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Sample records for emissions cleanup system

  1. Development of teleoperated cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Ho; Park, J. J.; Yang, M. S.; Kwon, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the development of a teleoperated cleanup system for use in a highly radioactive environment of DFDF(DUPIC Fuel Demonstration Facility) at KAERI where direct human access to the in-cell is strictly limited. The teleoperated cleanup system was designed to remotely remove contaminants placed or fixed on the floor surface of the hot-cell by mopping them with wet cloth. This cleanup system consists of a mopping slave, a mopping master and a control console. The mopping slave located at the in-cell comprises a mopping tool with a mopping cloth and a mobile platform, which were constructed in modules to facilitate maintenance. The mopping master that is an input device to control the mopping slave has kinematic dissimilarity with the mopping slave. The control console provides a means of bilateral control flows and communications between the mopping master and the mopping slave. In operation, the human operator from the out-of-cell performs a series of decontamination tasks remotely by manipulating the mopping slave located in-cell via a mopping master, having a sense of real mopping. The environmental and mechanical design considerations, and control systems of the developed teleoperated cleanup system are also described

  2. Coolant cleanup system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Atsushi; Usui, Naoshi; Yamamoto, Michiyoshi; Osumi, Katsumi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the electric conductivity of reactor water lower and to minimize the heat loss in the cleanup system by providing a low temperature cleanup system and a high temperature cleanup system together. Constitution: A low temperature cleanup system using ion exchange resins as filter aids and a high temperature cleanup system using inorganic ion exchange materials as filter aids are provided in combination. A part of the reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel is passed through a conductivity meter, one portion of which flows into the high temperature cleanup system having no heat exchanger and filled with inorganic ion exchange materials by way of a first flow rate control valve and the other portion of which flows into the low temperature cleanup system having heat exchangers and filled with the ion exchange materials by way of a second control valve. The first control valve is adjusted so as to flow, for example, about more than 15% of the feedwater flow rate to the high temperature cleanup system and the second control valve is adjusted with its valve opening degree depending on the indication of the conductivity meter so as to flow about 2 - 7 % of the feedwater flow rate into the low temperature cleanup system, to thereby control the electric conductivity to between 0.055 - 0.3 μS/cm. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Assessment, Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) is an online database for Brownfields Grantees to electronically submit data directly to EPA.

  4. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Coolant cleanup system for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Araki, Hidefumi.

    1993-01-01

    The cleanup system of the present invention removes impurity ions and floating materials accumulated in a reactor during evaporation of coolants in the nuclear reactor. That is, coolants pass pipelines from a pressure vessel using pressure difference between a high pressure in the pressure vessel and a low pressure at the upstream of a condensate filtration/desalting device of a condensate/feed water system as a driving source, during which cations and floating materials are removed in a high temperature filtration/desalting device and coolants flow into the condensate/feedwater system. Impurities containing anions are removed here by the condensates filtration/desalting device. Then, they return to the pressure vessel while pressurized and heated by a condensate pump, a feed water pump and a feed water heater. At least pumps, a heat exchanger for heating, a filtration/desalting device for removing anions and pipelines connecting them used exclusively for the coolant cleanup system are no more necessary. (I.S.)

  6. Moderator clean-up system in a heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasada, Yasuhiro; Hamamura, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the fluctuation of the poison concentration in heavy water moderator due to a heavy water clean-up system. Constitution: To a calandria tank filled with heavy water as poison-containing moderators, are connected both end of a pipeway through which heavy water flows and to which a clean-up device is provided. Strongly basic resin is filled within the clean-up device and a cooler is disposed to a pipeway at the upstream of the clean-up device. In this structure, the temperature of heavy water at the inlet of the clean-up device at a constant level between the temperature at the exit of the cooler and the lowest temperature for the moderator to thereby decrease the fluctuation in the poison concentration in the heavy water moderator due to the heavy water clean-up device. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Architecture synthesis basis for the Hanford Cleanup system: First issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes a set of candidate alternatives proposed to accomplish the Hanford Cleanup system functions defined in a previous work. Development of alternatives is part of a sequence of system engineering activities which lead to definition of all the products which, when completed, accomplish the cleanup mission. The alternative set is developed to functional level four or higher depending on need

  8. Design and operational experience with a portable tritium cleanup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Wilson, S.W.; Garcia, F.

    1991-06-01

    We built a portable tritium cleanup system to scavenge tritium from contaminated gases in any tritium-containing system in the LLNL Tritium Facility. The cleanup system uses standard catalytic oxidation of tritium to water followed by water removal with a molecular sieve dryer. The cleanup unit, complete with instrumentation, is contained in a portable cart that is rolled into place and connected to the apparatus to be cleaned. The cleanup systems is effective, low-tech, simple, and reliable. The nominal flow rate of the system is 30 liters/minute, and the decontamination factor is > 1000. In this paper we will show design information on our portable cleanup system, and will discuss our operational experience with it over the past several years

  9. Development of tritium cleanup system for LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Yoichi; Kawano, Takao; Shibuya, Mamoru; Kabutomori, Toshiki

    2000-01-01

    Energy is vital for humans and we have been consuming a large amount of fossil fuel especially from the beginning of the industrial revolution. Nowadays its huge consumption has however come to threaten our life and we have to prepare nonfossil fuels, for instance solar energy, biomass energy, nuclear energy and so on. Fusion energy is an unlimited resource and one of the strongest candidates of the future energy source. At the National Institute for Fusion Science (referred to as 'NIFS' hereafter), we have constructed a new fusion experimental device called large helical device (referred to as 'LHD' hereafter) in 1998. The device will generate a small amount of tritium, as a fusion product. In order to remove it from the exhaust gas, we have designed a tritium cleanup system based on a new concept. This system is mainly composed of a palladium permeater, a decomposer and hydrogen absorbing alloys. It may perfectly recover the tritium from exhaust gas without oxidizing it. This system is applicable for the future needs at fusion power plants. In order to remove tritium discharged from fusion experimental facilities, it is usual to employ a system by which tritiated constituents, in various chemical forms, are entirely converted to a form of water vapor by catalytic oxidation. The water vapor containing tritiated form is then absorbed by molecular sieve (referred to as 'wet system' hereafter). However, in the case of LHD, it is not rational to deliberately convert the discharged tritium into the water vapor, because the tritium discharged from LHD is almost in a form of hydrogen molecules. Moreover, the tritium in the form of water vapor affects the human body 18000 times stronger than that of hydrogen molecules. In accordance with these view points, we have developed another type of tritium cleanup system based on a new concept, in which hydrogen molecules including tritiated ones (HT, DT and T 2 ) found in the exhaust gas of LHD are directly fixed to hydrogen

  10. Coolant clean-up system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuburaya, Hirobumi; Akita, Minoru; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Okura, Minoru; Tsuji, Akio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure a sufficient urging pressure at the inlet of a coolant clean-up system pump in a nuclear reactor and eliminate radioactive contaminations to the pump. Constitution: Coolant clean-up system (CUW) pump in a nuclear reactor is disposed to the downstream of a filtration desalter and, for compensating the insufficiency of the urging pressure at the pump inlet, the reactor water intake port to the clean-up system is disposed to the downstream of the after-heat removing pump and the heat exchanger. By compensating the net positive suction head (NPSH) of the clean-up system from the residual heat removing system, the problems of insufficient NPSH for the CUW pump upon reactor shut-down can be dissolved and, accordingly, the reactor clean-up system can be arranged in the order of the heat exchanger, clean-up device and pump. Thus, the CUW pump acts on reactor water after cleaned-up in the clean-up device to reduce the radioactivity contamination to the pump. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Recent developments in NRC guidelines for atmosphere cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains the policy of updating when necessary, its published guidance for the design of engineered safety feature (ESF) and normal ventilation systems. The guidance is disseminated by means of issuing new, or revisions to, existing Regulatory Guides, Standard Review Plans, Branch Technical Positions and Technical Specifications. A revised Regulatory Guide, new Technical Specifications and new Standard Review Plans with Branch Technical Positions for atmosphere cleanup systems are discussed. Regulatory Guide 1.52, ''Design, Testing and Maintenance Criteria for Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants,'' was issued in July 1973. The major comments received from the nuclear industry since the guide was issued, NRC's experience in implementing the guide in recent license applications, status of operating plants in meeting the guidelines and NRC's continuing assessment of operating data and laboratory tests to assure that the guide reflects the latest technology are discussed

  12. Shoreline oil cleanup, recovery and treatment evaluation system (SOCRATES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.; Lunel, T.; Sommerville, M.; Tyler, A.; Marshall, I.

