or car exhausts. Development of sulfur dioxide sensors for a power plant application is described as well as sensors for detection of ammonia in connection with the SCR process where urea is converted to ammonia, which reduces nitric oxide components in the exhausts. We also describe progress on nanoparticle detection, especially related to detection of the content of adsorbed particles through heating and detection of emitted molecules by a sensor array. Some results are also presented from impedance spectroscopy for detection of the concentration of nanoparticles but with the potential to reveal more details about the particles such as shape and kind of particles.

  4. Piloted Evaluation of Modernized Limited Authority Control Laws in the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Vineet; Melkers, Edgar; Faynberg, Alexander; Blanken, Chris L.

    2003-01-01

    The UH-60 BLACK HAWK was designed in the 1970s, when the US Army primarily operated during the day in good visual conditions. Subsequently, the introduction of night-vision goggles increased the BLACK HAWK'S mission effectiveness, but the accident rate also increased. The increased accident rate is strongly tied to increased pilot workload as a result of a degradation in visual cues. Over twenty years of research in helicopter flight control and handling qualities has shown that these degraded handling qualities can be recovered by modifying the response type of the helicopter in low speed flight. Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation initiated a project under the National Rotorcraft Technology Center (NRTC) to develop modern flight control laws while utilizing the existing partial authority Stability Augmentation System (SAS) of the BLACK HAWK. This effort resulted in a set of Modernized Control Laws (MCLAWS) that incorporate rate command and attitude command response types. Sikorsky and the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) conducted a piloted simulation on the NASA-Ames Vertical h4otion Simulator, to assess potential handling qualities and to reduce the risk of subsequent implementation and flight test of these modern control laws on AFDD's EH-60L helicopter. The simulation showed that Attitude Command Attitude Hold control laws in pitch and roll improve handling qualities in the low speed flight regime. These improvements are consistent across a range of mission task elements and for both good and degraded visual environments. The MCLAWS perform better than the baseline UH-60A control laws in the presence of wind and turbulence. Finally, while the improved handling qualities in the pitch and roll axis allow the pilot to pay more attention to the vertical axis and hence altitude performance also improves, it is clear from pilot comments and altitude excursions that the addition of an Altitude Hold function would further reduce workload and improve overall

  5. Case-Control Pilot Study of Soft Contact Lens Wearers With Corneal Infiltrative Events and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richdale, Kathryn; Lam, Dawn Y; Wagner, Heidi; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Kinoshita, Beth T; Chalmers, Robin; Sorbara, Luigina; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Govindarajulu, Usha; Mitchell, G Lynn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk factors associated with soft contact lens (SCL)-related corneal infiltrative events (CIEs). This was a single-visit, case-control study conducted at five academic centers in North America. Cases were defined as current SCL wearers with a symptomatic CIE. For each case, three age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. Subjects completed the Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS), a standardized scripted medical interview, supplied a recent health history, and underwent an ocular examination. Microbial culturing of the ocular surface, SCL, and lens storage case was conducted for all cases and one of the three matched controls. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to assess the risk of developing a CIE. Thirty cases and 90 controls 13 to 31 years of age completed the study. Corneal infiltrative event diagnosis included contact lens-associated red eye, infiltrative keratitis, and contact lens peripheral ulcer. Subjects with symptomatic CIEs were more likely to harbor substantial levels of gram-negative bioburden on the ocular surface and contact lens. Significant risk factors for developing a CIE were overnight wear of SCLs, use of multipurpose solution, rinsing SCLs with water, lens storage case older than 6 months, previous "red eye" event, use of ocular drops in the past week, and illness during the past week. This pilot study demonstrated feasibility of enrolling a representative pool of SCL wearers with an untreated, symptomatic CIE and assessing CIE risk factors by using standardized methods. A larger sample size is needed to determine relationships between patient-reported behaviors and exposures, microbial bioburden, and CIE development.

  6. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  7. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding

  8. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  9. Pilot-scale application of an online VFA sensor for monitoring and control of a manure digester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A volatile fatty acids (VFA) sensor based on headspace chromatography was tested for online monitoring and control of a pilot-scale manure digester. The sensor showed satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring of the digester. The online VFA and biogas production data...... were used for automatic control of the digester based on feed flow manipulation. The control approach was based on optimization of biogas production while using VFA concentration as the alarm threshold. A rule-based supervisory system with a cascade controller was used to optimize the biogas production...

  10. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods

  11. Controlling hypertension immediately post stroke: a cost utility analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistri Amit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated blood pressure (BP levels are common following acute stroke. However, there is considerable uncertainty if and when antihypertensive therapy should be initiated. Method Economic evaluation alongside a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial (National Research Register Trial Number N0484128008 of 112 hypertensive patients receiving an antihypertensive regimen (labetalol or lisinopril within 36 hours post stroke versus 59 receiving placebo. Outcomes were incremental cost per incremental: QALY, survivor, and patient free from death or severe disability (modified Rankin scale score Results Actively treated patients on average had superior outcomes and lower costs than controls at three months. From the perspective of the acute hospital setting, there was a 96.5% probability that the incremental cost per QALY gained at three months is below £30,000, although the probability may be overstated due to data limitations. Conclusion Antihypertensive therapy when indicated immediately post stroke may be cost-effective compared with placebo from the acute hospital perspective. Further research is required to confirm both efficacy and cost-effectiveness and establish whether benefits are maintained over a longer time horizon.

  12. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    2001-02-01

    The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

  13. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  14. 40 CFR 63.4965 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Metal Furniture Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4965 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4566 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4566 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9323 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine the add-on control... determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use the procedures and test methods in this section to determine the add-on control device emission destruction or...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4166 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Large Appliances Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4166 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? (a) For...

  18. 40 CFR 63.3545 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Metal Cans Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.3545 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency? You must use...

  19. 40 CFR 63.4766 - How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the add-on control... Coating of Wood Building Products Compliance Requirements for the Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4766 How do I determine the add-on control device emission destruction or removal efficiency...

  20. Neural-network-based navigation and control of unmanned aerial vehicles for detecting unintended emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarzadeh, H.; Nodland, David; Thotla, V.; Jagannathan, S.; Agarwal, S.

    2012-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile aircraft with many applications, including the potential for use to detect unintended electromagnetic emissions from electronic devices. A particular area of recent interest has been helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. Because of the nature of these helicopters' dynamics, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via output feedback control for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic, virtual, and dynamic controllers and an observer. Optimal tracking is accomplished with a single NN utilized for cost function approximation. The controller positions the helicopter, which is equipped with an antenna, such that the antenna can detect unintended emissions. The overall closed-loop system stability with the proposed controller is demonstrated by using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for positioning the helicopter for unintended emissions detection.

  1. Effi›cient and broadband spontaneous emission control in fiber-like photonic nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudon, Julien; Munsch, Mathieu; Bleuse, Joël

    Funneling a large fraction of the spontaneous emission (SE) of a quantum emitter into a single optical mode is a powerful strategy for improving the brightness of quantum light sources or developing an efficient spin-photon interface. In the solid state, preferential emission into a single...... and consider a photonic nanowire made of GaAs (refractive index n=3.5) and surrounded by air (n=1). It features a circular section (diameter d), and contains spectrally isolated single InAs quantum dots (QD) with a free space emission wavelength around 920 nm. The large refractive index contrast between...... into the guided mode [3]. For some applications (e.g. polarization encoded quantum key distribution, generation of indistinguishable photons), it is desirable to control the polarization of the emitted photon. This control can be efficiently implemented in a wire featuring an elliptical section with a moderate...

  2. Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Napoleon

    1998-12-01

    The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

  3. Effect of Vibration on Pain Response to Heel Lance: A Pilot Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Kate; Murray, Eileen; Cherven, Brooke; McCracken, Courtney; Travers, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Applied mechanical vibration in pediatric and adult populations has been shown to be an effective analgesic for acute and chronic pain, including needle pain. Studies among the neonatal population are lacking. According to the Gate Control Theory, it is expected that applied mechanical vibration will have a summative effect with standard nonpharmacologic pain control strategies, reducing behavioral and physiologic pain responses to heel lancing. To determine the safety and efficacy of mechanical vibration for relief of heel lance pain among neonates. In this parallel design randomized controlled trial, eligible enrolled term or term-corrected neonates (n = 56) in a level IV neonatal intensive care unit were randomized to receive either sucrose and swaddling or sucrose, swaddling, and vibration for heel lance analgesia. Vibration was applied using a handheld battery-powered vibrator (Norco MiniVibrator, Hz = 92) to the lateral aspect of the lower leg along the sural dermatome throughout the heel lance procedure. Neonatal Pain, Agitation, and Sedation Scale (N-PASS) scores, heart rate, and oxygen saturations were collected at defined intervals surrounding heel lancing. Infants in the vibration group (n = 30) had significantly lower N-PASS scores and more stable heart rates during heel stick (P = .006, P = .037) and 2 minutes after heel lance (P = .002, P = .016) than those in the nonvibration group. There were no adverse behavioral or physiologic responses to applied vibration in the sample. Applied mechanical vibration is a safe and effective method for managing heel lance pain. This pilot study suggests that mechanical vibration warrants further exploration as a nonpharmacologic pain management tool among the neonatal population.

  4. Massage therapy and exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Rezaie, Solmaz; Goharpey, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to four equal subgroups labelled as massage therapy, exercise therapy, combined massage-exercise therapy and control group. The treatment group received 15 sessions of supervised intervention for five weeks. The massage therapy group received a standard Swedish massage. The exercise therapy group was given a combined set of strength, stretch, endurance and balance exercises. Patients in the massage-exercise therapy received a combined set of massage and exercise treatments. Patients in the control group were asked to continue their standard medical care. Pain, fatigue, spasticity, balance, gait and quality of life were assessed before and after intervention. Massage therapy resulted in significantly larger improvement in pain reduction (mean change 2.75 points, P = 0.001), dynamic balance (mean change, 3.69 seconds, P = 0.009) and walking speed (mean change, 7.84 seconds, P = 0.007) than exercise therapy. Patients involved in the combined massage-exercise therapy showed significantly larger improvement in pain reduction than those in the exercise therapy (mean change, 1.67 points, P = 0.001). Massage therapy could be more effective than exercise therapy. Moreover, the combination of massage and exercise therapy may be a little more effective than exercise therapy alone.

  5. Morita therapy for depression and anxiety (Morita Trial): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugg, Holly Victoria Rose; Richards, David A; Frost, Julia

    2016-03-24

    Morita Therapy, a psychological therapy for common mental health problems, is in sharp contrast to established western psychotherapeutic approaches in teaching that undesired symptoms are natural features of human emotion rather than something to control or eliminate. The approach is widely practiced in Japan, but untested and little known in the UK. A clinical trial of Morita Therapy is required to establish the effectiveness of Morita Therapy for a UK population. However, a number of methodological, procedural and clinical uncertainties associated with such a trial first require addressing. The Morita Trial is a mixed methods study addressing the uncertainties associated with an evaluation of Morita Therapy compared with treatment as usual for depression and anxiety. We will undertake a pilot randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study. Sixty participants with major depressive disorder, with or without anxiety disorders, will be recruited predominantly from General Practice record searches and randomised to receive Morita Therapy plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual alone. Morita Therapy will be delivered by accredited psychological therapists. We will collect quantitative data on depressive symptoms, general anxiety, attitudes and quality of life at baseline and four month follow-up to inform future sample size calculations; and rates of recruitment, retention and treatment adherence to assess feasibility. We will undertake qualitative interviews in parallel with the trial, to explore people's views of Morita Therapy. We will conduct separate and integrated analyses on the quantitative and qualitative data. The outcomes of this study will prepare the ground for the design and conduct of a fully-powered evaluation of Morita Therapy plus treatment as usual versus treatment as usual alone, or inform a conclusion that such a trial is not feasible and/or appropriate. We will obtain a more comprehensive understanding of these issues than would

  6. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  7. Regional differences in Chinese SO2 emission control efficiency and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Wang, Y.; Ma, Q.; Yao, Y.; Xie, Y.; He, K.

    2015-06-01

    SO2 emission control has been one of the most important air pollution policies in China since 2000. In this study, we assess regional differences in SO2 emission control efficiencies in China through the modeling analysis of four scenarios of SO2 emissions, all of which aim to reduce the national total SO2 emissions by 8% or 2.3 Tg below the 2010 emissions level, the target set by the current twelfth Five-Year Plan (FYP; 2011-2015), but differ in spatial implementation. The GEOS-Chem chemical transport model is used to evaluate the efficiency of each scenario on the basis of four impact metrics: surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations, population-weighted sulfate concentration (PWC), and sulfur export flux from China to the western Pacific. The efficiency of SO2 control (β) is defined as the relative change of each impact metric to a 1% reduction in SO2 emissions from the 2010 baseline. The S1 scenario, which adopts a spatially uniform reduction in SO2 emissions in China, gives a β of 0.99, 0.71, 0.83, and 0.67 for SO2 and sulfate concentrations, PWC, and export flux, respectively. By comparison, the S2 scenario, which implements all the SO2 emissions reduction over North China (NC), is found most effective in reducing national mean surface SO2 and sulfate concentrations and sulfur export fluxes, with β being 1.0, 0.76, and 0.95 respectively. The S3 scenario of implementing all the SO2 emission reduction over South China (SC) has the highest β in reducing PWC (β = 0.98) because SC has the highest correlation between population density and sulfate concentration. Reducing SO2 emissions over Southwest China (SWC) is found to be least efficient on the national scale, albeit with large benefits within the region. The difference in β by scenario is attributable to the regional difference in SO2 oxidation pathways and the source-receptor relationship. Among the three regions examined here, NC shows the largest proportion of sulfate formation through gas

  8. The "APEC Blue" phenomenon: Regional emission control effects observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Zhang, Xingying; Lin, Yanfen

    2015-10-01

    Observations from space were used to evaluate the effect of emission control measures on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit held in Beijing. Compared to the past three years (2011-2013), NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities in 2014 were found to exhibit almost across-the-board significant reductions over the North China Plain, suggesting the effectiveness of the national policy on NOx emission reduction during China's 12th "Five-Year-Plan". During the APEC period (Nov. 3-11), AOD and AAOD were found reduced the most in Beijing, followed by Hebei province. Stringent emission control measures implemented in Beijing and the regional joint control over the surroundings especially in Hebei were responsible for the good air quality and so-called "APEC Blue". However, air quality plummeted during the post-APEC period (Nov. 12-30), which was largely related to the lifting of local and regional joint emission control measures. By applying a spatial correlation analysis method, the potential emission source regions impacting air quality of Beijing included widespread areas in Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, and Tianjin in the past three years (2011-2013). While during the study period in 2014, areas impacting Beijing evidently shrank and were limited within Hebei, suggesting evident effects of intense emission perturbations on lowering the extent of regional transport. This study indicates short-term measures did fix the air pollution problems in China but a permanent solution is still a tremendous challenge.

  9. Effects of Carbon Addition and Biochemical Control on N2O Emission from Facility Vegetable Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with soil of greenhouse in Yongqing, Hebei Province, under constant temperature(25±1℃ and soil moisture (70% WFPS, using the static incubation method to study the effect of different management controls, i.e. urea, controlled release urea, straw, biochar, dicyandiamide (DCD, CaCN2, straw and CaCN2 while covering the shed, organic fertilizer, on N2O emission and nitrogen transformation. The results showed that the N2O emission peaks reached 644.11 μg N·kg-1·d-1 with the addition of urea in soil, while the ad-dition of DCD or CaCN2 not only reduced the N2O emission to 101.47 μg N·kg-1·d-1 or 36.74 μg N·kg-1·d-1 relatively, but also inhibited the production of nitrite nitrogen effectively. Controlled release urea, biochar or organic fertilizer could play a role to reduce N2O emission, while adding CaCN2 and covering the shed significantly increased the N2O emission. Controlled release urea, straw, biochar, DCD and CaCN2 inhib-ited the transformation from ammonium to nitrate nitrogen. CaCN2 and organic fertilizer could reduce the transformation from nitrate to nitrite. Correlation analysis showed that the increase of the content of nitrate or nitrite in soil contributed to the process of denitrification and N2O e-missions.