    1996-01-01

    A beach cleanup computer system was developed to mitigate the impact of shoreline oiling. The program, entitled SOCRATES, was meant to determine the most suitable cleanup methodologies for a range of different spill scenarios. The development, operation and capabilities of SOCRATES was described, with recent examples of successful use during the Sea Empress spill. The factors which influenced decision making and which were central to the numerical solution were: (1) the volumetric removal rate of oil, (2) area removal rate of oil, (3) length of oil slick removed per hour, (4) volumetric removal rate of oily waste, (5) area of the oil slick, (6) length of the oil slick, (7) volume of liquid emulsion, and (8) length of beach. 14 figs

  13. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New arrangement for the air cleanup system to recover tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masabumi; Takahashi, Kohsaku; Munakata, Kenzo; Fukada, Satoshi; Kotoh, Kenji; Takeishi, Toshiharu

    1997-01-01

    At present, the standard arrangement of the air cleanup system responsible for emergency tritium recovery from room air is a catalytic oxidation bed with a heater followed by an adsorption bed with a cooler. One disadvantage of this arrangement is that trouble with the heater or the cooler could result in a loss of capacity to recover tritium. Another disadvantage of the catalyst-adsorption-bed arrangement is that tritiated water must be recovered with a high decontamination factor after dilution with a large amount of water vapor in the working atmosphere. The performance of a new arrangement for the air cleanup system, which consists of a precious metal catalyst bed preceded by an adsorption bed without heating equipment, is discussed. According to calculations, most of the tritium released to the room air is recovered in the catalyst bed through oxidation, adsorption, and isotope exchange reaction when the new arrangement is applied. The adsorption bed placed before the catalyst bed dehumidifies the process gas to such a degree that the oxidation reaction of tritium in the catalyst bed is not hindered by water vapor. 15 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Conceptual design of an emergency tritium clean-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design, build, and operate a facility to demonstrate the operability of the tritium-related subsystems that would be required to successfully develop fusion reactor systems. An emergency tritium clean-up subsystem (ETC) for this facility will be designed to remove tritium from the cell atmosphere if an accident causes the primary and secondary tritium containment to be breached. Conceptually, the ETC will process cell air at the rate of 0.65 actual m 3 /s and will achieve an overall decontamination factor of 10 6 per tritium oxide (T 2 O). Following the maximum credible release of 100 g of tritium, the ETC will restore the cell to opertional status within 24 h without a significant release of tritium to the environment

  16. Experimental Tritium Cleanup System availability analysis from 1984 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    This report gives the availability percentage of the Experimental Tritium Cleanup System (ETC) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), which is a fusion research and technology facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The component failure reports, the numbers of components, and operating times or demands are all given in this report. Sample calculations of the failure rates obtained from these data are given in the appendices. While future fusion experiments might use different or more advanced means to detritiate room air, the analysis of this system gives a data point for an actual detritiation system. Such a data point can be extrapolated for comparison with fault tree results on system designs, or can be used in a Bayesian failure rate analysis for estimating reliability of a new type of system. The nine years of testing operations on TSTA's ETC result in a reasonable average availability value of 92% for the maximal tritium release event. The failure rates for new systems are expected to be lower than for the TSTA ETC, since improvements will be made in the design of the room air detritiation system based on the TSTA system experiences. Nonetheless, these TSTA data should be useful for future fusion reactor design work and safety assessment tasks

  17. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade process control system structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Staffon, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; describes the main control computer hardware and system software features in more detail; and, then, describes the real-time control tasks, and how they interact with each other, and how they interact with the operator interface task

  18. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System upgrade distributed control and front end computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) control system was upgraded in 1991 to improve control and provide a graphical operator interface. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper briefly describes the Cover Gas Cleanup System and the overall control system; gives reasons behind the computer system structure; and then gives a detailed description of the distributed control computer, the front end computer, and how these computers interact with the main control computer. The descriptions cover both hardware and software

  19. Fuel cleanup system for the tritium systems test assembly: design and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, E.C.; Bartlit, J.R.; Sherman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A major subsystem of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly is the Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) whose functons are to: (1) remove impurities in the form of argon and tritiated methane, water, and ammonia from the reactor exhaust stream and (2) recover tritium for reuse from the tritiated impurities. To do this, a hybrid cleanup system has been designed which utilizes and will test concurrently two differing technologies - one based on disposable, hot metal (U and Ti) getter beds and a second based on regenerable cryogenic asdorption beds followed by catalytic oxidation of impurities to DTO and stackable gases and freezout of the resultant DTO to recover essentially all tritium for reuse

  20. Conceptual design of an emergency tritium clean-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been selected to design, build, and operate a facility to demonstrate the operability of the tritium-related subsystems that would be required to successfully develop fusion reactor systems. Basically, these subsystems would consist of the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle and associated environmental control systems. An emergency tritium clean-up subsystem (ETC) for this facility will be designed to remove tritium from the cell atmosphere if an accident causes the primary and secondary tritium containment to be breached. Conceptually, the ETC will process cell air at the rate of 0.65 actual m 3 /s (1385 ACFM) and will achieve an overall decontamination factor of 10 6 for tritium oxide (T 2 O). Following the maximum credible release of 100 g of tritium, the ETC will restore the cell to operational status within 24 h without a significant release of tritium to the environment. The basic process will include compression of the air to 0.35 MPa (3.5 atm) in a reciprocating compressor followed by oxidation of the tritium to T 2 O in a catalytic reactor. The air will be cooled to 275 K (350 0 F) to remove most of the moisture, including T 2 O, as a condensate. The remaining moisture will be removed by molecular sieve dryer beds that incorporate a water-swamping step between beds, allowing greater T 2 O removal. A portion of the detritiated air will be recirculated to the cell; the remainder will be exhausted to the building ventilation stack to maintain a slight negative pressure in the cell. The ETC will be designed for maximum flexibility so that studies can be performed that involve various aspects of room air detritiation

  1. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations

  2. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  3. Fixed-bed gasifier and cleanup system engineering summary report through Test Run No. 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pater, K. Jr.; Headley, L.; Kovach, J.; Stopek, D.

    1984-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of high-pressure, fixed-bed gasification has been advanced by the many refinements developed over the last 5 years. A novel full-flow gas cleanup system has been installed and tested to clean coal-derived gases. This report summarizes the results of tests conducted on the gasifier and cleanup system from its inception through 1982. Selected process summary data are presented along with results from complementary programs in the areas of environmental research, process simulation, analytical methods development, and component testing. 20 references, 32 figures, 42 tables.

  4. Application of expert system to evaluating reactor water cleanup system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Katsuji; Nakamura, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Katsumi; Fushiki, Sumiyuki.

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems employing artificial intelligence (AI) have been developed for finding and elucidating causes of anomalies and malfunctions, presenting pertinent recommendation for countermeasures and for making precautionary diagnosis. On the other hand, further improvements in reliabilities for chemical control are required to promote BWR plant reliability and advancement. Especially, it is necessary to maintain the reactor water purity in high quality to minimize stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in primary cooling system, fuel performance degradation and radiation buildup. The reactor water quality is controlled by the reactor water cleanup (RWCU) system. So, it is very important to maintain the RWCU performance, in order to keep good reactor water quality. This paper describes an expert system used for evaluating RWCU system performance in BWR plants. (author)

  5. Phase aberrations and beam cleanup techniques in carbon-dioxide laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the various carbon dioxide laser fusion systems at Los Alamos from the point of view of an optical designer. The types of phase aberrations present in these systems, as well as the beam cleanup techniques that can be used to improve the beam optical quality, are discussed. As this is a review article, some previously published results are also used where relevant

  6. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster dsplays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume II covers papers presented at sessions 5 and 6 on system for the production of synthesis gas, and on system for the production of power. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  7. Proceedings of the seventh annual gasification and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, M.R.; Markel, K.E. Jr.; Jarr, L.A.; Bossart, S.J. (eds.)