  10. Global Health Benefits from Reductions in Background Tropospheric Ozone due to Methane Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. J.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2005-05-01

    Increases in background ozone throughout the troposphere are partially attributed to rising anthropogenic methane concentrations, which are projected to continue to increase in the future. Because methane is long-lived and affects background ozone, controls on methane emissions would reduce surface ozone concentrations fairly uniformly around the globe. Epidemiological research indicates that exposure to ozone increases incidence of respiratory ailments and premature mortality. In addition, exposure to ozone reduces agricultural yields and damages natural ecosystems. We use the MOZART-2 global atmospheric chemistry and transport model to estimate the effects on global surface ozone of perturbations in methane emissions. We consider a baseline scenario for 2000 and the 2030 A2 scenario (emissions from the IPCC AR-4 2030 atmospheric chemistry experiments), and examine the impact on ozone of decreasing anthropogenic methane emissions relative to this baseline by 20%. Using the simulated spatially-distributed decreases in surface ozone concentrations resulting from these reductions in methane emissions, we estimate the global benefits to human health in the methane emission reduction scenario. We focus on human mortality, and consider the sensitivity of our estimates to different assumptions of health effect thresholds at low ozone concentrations.

  11. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  12. Development of helicopter attitude axes controlled hover flight without pilot assistance and vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Miguel

    In this work, we show how to computerize a helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight without the assistance of a pilot and without ever crashing. We start by developing a helicopter research test bed system including all hardware, software, and means for testing and training the helicopter to fly by computer. We select a Remote Controlled helicopter with a 5 ft. diameter rotor and 2.2 hp engine. We equip the helicopter with a payload of sensors, computers, navigation and telemetry equipment, and batteries. We develop a differential GPS system with cm accuracy and a ground computerized navigation system for six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) free flight while tracking navigation commands. We design feedback control loops with yet-to-be-determined gains for the five control "knobs" available to a flying radio-controlled (RC) miniature helicopter: engine throttle, main rotor collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, and tail rotor collective pitch. We develop helicopter flight equations using fundamental dynamics, helicopter momentum theory and blade element theory. The helicopter flight equations include helicopter rotor equations of motions, helicopter rotor forces and moments, helicopter trim equations, helicopter stability derivatives, and a coupled fuselage-rotor helicopter 6-DoF model. The helicopter simulation also includes helicopter engine control equations, a helicopter aerodynamic model, and finally helicopter stability and control equations. The derivation of a set of non-linear equations of motion for the main rotor is a contribution of this thesis work. We design and build two special test stands for training and testing the helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight, starting with one axis at a time and progressing to multiple axes. The first test stand is built for teaching and testing controlled flight of elevation and yaw (i.e., directional control). The second test stand is built for teaching and

  13. Effectiveness of square stepping exercise among subjects with Parkinson's disease: A pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder that seriously affects body balance and gait; therefore, increases the risk of fall and related complications. Freezing of gait and postural instability are disabling symptoms, which compromises motor independence among Parkinson's disease patients. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study analyses the effects of square-stepping exercise (SSE among Parkinson's disease patients in terms of improving balance and reducing fall risk. Materials and Methods: This is a pilot randomized controlled study, in which thirty male and female Parkinson's disease patients between 60 and 70 years of age were selected by simple random sampling method and randomly divided into SSE group (N-15 and conventional physiotherapy (CPT group (N-15. Interventions were provided for 4 weeks. Baseline and posttest outcomes were measured using the Berg balance scale (BBS and timed up and go test (TUG. Results: Statistical measures of mean, standard deviation, and t-test were performed using SPSS 21. SSE exhibited statistical significant improvement in BBS (P < 0.05 and TUG (P < 0.0001 compared to CPT group. Conclusion: SSE is more effective in improving balance and gait in Parkinson's disease. Although further studies with larger samples are required, the result of this study implies that SSE could be used as a mean of rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease.

  14. A pilot randomized controlled trial of cognitive bias modification to reduce fear of breast cancer recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G; Corner, Geoffrey W; Slivjak, Elizabeth T; Roberts, Kailey E; Li, Yuelin; Breitbart, William; Lacey, Stephanie; Tuman, Malwina; DuHamel, Katherine N; Blinder, Victoria S; Beard, Courtney

    2017-04-15

    The most common, persistent concern among survivors of breast cancer is the fear that their disease will return, yet to the authors' knowledge, few interventions targeting fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) have been developed to date. The current pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a home-delivered cognitive bias modification intervention to reduce FCR. The intervention, called Attention and Interpretation Modification for Fear of Breast Cancer Recurrence (AIM-FBCR), targeted 2 types of cognitive biases (ie, attention and interpretation biases). A total of 110 survivors of breast cancer were randomized to receive 8 sessions of 1 of 2 versions of AIM-FBCR or a control condition program. Computer-based assessments of cognitive biases and a self-report measure of FCR were administered before the intervention, after the intervention, and 3 months after the intervention. Improvements in health worries (P = .019) and interpretation biases (rates of threat endorsement [Pcancer. Future research should attempt to replicate these findings in a larger-scale trial using a more sophisticated, user-friendly program and additional measures of improvement in more diverse samples. Cancer 2017;123:1424-1433. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Mobile application as a prenatal education and engagement tool: A randomized controlled pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Cafferty, Lauren A; Hodge, Joshua A

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that mobile applications provide a powerful alternative to traditional paper diaries; however, little data exists in comparing apps to the traditional mode of paper as a patient education and engagement tool in the clinical setting. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of a mobile app versus a spiral-notebook guide throughout prenatal care. This randomized (n=173) controlled pilot was conducted at an East Coast community hospital. Chi-square and repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test intervention effects in the sample of 127 pregnant mothers who completed their prenatal care in the healthcare system. Patients who were distributed the mobile application used the tool to record information about pregnancy more frequently (p=.04) and developed greater patient activation (p=.02) than patients who were distributed notebooks. No difference was detected on interpersonal clinical communication. A mobile application successfully activated a patient population in which self-management is a critical factor. This study shows that mobile apps can prompt greater use and result in more activated patients. Findings may be translated to other patient populations who receive recurring care for chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Cognitive therapy for internalised stigma in people experiencing psychosis: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Anthony P; Burke, Eilish; Murphy, Elizabeth; Pyle, Melissa; Bowe, Samantha; Varese, Filippo; Dunn, Graham; Chapman, Nicola; Hutton, Paul; Welford, Mary; Wood, Lisa J

    2016-06-30

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of Cognitive Therapy (CT) as an intervention for internalised stigma in people with psychosis. We conducted a single-blind randomised controlled pilot trial comparing CT plus treatment as usual (TAU) with TAU only. Participants were assessed at end of treatment (4 months) and follow-up (7 months). Twenty-nine participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were randomised. CT incorporated up to 12 sessions over 4 months (mean sessions=9.3). Primary outcome was the Internalised Stigma of Mental Illness Scale - Revised (ISMI-R) total score, which provides a continuous measure of internalised stigma associated with mental health problems. Secondary outcomes included self-rated recovery, internalised shame, emotional problems, hopelessness and self-esteem. Recruitment rates and retention for this trial were good. Changes in outcomes were analysed following the intention-to-treat principle, using ANCOVAs adjusted for baseline symptoms. There was no effect on our primary outcome, with a sizable reduction observed in both groups, but several secondary outcomes were significantly improved in the group assigned to CT, in comparison with TAU, including internalised shame, hopelessness and self-rated recovery. Stigma-focused CT appears feasible and acceptable in people with psychosis who have high levels of internalised stigma. A larger, definitive trial is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Community integration outcomes of people with spinal cord injury and multiple matched controls: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Libby; Enticott, Joanne; Farnworth, Louise; McDonald, Rachael; Migliorini, Christine; Willer, Barry

    2017-06-01

    Australia's National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) is designed to influence home, social and economic participation for Scheme participants. Given the major disability reform underway, this pilot study aimed to: (i) examine community integration outcomes of people with spinal cord injury (SCI); (ii) compare findings with multiple matched controls and (iii) consider findings within the context of Australia's NDIS. Setting: Victoria, Australia. Matched analysis (people with and without SCI). Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ). n = 40 adults with SCI (M age = 52.8 years; 61% male; 77% traumatic SCI). Matched analyses from each SCI subject aged integration (ρ = 0.02). Relative risk of low home integration was significant in the SCI cohort (conditional RR (95% CI) = 3.1 (1.5-6.3), ρ = 0.001). Relative risk of low CIQ total, social integration and productivity scores did not reach significance. This cohort of SCI participants was less integrated into home and productive occupations than matched norms, holding implications for planning and allocation of supports to influence outcomes within an NDIS. Further research is necessary to understand community integration outcomes in larger matched samples. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Competence feedback improves CBT competence in trainee therapists: A randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weck, Florian; Kaufmann, Yvonne M; Höfling, Volkmar

    2017-07-01

    The development and improvement of therapeutic competencies are central aims in psychotherapy training; however, little is known about which training interventions are suitable for the improvement of competencies. In the current pilot study, the efficacy of feedback regarding therapeutic competencies was investigated in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Totally 19 trainee therapists and 19 patients were allocated randomly to a competence feedback group (CFG) or control group (CG). Two experienced clinicians and feedback providers who were blind to the treatment conditions independently evaluated therapeutic competencies on the Cognitive Therapy Scale at five treatment times (i.e., at Sessions 1, 5, 9, 13, and 17). Whereas CFG and CG included regular supervision, only therapists in the CFG additionally received written qualitative and quantitative feedback regarding their demonstrated competencies in conducting CBT during treatment. We found a significant Time × Group interaction effect (η² = .09), which indicates a larger competence increase in the CFG in comparison to the CG. Competence feedback was demonstrated to be suitable for the improvement of therapeutic competencies in CBT. These findings may have important implications for psychotherapy training, clinical practice, and psychotherapy research. However, further research is necessary to ensure the replicability and generalizability of the findings.

  19. Effect of Guizhifulingwan (Keishibukuryogan) on climacteric syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Cho, Junghyo; Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Jung, So-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Mikyung; Lee, Hye-Yoon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study is to explore the efficacy of Guizhifulingwan (GFW) in the treatment of climacteric syndrome in women. This is a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group design pilot trial. Fifty participants with climacteric syndrome will be randomly allocated to the GFW or placebo group in a 1:1 ratio. The participants will be administered GFW or placebo granules three times a day for 4 weeks and will be followed up for a further 4 weeks. The primary outcome is the mean change in menopause rating scale score at 5 weeks after randomization. Secondary outcomes include the World Health Organization quality of life-BREF scores, degrees of upward movement of qi and lower abdominal resistance and tenderness, blood stasis pattern questionnaire scores, and results of blood tests including assays for lipid profile, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. The feasibility outcomes include recruitment and completion rates and adherence to medication. The results of this study will provide basic data for the design of a large-scale clinical trial for evaluating the efficacy of GFW in the treatment of climacteric syndrome in women. Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Republic of Korea, KCT0002040 . Registered on 5 September 2016.

  20. Efficacy of increasing physical activity to reduce children's visceral fat: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Grow, H Mollie; Stark, Lori J; Seeley, Randy J; Roehrig, Helmut

    2011-04-01

    To examine whether differentially targeting physical activity within the context of pilot family-based pediatric weight control treatment results in differential change in abdominal fat, particularly visceral fat. Twenty-nine overweight children (>85(th) body mass index [BMI] percentile) and at least one participating parent were randomly assigned to one of two family-based behavioral weight management conditions that either targeted 1) primarily dietary change (STANDARD; n = 15) or 2) dietary plus physical activity change (ADDED; n = 14). Differences at post-treatment in overall child weight status (e.g., BMI), whole-body composition (measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry), and abdominal fat (measured by waist circumference and magnetic resonance imaging) were assessed using intent-to-treat analyses, as were post-treatment parent BMI and waist circumference. Child and parent physical activity and dietary behavior changes were also evaluated. Results. At post-treatment, overall child weight status, whole-body composition, and child dietary measures did not differ by condition. Children in the ADDED condition tended to have higher physical activity and lower visceral abdominal fat at post-treatment relative to children in the STANDARD condition. Increasing physical activity may be important to optimize reductions in abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, among overweight children provided with family-based behavioral weight management treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00359957.

  1. Temperature control in a 30 stage, 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz

    2009-09-01

    Temperature profile testing was performed using a 30 stage 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. These tests were performed to evaluate the ability to control process temperature by adjusting feed solution temperatures. This would eliminate the need for complex jacketed heat exchanger installation on the centrifugal contactors. Thermocouples were installed on the inlet and outlets of each stage, as well as directly in the mixing zone of several of the contactor stages. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid were the solution feeds for the temperature profile testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total throughputs and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems were collected with selected profiles. The total throughput ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Inlet solution temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 °C were tested. Results of the two-phase temperature profile testing are detailed

  2. Raloxifene for women with Alzheimer disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W; Ala, Tom; Sainani, Kristin L; Bernstein, Allan L; Stephenson, B Sue; Rosen, Allyson C; Farlow, Martin R

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, improves cognitive function compared with placebo in women with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to provide an estimate of cognitive effect. This pilot study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with a planned treatment of 12 months. Women with late-onset AD of mild to moderate severity were randomly allocated to high-dose (120 mg) oral raloxifene or identical placebo provided once daily. The primary outcome compared between treatment groups at 12 months was change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Forty-two women randomized to raloxifene or placebo were included in intent-to-treat analyses (mean age 76 years, range 68-84), and 39 women contributed 12-month outcomes. ADAS-cog change scores at 12 months did not differ significantly between treatment groups (standardized difference 0.03, 95% confidence interval -0.39 to 0.44, 2-tailed p = 0.89). Raloxifene and placebo groups did not differ significantly on secondary analyses of dementia rating, activities of daily living, behavior, or a global cognition composite score. Caregiver burden and caregiver distress were similar in both groups. Results on the primary outcome showed no cognitive benefits in the raloxifene-treated group. This study provides Class I evidence that for women with AD, raloxifene does not have a significant cognitive effect. The study lacked the precision to exclude a small effect. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  4. A Piloted Simulator Investigation of Side-Stick Controller/Stability and Control Augmentation System Requirements for Helicopter Visual Flight Tasks,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Simulation Program: Vol- flight handling qualities without pilot selection, ume I-Mathematical Model", NASA the contril laws required automatic phasing...acteristics and level of stability and control The Phase 2 simulation experiment, the subject augmentation on handling qualities for several of this paper...handling qualities under VMC and empha- speed and forward flight control laws were im- sized tasks which represented elements of the plemented, and a

  5. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanfang Xu

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies.We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40 or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40 three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs were monitored throughout the trial.The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR: 1.80-14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80-+0.50 in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01. The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25-5.69 in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69-+2.88 in the sham EA group (p = 0.01. The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05. No obvious AEs were observed in either group.EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since this is a pilot study, results should be

  6. Controlling memory impairment in elderly adults using virtual reality memory training: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto

    2010-05-01

    Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.

  7. Meals Enhancing Nutrition After Discharge: Findings from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, David R; Campbell, Anthony D; Godfryd, Alice; Flood, Kellie; Kitchin, Elizabeth; Kilgore, Meredith L; Allocca, Sally; Locher, Julie L

    2017-04-01

    After older adults experience episodes of poor health or are hospitalized, they may not return to premorbid or prehospitalization eating behaviors. Furthermore, poor nutrition increases hospital readmission risk, but evidence-based interventions addressing these risks are limited. This pilot study's objective was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial assessing a post-discharge home-delivered meal program's impact on older adults' nutritional intake and hospital readmissions and to assess patient acceptability and satisfaction with the program. The aims of the study were to evaluate successful recruitment, randomization, and retention of at least 80% of the 24 participants sought; to compare the outcomes of hospital readmission and total daily caloric intake between participants in the intervention and control groups; and to assess patient acceptability and satisfaction with the program. This study used a two-arm randomized controlled trial design, and baseline data were collected at enrollment; three 24-hour food recalls were collected during the intervention period; and health services utilization and intervention satisfaction was evaluated 45 days post-discharge. Twenty-four patients from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital's Acute Care for Elders (ACE) Unit were enrolled from May 2014 to June 2015. They were 65 years or older; at risk for malnutrition; cognitively intact; able to communicate; discharged to a place where the patient or family was responsible for preparing meals; and diagnosed with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia. Final analysis included 21 participants. The intervention group received 10 days of home-delivered meals and nutrition education; the control group received usual care and nutrition education. The main outcome was intervention feasibility, measured by recruitment and retention goals. Hospital readmissions, caloric

  8. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations.... 2060-0060) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval in accordance with the...

  9. A novel fuzzy-logic control strategy minimizing N2O emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    was implemented using the fuzzy logic approach. It was comprehensively tested for different model structures and different sets of model parameters with regards to its ability of mitigating N2O emissions for future applications in real wastewater treatment plants. It is concluded that the control strategy...

  10. Notification: Evaluating the Internal Controls for EPA's Vehicle Emissions Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY17-0009, Mar 6, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA’s existing internal controls are effective at detecting and preventing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty on-road vehicle emissions fraud.

  11. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. M.; Ledin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Pollutants” (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECS) have been developed and tested on a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCCA) for selected European priority pollutants (PPs). The SHCCA approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to mitigate data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty...

  12. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Emission Controls on Hydrocarbon Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; Eberle, Annika; Heath, Garvin

    2016-06-23

    Biofuels have the potential to reduce our dependency on petroleum-derived transportation fuels and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although the overall GHG emissions from biofuels are expected to be lower when compared to those of petroleum fuels, the process of converting biomass feedstocks into biofuels emits various air pollutants, which may be subject to federal air quality regulation or emission limits. While prior research has evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of biofuel technologies, gaps still exist in understanding the regulatory issues associated with the biorefineries and their economic implications on biofuel production costs (referred to as minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) in this study). The aim of our research is to evaluate the economic impact of implementing emission reduction technologies at biorefineries and estimate the cost effectiveness of two primary control technologies that may be required for air permitting purposes. We analyze a lignocellulosic sugars-to-hydrocarbon biofuel production pathway developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and implement air emission controls in Aspen Plus to evaluate how they affect the MFSP. Results from this analysis can help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing, as well as mitigate the risks associated with air permitting.

  13. Ground-level ozone influenced by circadian control of isoprene emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, C. N.; Ashworth, K.; Boynard, A.; Guenther, A.; Langford, B.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Misztal, P. K.; Nemitz, E.; Owen, S. M.; Possell, M.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Ryan, A. C.; Wild, O.

    2011-10-01

    The volatile organic compound isoprene is produced by many plant species, and provides protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Globally, isoprene emissions from plants are estimated to far exceed anthropogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds. Once in the atmosphere, isoprene reacts rapidly with hydroxyl radicals to form peroxy radicals, which can react with nitrogen oxides to form ground-level ozone. Here, we use canopy-scale measurements of isoprene fluxes from two tropical ecosystems in Malaysia--a rainforest and an oil palm plantation--and three models of atmospheric chemistry to explore the effects of isoprene fluxes on ground-level ozone. We show that isoprene emissions in these ecosystems are under circadian control on the canopy scale, particularly in the oil palm plantation. As a result, these ecosystems emit less isoprene than present emissions models predict. Using local-, regional- and global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry and transport, we show that accounting for circadian control of isoprene emissions brings model predictions of ground-level ozone into better agreement with measurements, especially in isoprene-sensitive regions of the world.

  14. Incinerator toxic emissions: a brief summary of human health effects with a note on regulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, S C

    1999-05-01

    Toxic emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and hazardous waste incineration are discussed, with reference to recent reviews and to government standards and controls. Studies of known effects of aromatic hydrocarbons, other organics, dioxins, metals, and gases, on fish, soils, plants, and particularly humans are briefly reviewed. A summary of potential problems with existing and proposed incineration is developed, including: (1) lack of toxicity data on unidentified organic emissions; (2) unavoidability of hazardous metal emissions as particles and volatiles; (3) inefficient stack operation resulting in unknown amounts of increased emissions; (4) formation in the stack of highly toxic dioxins and furans, especially under inefficient conditions, and their build-up in the environment and in human tissue; (5) the lack of adequate disposal techniques for incinerator fly ash and wash-water; (6) the contribution of emitted gases such as NO2, SO2 and HCL to smog, acid rain, and the formation of ozone, and the deleterious effects of these on human respiratory systems; (7) the effects and build-up in human tissue of other emitted organics such as benzene, toluene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), alkanes, alcohols, and phenols; (8) lack of pollution-control and real-time efficiency-monitoring equipment in existing installations. The inability of regulatory bodies historically to ensure compliance with emission standards is discussed, and a concluding opinion is offered that it is inadvisable to engage in new incinerator construction with present knowledge and conditions.

  15. Minimization of Fuel Costs and Gaseous Emissions of Electric Power Generation by Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Elaiw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a model predictive control (MPC approach for the periodic implementation of the optimal solutions of two optimal dynamic dispatch problems with emission and transmission line losses. The first problem is the dynamic economic emission dispatch (DEED which is a multiobjective optimization problem which minimizes both fuel cost and pollutants emission simultaneously under a set of constraints. The second one is the profit-based dynamic economic emission dispatch (PBDEED which is also a multi-objective optimization problem which maximizes the profit and minimizes the emission simultaneously under a set of constraints. Both the demand and energy price are assumed to be periodic and the total transmission loss is assumed to be a quadratic function of the generator power outputs. We assume that there are certain disturbances or uncertainties in the execution of the optimal controller and in the forecasted demand. The convergence and robustness of the MPC algorithm are demonstrated through the application of MPC to the DEED and PBDEED problems with five-unit and six-unit test systems, respectively.

  16. Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew G. Coulter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST, “strategic” (SPT, “targeted” (TST or based on “clinical signs” (MT. Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.

  17. Piloted Simulation Tests of Propulsion Control as Backup to Loss of Primary Flight Controls for a B747-400 Jet Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Hardy, Gordon; Sullivan, Barry; Jones, Jerry; Williams, Diane; Soukup, Paul; Winters, Jose

    1997-01-01

    Partial failures of aircraft primary flight control systems and structural damages to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. DC-10, B-747, C-5, B-52, and others). Following the DC-10 accident at Sioux City, Iowa in 1989, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended 'Encourage research and development of backup flight control systems for newly certified wide-body airplanes that utilize an alternate source of motive power separate from that source used for the conventional control system.' This report describes the concept of a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of a PCA piloted simulation test and evaluation of the B747-400 airplane conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in December, 1996. The purpose of the test was to develop and evaluate propulsion control throughout the full flight envelope of the B747-400 including worst case scenarios of engine failures and out of trim moments. Pilot ratings of PCA performance ranged from adequate to satisfactory. PCA performed well in unusual attitude recoveries at 35,000 ft altitude, performed well in fully coupled ILS approaches, performed well in single engine failures, and performed well at aft cg. PCA performance was primarily limited by out-of-trim moments.

  18. Arterial stiffness in periodontitis patients and controls. A case–control and pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houcken, W; Teeuw, W J; Bizzarro, S; Alvarez Rodriguez, E; Mulders, T A; van den Born, B-Jh; Loos, B G

    2016-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is an important indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Epidemiologically, periodontitis and ACVD are associated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate AS in periodontitis patients and controls. In addition, we explored the effect of periodontal therapy on AS in a sub-group of cases. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive chair-side function test for AS, was measured in periodontitis patients (n=57; mean age 46.6 years) and compared with a reference group (n=48; mean age 45.5 years). In addition, 45 cases (mean age 46.9 years) were 6 months followed after periodontal treatment, to explore a possible effect on arterial function. Periodontitis patients showed a significantly increased PWV compared with the reference group (8.01±0.20 vs. 7.36±0.22 m s(-1) respectively; P=0.029) and this remained significant after adjustments for ACVD risk factors (P=0.019). After periodontal therapy, no significant reduction in PWV was seen (8.00±1.8 to 7.82±1.6 m s(-1); P=0.13), but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly reduced (119.8±14.6 to 116.9±15.1 mm Hg; P=0.040). It can be concluded that periodontitis is associated with increased AS. This confirms with a new parameter the association of periodontitis with ACVD. Although periodontal treatment did not lower AS significantly, a modest reduction of SBP after 6 months was observed.

  19. Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-15

    This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with conventional ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners, NO{sub x} ports and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium or calcium based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

  20. Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-10

    This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

  1. Trimethopim-sulfamethoxazole compared with benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Kearns, Therese; Gundjirryirr, Rosalyn; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-03-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children. Treatment was successful in 7 of 7 children treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 5 of 6 treated with benzathine penicillin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole achieved microbiological clearance and healing of sores from which beta-hemolytic streptococci and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were initially cultured.

  2. The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stephanie; Pinto Zipp, Genevieve; Parasher, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious issue for the American public. Because of conditions that result from inactivity, individuals incur close to $1 trillion USD in health-care costs, and approximately 250 000 premature deaths occur per year. Researchers have linked engaging in yoga to improved overall fitness, including improved muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance. Researchers have not yet investigated the impact of yoga on exercise adherence. The research team assessed the effects of 10 weeks of yoga classes held twice a week on exercise adherence in previously sedentary adults. The research team designed a randomized controlled pilot trial. The team collected data from the intervention (yoga) and control groups at baseline, midpoint, and posttest (posttest 1) and also collected data pertaining to exercise adherence for the yoga group at 5 weeks posttest (posttest 2). The pilot took place in a yoga studio in central New Jersey in the United States. The pretesting occurred at the yoga studio for all participants. Midpoint testing and posttesting occurred at the studio for the yoga group and by mail for the control group. Participants were 27 adults (mean age 51 y) who had been physically inactive for a period of at least 6 months prior to the study. Interventions The intervention group (yoga group) received hour-long hatha yoga classes that met twice a week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in classes during the research study; however, they were offered complimentary post research classes. Outcome Measures The study's primary outcome measure was exercise adherence as measured by the 7-day Physical Activity Recall. The secondary measures included (1) exercise self-efficacy as measured by the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, (2) general well-being as measured by the General Well-Being Schedule, (3) exercise-group cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ), (4) acute feeling response

  3. Use of sorbents for air toxics control in a pilot-scale COHPAC baghouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, J.R.; Chang, R.; Waugh, E.G.; Jensen, B.K.; Lapatnick, L.N.

    1999-07-01

    With funding from EPRI and Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE and G), ADA Technologies has been operating a COHPAC (COmpact Hybrid PArticulate Collector) pulse-jet pilot plant at PSE and G's Hudson station in Jersey City, NJ to expand the application of COHPAC in anticipation of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) regulations. The pilot extracts a slipstream of flue gas from downstream of Hudson's full-scale ESP (a four-field Research Cottrell unit). A series of tests has been run over the past two and one-half years to evaluate the injection of dry sorbents upstream of the COHPAC pilot for removal of acid gases and mercury from the flue gas slipstream. The COHPAC baghouse subsequently removes the sorbent material from the flue gas. Gas samples were taken upstream of sorbent injection and downstream of the pilot to characterize the ability of the sorbents to remove targeted HAPs. The operation of the pilot was also monitored during testing to characterize the impact of sorbent injection on the performance of the baghouse. Data collected during 1998 are compared to data from 1997, when the pilot was operated at a higher air-to-cloth ratio.

  4. Professional kinesiology practice for chronic low back pain: single-blind, randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, S; Brien, S; Little, P; Prescott, P; Lewith, G

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a highly prevalent condition with no definitive treatment. Professional Kinesiology Practice (PKP) is a little known complementary medicine technique using non-standard muscle testing; no previous effectiveness studies have been performed. This is an exploratory, pragmatic single-blind, 3-arm randomised sham-controlled pilot study with waiting list control (WLC) in private practice UK (2007-2009). 70 participants scoring ≥4 on the Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) were randomised to real or sham PKP receiving 1 treatment weekly for 5 weeks or a WLC. WLC's were re-randomised to real or sham after 6 weeks. The main outcome was a change in RMDQ from baseline to end of 5 weeks of real or sham PKP. With an effect size of 0.7 real treatment was significantly different to sham (mean difference RMDQ score = -2.9, p = 0.04, 95% CI -5.8 to -0.1). Compared to WLC, real and sham groups had significant RMDQ improvements (real -9.0, p < 0.01, 95% CI -12.1 to -5.8; effect size 2.1; sham -6.1, p < 0.01, 95% CI -9.1 to -3.1; effect size 1.4). Practitioner empathy (CARE) and patient enablement (PEI) did not predict outcome; holistic health beliefs (CAMBI) did, though. The sham treatment appeared credible; patients did not guess treatment allocation. 3 patients reported minor adverse reactions. Real treatment was significantly different from sham demonstrating a moderate specific effect of PKP; both were better than WLC indicating a substantial non-specific and contextual treatment effect. A larger definitive study would be appropriate with nested qualitative work to help understand the mechanisms involved in PKP.

  5. Managing mobility outcomes in vulnerable seniors ( MMOVeS): a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Sabrina; Morais, Jose A; Mayo, Nancy

    2017-12-01

    To estimate feasibility and potential for efficacy of an individualized, exercise-focused, self-management program (i.e. Managing Mobility Outcomes In Vulnerable Seniors ( MMOVeS)), in comparison to exercise information in improving mobility after six months among seniors recently discharged from hospital. Randomized pilot study. Two McGill University-teaching hospitals. Community dwelling seniors, aged 70 years and older, recently discharged from either participating hospitals. The physiotherapy-facilitated intervention consisted of (1) evaluation of mobility capacity, (2) setting short- and long-term goals, (3) delineation of an exercise treatment plan, (4) an educational booklet to enhance mobility self-management skills, and (5) six monthly telephone calls. Control group received a booklet with information on exercises targeting mobility limitations in seniors. Mobility, pain, and health status were assessed at baseline and at six months using multiple indicators drawn from Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) Score, Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Short-Form (SF)-36. In all, 26 people were randomized to the intervention (mean age: 81 ± 8; 39% women), and 23 were randomized to the control (mean age: 79 ± 7; 33% women). The odds ratio for the mobility outcomes combined was 3.08 and the 95% confidence interval excluded 1 (1.65-5.77). The odds ratio for pain and health perception favored the MMOVeS group, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. This feasibility study highlights the potential for efficacy of an individualized, exercise-focused, self-management program in comparison to exercise information in improving mobility outcome for seniors. Furthermore, a home-program combining self-management skills and exercise taught with minimal supervision prove to be feasible. Finally, data from this study can be used to estimate sample size for a confirmatory trial.