    1987-08-01

    On June 16 through 19, 1987, METC sponsored the Seventh Annual Gasification and Gas Stream Cleanup Systems Contractors Review Meeting which was held at the Sheraton Lakeview Conference Center in Morgantown, West Virginia. The primary purpose of the meeting was threefold: to review the technical progress and current status of the gasification and gas stream cleanup projects sponsored by the Department of Energy; to foster technology exchange among participating researchers and other technical communities; to facilitate interactive dialogues which would identify research needs that would make coal-based gasification systems more attractive economically and environmentally. More than 310 representatives of Government, academia, industry, and foreign energy research organizations attended the 4-day meeting. Fifty-three papers and thirty poster displays were presented summarizing recent developments in the gasification and gas stream cleanup programs. Volume I covers information presented at sessions 1 through 4 on systems for the production of Co-products and industrial fuel gas, environmental projects, and components and materials. Individual papers have been processed for the Energy Data Base.

  8. Solar-wind system powers mountain clean-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    By using a hybrid solar-wind system, the Japanese have tackled the problem of human excrement left by tourists in mountain lodges and in natural parks by installing flush toilets and wastewater treatment plants. The solar array (4.9 kW{sub p}) consists of 76 panels of single-crystal photovoltaic cells each with an output of 64 Wp. The wind turbines (total capacity 2.1 kW) operate whatever the wind strength or direction. Storage batteries prevent any dip in power which would result from low ambient temperatures. The system can still function at temperatures as low as minus 25{sup o}C. Between November and April when the lodge is closed, the waste is decomposed biologically. A block diagram shows the elements of the system, and details of cost are given. The system won the 1999 New Energy Award.

  9. Preliminary design of fusion reactor fuel cleanup system by palladium alloy membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Satoshi; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-10-01

    A design of palladium diffuser and Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for D-T fusion reactor is proposed. Feasibility of palladium alloy membrane method is discussed based on the early studies by the authors. Operating conditions of the palladium diffuser are determined experimentally. Dimensions of the diffuser are estimated from computer simulation. FCU system is designed under the feed conditions of Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The system is composed of Pd-diffusers, catalytic oxidizer, freezer and zink beds, and has some advantages in system layout and operation. This design can readily be extended to other conditions of plasma exhaust gases. (author)

  10. A review of fusion device fuel cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombra, A.H.; Carney, M.

    1985-01-01

    Design options for a small fusion fuel purification system are assessed by comparing six conceptual system designs based on one of the following: a Zr/Al getter pump for in vacuo applications, a cryogenic molecular sieve adsorber at 77K, a palladium-alloy membrane diffuser, a U-bed reactor at 1170K, a two-compartment cryogenic freezer at 27-50K and 50-300K, a U-bed and non-regenerative Zr/Al gas purifier. The latter system introduces a new concept of fuel purification based on well-established techniques: recovery of purified D 2 -DT-T 2 from a helium carrier gas with the U-bed, followed by the removal of impurities from the carrier gas with the non-regenerative Zr/Al gas purifier. The main advantages of this system are simplicity, safety and relatively small quantity of tritiated waste produced by the process. The tritium in the waste is immobilized as a stable tritide of Zr/Al

  11. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  12. Development and Implementation of the Waste Management Information System to Support Hanford's River Corridor Cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, L M [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, 3070 George Washington Way, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a Waste Information Management System (WMIS) to support the waste designation, transportation, and disposal processes used by Washington Closure Hanford, LLC to support cleanup of the Columbia River Corridor. This waste, primarily consisting of remediated burial sites and building demolition debris, is disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), which is located in the center of the Hanford Site (an approximately 1460 square kilometers site). WMIS uses a combination of bar-code scanning, hand-held computers, and strategic employment of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag system to track each waste shipment from waste generation to disposal. (authors)

  13. Modeling emissions and dispersion of contaminants from cleanup activities at a mixed waste site to estimate air impacts and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.; Menlove, S.

    1993-09-01

    The transport and dispersion of contaminants via the air pathway is a major concern during cleanup of contaminated sites. Impacts to air quality and human health during cleanup were evaluated for the Weldon Spring site by using site-specific information for source areas, activities, and receptor locations. In order to ensure protection of human health and the environment, results are being used to focus on those cleanup activities for which release controls should be emphasized

  14. Improvements of primary coolant shutdown chemistry and reactor coolant system cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudard, G.; Gilles, B.; Mesnage, F.; Cattant, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a radiation exposure management program entitled >, EDF aims at decreasing the mass dosimetry of nuclear power plants workers. So, the annual dose per unit, which has improved from 2.44 m.Sv in 1991 to 1.08 in 2000, should target 0.8 mSv in the year 2005 term in order to meet the results of the best nuclear operators. One of the guidelines for irradiation source term reduction is the optimization of operation parameters, including reactor coolant system (RCS) chemistry in operation, RCS shutdown chemistry and RCS cleanup improvement. This paper presents the EDF strategy for the shutdown and start up RCS chemistry optimization. All the shutdown modes have been reviewed and for each of them, the chemical specifications will be fine tuned. A survey of some US PWRs shutdown practices has been conducted for an acid and reducing shutdown chemistry implementation test at one EDF unit. This survey shows that deviating from the EPRI recommended practice for acid and reducing shutdown chemistry is possible and that critical path impact can be minimized. The paper also presents some investigations about soluble and insoluble species behavior and characterization; the study focuses here on 110m Ag, 122 Sb, 124 Sb and iodine contamination. Concerning RCS cleanup improvement, the paper presents two studies. The first one highlights some limited design modifications that are either underway or planned, for an increased flow rate during the most critical periods of the shutdown. The second one focuses on the strategy EDF envisions for filters and resins selection criteria. Matching the study on contaminants behavior with the study of filters and resins selection criteria should allow improving the cleanup efficiency. (authors)

  15. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambon, Frederic; CIZEL, Jean-Pierre; Blanchard, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  16. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambon, Frederic [AREVA FEDERAL SERVICES, Columbia MD (United States); CIZEL, Jean-Pierre [AREVA BE/NV, Marcoule (France); Blanchard, Samuel [CEA DEN/DPAD, Marcoule (France)

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  17. BP's emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, David G.; House, Joshua C.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1998 and 2001, BP reduced its emissions of greenhouse gases by more than 10%. BP's success in cutting emissions is often equated with its use of an apparently market-based emissions trading program. However no independent study has ever examined the rules and operation of BP's system and the incentives acting on managers to reduce emissions. We use interviews with key managers and with traders in several critical business units to explore the bound of BP's success with emissions trading. No money actually changed hands when permits were traded, and the main effect of the program was to create awareness of money-saving emission controls rather than strong price incentives. We show that the trading system did not operate like a 'textbook' cap and trade scheme. Rather, the BP system operated much like a 'safety valve' trading system, where managers let the market function until the cost of doing so surpassed what the company was willing to tolerate

  18. EBR-II Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) upgrade graphical interface design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffon, J.D.; Peters, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    Technology advances in the past few years have prompted an effort at Argonne National Laboratory to replace existing equipment with high performance digital computers and color graphic displays. Improved operation of process systems can be achieved by utilizing state-of-the-art computer technology in the areas of process control and process monitoring. The Cover Gas Cleanup System (CGCS) at EBR-II is the first system to be upgraded with high performance digital equipment. The upgrade consisted of a main control computer, a distributed control computer, a front end input/output computer, a main graphics interface terminal, and a remote graphics interface terminal. This paper describes the main control computer and the operator interface control software

  19. JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) stand-alone tritium test at the TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Inoue, Masahiko

    1993-03-01

    JAERI designed, fabricated, and installed the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) as a subsystem of simulated fusion fuel loop at the TSTA. The main function of the J-FCU is to purify and to recover hydrogen isotopes from simulated plasma exhaust while exhausting tritium free impurities. After a lot of deuterium tests, a first tritium test of the J-FCU was performed with one gram of tritium at the TSTA on June 1991. Main purpose of this test was to evaluate the total integrity and function of the J-FCU system with a DT mixture. Through this test, the J-FCU was operated well and its function with tritium was demonstrated. This report describes the detail test results of the J-FCU first tritium test and discuss its functions by stand-alone mode. Residual tritium inventory of the J-FCU system was also discussed. (author)

  20. Investigation of austenitic alloys for advanced heat recovery and hot-gas cleanup systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Materials properties were collected for the design and construction of structural components for use in advanced heat recovery and hot gas cleanup systems. Alloys systems included 9Cr-1Mo-V steel, modified 316 stainless steel, modified type 310 stainless steel, modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel, and modified alloy 800. Experimental work was undertaken to expand the databases for potentially useful alloys. Types of testing included creep, stress-rupture, creep-crack growth, fatigue, and post-exposure short-time tensile tests. Because of the interest in relatively inexpensive alloys for service at 700 C and higher, research emphasis was placed on a modified type 310 stainless steel and a modified 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel. Both steels were found to have useful strength to 925 C with good weldability and ductility.

  1. Dynamic analysis of the CRBRP clean-up system (three stage aqueous scrubber)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyi, R.; Bijlani, C.; Fazekas, P.; Dajani, A.

    1981-01-01

    The CRBRP containment clean-up system design required the determination of the thermal-hydraulic performance of the system during its projected operating cycle. The reduced scale component tests at HEDL provided valuable information about the generic performance of the components; however, due to the limitations of the test facility the exact simulation of the actual CRBRP conditions was not feasible. A computer program was developed to permit dynamic system analysis of the full size air cleaning system. The dynamic system analysis considered the mass and energy balances across each component. In addition to the major filtration system components, the system modeling included the supporting fluid system components such as pumps, tanks and heat exchangers. Variable gas flow, temperature, chemical concentrations, and other system parameters were also modeled. Fission product heat, chemical reaction heat and heat of solution were considered. The analysis results provided sodium hydroxide solution concentrations and temperatures, gas temperatures and other variables at the various components within the air cleaning system for each calculated time interval. The accuracy of the computer modeling was verified by comparing the calculated results with HEDL test data. The comparison indicated a better than +-10% agreement with the test data. The analysis results provided the basis for the selection of the system components

  2. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and potential inhalation exposure during cleanup and treatment test at Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    A Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test was conducted in 1981 at Area 11, Nevada Test Site. Its purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner similar to those used to clean paved streets for cleaning radiological contamination from the surface of desert soils. We found that four passes with the vehicle removed 97% of the alpha contamination and reduced resuspension by 99.3 to 99.7%. Potential exposure to cleanup workers was slight when compared to natural background exposure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Test of the palladium diffuser in the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; O-hira, Shigeru

    1993-03-01

    The JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (JFCU) is a major subsystem of the TSTA simulated fusion fuel loop. The palladium diffuser, that accepts simulated plasma exhaust and purifies the hydrogen isotopes mixture for the feed to the Isotope Separation System, was tested with deuterium to investigate the characteristics of the components. Permeation flow rate is a linear function of the difference of the square root of the pressure across the palladium alloy membrane. However at the low pressure region, an impediment on the permeation was observed. It was suspected to be caused by the impurity adsorbed on the surface of the permeated side of the membrane and was reduced by oxidation treatment. (author)

  4. Design of the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Naruse, Yuji; Okuno, Kenji; Carlson, R.V.; Anderson, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    TSTA is operated under the US-Japan collaboration program for the study of fusion fuel cycle technology. A plasma exhaust processing subsystem, JAERI Fuel Cleanup (JFCU) was fabricated in Japan, and installed at the TSTA as a major subsystem of the TSTA loop under the agreement. This process is based on some Japanese developed components, and designed to meet TSTA requirements by both parties. This document describes all the technical and safety features in accordance with the LANL QA format. The process has a capability to process simulated plasma exhaust at the flow rate of 15 mol/h, that is 1/5 for ITER. (author)

  5. Sorters for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.; Tomicich, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    A soil sorter is a system with conveyor, radiation detectors, and a gate. The system activates the gate based on radiation measurements to sort soil to either clean or contaminated paths. Automatic soil sorters have been perfected for use in the cleanup of plutonium contaminated soil at Johnston Atoll. The cleanup processes soil through a plant which mines plutonium to make soil clean. Sorters at various locations in the plant effectively reduce the volume of soil for mining and they aid in assuring clean soil meets guidelines

  6. Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS) estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vegetation and nitric oxide (NO) emission from soils. Recent BEIS development has been restricted to the SMOKE system

  7. Assessment of Purex solvent cleanup methods using a mixer-settler system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-11-01

    A test system consisting of three mixer-settlers in series has been used to determine the usefulness of several possible aqueous scrub solutions for cleanup of TBP solvent in fuel reprocessing plants. The simulated solvent that was treated was nominally 0.1 mM zirconium, 0.2 mM uranium, 0.4 mM dibutyl phosphate, and 0.3 mM HNO 3 . Five aqueous scrub solutions - sodium carbonate/tartrate, hydroxylamine/tartaric acid, hydroxylamine/citric acid, hydrazine/oxalic acid, and LiOH/sucrose - were evaluated. The order of effectiveness of these solutions for removal of contaminants was: sodium carbonate/tartrate, hydrazine/oxalic acid, LiOH/sucrose, and the two hydroxylamine solutions. Interfacial crud, which was related to the presence of zirconium and DBP, was observed in all cases except the LiOH/sucrose solution. The recommended system would use sodium carbonate/tartrate. If sodium usage must be minimized, a hydroxylamine-containing scrub followed by a sodium carbonate/tartrate scrub is recommended. 13 references, 11 figures, 21 tables

  8. Assessment of HAPs emissions from advanced power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, T.A.; Brekke, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) identified 189 substances as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Under the CAAA, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) must regulate emissions of these HAPs at their sources, including advanced power systems used for the production of electricity. Eleven trace elements are included in the CAAA list of HAPS, as shown in Table 1. The EPA will define those sources that require regulation and limit their emissions according to regulatory directives. This project focused on evaluating and manipulating the advanced power systems HAPs data currently available for presentation to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Trace components included in the 189 HAPs of the 1990 CAAA are: antimony compounds; arsenic compounds; beryllium compounds; cadmium compounds; chromium compounds; cobalt compounds; lead compounds; manganese compounds; mercury compounds; nickel compounds; and selenium compounds. The review of trace element emissions from advanced power systems and hot-gas cleanup systems included data from Tidd Station, General Electric hot-gas cleanup, Louisiana Gasification Technology Incorporated, and the Cool Water plant. Very few other sources of information were located, and those that were contained significantly flawed information that was not of value to this project. To offset the shortage of information, thermochemical equilibrium predictions were used in evaluating advanced control systems. An outline of the systems reviewed is given in Table 2. In addition to the four demonstration and 1 full-scale systems reviewed, nine conventional systems were also reviewed for comparison with the advanced systems

  9. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Cleanup and Remediation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... CDC and EPA on mold cleanup, removal and remediation. Cleanup information for you and your family Homeowner’s ...

  10. A program optimization system for the cleanup of DOE hazardous waste sites an application to FY 1990 funding decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, M.W.; Jenni, K.E.; Cotton, T.A.; Lehr, J.C.; Longo, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a formal system used by the Department of Energy (DOE) as an aid for allocating funds for cleaning up hazardous waste sites. The system, called the Program Optimization System (POS), is based on multiattribute utility analysis and was developed for DOE's Hazardous Waste and Remedial Actions Division (HWRAD). HWRAD has responsibility for recommending environmental restoration (ER) activities to the Assistant Secretary of Energy. Recently, the POS was used to analyze and recommend funding levels for FY 1990 cleanup activities at DOE defense program facilities

  11. Low temperature wetting and cleanup of alkali metal-advanced electrical machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, W.R.; Witkowski, R.E.; Burrow, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced homopolar electrical machines employing high electrical current density, liquid metal sliprings for current transfer utilize NaK/sub 78/ (78 w/o potassium, 22 w/o sodium) for the conducting fluid. Experiments have been performed to improve alkali metal/oxide clean-up procedures. Studies have also confirmed chemical and materials compatibility between barium doped NaK/sub 78/ and typical machine structural materials. 4 refs

  12. China action of "Cleanup Plan for Polychlorinated Biphenyls Burial Sites": emissions during excavation and thermal desorption of a capacitor-burial site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Lingli; Xue, Nandong; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Ding, Qiong; Yan, Yunzhong; Liu, Bo

    2013-10-01

    Scarce data are available so far on emissions in a given scenario for excavation and thermal desorption, a common practice, of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). As part of China action of "Cleanup Plan for PCBs Burial Sites", this study roughly estimated PCBs emissions in the scenario for a capacitor-burial site. The concentrations of total PCBs (22 congeners) in soils were in the range of 2.1-16,000μg/g with a mean of 2300μg/g, among the same order of magnitude as the highest values obtained in various PCBs-contaminated sites. Only six congeners belonging to Di-, Tri-, and Tetra-CBs were observed above limits of detection in air samples in the scenario, partially which can be estimated by the USEPA air emission model. Comparing concentrations and composition profiles of PCBs in the soil and air samples further indicated a leaked source of commercial PCBs formulations of trichlorobiphenyl (China PCB no. 1). The measures taken if any to mitigate the volatilization and movement of PCBs and to minimize worker exposure were discussed for improvements of the excavation practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Emission tomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Williams, C.W.; Burgiss, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    In the present invention a positron emission tomographic system is provided in which the random photon coincidence background is determined for the lines of sight along which the positron annihiliations are located. The circuitry is arranged so that this background may be subtracted almost simultaneously from the total photon coincidence measurement, or may be stored in a temporary memory for latter subtraction. In this system, an appropriate coincidence resolution time is selected and coincidences of photons detected at 180 degree opposed detectors within the time resolution are recorded as the overall coincidence count. This total count includes a source(true events) count plus a background(random coincidences) count. The background count is determined by measuring photons detected at these same sets of photon detectors and employing the same coincidence resolution period, where the signals from one set of detectors are passed through a delay longer in time than this resolution period

  14. Evaluation of concepts for a NET plasma exhaust clean-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glugla, M.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Rodriguez, R.; Herbrechter, D.; Dinner, P.; Murdoch, D.