  6. Music therapy for prisoners: pilot randomised controlled trial and implications for evaluating psychosocial interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Assmus, Jörg; Hjørnevik, Kjetil; Qvale, Liv Gunnhild; Brown, Fiona Kirkwood; Hansen, Anita Lill; Waage, Leif; Stige, Brynjulf

    2014-12-01

    Mental health problems are common among prison inmates. Music therapy has been shown to reduce mental health problems. It may also be beneficial in the rehabilitation of prisoners, but rigorous outcome research is lacking. We compared group music therapy with standard care for prisoners in a pilot randomised controlled trial that started with the establishment of music therapy services in a prison near Bergen in 2008. In all, 113 prisoners agreed to participate. Anxiety (STAI-State [State-Trait Anxiety Inventory], STAI-Trait), depression (HADS-D [Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale]), and social relationships (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q]) were assessed at baseline; every 2 weeks in the experimental group; after 1, 3, and 6 months in the control group; and at release. No restrictions were placed on the frequency, duration, or contents of music therapy. Duration of stay in the institution was short (62% stayed less than 1 month). Only a minority reached clinical cutoffs for anxiety and depression at baseline. Between-group analyses of effects were not possible. Music therapy was well accepted and attractive among the prisoners. Post hoc analysis of within-group changes suggested a reduction of state anxiety after 2 weeks of music therapy (d = 0.33, p = .025). Short sentences and low baseline levels of psychological disturbance impeded the examination of effects in this study. Recommendations for planning future studies are given, concerning the careful choice of participants, interventions and settings, comparison condition and design aspects, choice of outcomes, and integration of research approaches. Thus, the present study has important implications for future studies evaluating interventions for improving prisoners' mental health. ISRCTN22518605. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Online suicide risk screening and intervention with college students: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A; Eisenberg, Daniel; Zheng, Kai; Czyz, Ewa; Kramer, Anne; Horwitz, Adam; Chermack, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the effect of an online intervention for college students at risk for suicide, Electronic Bridge to Mental Health Services (eBridge), which included personalized feedback and optional online counseling delivered in accordance with motivational interviewing principles. Primary outcomes were readiness to seek information or talk with family and friends about mental health treatment, readiness to seek mental health treatment, and actual treatment linkage. Participants were 76 college students (45 women, 31 men; mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 5.0 years) at a large public university who screened positive for suicide risk, defined by at least 2 of the following: suicidal thoughts, history of suicide attempt, depression, and alcohol abuse. Racial/ethnic self-identifications were primarily Caucasian (n = 54) and Asian (n = 21). Students were randomized to eBridge or the control condition (personalized feedback only, offered in plain report format). Outcomes were measured at 2-month follow-up. Despite relatively modest engagement in online counseling (29% of students posted ≥1 message), students assigned to eBridge reported significantly higher readiness for help-seeking scores, especially readiness to talk to family, talk to friends, and see a mental health professional. Students assigned to eBridge also reported lower stigma levels and were more likely to link to mental health treatment. Findings suggest that offering students personalized feedback and the option of online counseling, using motivational interviewing principles, has a positive impact on students' readiness to consider and engage in mental health treatment. Further research is warranted to determine the robustness of this effect, the mechanism by which improved readiness and treatment linkage occurs, and the longer term impact on student mental health outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A feasibility and pilot randomized controlled trial of the "Timing it Right Stroke Family Support Program".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jill I; Naglie, Gary; Green, Theresa L; Gignac, Monique A M; Bayley, Mark; Huijbregts, Maria; Silver, Frank L; Czerwonka, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Examine feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of the Timing it Right Stroke Family Support Program (TIRSFSP) and collect pilot data. Multi-site mixed method randomized controlled trial. Acute and community care in three Canadian cities. Caregivers were family members or friends providing care to individuals who experienced their first stroke. The TIRSFSP offered in two formats, self-directed by the caregiver or stroke support person-directed over time, were compared to standard care. Caregivers completed baseline and follow-up measures 1, 3 and 6 months post-stroke including Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Mastery Scales. We completed in-depth qualitative interviews with caregivers and maintained intervention records describing support provided to each caregiver. Thirty-one caregivers received standard care (n=10), self-directed (n=10), or stroke support person-directed (n=11) interventions. We retained 77% of the sample through 6-months. Key areas of support derived from intervention records (n=11) related to caregiver wellbeing, caregiving strategies, patient wellbeing, community re-integration, and service delivery. Compared to standard care, caregivers receiving the stroke support person-directed intervention reported improvements in perceived support (estimate 3.1, P=.04) and mastery (estimate .35, P=.06). Qualitative caregiver interviews (n=19) reflected the complex interaction between caregiver needs, preferences and available options when reporting on level of satisfaction. Preliminary findings suggest the research design is feasible, caregivers' needs are complex, and the support intervention may enhance caregivers' perceived support and mastery. The intervention will be tested further in a large scale trial. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Autism in children and correlates in Lebanon: a pilot case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadé, Aline; Salameh, Pascale; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna; Hajj-Moussa, Elie; Saadallah-Zeidan, Nina; Rizk, Francine

    2013-09-17

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder typically appearing before the age of three. The exact cause of autism remains uncertain, and several factors may be involved in its onset: genetic factors and possible environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the correlates of autism in the Lebanese population. We investigated the association of autism with several factors in 86 autism cases from specialized schools for children with developmental disabilities and 172 control children from regular public schools in the same regions. Several risk factors for autism were investigated after comparison with a cohort control on parental age, sex, maternal unhappy feeling during pregnancy, consanguineous marriage, and province of residence. The Chi-square test was used to compare nominal variables, and Fisher exact test was used in case expected values within cells were inferior to five. For quantitative variables, we used t-test to compare means between two groups, after checking their distribution normality. For multivariate analysis, we used a forward stepwise likelihood ratio logistic regression. We observed male predominance (79.1%) among autistic infants. There was a significant association between autism and older parents age (OR=1.27), male sex (OR=3.38), unhappy maternal feeling during pregnancy (OR=5.77), living close to industry (OR=6.58), previous childhood infection (OR=8.85), but none concerning maternal age, paternal age and consanguinity. In this pilot epidemiological study of autism in Lebanon, we found several prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism that could be modified.

  10. Children Learning About Secondhand Smoke (CLASS II): protocol of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Jackson, Cath; Parrott, Steve; Dogar, Omara; Shah, Sarwat; Thomson, Heather; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-08-25

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases children's risk of acquiring chest and ear infections, tuberculosis, meningitis and asthma. Smoking bans in public places (where implemented) have significantly reduced adults' exposure to SHS. However, for children, homes remain the most likely place for them to be exposed to SHS. Additional measures are therefore required to protect children from SHS. In a feasibility study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we have shown that a school-based smoke-free intervention (SFI) was successful in encouraging children to negotiate and implement smoking restrictions in homes. We will now conduct a pilot trial to inform plans to undertake a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SFI in reducing children's exposure to SHS. We plan to recruit 12 primary schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh. From these schools, we will recruit approximately 360 schoolchildren in year 5 (10-12 years old), that is, 30 per school. SFI consists of six interactive educational activities aimed at increasing pupils' knowledge about SHS and related harms, motivating them to act, providing skills to negotiate with adults to persuade them not to smoke inside homes and helping families to 'sign-up' to a voluntary contract to make their homes smoke-free. Children in the control arm will receive the usual education. We will estimate: recruitment and attrition rates, acceptability, fidelity to SFI, effect size, intracluster correlation coefficient, cost of intervention and adverse events. Our primary outcome will consist of SHS exposure in children measured by salivary cotinine. Secondary outcomes will include respiratory symptoms, lung function tests, healthcare contacts, school attendance, smoking uptake, quality of life and academic performance. The trial has received ethics approval from the Research Governance Committee at the University of York. Findings will help us plan for the definitive trial. ISRCTN68690577

  11. Online Suicide Risk Screening and Intervention with College Students: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Zheng, Kai; Czyz, Ewa; Kramer, Anne; Horwitz, Adam; Chermack, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Objective This pilot randomized controlled trial examined the effect of an online intervention for college students at risk for suicide, Electronic Bridge to Mental Health Services (eBridge), which included personalized feedback and optional online counseling delivered in accordance with motivational interviewing principles. Primary outcomes were readiness to seek information or talk with family and friends about mental health treatment, readiness to seek mental health treatment, and actual treatment linkage. Method Participants were 76 college students (45 women, 31 men; mean age = 22.9 years, SD = 5.0 years) at a large public university who screened positive for suicide risk, defined by at least two of the following: suicidal thoughts, history of suicide attempt, depression, and alcohol abuse. Racial/ethnic self-identifications were primarily Caucasian (n = 54) and Asian (n = 21). Students were randomized to eBridge or the control condition (personalized feedback only, offered in plain report format). Outcomes were measured at 2-month follow-up. Results Despite relatively modest engagement in online counseling (29% of students posted ≥ 1 message), students assigned to eBridge reported significantly higher readiness for help-seeking scores, especially readiness to talk to family, talk to friends, and see a mental health professional. Students assigned to eBridge also reported lower stigma levels and were more likely to link to mental health treatment. Conclusions Findings suggest that offering students personalized feedback and the option of online counseling, using motivational interviewing principles, has a positive impact on students’ readiness to consider and engage in mental health treatment. Further research is warranted to determine the robustness of this effect, the mechanism by which improved readiness and treatment linkage occurs, and the longer term impact on student mental health outcomes. PMID:25688811

  12. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. Methods This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n = 21) or a walking control (n = 20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Results This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight −0.8 ± 2.1 vs. 1.4 ± 3.6, p = 0.02; waist circumference −4.2 ± 4.8 vs. 0.7 ± 4.2, p yoga intervention and walking control over the course of the study. Conclusion Among Indians with elevated fasting blood glucose, we found that participation in an 8-week yoga intervention was feasible and resulted in greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference when compared to a walking control. Yoga offers a promising lifestyle intervention for decreasing weight-related type 2 diabetes risk factors and potentially increasing

  13. Exercise and Counseling for Smoking Cessation in Smokers With Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Paquito; Ninot, Gregory; Cyprien, Fabienne; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sebastien; Georgescu, Vera; Picot, Marie-Christine; Taylor, Adrian; Quantin, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Despite various strategies to help smokers with depressive disorders to quit, the smoking relapse rate remains high. The purpose of this pilot study was to estimate the effects of adding an exercise and counseling intervention to standard smoking cessation treatment for smokers with depressive disorders. We hypothesized that the exercise and counseling intervention would lead to improved abstinence, reduced depressive symptoms, and increased physical activity. Seventy smokers with current depressive disorders were randomly assigned to standard smoking cessation treatment plus exercise and counseling (n = 35) or standard treatment plus a time-to-contact control intervention on health education (n = 35). Both programs involved 10 sessions over 8 weeks. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence since the quit date and was measured at week 8 (end of the intervention) and again at 12-, 24-, and 52-week follow-ups. Nearly 60% of participants were female (n = 41), 38 (52.3%) were single, 37 (52.9%) had education beyond high school, and 32 (45.7%) met criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Participants in the two treatment conditions differed at baseline only in marital status (χ(2) = 4.28, df = 1, p =.04); and smoking abstinence self-efficacy, t(66) = -2.04, p =.04). The dropout rate did not differ significantly between groups and participants attended 82% and 75% of the intervention and control sessions, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that, at 12 weeks after the beginning of the intervention, continuous abstinence did not vary significantly between the intervention and control groups: 48.5% versus 28.5%, respectively, ORadj = 0.40, 95% CI [0.12-1.29], p =.12. There were no group differences in depressive symptoms, but the intervention group did outperform the control group on the 6-minute walking test (Mint = 624.84, SD = 8.17, vs. Mcon = 594.13, SD = 8.96, p =.015) and perceived physical control (Mint = 2.84, SD = 0.16, vs. Mcon = 2

  14. Compliance, Avoidance, and Evasion: Emissions Control Under Imperfect Enforcement in Steam-Electric Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Dan A. Fuller

    1987-01-01

    Environmental regulation takes place in a world in which firms search for least-cost adaptations to emission standards. Firms may substitute inputs, change the desired level of output, or defy the standard, if they perceive enforcement to be lax. This article estimates the impact of pollution-control standards for fly-ash and thermal-waste heat within a joint model of production. The model recognizes that effective control requires both the enactment and the enforcement of the legal standard....

  15. Characterizing Thawing Permafrost Carbon Emissions: An Integrated Pilot Study in Support of Satellite Evaluation/Design and Earth System Modeling Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. L.; Ott, L. E.; DiGregorio, A.; Duncan, B. N.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Carter, L. M.; Tucker, C. J.; Miller, J. H. H.; Liang, Q.; Elshorbany, Y. F.; Edgar, C.; Melocik, K. A.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Bailey, D. M.; Adkins, E. M.; Melroy, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present a multi-disciplinary, multi-scaled study to measure methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) above thawing permafrost at three sites, each representing a different ecosystem, near Fairbanks, AK. We have designed a unique and comprehensive array of ground experiments at these sites that will record permafrost depth and subsurface structure, meteorological data, and concentrations of key GHGs during seasonal ground thaw of the active layer in the summer. This is the first time that these types of measurements have been combined to provide a holistic view of the evolution of, and the atmospheric response to permafrost thaw. These data will allow us to estimate emission fluxes of carbon from the thawing permafrosts. To estimate a global source of GHG emissions from thawing permafrosts, we will use MODIS and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor data to "scale up" the data collected at the three sites on the basis of land surface type information. We refer to this effort as a pilot study as we will collect observations near Fairbanks, AK with the intent to expand our observational network in the future to other sites in North America, which will aid in the monitoring of changes in GHG emissions in the Arctic as well as complement and help interpret data collected by space-borne instruments, such as GOSAT, IASI, and AIRS. Based on the data collected at the three sites and a variety of existing satellite data sets, we will develop a computationally-efficient parameterization of emissions from thawing permafrosts for use in the NASA GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), thus benefiting ongoing efforts in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) to build an Earth System Model which is used for both retrospective and predictive simulations of important GHGs. We will use the AGCM to interpret the data collected by tracking methane and CO2 plumes from various sources that impact the three sites. In addition, we

  16. Enhanced hydrophobicity and volatility of submicron aerosols under severe emission control conditions in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuying; Zhang, Fang; Li, Zhanqing

    2017-04-01

    A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and the surrounding seven provinces to ensure good air quality during the 2015 China Victory Day parade, rendering a unique opportunity to investigate anthropogenic impact of aerosol properties. Submicron aerosol hygroscopicity and volatility were measured during and after the control period using a hygroscopic and volatile tandem differential mobility analyzer (H/V-TDMA) system. Three periods, namely, the control clean period (Clean1), the non-control clean period (Clean2), and the non-control pollution period (Pollution), were selected to study the effect of the emission control measures on aerosol hygroscopicity and volatility. Aerosol particles became more hydrophobic and volatile due to the emission control measures. The hygroscopicity parameter (κ) of 40-200 nm particles decreased by 32.0%-8.5% during the Clean1 period relative to the Clean2 period, while the volatile shrink factor (SF) of 40-300 nm particles decreased by 7.5%-10.5%. The emission controls also changed the diurnal variation patterns of both the probability density function of κ (κ-PDF) and the probability density function of SF (SF-PDF). During Clean1 the κ-PDF showed one nearly-hydrophobic (NH) mode for particles in the nucleation mode, which was likely due to the dramatic reduction in industrial emissions of inorganic trace gases. Compared to the Pollution period, particles observed during the Clean1 and Clean2 periods exhibited a more significant non-volatile (NV) mode throughout the day, suggesting a more externally-mixed state particularly for the 150 nm particles. Aerosol hygroscopicities increased as particle sizes increased, with the greatest increases seen during the Pollution period. Accordingly, the aerosol volatility became weaker (i.e., SF increased) during the Clean1 and Clean2 periods, but no apparent trend was observed during the Pollution period. Based on a correlation analysis of the number fractions

  17. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Guided Self-Help Intervention to Manage Chronic Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthorpe, Joanna; Lovell, Karina; Peters, Sarah; McGowan, Linda; Nemeth, Imola; Roberts, Christopher; Aggarwal, Vishal R

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a pilot trial to test the feasibility of a guided self-help intervention for chronic orofacial pain. A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the intervention with usual treatment. A total of 37 patients with chronic orofacial pain were randomized into either the intervention group (n = 19) or the usual treatment (control) group (n = 18). Validated outcome measures were used to measure the potential effectiveness of the intervention over a number of domains: physical and mental functioning (Short Form 36 [SF-36]); anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]); pain intensity and interference with life (Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]); disability (Manchester Orofacial Pain Disability Scale [MOPDS]); and illness behavior (Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire [IPQr]). Bootstrap confidence intervals were computed for the treatment effect (ES) posttreatment and at 3 months follow-up and adjusted for baseline values of the outcome measure by using analysis of covariance. At posttreatment and the 3-month follow-up, 11 participants in the intervention group and 7 in the control group failed to complete outcome measures. The intervention was acceptable and could be feasibly delivered face to face or over the telephone. Although the pilot trial was not powered to draw conclusions about the effectiveness, it showed significant (P orofacial pain. It showed potential effectiveness on outcome domains related to functioning and illness perception. Further research is needed to understand the cost effectiveness of the intervention for chronic orofacial pain.

  18. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boers, Inge; Muskiet, Frits A. J; Berkelaar, Evert; Schut, Erik; Penders, Ria; Hoenderdos, Karine; Wichers, Harry J; Jong, Miek C

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome...