    1990-07-01

    The process steps for the off-gas clean-up and direct recovery of the unburned fuel gases deuterium and tritium are, together with the isotope separation and the fuel preparation, the major subsystems within the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor. A comparison between process concepts largely based on experimental work at KfK and other process alternatives discussed in the literature is carried out and the various options are evaluated on the basis of the process requirements for NET I. The recovery of most of the unburned hydrogen with a palladium/silver permeator is selected as a first step, common to all seven concepts. The remaining impurity stream is processed either catalytically, with the help of getters, or by oxidation followed by reduction of the produced water. The physicochemical basis of each process alternative is discussed and the corresponding chemical flow sheets (flow diagrams and material flow tables) are presented. Concepts employing getters are unattractive because the produce untolerably high amounts of solid waste. Main drawbacks of process options involving an oxidation step are the non-discriminative oxidation of hydrogen and impurities as well as the non-trivial reduction of the produced highly tritiated water at the required elevated throughput. Advantages of the catalytic process are the production of little solid waste, the low steady state inventory and the comparatively easy scale-up. The catalytic process is therefore considered the most promising option for the development of a fuel clean-up process. (orig./HK) [de

  15. Amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture in air-blown IGCC systems with cold and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, A.; Bonalumi, D.; Lozza, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot fuel gas clean-up is a very favorable technology for IGCC concepts. • IGCC net efficiency reduces to 41.5% when realizing post-combustion CO 2 capture. • Complex IGCC layouts are necessary if exhaust gas recirculation is realized. • IGCC performance does not significantly vary with exhaust gas recirculation. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermodynamic performance of air-blown IGCC systems with post-combustion CO 2 capture by chemical absorption. Two IGCC technologies are investigated in order to evaluate two different strategies of coal-derived gas clean-up. After outlining the layouts of two power plants, the first with conventional cold gas clean-up and the second with hot gas clean-up, attention is paid to the CO 2 capture station and to issues related to exhaust gas recirculation in combined cycles. The results highlight that significant improvements in IGCC performance are possible if hot coal-derived gas clean-up is realized before the syngas fuels the combustion turbine, so the energy cost of CO 2 removal in an amine-based post-combustion mode is less strong. In particular, IGCC net efficiency as high as 41.5% is calculated, showing an interesting potential if compared to the one of IGCC systems with pre-combustion CO 2 capture. Thermodynamic effects of exhaust gas recirculation are investigated as well, even though IGCC performance does not significantly vary against a more complicated plant layout

  16. Results of tritium experiments on ceramic electrolysis cells and palladium diffusers for application to fusion reactor fuel cleanup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Tritium tests at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly have demonstrated that ceramic electrolysis cells and palladium alloy diffuser developed in Japan are possible components for a fusion reactor fuel cleanup system. Both components have been successfully operated with tritium for over a year. A failure of the first electrolysis cell was most likely the result of an over voltage on the ceramic. A simple circuit was developed to eliminate this mode of failure. The palladium diffusers tubes exhibited some degradation of mechanical properties as a result of the build up of helium from the tritium decay, after 450 days of operation with tritium, however the effects were not significant enough to affect the performance. New models of the diffuser and electrolysis cell, providing higher flow rates and more tritium compatible designs are currently being tested with tritium. 8 refs., 5 figs

  17. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management's (EM's) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE's 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM's accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document

  18. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Koji; Egashira, Yasuo; Shimada, Fumie; Igarashi, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To save a low temperature reactor water clean-up system indispensable so far and significantly simplify the system by carrying out the reactor water clean-up solely in a high temperature reactor water clean-up system. Constitution: The reactor water clean-up device comprises a high temperature clean-up pump and a high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. The high temperature adsorption device is filled with amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents, or amphoteric ion adsorbing inorganic adsorbents and anionic adsorbing inorganic adsorbents. The reactor water clean-up device introduces reactor water by the high temperature clean-up pump through a recycling system to the high temperature adsorption device for inorganic adsorbents. Since cations such as cobalt ions and anions such as chlorine ions in the reactor water are simultaneously removed in the device, a low temperature reactor water clean-up system which has been indispensable so far can be saved to realize the significant simplification for the entire system. (Seki, T.)

  19. The state of immune system in children of participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up at the final state of sexual maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlyakhova, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the immune system involving all links of the immunity are three times more frequent in children whose fathers participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up. Disorders of humoral and phagocyte links are gender-dependent. Significant difference in the level of immunological parameters depending on the year of the father's stay in the zone was not revealed.

  20. The functional state of the cardiovascular system in adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenjev, M.M.; Kostenko, T.O.; Borisko, G.O.; Kalmikova, N.V.; Cherevatova, S. Kh.; Bondarenko, V.L.

    2010-01-01

    The state of the cardiovascular system of the adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up was characterized by a high incidence of myocardium bioelectric activity disorders, presence of congenital small heart defects, widening of the left ventricle cavity, reduction of contractile function and myocardium tolerance to physical load.

  1. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  2. Major weapon system environmental life-cycle cost estimating for Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C3P2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Wesley; Thurston, Marland; Hood, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    The Titan 4 Space Launch Vehicle Program is one of many major weapon system programs that have modified acquisition plans and operational procedures to meet new, stringent environmental rules and regulations. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) mandate to reduce the use of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) is just one of the regulatory changes that has affected the program. In the last few years, public environmental awareness, coupled with stricter environmental regulations, has created the need for DOD to produce environmental life-cycle cost estimates (ELCCE) for every major weapon system acquisition program. The environmental impact of the weapon system must be assessed and budgeted, considering all costs, from cradle to grave. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) has proposed that organizations consider Conservation, Cleanup, Compliance and Pollution Prevention (C(sup 3)P(sup 2)) issues associated with each acquisition program to assess life-cycle impacts and costs. The Air Force selected the Titan 4 system as the pilot program for estimating life-cycle environmental costs. The estimating task required participants to develop an ELCCE methodology, collect data to test the methodology and produce a credible cost estimate within the DOD C(sup 3)P(sup 2) definition. The estimating methodology included using the Program Office weapon system description and work breakdown structure together with operational site and manufacturing plant visits to identify environmental cost drivers. The results of the Titan IV ELCCE process are discussed and expanded to demonstrate how they can be applied to satisfy any life-cycle environmental cost estimating requirement.

  3. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  4. Novel Cleanup Agents Designed Exclusively for Oil Field Membrane Filtration Systems Low Cost Field Demonstrations of Cleanup Agents in Controlled Experimental Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett; Harold Vance

    2007-08-31

    The goal of our project is to develop innovative processes and novel cleaning agents for water treatment facilities designed to remove fouling materials and restore micro-filter and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane performance. This project is part of Texas A&M University's comprehensive study of the treatment and reuse of oilfield brine for beneficial purposes. Before waste water can be used for any beneficial purpose, it must be processed to remove contaminants, including oily wastes such as residual petroleum hydrocarbons. An effective way of removing petroleum from brines is the use of membrane filters to separate oily waste from the brine. Texas A&M and its partners have developed highly efficient membrane treatment and RO desalination for waste water including oil field produced water. We have also developed novel and new cleaning agents for membrane filters utilizing environmentally friendly materials so that the water from the treatment process will meet U.S. EPA drinking water standards. Prototype micellar cleaning agents perform better and use less clean water than alternate systems. While not yet optimized, the new system restores essentially complete membrane flux and separation efficiency after cleaning. Significantly the amount of desalinated water that is required to clean the membranes is reduced by more than 75%.

  5. Retrieval System for Calcined Waste for the Idaho Cleanup Project - 12104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, Randy L.; Johnston, Beau A.; Lower, Danielle E. [CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC. The Idaho Cleanup Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the conceptual approach to retrieve radioactive calcine waste, hereafter called calcine, from stainless steel storage bins contained within concrete vaults. The retrieval system will allow evacuation of the granular solids (calcine) from the storage bins through the use of stationary vacuum nozzles. The nozzles will use air jets for calcine fluidization and will be able to rotate and direct the fluidization or displacement of the calcine within the bin. Each bin will have a single retrieval system installed prior to operation to prevent worker exposure to the high radiation fields. The addition of an articulated camera arm will allow for operations monitoring and will be equipped with contingency tools to aid in calcine removal. Possible challenges (calcine bridging and rat-holing) associated with calcine retrieval and transport, including potential solutions for bin pressurization, calcine fluidization and waste confinement, are also addressed. The Calcine Disposition Project has the responsibility to retrieve, treat, and package HLW calcine. The calcine retrieval system has been designed to incorporate the functions and technical characteristics as established by the retrieval system functional analysis. By adequately implementing the highest ranking technical characteristics into the design of the retrieval system, the system will be able to satisfy the functional requirements. The retrieval system conceptual design provides the means for removing bulk calcine from the bins of the CSSF vaults. Top-down vacuum retrieval coupled with an articulating camera arm will allow for a robust, contained process capable of evacuating bulk calcine from bins and transporting it to the processing facility. The system is designed to fluidize, vacuum, transport and direct the calcine from its current location to the CSSF roof-top transport lines. An articulating camera arm, deployed through an adjacent access riser, will work in conjunction with the

  6. Carbon Formation and Metal Dusting in Hot-Gas Cleanup Systems of Coal Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortorelli, Peter F.; Judkins, Roddie R.; DeVan, Jackson H.; Wright, Ian G.

    1995-12-31

    There are several possible materials/systems degradation modes that result from gasification environments with appreciable carbon activities. These processes, which are not necessarily mutually exclusive, include carbon deposition, carburization, metal dusting, and CO disintegration of refractories. Carbon formation on solid surfaces occurs by deposition from gases in which the carbon activity (a sub C) exceeds unity. The presence of a carbon layer CO can directly affect gasifier performance by restricting gas flow, particularly in the hot gas filter, creating debris (that may be deposited elsewhere in the system or that may cause erosive damage of downstream components), and/or changing the catalytic activity of surfaces.

  7. Possibility of soil clean-up from 137Cs in coast part of drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yh.V.; Barinov, A.S.; Prozorov, L.B.; Kropotov, V.N.; Chujkov, V.Yh.; Shcheglov, M.Yh.; Bakanov, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    The net of drainage canals is used for the collection of the surface ground waters on the radioactive waste storage at the MosNPO RADON. The soils of the drainage system were contaminated by 137-Cs migrating in the direction of the common flow. A unique technology was elaborated permitting to extract 137 Cs from soil 90% and to concentrate 137-Cs on the selective inorganic sorbent (nickel ferrocyanide). This technology combines electrokinetics, membrane and sorption methods of the contaminated media cleaning

  8. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.; Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J.

    2015-09-01

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  9. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  10. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  11. Carbon formation and metal dusting in hot-gas cleanup systems of coal gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkins, R.R.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Wright, I.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-11-01

    The product gas resulting from the partial oxidation of Carboniferous materials in a gasifier is typically characterized by high carbon and sulfur, but low oxygen, activities and, consequently, severe degradation of the structural and functional materials can occur. The objective of this task was to establish the potential risks of carbon deposition and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes by examining the current state of knowledge regarding these phenomena, making appropriate thermochemical calculations for representative coal gasifiers, and addressing possible mitigation methods. The paper discusses carbon activities, iron-based phase stabilities, steam injection, conditions that influence kinetics of carbon deposition, and influence of system operating parameters on carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  12. Enabling cleanup technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Technology transfer in the environmental restoration, or cleanup, area has been challenging. While there is little doubt that innovative technologies are needed to reduce the times, risks, and costs associated with the cleanup of federal sites, particularly those of the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Defense, the use of such technologies in actual cleanups has been relatively limited. There are, of course, many reasons why technologies do not reach the implementation phase or do not get transferred from developing entities to the user community. For example, many past cleanup contracts provided few incentives for performance that would compel a contractor to seek improvement via technology applications. While performance-based contracts are becoming more common, they alone will not drive increased technology applications. This paper focuses on some applications of cleanup methodologies and technologies that have been successful and are illustrative of a more general principle. The principle is at once obvious and not widely practiced. It is that, with few exceptions, innovative cleanup technologies are rarely implemented successfully alone but rather are implemented in the context of enabling processes and methodologies. And, since cleanup is conducted in a regulatory environment, the stage is better set for technology transfer when the context includes substantive interactions with the relevant stakeholders. Examples of this principle are drawn from Argonne National Laboratory's experiences in Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs), Precise Excavation, and the DOE Technology Connection (TechCon) Program. The lessons learned may be applicable to the continuing challenges posed by the cleanup and long-term stewardship of radioactive contaminants and unexploded ordnance (UXO) at federal sites

  13. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multiple waste types in a 7-day period at the Kilauea Military Camp in Hawai’i. The emissions characterized were chosen based on regulatory emissions limits as well as their ability to cause adverse health effects on humans: particulate matter (PM), mercury, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Three military waste feedstock compositions reflecting the variety of wastes to be encountered in theatre were investigated: standard waste (SW), standard waste with increased plastic content (HP), standard waste without SW food components but added first strike ration (FSR) food and packaging material (termed FSR). A fourth waste was collected from the Kilauea dumpster that served the dining facility and room lodging (KMC). Limited scrubber water and solid ash residue samples were collected to obtain a preliminary characterization of these effluents/residues.Gasifying SW, HP, and KMC resulted in similar PCDD/PCDF stack concentrations, 0.26-0.27 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2, while FSR waste generated a notably higher stack concentration of 0.68 ng TEQ/m3 at 7% O2. The PM emission

  14. Clean-up system for pool water in pressure suppression chamber and operation method therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Kentaro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1996-09-17

    Pool water in a pressure suppression chamber of a BWR type reactor is sucked by a pump of an after-heat removing system. The pool water pressurized here is sent to the pressure suppression chamber by way of a heat exchanger and a test line backwarding pipeline to stir the pool water in the pressure suppression chamber. Further, the pool water pressurized by the pump is sent to the pressure suppression chamber by way of a filtration desalting device and an exit pipe to purify the pool water. Upon cleaning of pipelines before the start of a periodical test, the pool water sucked by the pump is sent to the filtration desalting device and recovered to the pressure suppression chamber. This can reduce the amount of impurities carried to the suppression chamber. After the cleaning of the pipelines, pool water is passed through the test line backwarding pipeline, so that the pool water can be stirred at the same time. (I.N.)

  15. DB Riley-low emission boiler system (LEBS): Superior power for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beittel, R. [DB Riley, Inc., Worcester, MA (United States); Ruth, L.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy, DB Riley, Inc., is developing a highly advanced coal-fired power-generation plant called the Low Emission Boiler Systems (LEBS). By the year 2000, LEBS will provide the US electric power industry with a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, environmentally superior alternative to current technologies. LEBS incorporates significant advances in coal combustion, supercritical steam boiler design, environmental control, and materials development. The system will include a state-of-the-art steam cycle operating at supercritical steam conditions; a slagging combustor that produces vitrified ash by-products; low nitrogen oxide (NOx) burners; a new, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup system (copper oxide process) for simultaneously capturing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx); a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate capture; and a low-temperature heat-recovery system. The copper oxide flue gas cleanup system, which has been under development at DOE`s Pittsburgh field center, removes over 98% of SO{sub 2} and 95% of NOx from flue gas. A new moving-bed design provides efficient sorbent utilization that lowers the cleanup process cost. The captured SO{sub 2} can be converted to valuable by-products such as sulfuric acid and/or element sulfur, and the process generates no waste.