  19. Favourable effects of consuming a Palaeolithic-type diet on characteristics of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot-study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boers, I; Muskiet, F.A.J; Berkelaar, E; Schut, E; Penders, R; Hoenderdos, K; Jong, de, M.C; Wichers, H.J

    2014-01-01

    Background The main goal of this randomized controlled single-blinded pilot study was to study whether, independent of weight loss, a Palaeolithic-type diet alters characteristics of the metabolic syndrome...

  20. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lione

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. Methods This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1–CS2. The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1 and after 1 year (T2. A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. Results RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. Conclusions The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular

  1. Mandibular response after rapid maxillary expansion in class II growing patients: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, Roberta; Brunelli, Valerio; Franchi, Lorenzo; Pavoni, Chiara; Quiroga Souki, Bernardo; Cozza, Paola

    2017-11-06

    The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the sagittal mandibular response induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy in mixed dentition patients with class II malocclusion, comparing the effects of bonded RME and banded RME with a matched untreated class II control group. This RCT was designed in parallel with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The sample consisted of 30 children with a mean age of 8.1 ± 0.6 years who were randomly assigned to three groups: group 1 treated with bonded RME, group 2 treated with banded RME, and group 3 the untreated control group. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: early mixed dentition, class II molar relationship, transverse discrepancy ≥ 4 mm, overjet ≥ 5 mm, and prepubertal skeletal maturity stage (CS1-CS2). The expansion screw was activated one quarter of a turn per day (0.25 mm) until overcorrection was reached. For each subject, lateral cephalograms and plaster casts were obtained before treatment (T1) and after 1 year (T2). A randomization list was created for the group assignment, with an allocation ratio of 1:1:1. The observer who performed all the measurements was blinded to group assignment. The study was single-blinded in regard to statistical analysis. RME was effective in the correction of maxillary deficiency. Class II patients treated with both types of RME showed no significant improvement of the anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla and the mandible at both skeletal and occlusal levels. The acrylic splint RME had significant effects on reducing the skeletal vertical dimension and the gonial angle. The orthopedic expansion did not affect the sagittal relationship of class II patients treated in the early mixed dentition when compared with the untreated control group. Additional studies with a larger sample are warranted to elucidate individual variations in dento-skeletal mandibular response to the maxillary expansion protocol in class

  2. Wellness through a comprehensive Yogic breathing program – A controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlander Torsten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of psychosocial disturbances give rise to increased risks and vulnerability for a wide variety of stress-related chronic pain and other illnesses. Relaxation exercises aim at reducing stress and thereby help prevent these unwanted outcomes. One of the widely used relaxation practices is yoga and yogic breathing exercises. One specific form of these exercises is Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (SK&P which are understood to have favourable effects on the mind-body system. The goal of this pilot study was to design a protocol that can investigate whether SK&P can lead to increased feeling of wellness in healthy volunteers. Methods Participants were recruited in a small university city in Sweden and were instructed in a 6-day intensive program of SK&P which they practiced daily for six weeks. The control group was instructed to relax in an armchair each day during the same period. Subjects included a total of 103 adults, 55 in the intervention (SK&P group and 48 in the control group. Various instruments were administered before and after the intervention. Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale measured the degree of anxiety and depression, Life Orientation Test measured dispositional optimism, Stress and Energy Test measured individual's energy and stress experiences. Experienced Deviation from Normal State measured the experience of altered state of consciousness. Results There were no safety issues. Compliance was high (only 1 dropout in the SK&P group, and 5 in the control group. Outcome measures appeared to be appropriate for assessing the differences between the groups. Subjective reports generally correlated with the findings from the instruments. The data suggest that participants in the SK&P group, but not the control group, lowered their degree of anxiety, depression and stress, and also increased their degree of optimism (ANOVA; p Conclusion These data indicate that the experimental protocol that is

  3. Melodic Intonation Therapy in chronic aphasia: evidence from a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Van Der Meulen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMelodic Intonation Therapy (MIT is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT. Subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list randomized controlled trial design. Patients with chronic (>1 year post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT. Assessments were done at baseline (T1, after 6 weeks (T2, and 6 weeks later (T3. Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β=13.32, p=.02. This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This

  4. Feasibility and Outcomes of an Internet-Based Mindfulness Training Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvillemo, Pia; Brandberg, Yvonne; Bränström, Richard

    2016-07-22

    Interventions based on meditation and mindfulness techniques have been shown to reduce stress and increase psychological well-being in a wide variety of populations. Self-administrated Internet-based mindfulness training programs have the potential to be a convenient, cost-effective, easily disseminated, and accessible alternative to group-based programs. This randomized controlled pilot trial with 90 university students in Stockholm, Sweden, explored the feasibility, usability, acceptability, and outcomes of an 8-week Internet-based mindfulness training program. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=46) or an active control condition (n=44). Intervention participants were invited to an Internet-based 8-week mindfulness program, and control participants were invited to an Internet-based 4-week expressive writing program. The programs were automated apart from weekly reminders via email. Main outcomes in pre- and postassessments were psychological well-being and depression symptoms. To assess the participant's experiences, those completing the full programs were asked to fill out an assessment questionnaire and 8 of the participants were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis, were performed. In the mindfulness program, 28 out of 46 students (60%) completed the first week and 18 out of 46 (39%) completed the full program. In the expressive writing program, 35 out of 44 students (80%) completed the first week and 31 out of 44 (70%) completed the full program. There was no statistically significantly stronger intervention effect for the mindfulness intervention compared to the active control intervention. Those completing the mindfulness group reported high satisfaction with the program. Most of those interviewed were satisfied with the layout and technique and with the support provided by the study coordinators. More frequent contact with study coordinators was

  5. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  6. Towards an Improved Pilot-Vehicle Interface for Highly Automated Aircraft: Evaluation of the Haptic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The control automation and interaction paradigm (e.g., manual, autopilot, flight management system) used on virtually all large highly automated aircraft has long been an exemplar of breakdowns in human factors and human-centered design. An alternative paradigm is the Haptic Flight Control System (HFCS) that is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Naturalistic Flight Deck Concept. The HFCS uses only stick and throttle for easily and intuitively controlling the actual flight of the aircraft without losing any of the efficiency and operational benefits of the current paradigm. Initial prototypes of the HFCS are being evaluated and this paper describes one such evaluation. In this evaluation we examined claims regarding improved situation awareness, appropriate workload, graceful degradation, and improved pilot acceptance. Twenty-four instrument-rated pilots were instructed to plan and fly four different flights in a fictitious airspace using a moderate fidelity desktop simulation. Three different flight control paradigms were tested: Manual control, Full Automation control, and a simplified version of the HFCS. Dependent variables included both subjective (questionnaire) and objective (SAGAT) measures of situation awareness, workload (NASA-TLX), secondary task performance, time to recognize automation failures, and pilot preference (questionnaire). The results showed a statistically significant advantage for the HFCS in a number of measures. Results that were not statistically significant still favored the HFCS. The results suggest that the HFCS does offer an attractive and viable alternative to the tactical components of today s FMS/autopilot control system. The paper describes further studies that are planned to continue to evaluate the HFCS.

  7. Observer Based Optimal Vibration Control of a Full Aircraft System Having Active Landing Gears and Biodynamic Pilot Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Yazici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of an observed based optimal state feedback controller having pole location constraints for an active vibration mitigation problem of an aircraft system. An eleven-degree-of-freedom detailed full aircraft mathematical model having active landing gears and a seated pilot body is developed to control and analyze aircraft vibrations caused by runway excitation, when the aircraft is taxiing. Ground induced vibration can contribute to the reduction of pilot’s capability to control the aircraft and cause the safety problem before take-off and after landing. Since the state variables of the pilot body are not available for measurement in practice, an observed based optimal controller is designed via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs approach. In addition, classical LQR controller is designed to investigate effectiveness of the proposed controller. The system is then simulated against the bump and random runway excitation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller provides significant improvements in reducing vibration amplitudes of aircraft fuselage and pilot’s head and maintains the safety requirements in terms of suspension stroke and tire deflection.

  8. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on an environmental verification of the emissions characteristics of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and catalyic crankcase emissions control. It was found the systems reduced emissions.

  9. Effect of reed canary grass cultivation on greenhouse gas emission from peat soil at controlled rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karki, Sandhya; Elsgaard, Lars; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    cultivation on GHG emission from peatland rewetted to various extents. Mesocosms were manipulated to three different ground water levels (GWLs), i.e. 0, −10 and −20 cm below the soil surface in a controlled semi-field facility. Emissions of CO2 (ecosystem respiration, ER), CH4 and N2O from mesocosms with RCG....... However, this difference was due to decreased soil respiration at the rising GWL as the plant-derived CO2 flux was similar at all three GWLs. For methane, 70–95% of the total emission was due to presence of RCG, with the highest contribution at −20 cm GWL. In contrast, cultivation of RCG decreased N2O...... and bare soil were measured at weekly to fortnightly intervals with static chamber techniques for a period of 1 year. Cultivation of RCG increased both ER and CH4 emissions, but decreased the N2O emissions. The presence of RCG gave rise to 69, 75 and 85% of total ER at −20, −10 and 0 cm GWL, respectively...

  10. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-02

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  11. South Asian Heart Risk Assessment (SAHARA): Randomized Controlled Trial Design and Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaan, Zainab; Schulze, Karleen M; Middleton, Catherine; Irvine, Jane; Joseph, Phillip; Mente, Andrew; Shah, Baiju R; Pare, Guillaume; Desai, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    Background People of South Asian origin suffer a high burden of premature myocardial infarction (MI). South Asians form a growing proportion of the Canadian population and preventive strategies to mitigate the risk of MI in this group are needed. Prior studies have shown that multimedia interventions are effective and feasible in inducing health behavior changes among the obese, smokers, and among those who are sedentary. Objective Among at-risk South Asians living in Canada, our objectives are to determine: (1) the feasibility of a culturally tailored multimedia intervention to induce positive behavioral changes associated with reduced MI risk factors, and (2) the effectiveness and acceptability of information communicated by individualized MI and genetic risk score (GRS) reports. Methods The South Asian HeArt Risk Assessment (SAHARA) pilot study enrolled 367 individuals of South Asian origin recruited from places of worship and community centers in Ontario, Canada. MI risk factors including the 9p21 genetic variant status were provided to all participants after the baseline visit. Participants were randomly allocated to receive a multimedia intervention or control. The intervention group selected health goals and received personalized health messages to promote adherence to their selected goals. After 6 months, all participants had their MI risk factors repeated. The methods and results of this study are reported based on the CONSORT-EHEALTH guidelines. Results The mean age of participants was 53.8 years (SD 11.4), 52.0% (191/367) were women, and 97.5% (358/367) were immigrants to Canada. The mean INTERHEART risk score was 13.0 (SD 5.8) and 73.3% (269/367) had one or two copies of the risk allele for the 9p21 genetic variant. Both the intervention and control groups made some progress in health behavior changes related to diet and physical activity over 6 months. Participants reported that their risk score reports motivated behavioral changes, although half of

  12. Efficacy of a biobehavioral intervention for hot flashes: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Debra L; Schroeder, Kelliann C Fee; Banerjee, Tanima; Wolf, Sherry; Keith, Timothy Z; Elkins, Gary

    2017-07-01

    The need for effective nonhormonal treatments for hot flash management without unwanted side effects continues. The primary aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of combining a nonhormonal pharmacologic agent with a behavioral treatment for hot flash reduction. Seventy-one postmenopausal women were randomized to one of four groups: venlafaxine 75 mg + hypnosis (VH) versus venlafaxine 75 mg + sham hypnosis (VSH) versus a placebo pill + hypnosis (PH) versus placebo pill + sham hypnosis (PSH). Women recorded hot flash severity and frequency in a daily diary, in real time. The intrapatient difference in hot flash score (frequency × severity) at 8 weeks was analyzed using a General Estimating Equation model, using VSH as the referent arm, controlling for baseline hot flashes. The active arms including PH or VH were not statistically significantly different than VSH (P = 0.34, P = 0.05, respectively). Women in each active arm reported hot flash reductions of about 50%, with the PSH group reporting a 25% reduction. Women receiving the PSH reported statistically significantly smaller reductions in hot flash score than women in the referent VSH arm (P = 0.001). There were no significant negative side effects during the course of the study. Hypnosis alone reduced hot flashes equal to venlafaxine alone, but the combination of hypnosis and venlafaxine did not reduce hot flashes more than either treatment alone. More research is needed to clarify whether combining hypnosis with a different antidepressant would provide synergistic benefits.

  13. A randomized controlled pilot study of motivational interviewing for patients with psychotic and drug use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen M; Nich, Charla; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2006-10-01

    This pilot study examined the efficacy of a two-session motivational interview adapted for dually diagnosed psychotic and drug-related disordered patients (DDMI) in comparison to a two-session standard psychiatric interview (SI). The study used a randomized controlled trial design. Participants received either DDMI or SI and were assessed at baseline, 4-, 8- and 12-week follow-up points. The principal analysis for examination of treatment effects across time was a random effects regression model. Both DDMI and SI interviews served as pre-admission intake interventions to an ambulatory specialty dual diagnosis intensive out-patient and partial hospital program. Forty-four treatment-seeking participants (DDMI = 24; SI = 20) who had co-occurring psychotic and drug-related disorders were assigned randomly to the treatment conditions. Measurements Primary outcomes were days of primary drug use, secondary drug use, alcohol use and psychotropic medication adherence, proportion of participants admitted into the program and days of attendance. DDMI and SI resulted in improved treatment outcomes, but there were no main effects for the sample as a whole. Separate examination of primary cocaine and primary marijuana using subsamples, however, suggested that DDMI resulted in significantly better primary drug treatment outcomes for the cocaine-using group, whereas SI resulted in significantly better primary drug treatment outcomes for the marijuana-using group. These findings indicate that MI may not work equally well for all types of psychotic disordered dually diagnosed patients and that alternative approaches may be as effective in fostering improved substance use treatment outcomes for subgroups of these individuals.

  14. Effect of Raw Milk on Lactose Intolerance: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummah, Sarah; Oelrich, Beibei; Hope, Jessica; Vu, Quyen; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This pilot study aimed to determine whether raw milk reduces lactose malabsorption and/or lactose intolerance symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. METHODS We performed a crossover trial involving 16 adults with self-reported lactose intolerance and lactose malabsorption confirmed by hydrogen (H2) breath testing. Participants underwent 3, 8-day milk phases (raw vs 2 controls: pasteurized, soy) in randomized order separated by 1-week washout periods. On days 1 and 8 of each phase, milk consumption was 473 mL (16 oz); on days 2 to 7, milk dosage increased daily by 118 mL (4 oz), beginning with 118 mL (4 oz) on day 2 and reaching 710 mL (24 oz) on day 7. Outcomes were area under the breath H2 curve (AUC ∆H2) and self-reported symptom severity (visual analog scales: flatulence/gas, audible bowel sounds, abdominal cramping, diarrhea). RESULTS AUC ∆H2 (mean ± standard error of the mean) was higher for raw vs pasteurized on day 1 (113 ± 21 vs 71 ± 12 ppm·min·10−2, respectively, P = .01) but not day 8 (72 ± 14 vs 74 ± 15 ppm·min·10−2, respectively, P = .9). Symptom severities were not different for raw vs pasteurized on day 7 with the highest dosage (P >.7). AUC ∆H2 and symptom severities were higher for both dairy milks compared with soy milk. CONCLUSIONS Raw milk failed to reduce lactose malabsorption or lactose intolerance symptoms compared with pasteurized milk among adults positive for lactose malabsorption. These results do not support widespread anecdotal claims that raw milk reduces the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:24615309

  15. Exercise or Social Intervention for Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Cesari, Matteo; Denormandie, Philippe; Armaingaud, Didier; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2017-09-01

    To compare the effects of exercise with those of a structured nonphysical intervention on ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and physical and cognitive function of persons with dementia (PWDs) living in nursing homes (NH). Cluster-randomized pilot-controlled trial. Seven French NHs. PWDs living in NHs. NHs were randomized to an exercise group (4 NHs, n = 47) or structured social activity group (3 NHs, n = 50) for a 24-week intervention performed twice per week for 60 minutes per session. The main endpoint was ADL performance (Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory for Severe Alzheimer's Disease Scale (ADCS-ADL-sev); range 0-54, higher is better); secondary endpoints were overall cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)) and performance-based tests of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), usual gait speed). Ninety-one participants with at least one postbaseline ADL assessment were included in efficacy analysis. Groups differed at baseline in terms of sex, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and nutritional status. Multilevel analysis adjusted for baseline differences between groups found no significant difference between effects of exercise and social activity (group-by-time interaction), with adjusted mean differences at 6 months of 1.9 points for ADCS-ADL-sev and 0.55 points for MMSE favoring social activity and 0.6 points for SPPB and 0.05 m/s favoring exercise. Adverse events did not differ between groups, except that the social activity group had more falls than the exercise group. A larger, longer trial is required to determine whether exercise has greater health benefits than nonphysical interventions for institutionalized PWDs. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Cupping for treating neck pain in video display terminal (VDT) users: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Kang, Jung Won; Kim, Kun Hyung; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Jung Eun; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Mi-Suk; Jung, So-Young; Kim, Ae-Ran; Park, Hyo-Ju; Hong, Kwon Eui

    2012-01-01

    This was a randomized controlled pilot trial to evaluate the effectiveness of cupping therapy for neck pain in video display terminal (VDT) workers. Forty VDT workers with moderate to severe neck pain were recruited from May, 2011 to February, 2012. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two interventions: 6 sessions of wet and dry cupping or heating pad application. The participants were offered an exercise program to perform during the participation period. A 0 to 100 numeric rating scale (NRS) for neck pain, measure yourself medical outcome profile 2 score (MYMOP2 score), cervical spine range of motion (C-spine ROM), neck disability index (NDI), the EuroQol health index (EQ-5D), short form stress response inventory (SRI-SF) and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were assessed at several points during a 7-week period. Compared with a heating pad, cupping was more effective in improving pain (adjusted NRS difference: -1.29 [95% CI -1.61, -0.97] at 3 weeks (p=0.025) and -1.16 [-1.48, -0.84] at 7 weeks (p=0.005)), neck function (adjusted NDI difference: -0.79 [-1.11, -0.47] at 3 (p=0.0039) and 7 weeks (pcupping and 0.91 [0.86, 0.91] with heating pad treatment, p=0.0054). Four participants reported mild adverse events of cupping. Two weeks of cupping therapy and an exercise program may be effective in reducing pain and improving neck function in VDT workers.

  17. A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Wall Climbing Intervention for Gynecologic Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jennifer J; Vallance, Jeff K; Holt, Nicholas L; Bell, Gordon J; Steed, Helen; Courneya, Kerry S

    2017-01-01

    To examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an eight-week supervised climbing intervention for gynecologic cancer survivors (GCSs).
. A pilot randomized, controlled trial.
. The Wilson Climbing Center in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
. 35 GCSs who had completed cancer therapy.
. GCSs were randomized to an eight-week (16 session) supervised wall climbing intervention (WCI) (n = 24) or usual care (UC) (n = 11).
. Feasibility outcomes included recruitment rate, adherence rate, skill performance, and safety. Preliminary efficacy outcomes were objective health-related and functional fitness assessed before and after the eight-week intervention using the Senior Fitness Test.
. Median adherence to the WCI was 13.5 of 16 sessions. Most GCSs were proficient on 16 of 24 skill assessment items. No serious adverse events were reported. Based on intention-to-treat analyses, the WCI group was superior to the UC group for the 6-minute walk, 30-second chair stand, 30-second arm curls, sit and reach, 8-foot up-and-go, grip strength-right, and grip strength-left assessments.
. The Gynecologic Cancer Survivors Wall Climbing for Total Health (GROWTH) Trial demonstrated that an eight-week supervised WCI was safe, feasible, and improved functional fitness in GCSs. Phase II and III trials are warranted to further establish the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of WCIs in cancer survivors.
. Oncology nurses may consider a climbing wall as an alternative type of physical activity for improving functional fitness in GCSs.

  18. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiken Pontoppidan

    Full Text Available Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child's mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of offering the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB program as a universal intervention.We conducted a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel pilot randomized controlled trial; 112 families with newborns were randomized to the IYPB program (76 or usual care (36 with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome was parenting confidence at 20 weeks(Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale and Parental Stress Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of parent health, parent-child relationship, infant development, parent-child activities, and network. Interviewers and data analysts were blind to allocation status. Multiple linear-regression analyses were used for evaluating the effects of the intervention.There were no intervention effects on the primary outcomes. Only one effect was detected for secondary outcomes, intervention mothers reported a significantly smaller network than control mothers (β = -0.15 [-1.85,-0.28]. When examining the lowest-functioning mothers in moderator analyses, we found that intervention mothers reported significantly higher parent stress (β = 5.33 [0.27,10.38], lower parenting confidence (β = -2.37 [-4.45,-0.29], and worse mental health than control mothers (β = -18.62 [-32.40,-4.84]. In contrast, the highest functioning intervention mothers reported significantly lower parent stress post-intervention (β = -6.11 [-11.07,-1.14].Overall, we found no effects of the IYPB as a universal intervention for parents with infants. The intervention was developed to be used with groups of low functioning families and may need to be adapted to be effective with universal parent groups. The differential outcomes for the lowest and highest functioning families suggest that future research should evaluate the effects of delivering the IYPB

  19. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Klest, Sihu K; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller

    2016-01-01

    Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child's mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of offering the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention. We conducted a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel pilot randomized controlled trial; 112 families with newborns were randomized to the IYPB program (76) or usual care (36) with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome was parenting confidence at 20 weeks(Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale and Parental Stress Scale). Secondary outcomes include measures of parent health, parent-child relationship, infant development, parent-child activities, and network. Interviewers and data analysts were blind to allocation status. Multiple linear-regression analyses were used for evaluating the effects of the intervention. There were no intervention effects on the primary outcomes. Only one effect was detected for secondary outcomes, intervention mothers reported a significantly smaller network than control mothers (β = -0.15 [-1.85,-0.28]). When examining the lowest-functioning mothers in moderator analyses, we found that intervention mothers reported significantly higher parent stress (β = 5.33 [0.27,10.38]), lower parenting confidence (β = -2.37 [-4.45,-0.29]), and worse mental health than control mothers (β = -18.62 [-32.40,-4.84]). In contrast, the highest functioning intervention mothers reported significantly lower parent stress post-intervention (β = -6.11 [-11.07,-1.14]). Overall, we found no effects of the IYPB as a universal intervention for parents with infants. The intervention was developed to be used with groups of low functioning families and may need to be adapted to be effective with universal parent groups. The differential outcomes for the lowest and highest functioning families suggest that future research should evaluate the effects of delivering the IYPB

  20. Physiotherapy Post Lumbar Discectomy: Prospective Feasibility and Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Alison; Goodwin, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate: acceptability and feasibility of trial procedures; distribution of scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ, planned primary outcome); and efficient working of trial components. Design and Setting A feasibility and external pilot randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN33808269, assigned 10/12/2012) was conducted across 2 UK secondary care outpatient physiotherapy departments associated with regional spinal surgery centres. Participants Consecutive consenting patients aged >18 years; post primary, single level, lumbar discectomy. Interventions Participants were randomised to either 1:1 physiotherapy outpatient management including patient leaflet, or patient leaflet alone. Main Outcome Measures Blinded assessments were made at 4 weeks post surgery (baseline) and 12 weeks post baseline (proposed primary end point). Secondary outcomes included: Global Perceived Effect, back/leg pain, straight leg raise, return to work/function, quality of life, fear avoidance, range of movement, medication, re-operation. Results At discharge, 110 (44%) eligible patients gave consent to be contacted. 59 (54%) patients were recruited. Loss to follow up was 39% at 12 weeks, with one site contributing 83% losses. Mean (SD) RMDQ was 10.07 (5.58) leaflet and 10.52 (5.94) physiotherapy/leaflet at baseline; and 5.37 (4.91) leaflet and 5.53 (4.49) physiotherapy/leaflet at 12 weeks. 5.1% zero scores at 12 weeks illustrated no floor effect. Sensitivity to change was assessed at 12 weeks with mean (SD) change -4.53 (6.41), 95%CI -7.61 to -1.44 for leaflet; and -6.18 (5.59), 95%CI -9.01 to -3.30 for physiotherapy/leaflet. RMDQ mean difference (95%CI) between change from baseline to twelve weeks was 1.65(-2.46 to 5.75). Mean difference (95%CI) between groups at 12 weeks was -0.16 (-3.36 to 3.04). Participant adherence with treatment was good. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Both interventions were acceptable, and it is promising that they both

  1. Melodic Intonation Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: Evidence from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meulen, Ineke; Van De Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Heijenbrok, Majanka H; Visch-Brink, Evy; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT) examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT: subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list RCT design. Patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT) or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT). Assessments were done at baseline (T1), after 6 weeks (T2), and 6 weeks later (T3). Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β = 13.32, p = 0.02). This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This is in line with studies showing larger

  2. Cortisol/DHEA ratio and hippocampal volume: A pilot study in major depression and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rowen O; Mason, Sara; Mellon, Synthia H; Epel, Elissa S; Reus, Victor I; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca L; Hough, Christina M; Burke, Heather M; Mueller, Susanne G; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2016-10-01

    Structural imaging studies investigating the relationship between hippocampal volume (HCV) and peripheral measures of glucocorticoids (GCs) have produced conflicting results in both normal populations and in individuals with MDD, raising the possibility of other modulating factors. In preclinical studies, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester (DHEAS; together abbreviated, DHEA(S)) have been shown to antagonize the actions of GCs on the central nervous system. Therefore, considering the relationship of HCV to both of these hormones simultaneously may be important, although it has rarely been done in human populations. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the present pilot study examined the relationship between morning serum cortisol, DHEA(S), and HCV in nineteen normal controls and eighteen unmedicated subjects with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Serum cortisol and DHEA(S) were not significantly correlated with HCV across all subjects (cortisol: r=-0.165, p=0.33; DHEA: r=0.164, p=0.35; DHEAS: r=0.211, p=0.22, respectively). However, the ratios of cortisol/DHEA(S) were significantly negatively correlated with HCV in combined group (Cortisol/DHEA: r=-0.461, p=0.005; Cortisol/DHEAS: r=-0.363, p=0.03). Significant or near-significant correlations were found between some hormonal measurements and HCV in the MDDs alone (DHEA: r=0.482, p=0.059; DHEAS: r=0.507, p=0.045; cort/DHEA: r=-0.589, p=0.02; cort/DHEAS: r=-0.424p=0.10), but not in the controls alone (DHEA: r=0.070, p=0.79; DHEAS: r=0.077, p=0.77; cort/DHEA: r=-0.427, p=0.09; cort/DHEAS: r=-0.331, p=0.19). However, Group (MDDs vs controls) did not have a significant effect on the relationship between cortisol, DHEA(S), and their ratios with HCV (p>0.475 in all analyses). Although the exact relationship between serum and central steroid concentrations as well as their effects on the human hippocampus remains not known, these preliminary results suggest that the ratio of cortisol to

  3. Controlled pilot study of the effects of neuromuscular therapy in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Lauren H; Svircev, Anna; Haber, Michael; Juncos, Jorge L

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to examine the effects of neuromuscular therapy (NMT) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Thirty-six subjects with PD were randomly assigned to NMT or music relaxation (MR, or active control). Subjects received treatment twice a week for 4 weeks. Testing was conducted at baseline, after final treatment, and 8 days after final treatment. Primary outcome measures were the Motor subscale of the United Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI-Change). Secondary outcome measures included a PD-specific quality of life scale (PDQ-39), quantitative measures of motor function, and severity scales for anxiety and depression symptoms. NMT resulted in a significant and sustained improvement in the Motor subscale of the UPDRS (P < or = 0.0001), most notable in the tremor scores. Also improved 1 week after the last treatment were the CGI scores (P = 0.007) and the finger-tapping speed (P = 0.001). The MR active control group had a slight improvement in tremor but evidenced no other change in motor function. Both groups exhibited a modest improvement in quality of life immediately after the last treatment. This effect was sustained for 8 days only in the MR group. In the nonmotor domains, the MR group evidenced improvements in mood (P = 0.001) and anxiety (P = 0.002), whereas NMT had no effect on mood (P = 0.09), and its initial effect on anxiety (P = 0.0009) dissipated after 8 days (P = 0.40). Group differences for UPDRS motor score and patient CGI-Change were superior in the NMT compared to the MR group. There was no group difference in PDQ-39 scores or in nonmotor measures. The findings suggest that NMT can improve motor and selected nonmotor symptoms in PD and that this effect is more durable for the motor symptoms. The results of this pilot study warrant larger controlled studies to examine dose range, durability, and mechanisms of NMT in PD function. Copyright 2006 Movement

  4. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  5. The impact of climate change and emissions control on future ozone levels: Implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Kim, Young-Min; Gao, Yang; Fu, Joshua S; Chang, Howard H; Liu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence has shown that, from the Industrial Revolution to the present, human activities influence ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations. Past studies demonstrate links between O 3 exposure and health. However, knowledge gaps remain in our understanding concerning the impacts of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 concentrations and health. Using a hybrid downscaling approach, we evaluated the separate impact of climate change and emission control policies on O 3 levels and associated excess mortality in the US in the 2050s under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We show that, by the 2050s, under RCP4.5, increased O 3 levels due to combined climate change and emission control policies, could contribute to an increase of approximately 50 premature deaths annually nationwide in the US. The biggest impact, however, is seen under RCP8.5, where rises in O 3 concentrations are expected to result in over 2,200 additional premature deaths annually. The largest increases in O 3 are seen in RCP8.5 in the Northeast, the Southeast, the Central, and the West regions of the US. Additionally, when O 3 increases are examined by climate change and emissions contributions separately, the benefits of emissions mitigation efforts may significantly outweigh the effects of climate change mitigation policies on O 3 -related mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D{prime} or A{prime} units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted

  7. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  8. Simulation and testing of new control methods for achieving low emissions in gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, P.M.

    1995-09-01

    In the past few years, development of clean burning land-based industrial gas turbines have been the focus for many manufacturers. This effort lead to the development of the LM6000 dry low emission engine. As a part of the control system, a real time mathematical model of the engine was included. This model is used to control the air and fuel low paths to the engine`s new combustor. A real time simulator was needed to simulate the control system hardware and engine. A brief discussion and some basic concepts of the combustor, along with a full discussion on the development of the real time simulator, follows in this paper.

  9. A piloted simulator investigation of side-stick controller/stability and control augmentation system requirements for helicopter visual flight tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, K. H.; Dunford, P. J.; Aiken, E. W.; Hilbert, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    A piloted simulator experiment was conducted to assess the effects of side-stick controller characteristics and level of stability and control augmentation on handling qualities for several low-altitude control tasks. Visual flight tasks were simulated using four-window computer-generated imagery depicting either a nap-of-the-earth course or a runway with obstacles positioned to provide a slalom course. Both low speed and forward flight control laws were implemented, and a method for automatically switching control modes was developed. Variations in force-deflection characteristics and the number of axes controlled through an integrated side-stick were investigated. With high levels of stability and control augmentation, a four-axis controller with small-deflection in all four axes achieved satisfactory handling qualities for low-speed tasks.

  10. Combustion Mode Design with High Efficiency and Low Emissions Controlled by Mixtures Stratification and Fuel Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixture stratification that have been conducted in the authors’ group, including the charge reactivity controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI combustion, stratification controlled premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI combustion, and dual-fuel combustion concepts controlled by both fuel reactivity and mixture stratification. The review starts with the charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion, and the works on HCCI fuelled with both high cetane number fuels, such as DME and n-heptane, and high octane number fuels, such as methanol, natural gas, gasoline and mixtures of gasoline/alcohols, are reviewed and discussed. Since single fuel cannot meet the reactivity requirements under different loads to control the combustion process, the studies related to concentration stratification and dual-fuel charge reactivity controlled HCCI combustion are then presented, which have been shown to have the potential to achieve effective combustion control. The efforts of using both mixture and thermal stratifications to achieve the auto-ignition and combustion control are also discussed. Thereafter, both charge reactivity and mixture stratification are then applied to control the combustion process. The potential and capability of thermal-atmosphere controlled compound combustion mode and dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI/highly premixed charge combustion (HPCC mode to achieve clean and high efficiency combustion are then presented and discussed. Based on these results and discussions, combustion mode design with high efficiency and low emissions controlled by fuel reactivity and mixtures stratification in the whole operating range is proposed.