  16. Effects of secondary containment air cleanup system leakage on the accident offsite dose as determined during preop tests of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaes, L.J.; Nass, S.A.; Proctor, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Sequoyah Nuclear Plant has two secondary containments. One is the annular region between the primary containment and the shield building surrounding the primary containment. The second is the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure which is potentially subject to direct airborne radioactivity. Two air cleanup systems are provided to serve these areas. The emergency gas treatment system (EGTS) serves the annulus between the primary containment and the shield building, and the auxiliary building gas treatment system (ABGTS) serves the area inside of the auxiliary building secondary containment enclosure. The major function served by these air cleanup systems is that of controlling and processing airborne contamination released in these areas during any accident up to a design basis accident. This is accomplished by (1) creating a negative pressure in the areas served to ensure that no unprocessed air is released to the atmosphere, (2) providing filtration units to process all air exhausted from the secondary containment spaces, and (3) providing a low-leakage enclosure to limit exhaust flows. Offsite dose effects due to secondary containment release rates, bypass leakage, and duct and damper leakages are presented and parameter variations are considered. For the EGTS, a recirculation system, the most important parameter is the total inleakage of the system which causes an increase in both whole body (gamma) and thyroid (iodine) doses. For the ABGTS, a once-through system, the most important paramter is the inleakage which bypasses the filters resulting in an increase in the thyroid dose only. Actual preoperational test data are utilized. Problems encountered during the preop test are summarized. Solutions incorporated to bring the EGTS and ABGTS air cleanup systems within the test acceptance criteria required to meet offsite dose limitations are discussed and the resultant calculated offsite dose is presented

  17. Cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beone, G.; Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  18. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  19. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  20. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  1. Statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, J.J.; Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Desert Research Institute participated in the Enewetak Atoll Radiological Cleanup by providing data-base management and statistical analysis support for the Department of Energy team. The data-base management responsibilities included both design and implementation of a system for recording (in machine-retrievable form) all radiological measurements made during the cleanup, excluding personnel dosimetry. Statistical analyses were performed throughout the cleanup and were used to guide excavation activities

  2. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  3. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed

  4. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  5. Expression of Cyclin D1 protein and CCN DI with PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in clean-up worker of Chernobyl accident with different state of immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazika, D.A.; Kubashko, A.V.; Yil'jenko, Yi.M.; Belyajev, O.A.; Pleskach, O.Ya.

    2015-01-01

    The investigate of Cyclin D1+cells levels changes, associated CCND1 and PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cleanup workers of Chornobyl accident with different state of immune system in depends on the dose irradiation. Analyzed data of the nuclear controller of cell cycle- Cyclin D1 protein expression changes and related CCND1 and PNKP genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in cleanup workers Chornobyl accident with different status of immune system in remote period after exposure is represented. Reveled changes in expression of Cyclin D1+cells and regulation of related genes may point on possible radiation-associated firm molecular disturbances occurred during elimination of consequences of Chornobyl accident, that could be a potential basis for cell and humoral communicative links breach in immune system result ing in elevation of stochastic effects like oncopathology in cleanup workers of Chornobyl accident in remote peri od after exposure

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

  7. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  8. Acoustic emission leak monitoring system LMS-96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, J.; Cvrcek, M.; Mueller, L.

    1997-01-01

    On-line acoustic emission leak monitoring under industrial conditions of nuclear power plants is a problem with specific features setting specific demands on the leak monitoring system. The paper briefly reviews those problems (attenuation pattern of a real structure, acoustic background, alarm system, etc.) and the solution of some of them is discussed. Information is presented on the Acoustic Emission Leak Monitoring System LMS-96 by SKODA NUCLEAR MACHINERY and the system's function is briefly described. (author)

  9. Fragment emission from modestly excited nuclear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Chen, S.L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Cornell, E.W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Davin, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Fox, D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Hamilton, T.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Mcdonald, K. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility; Tsang, M.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Glasmacher, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Dinius, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Gelbke, C.K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Handzy, D.O. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Hsi, W.C.

    1996-07-08

    Fragment emission patterns occurring in nuclear systems of modest excitation are studied. Exclusive measurement of fragment emission in {sup 14}N+{sup 197}Au reactions at E/A=100, 130 and 156 MeV allows selection of central collisions where a single source dominates the decay. Low threshold measurement of IMF emission for these events allows investigation of the influence of detector threshold effects. The time scale of fragment emission is deduced using fragment-fragment velocity correlations. Comparisons are made to the predictions of a statistical decay model. (orig.).

  10. Automotive catalyst strategies for future emission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, W.B.; Summers, J.C.; Scaparo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that while significant advances in Pt/Rh three-way catalyst (TWC) formulations have been accomplished, the use of Pd-containing catalysts for three-way emission control are of interest for overall noble metal cost reduction, lower Rh usage, and potential durability improvements. Applications of Pd are demonstrated for replacement of Pt in conventional Pt/Rh TWC systems, for use in Pd-only three-way catalysts and for lowering methanol and formaldehyde emissions at close-coupled locations on a methanol-fueled vehicle. The individual contributions of Pt, Pd and Rh for aged three-way performance indicate significant advantages of using Pd over Pt. A comparison of vehicle system control strategies illustrates that higher system temperatures significantly lower HC emissions, while air/fuel control strategies are most critical in lowering NO x emissions

  11. Reactor coolant cleanup device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Noboru.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to introduce reactor water at high temperature and high pressure as it is, as well as effectively adsorb to eliminate cobalt in reactor water. Constitution: The coolant cleanup device comprises a vessel main body inserted to coolant pipeway circuits in a water cooled reactor power plant and filters contained within the vessel main body. The filters are prepared by coating and baking powder of metal oxides such as manganese ferrite having a function capable of adsorbing cobalt in the coolants onto the surface of supports made of metals or ceramics resistant to strong acids and alkalies in the form of three-dimensional network structure, for example, zircaloy-2, SUS 303 and the zirconia (baking) to form a basic filter elements. The basic filter elements are charged in plurality to the vessel main body. (Kawaiami, Y.)

  12. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  13. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  14. Assessment of real driving emissions via portable emission measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clenci, A.; Sălan, V.; Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Zaharia, C.

    2017-10-01

    The European Commission approved a so-called Real Driving Emission (RDE) test in response to the criticisms to the current driving cycle used at chassis dyno for homologation purpose (NEDC): it is considered outdated and misleading since air pollutants in real driving conditions are considerably higher than the certification thresholds. So, what’s at stake is the air quality which degraded continuously despite the ever-increasing severity of the regulations during the last almost three decades. Thus, from September 2017, the RDE test will become part of the type approval process for all cars sold in Europe. As its name points out, it will include “real world driving” using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The paper presents the RDE features (PEMS mounting, testing environment, boundary conditions, driving dynamics) and presents a case study on the influence of the driving style upon the tail-pipe emissions under the RDE testing. The results presented in the paper issued from the existing cooperation on this topic between University of Pitesti and Renault Technologie Roumanie

  15. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  16. Eye pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglite, A.; Ozola, G.; Curbakova, E.

    1998-01-01

    Diseases of the nervous system and sense organs have become the most significant pathologies of Chernobyl clean-up workers during the last four years. The aim of this work was to evaluate the incidence of eye disorders among Chernobyl clean-up workers to provide more information for health specialists. During the last 10 years, the most common eye pathology has been angiopathia retinae, followed by myopia and cataracta. Statistical analyses showed that the clean-up workers have higher risk to develop angiopathia retinae than the control group. (author)

  17. Modelling carbon emissions in electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, E.T.; Yang, Q.; Forbes, A.B.; Wright, P.; Livina, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We model carbon emissions in electric systems. • We estimate emissions in generated and consumed energy with UK carbon factors. • We model demand profiles with novel function based on hyperbolic tangents. • We study datasets of UK Elexon database, Brunel PV system and Irish SmartGrid. • We apply Ensemble Kalman Filter to forecast energy data in these case studies. - Abstract: We model energy consumption of network electricity and compute Carbon emissions (CE) based on obtained energy data. We review various models of electricity consumption and propose an adaptive seasonal model based on the Hyperbolic tangent function (HTF). We incorporate HTF to define seasonal and daily trends of electricity demand. We then build a stochastic model that combines the trends and white noise component and the resulting simulations are estimated using Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), which provides ensemble simulations of groups of electricity consumers; similarly, we estimate carbon emissions from electricity generators. Three case studies of electricity generation and consumption are modelled: Brunel University photovoltaic generation data, Elexon national electricity generation data (various fuel types) and Irish smart grid data, with ensemble estimations by EnKF and computation of carbon emissions. We show the flexibility of HTF-based functions for modelling realistic cycles of energy consumption, the efficiency of EnKF in ensemble estimation of energy consumption and generation, and report the obtained estimates of the carbon emissions in the considered case studies