  11. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  13. Aquatic therapy for boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD): an external pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Daniel; Parkin, James; Whitworth, Victoria; Rex, Saleema; Young, Tracey; Hampson, Lisa; Sheehan, Jennie; Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Scott, Elaine; Epps, Heather; Main, Marion; Geary, Michelle; McMurchie, Heather; Pallant, Lindsey; Woods, Daniel; Freeman, Jennifer; Lee, Ellen; Eagle, Michelle; Willis, Tracey; Muntoni, Francesco; Baxter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Standard treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) includes regular physiotherapy. There are no data to show whether adding aquatic therapy (AT) to land-based exercises helps maintain motor function. We assessed the feasibility of recruiting and collecting data from boys with DMD in a parallel-group pilot randomised trial (primary objective), also assessing how intervention and trial procedures work. Ambulant boys with DMD aged 7-16 years established on steroids, with North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) score ≥8, who were able to complete a 10-m walk test without aids or assistance, were randomly allocated (1:1) to 6 months of either optimised land-based exercises 4 to 6 days/week, defined by local community physiotherapists, or the same 4 days/week plus AT 2 days/week. Those unable to commit to a programme, with >20% variation between NSAA scores 4 weeks apart, or contraindications to AT were excluded. The main outcome measures included feasibility of recruiting 40 participants in 6 months from six UK centres, clinical outcomes including NSAA, independent assessment of treatment optimisation, participant/therapist views on acceptability of intervention and research protocols, value of information (VoI) analysis and cost-impact analysis. Over 6 months, 348 boys were screened: most lived too far from centres or were enrolled in other trials; 12 (30% of the targets) were randomised to AT (n = 8) or control (n = 4). The mean change in NSAA at 6 months was -5.5 (SD 7.8) in the control arm and -2.8 (SD 4.1) in the AT arm. Harms included fatigue in two boys, pain in one. Physiotherapists and parents valued AT but believed it should be delivered in community settings. Randomisation was unattractive to families, who had already decided that AT was useful and who often preferred to enrol in drug studies. The AT prescription was considered to be optimised for three boys, with other boys given programmes that were too extensive and insufficiently

  14. Self-compassion training for binge eating disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2015-09-01

    The present pilot study sought to compare a compassion-focused therapy (CFT)-based self-help intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) to a behaviourally based intervention. Forty-one individuals with BED were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of food planning plus self-compassion exercises; food planning plus behavioural strategies; or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed weekly measures of binge eating and self-compassion; pre- and post-intervention measures of eating disorder pathology and depressive symptoms; and a baseline measure assessing fear of self-compassion. Results showed that: (1) perceived credibility, expectancy, and compliance did not differ between the two interventions; (2) both interventions reduced weekly binge days more than the control condition; (3) the self-compassion intervention reduced global eating disorder pathology, eating concerns, and weight concerns more than the other conditions; (4) the self-compassion intervention increased self-compassion more than the other conditions; and (5) participants low in fear of self-compassion derived significantly more benefits from the self-compassion intervention than those high in fear of self-compassion. Findings offer preliminary support for the usefulness of CFT-based interventions for BED sufferers. Results also suggest that for individuals to benefit from self-compassion training, assessing and lowering fear of self-compassion will be crucial. Individuals with BED perceive self-compassion training self-help interventions, derived from CFT, to be as credible and as likely to help as behaviourally based interventions. The cultivation of self-compassion may be an effective approach for reducing binge eating, and eating, and weight concerns in individuals with BED. Teaching individuals with BED CFT-based self-help exercises may increase their self-compassion levels over a short period of time. It may be important for clinicians to assess and target clients' fear of self

  15. Highly-controlled, reproducible measurements of aerosol emissions from African biomass combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslett, Sophie; Thomas, J. Chris; Morgan, William; Hadden, Rory; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Williams, Paul; Sekou, Keïta; Liousse, Catherine; Coe, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Particulate emissions from biomass burning can alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, the relationship between these emissions and fundamental combustion processes is, to date, poorly characterised. In atmospheric models, aerosol emissions are represented by emission factors based on mass loss, which are averaged over an entire combustion event for each particulate species. This approach, however, masks huge variability in emissions during different phases of the combustion period. Laboratory tests have shown that even small changes to the burning environment can lead to huge variation in observed aerosol emission factors (Akagi et al., 2011). In order to address this gap in understanding, in this study, small wood samples sourced from Côte D'Ivoire were burned in a highly-controlled laboratory environment. The shape and mass of samples, available airflow and surrounding heat were carefully regulated. Organic aerosol and refractory black carbon emissions were measured in real-time using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and a Single Particle Soot Photometer, respectively. Both of these instruments are used regularly to measure aerosol concentrations in the field. This methodology produced remarkably repeatable results, allowing three different phases of combustion to be identified by their emissions. Black carbon was emitted predominantly during flaming combustion; organic aerosols were emitted during pyrolysis before ignition and from smouldering-dominated behaviour near the end of combustion. During the flaming period, there was a strong correlation between the emission of black carbon and the rate of mass loss, which suggests there is value in employing a mass-based emission factor for this species. However, very little correlation was seen between organic aerosol and mass loss throughout the tests. As such, results here suggest that emission factors averaged over an entire combustion event are unlikely to be

  16. Impact of various emission control schemes on air quality using WRF-Chem during APEC China 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianping; He, Jing; Liu, Hongli; Miao, Yucong; Liu, Huan; Zhai, Panmao

    2016-09-01

    Emission control measures have been implemented to make air quality good enough for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, which provides us with an ideal test-bed to determine how these measures affect air quality in Beijing and surrounding areas. Based on hourly observations at eight monitoring sites of Beijing, the concentrations of other primary atmospheric pollutants during APEC were found to have significantly lower magnitudes than those before APEC, with the exception of a higher O3 concentration. Overall, WRF/Chem reproduced the observed time series of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, CO, and O3 notably well. To investigate the impact of emission control measures on air quality on both local and regional scales, four emission control schemes were developed according to the locations where emission reduction had taken place; the corresponding simulations were subsequently run separately. Scheme S2 (emission control implemented in Beijing) resulted in reductions of 22%, 24%, 10% and 22% for the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO, respectively, compared with 14%, 14%, 8%, and 13% for scheme S3 (emission controls implemented from outside of Beijing). This finding indicates that the local emission reduction in Beijing contributes more to the improved air quality in Beijing during APEC China 2014 than does the emission reduction from outside of Beijing. In terms of the impact on the regional scale, the real emission control scheme led to significant reduction of PM2.5 throughout the whole domain. Although the regional impact cannot be completely ignored, both emission reduction measures implemented in Beijing and those implemented outside of Beijing favor greater reduction in PM2.5 in the domains where measurements are presumably taken, as compared with other domains. Therefore, to improve the air quality in Beijing, more coordinated efforts should be made, particularly in the aspect of more stringent reduction and control strategies on pollutant emission

  17. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser.

  18. Growth of Low-Density Vertical Quantum Dot Molecules with Control in Energy Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuster D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we present results on the formation of vertical molecule structures formed by two vertically aligned InAs quantum dots (QD in which a deliberate control of energy emission is achieved. The emission energy of the first layer of QD forming the molecule can be tuned by the deposition of controlled amounts of InAs at a nanohole template formed by GaAs droplet epitaxy. The QD of the second layer are formed directly on top of the buried ones by a strain-driven process. In this way, either symmetric or asymmetric vertically coupled structures can be obtained. As a characteristic when using a droplet epitaxy patterning process, the density of quantum dot molecules finally obtained is low enough (2 × 108 cm−2 to permit their integration as active elements in advanced photonic devices where spectroscopic studies at the single nanostructure level are required.

  19. Advanced combustion, emission control, health impacts, and fuels merit review and peer evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-10-01

    This report is a summary and analysis of comments from the Advisory Panel at the FY 2006 DOE National Laboratory Advanced Combustion, Emission Control, Health Impacts, and Fuels Merit Review and Peer Evaluation, held May 15-18, 2006 at Argonne National Laboratory. The work evaluated in this document supports the FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. The results of this merit review and peer evaluation are major inputs used by DOE in making its funding decisions for the upcoming fiscal year.

  20. Generation of Controlled Analog Emissions from Embedded Devices using Software Stress Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Generation of Controlled Analog Emissions from Embedded Devices using Software Stress Methods Oren Sternberg, Jonathan H. Nelson, Israel Perez...as dynamic memory allocation, hard disk writing and computations. Each stressing operation creates a pulse in an amplitude shift keying scheme...software stress testing and diagnostic and security applications including StressLinux (Linux) [17], KALI (Linux) [18] and a multitude of tools in

  1. A Novel Vaping Machine Dedicated to Fully Controlling the Generation of E-Cigarette Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Soulet, Sébastien; Pairaud, Charly; Lalo, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV), dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow ra...

  2. Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-15

    The DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-91PC90550 dated March 11, 1991, Public Service Company of Colorado has prepared the following quarterly report for Phases I, IIA, and IIB of the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Project. This project includes low NO{sub x} burners with NO{sub x} ports (post firing air injection), humidification and dry sorbent injection.

  3. Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-15

    The DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-91PC90550 dated march 11, 1991, Public Service Company of Colorado has prepared the following quarterly report for Phases I, IIA, and IIB of the Integrated Dry No{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System Project. This project includes low NO{sub x} burners with NO{sub x} ports (post firing air injection), humidification and dry sorbent injection.

  4. Nutrient Controls on Methane Emissions in a Permafrost Thaw Subarctic Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashi, N. N.; Perryman, C. R.; Malhotra, A.; Marek, E. A.; Giesler, R.; Varner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost peatlands in northern latitudes are large reservoirs of sequestered carbon that are vulnerable to climate change. While peatlands account for a small fraction of total global land surfaces, their potential to release sequestered carbon in response to higher temperatures is of concern. Of particular relevance is the conversion of these carbon stores into methane (CH4), a strong greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 20 times greater than that of CO2 over a 100-year time frame. Here, we explore how key nutrients impact the consumption of CH4 at the Stordalen Mire in Abisko, Sweden, a discontinuous permafrost peatland with expanding thaw over the last century. Peatland CH4 emissions are highly spatially variable due to multiple emission pathways and strong dependence on several environmental factors. Among controls on CH4 emissions, such as temperature and water table depth, primary production of wetland vegetation is also a strong factor in the variability of CH4 emissions. Plant community shifts among permafrost thaw stages subsequently change nutrient cycling and availability, which in turn impacts primary production. Early stages of permafrost thaw are mosaicked with a variety of vascular plants and mosses. We analyzed potential enzymatic activities of chitinase, glucosidase, and phosphatase as proxies for organic nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus cycling, respectively, in tandem with potential CH4 oxidation rates. In addition, stoichiometric ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations are used to illustrate nutrient limitation controls on CH4 oxidation rates. While CH4 emissions are low throughout initial thaw stages, plant communities and the methanotrophic microbes they harbor.

  5. Modern techniques for the emissions control in thermal electric stations; Tecnicas modernas para el control de emisiones en centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romo Millares, C. A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the techniques and the control equipment for emissions in thermal stations that have the highest possibilities of being considered in the immediate future in the national energy panorama and the established frame for the environmental normativity. The pollutant compounds subject to revision are the nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unburned particles. [Espanol] Se presentan las tecnicas y equipos de control de emisiones para centrales termoelectricas que tienen mayores posibilidades de ser consideradas en el futuro inmediato dentro del panorama energetico nacional y el marco establecido por la normatividad ambiental. Los compuestos contaminantes sujetos a revision son los oxidos de nitrogeno y azufre y las particulas inquemadas.

  6. Sialendoscopy of salivary glands affected by Sjögren syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.J.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Maarse, F.; Brand, H.S.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands could alleviate the oral symptoms of Sjögren syndrome (SS) and restore salivary function. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of sialendoscopy of the major salivary glands on salivary flow, saliva composition, and mouthfeel in

  7. Use of a Modern Polymerization Pilot-Plant for Undergraduate Control Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Bustos, S. A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Described is a project where students gain experience in handling large volumes of hazardous materials, process start up and shut down, equipment failures, operational variations, scaling up, equipment cleaning, and run-time scheduling while working in a modern pilot plant. Included are the system design, experimental procedures, and results. (KR)

  8. Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion and Emissions of Boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratification of in-cylinder mixtures appears to be an effective method for managing the combustion process in controlled auto-ignition (CAI engines. Stratification can be achieved and controlled using various injection strategies such as split fuel injection and the introduction of a portion of fuel directly before the start of combustion. This study investigates the effect of injection timing and the amount of fuel injected for stratification on the combustion and emissions in CAI engine. The experimental research was performed on a single cylinder engine with direct gasoline injection. CAI combustion was achieved using negative valve overlap and exhaust gas trapping. The experiments were performed at constant engine fueling. Intake boost was applied to control the excess air ratio. The results show that the application of the late injection strategy has a significant effect on the heat release process. In general, the later the injection is and the more fuel is injected for stratification, the earlier the auto-ignition occurs. However, the experimental findings reveal that the effect of stratification on combustion duration is much more complex. Changes in combustion are reflected in NOX emissions. The attainable level of stratification is limited by the excessive emission of unburned hydrocarbons, CO and soot.

  9. Electrical control simulation of near infrared emission in SOI-MOSFET quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendayan, Michael; Sabo, Roi; Zolberg, Roee; Mandelbaum, Yaakov; Chelly, Avraham; Karsenty, Avi

    2017-07-01

    In the race to realize ultrahigh-speed processors, silicon photonics research is part of the efforts. Overcoming the silicon indirect bandgap with special geometry, we developed a concept of a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, based on a silicon quantum well structure that enables control of light emission. This quantum well consists of a recessed ultrathin silicon layer, obtained by a gate-recessed channel and limited between two oxide layers. The device's coupled optical and electrical properties have been simulated for channel thicknesses, varying from 2 to 9 nm. The results show that this device can emit near infrared radiation in the 1 to 2 μm range, compatible with the optical networking spectrum. The emitted light intensity can be electrically controlled by the drain voltage Vds while the peak emission wavelength depends on the channel thickness and slightly on Vds. Moreover, the location of the radiative recombination source inside the channel, responsible for the light emission, is also controllable through the applied voltages.

  10. Ship Compliance in Emission Control Areas: Technology Costs and Policy Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward W; Corbett, James J

    2015-08-18

    This paper explores whether a Panama Canal Authority pollution tax could be an effective economic instrument to achieve Emission Control Area (ECA)-like reductions in emissions from ships transiting the Panama Canal. This tariff-based policy action, whereby vessels in compliance with International Maritime Organisation (IMO) ECA standards pay a lower transit tariff than noncompliant vessels, could be a feasible alternative to petitioning for a Panamanian ECA through the IMO. A $4.06/container fuel tax could incentivize ECA-compliant emissions reductions for nearly two-thirds of Panama Canal container vessels, mainly through fuel switching; if the vessel(s) also operate in IMO-defined ECAs, exhaust-gas treatment technologies may be cost-effective. The RATES model presented here compares current abatement technologies based on hours of operation within an ECA, computing costs for a container vessel to comply with ECA standards in addition to computing the Canal tax that would reduce emissions in Panama. Retrofitted open-loop scrubbers are cost-effective only for vessels operating within an ECA for more than 4500 h annually. Fuel switching is the least-cost option to industry for vessels that operate mostly outside of ECA regions, whereas vessels operating entirely within an ECA region could reduce compliance cost with exhaust-gas treatment technology (scrubbers).

  11. Multiple effects and uncertainties of emission control policies in China: Implications for public health, soil acidification, and global temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; McElroy, Michael B; Xing, Jia; Duan, Lei; Nielsen, Chris P; Lei, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2011-11-15

    Policies to control emissions of criteria pollutants in China may have conflicting impacts on public health, soil acidification, and climate. Two scenarios for 2020, a base case without anticipated control measures and a more realistic case including such controls, are evaluated to quantify the effects of the policies on emissions and resulting environmental outcomes. Large benefits to public health can be expected from the controls, attributed mainly to reduced emissions of primary PM and gaseous PM precursors, and thus lower ambient concentrations of PM2.5. Approximately 4% of all-cause mortality in the country can be avoided (95% confidence interval: 1-7%), particularly in eastern and north-central China, regions with large population densities and high levels of PM2.5. Surface ozone levels, however, are estimated to increase in parts of those regions, despite NOX reductions. This implies VOC-limited conditions. Even with significant reduction of SO2 and NOX emissions, the controls will not significantly mitigate risks of soil acidification, judged by the exceedance levels of critical load (CL). This is due to the decrease in primary PM emissions, with the consequent reduction in deposition of alkaline base cations. Compared to 2005, even larger CL exceedances are found for both scenarios in 2020, implying that PM control may negate any recovery from soil acidification due to SO2 reductions. Noting large uncertainties, current polices to control emissions of criteria pollutants in China will not reduce climate warming, since controlling SO2 emissions also reduces reflective secondary aerosols. Black carbon emission is an important source of uncertainty concerning the effects of Chinese control policies on global temperature change. Given these conflicts, greater consideration should be paid to reconciling varied environmental objectives, and emission control strategies should target not only criteria pollutants but also species such as VOCs and CO2. Copyright

  12. Quantitative evaluation of emission control of primary and secondary organic aerosol sources during Beijing 2008 Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S.; Hu, M.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, X.; Schauer, J. J.; Zhang, R.

    2012-12-01

    To explore the primary and secondary sources of fine organic particles after the aggressive implementation of air pollution controls during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 12-h PM2.5 concentrations were measured at one urban and one upwind rural site during the CAREBeijing-2008 (Campaigns of Air quality REsearch in Beijing and surrounding region) summer field campaign. The PM2.5 concentrations were 72.5±43.6μg m3 and 64.3±36.2μg m-3 at the urban site and rural site, respectively, which were the lowest in recent years due to the implementation of drastic control measures and favorable weather conditions. Five primary and four secondary fine organic particle sources were quantified using a CMB (chemical mass balance) model and tracer-yield method. Compared with previous studies in Beijing, the contribution of vehicle emission increased, with diesel engines contributing 16.2±5.9% and 14.5±4.1% to the total organic carbon (OC) concentrations and gasoline vehicles accounting for 10.3±8.7% and 7.9±6.2% of the OC concentrations at two sites. Due to the implementation of emission control measures, the OC concentrations from important primary sources have been reduced, and secondary formation has become an important contributor to fine organic aerosols. Compared with the non-controlled period, primary vehicle contributions were reduced by 30% and 24% in the urban and regional area, and reductions in the contribution from coal combustion were 57% and 7%, respectively. These results demonstrate the emission control measures significantly alleviated the primary organic particle pollution in and around Beijing. However, the control effectiveness of secondary organic particles was not significant.

  13. Evaluation of vardenafil for the treatment of subjective tinnitus: a controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stöver Timo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vardenafil (Levitra® represents a potent and highly selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5 inhibitor, which is established for treatment of various diseases. There are several unpublished reports from patients stating that vardenafil has a considerable therapeutic effect on their concomitant tinnitus. This pilot study was conducted to specifically assess the effect of vardenafil in patients with chronic tinnitus. Methods This trial was based on a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Fourty-two consecutive subjects with mon- or binaural chronic tinnitus received 10 mg vardenafil (N = 21 or matching placebo tablets (N = 21 administered orally twice a day over a period of 12 weeks. Clinical examination and data acquisition took place at each visit: at baseline, after 4 weeks, after 12 weeks (end of treatment with study medication, and at non-medicated follow-up after 16 weeks. Assessment of clinical effectiveness was based on a standardized tinnitus questionnaire (TQ, the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36, audiometric measurements (mode, pitch and loudness of tinnitus; auditory thresholds and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients' blood (malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, homocysteine and total antioxidative status. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by comparison of subjective and objective parameters with baseline data between both treatment groups (ANCOVA. Results Vardenafil had no superior efficacy over placebo in the treatment of chronic tinnitus during this study. The primary efficacy criterion 'TQ total score' failed to demonstrate significant improvement compared to placebo. Subjective reports of TQ subscales and general quality of life areas (SF-36, objective audiometric examinations as well as investigated biomarkers for oxidative stress did not reveal any significant treatment effects. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that in other vardenafil

  14. A randomized, controlled pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction for pediatric chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrowski Mano, Kristen E; Salamon, Katherine S; Hainsworth, Keri R; Anderson Khan, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Renee J; Davies, W Hobart; Weisman, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that 1 in 5 children in the United States is affected by chronic pain. Increasing adaptive coping strategies and decreasing stress may be important in treatment. Research has suggested that mindfulness can help alleviate symptoms associated with medical illnesses and increase quality of life. Little is known about the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in youth, partly due to insufficient methodological rigor in related studies. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of MBSR for a treatment-seeking sample of youth with chronic pain. The current study was the first randomized, controlled pilot study of MBSR for pediatric chronic pain. The research team had intended to use block randomization involving a total of five recruitment waves, with each wave consisting of one MBSR group and one psychoeducation group. Due to difficulties with recruitment and attrition before the start of either group, however, only MBSR was conducted at each wave after the first wave. Participants were recruited from a multidisciplinary pain clinic in a large, Midwestern children's hospital. The final sample included six adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 y, four in the MBSR group and two in the psychoeducation group. Weekly sessions for the MBSR group were 90 min in length and followed a structured protocol. Sessions included a review of homework, an introduction to and practice of meditation, discussion of the session, and a review of the home practice assignment. The psychoeducation group participated in six group sessions, which were based on a cognitive-behavioral model of pain, and discussion topics included the nature of chronic pain and stress management. Health-related quality of life, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, functional disability, mindfulness, and treatment acceptability were all assessed pre- and postintervention as well as at follow-up. Recruitment and

  15. Digital palpation of the pilot balloon vs. continuous manometry for controlling the intracuff pressure in laryngeal mask airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, M; Güldenpfennig, T; Schmidt, A; Krumm, M; Kerner, T; Kox, W J

    2016-10-01

    This study compared two methods of controlling the intracuff pressure in laryngeal mask airways. One hundred and eighty patients were randomly assigned into two groups. In the first group (n = 90), after training, the intracuff pressure was controlled using digital palpation of the pilot balloon. In the second group (n = 90), continuous manometry was used to control the intracuff pressure. An upper pressure limit of 60 cmH2 O was set. The median (IQR [range]) intracuff pressure in the palpation group was 130 (125-130 [120-130]) cmH2 O compared with 29 (20-39 [5-60]) cmH2 O in the manometry group (p palpation group, 37% of patients experienced pharyngolaryngeal complications vs. 12% in the manometry group (p digital palpation technique is not a suitable alternative to manometry in controlling the intracuff pressure in laryngeal mask airways. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLanc, Katya Le [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Powers, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  17. The effects of recent control policies on trends in emissions of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants and CO2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of China's national policies of energy conservation and emission control during 2005-2010, inter-annual emission trends of gaseous pollutants, primary aerosols, and CO2 are estimated with a bottom-up framework. The control measures led to improved energy efficiency and/or increased penetration of emission control devices at power plants and other important industrial sources, yielding reduced emission factors for all evaluated species except NOx. The national emissions of anthropogenic SO2, CO, and total primary PM (particulate matter) in 2010 are estimated to have been 89%, 108%, and 86% of those in 2005, respectively, suggesting successful emission control of those species despite fast growth of the economy and energy consumption during the period. The emissions of NOx and CO2, however, are estimated to have increased by 48% and 43%, respectively, indicating that they remain largely determined by the growth of energy use, industrial production, and vehicle populations. Based on application of a Monte-Carlo framework, estimated uncertainties of SO2 and PM emissions increased from 2005 to 2010, resulting mainly from weakly understood average SO2 removal efficiency in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the power sector, and unclear changes in the penetration levels of dust collectors at industrial sources, respectively. While emission trends determined by bottom-up methods can be generally verified by observations from both ground stations and satellites, clear discrepancies exist for given regions and seasons, indicating a need for more accurate spatial and time distributions of emissions. Limitations of current emission control polices are analyzed based on the estimated emission trends. Compared with control of total PM, there are fewer gains in control of fine particles and carbonaceous aerosols, the PM forms most responsible for damages to public health and effects on radiative forcing. A decrease of alkaline base cations as

  18. A Novel Vaping Machine Dedicated to Fully Controlling the Generation of E-Cigarette Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulet, Sébastien; Pairaud, Charly; Lalo, Hélène

    2017-10-14

    The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV), dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow rate, power regulation and e-liquid consumption. The emission protocol used to characterize the vaping machine is based on the AFNOR-XP-D90-300-3 standard (15 W power, 1 Ω atomizer resistance, 100 puffs collected per session, 1.1 L/min airflow rate). Each of the parameters has been verified with two standardized liquids by studying mass variations, power regulation and flow rate stability. U-SAV presents the required and necessary stability for the full control of emission generation. The U-SAV is recognised by the French association for standardization (AFNOR), European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Standards Organisation (ISO) as a vaping machine. It can be used to highlight the influence of the e-liquid composition, user behaviour and nature of the device, on the e-liquid consumption and aerosol composition.

  19. A Novel Vaping Machine Dedicated to Fully Controlling the Generation of E-Cigarette Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Soulet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The accurate study of aerosol composition and nicotine release by electronic cigarettes is a major issue. In order to fully and correctly characterize aerosol, emission generation has to be completely mastered. This study describes an original vaping machine named Universal System for Analysis of Vaping (U-SAV, dedicated to vaping product study, enabling the control and real-time monitoring of applied flow rate and power. Repeatability and stability of the machine are demonstrated on flow rate, power regulation and e-liquid consumption. The emission protocol used to characterize the vaping machine is based on the AFNOR-XP-D90-300-3 standard (15 W power, 1 Ω atomizer resistance, 100 puffs collected per session, 1.1 L/min airflow rate. Each of the parameters has been verified with two standardized liquids by studying mass variations, power regulation and flow rate stability. U-SAV presents the required and necessary stability for the full control of emission generation. The U-SAV is recognised by the French association for standardization (AFNOR, European Committee for Standardization (CEN and International Standards Organisation (ISO as a vaping machine. It can be used to highlight the influence of the e-liquid composition, user behaviour and nature of the device, on the e-liquid consumption and aerosol composition.

  20. Greenhouse gas emission controls : differentiated vs. flat rate targets : impacts and concerts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydanek, D. [Dow Chemical, (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Continuing the discussion on differentiation in greenhouse gas emission targets and timetables for all nations, the different implications of differentiation vs. flat rate controls were examined. A scenario of how different targets for different countries based on national circumstances might be implemented, was presented. Implications of differentiation for the Dow Chemical Company were also reviewed. For more than 20 years, Dow has practiced leading edge energy efficiency in environmental management systems and has committed to a series of environmental, health and safety goals. The company believes that at the international level, fully differentiated targets and timetables need to be negotiated, party by party, by the 150 nations who agreed to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by year 2000. It was suggested that a strong disincentive exists to delivering energy efficiency beyond compliance. It was predicted that despite efficiency, the energy intensive assets in place today in Annex I countries will be disadvantaged and prematurely retired as the costs of greenhouse gas emission controls grow and exert pressure to move productive capacity offshore.

  1. Controllable Synthesis of Organic Microcrystals with Tunable Emission Color and Morphology Based on Molecular Packing Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Zhou; Liao, Liang-Sheng; Wang, Xue-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Organic microcrystals are of essential importance for high fluorescence efficiency, ordered molecular packing mode, minimized defects, and smooth shapes, which are extensively applied in organic optoelectronics. The molecular packing mode significantly influences the optical/electrical properties of organic microcrystals, which makes the controllable preparation of organic microcrystals with desired molecular packing mode extremely important. In the study, yellow-emissive α phase organic microcrystals with rectangular morphology and green-emissive β phase perylene microcrystals with rhombic morphology are separately prepared by simply controlling the solution concentration. The distinct molecular staking modes of the H/J-aggregate are found in these two types of perylene microcrystals, which contribute to the different emission color, morphology, and radiative decay rate. What is more interesting, the α-doped β phase and the β-doped α phase organic microcrystals can also be fabricated by modulating the evaporation rate from 100 to 10 µL min-1 . The findings can contribute to the future development of organic optoelectronics at the microscale. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Ammonia and carbon dioxide emissions by stabilized conventional nitrogen fertilizers and controlled release in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lima de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The market of stabilized, slow and controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers represents 1% of the world fertilizer consumption. On the other hand, the increase in availability, innovation and application of these technologies could lead to the improvement of N use efficiency in agroecossystems and to the reduction of environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to quantify agronomic efficiency relative index, ammonia volatilization, and CO2 emissions from conventional, stabilized and controlled release N fertilizers in corn summer crop. The experiment was carried out in a corn crop area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, without irrigation. All treatments were applied in topdressing at rate of 150 kg ha-1 N. N-NH3 losses from N fertilizers were: Granular urea (39% of the applied N = prilled urea (38% > urea coated with 16% S0 (32% = blend of urea + 7.9% S0 + polymers + conventional urea (32% > prilled urea incorporated at 0.02 m depth (24% > urea + 530 mg kg-1 of NBPT (8% = Hydrolyzed leather (9% > urea + thermoplastic resin (3% = ammonium sulfate (1% = ammonium nitrate (0.7%. Thermoplastic resin coated urea, ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate presented low values of cumulative CO2 emissions in corn crop. On the other hand, hydrolyzed leather promoted greater C-CO2 emission, when compared with other nitrogen fertilizers.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  4. 40 CFR 266.107 - Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions. 266.107 Section 266.107 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Industrial Furnaces § 266.107 Standards to control hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine gas (Cl2) emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine (Cl2...

  5. 75 FR 37310 - Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression-Ignition Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 1039 Control of Emissions From New and In-Use Nonroad Compression- Ignition Engines... follows: Sec. 1039.102 What exhaust emission standards and phase-in allowances apply for my engines in...

  6. 75 FR 22895 - Control of Emissions From New Marine Compression-Ignition Engines at or Above 30 Liters per Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... in, these programs will significantly reduce emissions of harmful pollutants from these categories of... engines emit high levels of pollutants that contribute to unhealthy air in many areas of the U.S... health. The evolution of EPA's strategy to control mobile source diesel emissions has followed a...

  7. Electromyogram-controlled assistive exercise for the motor recovery of shoulder in chronic hemiplegia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Heo, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Seok; Eom, Gwang-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Correct-active-repetitive exercise is important for the motor recovery in hemiplegics. The present study hypothesizes that the electromyogram (EMG)-controlled assistance of motion would be an effective implementation of the concept for the rehabilitation of the hemiplegic shoulder, even in chronic patients. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of the suggested method. The motor intention is derived from the EMG of the shoulder muscles and the shoulder movement (flexion and abduction) is assisted by an electro-mechanical system only when the motor intention (EMG amplitude) exceeded the threshold. Twelve patients in the chronic stage of stroke participated in this pilot study. The EMG-controlled assistive exercise lasts for two weeks, 20 min per day and 5 days a week. The active range of motion in both abduction and flexion increases significantly after the intervention (p shoulder-related items (p shoulder-unrelated items of the upper extremity (p = 0.13) nor in the lower extremity items (p = 0.19). This pilot study demonstrates that EMG-controlled assistive exercise can improve shoulder motor functions related to selected muscles and the suggested method is promising for the motor recovery of the shoulder in chronic hemiplegia.

  8. Bisphenol a exposure in Mexico City and risk of prematurity: a pilot nested case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mercado-García Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa Héctor; Sánchez Brisa N; Hu Howard; Meeker John D; Cantonwine David; Fortenberry Gamola Z; Calafat Antonia M; Téllez-Rojo Martha