  18. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  19. Corrosion and flow resistance of metal filter elements used in the cleanup of syngas from the Transport Gasifier at the Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Dahlin; E. Carl Landham; Xiaofeng Guan [Southern Research Institute, Wilsonville, AL (United States). Power Systems Development Facility

    2008-07-01

    At the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), a variety of filter elements and failsafes are being tested for the cleanup of coal-generated syngas from the Kellogg Brown and Root (KBR) Transport Gasifier. Thus far, no evidence of corrosion or plugging has been found in the HR-160 failsafes or sinterned metal fiber elements. However, a progressive corrosion and increase in pressure drop has been noted in the iron aluminide elements. The corrosion was first detected as reddish-brown spots of iron oxide after about 2,000 to 3,000 hours of syngas exposure. As the corrosion progressed, the spots of iron oxide merged to form a continuous scale after about 5,000 to 5,500 hours of exposure. With additional exposure, a black scale containing iron sulfide also appeared, and localized areas of sulfidation and plugging were noted in element cross sections. These effects have not resulted in any significant reduction in tensile strength, but a gradual increase in the clean element pressure drop has been noted. Flow test results suggest that there is an interaction between the corroded filter surface and the dustcake that effectively increases the residual cake flow resistance and baseline pressure drop. 10 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Restricted linking of emissions trading systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Lambert; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Asselt, van Harro

    2017-01-01

    With over 17 emissions trading systems (ETSs) now in place across four continents, interest in linking ETSs is growing. Linking ETSs offers economic, political, and administrative benefits. It also faces major challenges. Linking can affect overall ambition, financial flows, and the location and

  1. MICRO AUTO GASIFICATION SYSTEM: EMISSIONS CHARACTERIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compact, CONEX-housed waste to energy unit, Micro Auto Gasification System (MAGS), was characterized for air emissions from burning of military waste types. The MAGS unit is a dual chamber gasifier with a secondary diesel-fired combustor. Eight tests were conducted with multipl...

  2. Radiation cleanup of vacuum systems (radiation-induced outgassing). Progress report, September 15, 1976--September 14, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, J.N.

    1977-06-01

    A stainless steel-304 vacuum system has been designed and constructed to study radiation-induced outgassing when this material is exposed to cobalt-60 gamma radiation. The system is pumped with an ion pump and sorption roughing pump. No foreign materials have been introduced except for copper seals at the flanges. An analytical model has been developed which predicts the outgassing from SS-304 to be 8.27 x 10 -12 torr-liters/(cm 2 )(sec) per megarad/hr. Extrapolation of existing data for aluminum suggests a lower value of 1.0 x 10 -12 torr-liters/(cm 2 )(sec) per megarad/hr. Experiments to determine the value are currently in progress

  3. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested

  4. Innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for groundwater cleanup. In this context, groundwater cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal with contaminants in ground water or that may move from the vadose zone into ground water. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in groundwater cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the site-specific technical challenges presented by each groundwater contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After reviewing a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, the Microbial Filter method, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising in situ groundwater cleanup technology that is now being readied for field testing

  5. BWR reactor water cleanup system flexible wedge gate isolation valve qualification and high energy flow interruption test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Steele, R. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    This report presents the results of research performed to develop technical insights for the NRC effort regarding Generic Issue 87, ''Failure of HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation.'' Volume III of this report contains the data and findings from the original research performed to assess the qualification of the valves and reported in EGG-SSRE-7387, ''Qualification of Valve Assemblies in High Energy BWR Systems Penetrating Containment.'' We present the original work here to complete the documentation trail. The recommendations contained in Volume III of this report resulted in the test program described in Volume I and II. The research began with a survey to characterize the population of normally open containment isolation valves in those process lines that connect to the primary system and penetrate containment. The qualification methodology used by the various manufacturers identified in the survey is reviewed and deficiencies in that methodology are identified. Recommendations for expanding the qualification of valve assemblies for high energy pipe break conditions are presented. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. World Record Earned Value Management System Certification for Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA - 13181

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Ray; Hirschy, Anita [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR), East Tennessee Technology Park D and D and Environmental Remediation Project, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On projects that require Earned Value Management (EVMS) Certification, it is critical to quickly prepare for and then successfully obtain certification. This is especially true for government contracts. Projects that do poorly during the review are subject to financial penalties to their company and they lose creditability with their customer creating problems with the project at the outset. At East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), we began preparing for Department of Energy (DOE) certification early during proposal development. Once the contract was awarded, while still in transition phase from the previous contractor to our new company, we immediately began reviewing the project controls systems that were in place on the project and determined if any replacements needed to be made immediately. The ETTP contract required the scheduling software to be upgraded to Primavera P6 and we determined that no other software changes would be done prior to certification. Next, preparation of the Project Controls System Description (PCSD) and associated procedures began using corporate standards as related to the project controls systems. During the transition phase, development was started on the Performance Measurement Baseline which is the resource loaded schedule used to measure our performance on the project and which is critical to good Earned Value Management of the project. Early on, and throughout the baseline review, there was positive feedback from the Department of Energy that the quality of the new baseline was good. Having this superior baseline also contributed to our success in EVMS certification. The combined companies of URS and CH2M Hill had recent experience with certifications at other Department of Energy sites and we were able to capitalize on that knowledge and experience. Generic PCSD and procedures consistent with our co-operations approach to Earned Value Management were available to us and were easily tailorable to the specifics of our contract

  7. World Record Earned Value Management System Certification for Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA - 13181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, Ray; Hirschy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    On projects that require Earned Value Management (EVMS) Certification, it is critical to quickly prepare for and then successfully obtain certification. This is especially true for government contracts. Projects that do poorly during the review are subject to financial penalties to their company and they lose creditability with their customer creating problems with the project at the outset. At East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), we began preparing for Department of Energy (DOE) certification early during proposal development. Once the contract was awarded, while still in transition phase from the previous contractor to our new company, we immediately began reviewing the project controls systems that were in place on the project and determined if any replacements needed to be made immediately. The ETTP contract required the scheduling software to be upgraded to Primavera P6 and we determined that no other software changes would be done prior to certification. Next, preparation of the Project Controls System Description (PCSD) and associated procedures began using corporate standards as related to the project controls systems. During the transition phase, development was started on the Performance Measurement Baseline which is the resource loaded schedule used to measure our performance on the project and which is critical to good Earned Value Management of the project. Early on, and throughout the baseline review, there was positive feedback from the Department of Energy that the quality of the new baseline was good. Having this superior baseline also contributed to our success in EVMS certification. The combined companies of URS and CH2M Hill had recent experience with certifications at other Department of Energy sites and we were able to capitalize on that knowledge and experience. Generic PCSD and procedures consistent with our co-operations approach to Earned Value Management were available to us and were easily tailorable to the specifics of our contract

  8. Sodium hydroxide injection passivation work for the reactor water clean-up system in a new ABWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Tung-Jen; Lu, Ju-Huang

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have identified that Co-58 and Co-60 as the primary source of radiation build up on out-of-core components in new BWR plants. The deposition rate of Co on stainless steel and carbon steel is shown to be controlled mainly by the thickness of oxide films and its morphology formed through pretreatment. The passivation treatment was implemented accordingly at Lungmen unit 1 in an ABWR plant in September 2010. It is determined that the passivation conditions should be maintained at the temperature of 180∼230 deg. C, pH of 8.0∼8.5 and dissolved oxygen content over 400 ppb. The films would provide effective protection against radioactive deposition. The application of the pre-filming process on piping before the pre-operation is done during the flow induced vibration test (FIV) period. The protectiveness of stable magnetite can be increased by the pH control under the specific condition. The pre-filming control process and evaluation of passivation effectiveness is discussed in detail based on the surface analysis of the passivated specimens. Many efforts have been devoted to sodium hydroxide injection method for pH control of the system through the filter demineralizer under smooth operation. A comparison of test specimens on the properties of oxide film formed between laboratory and in-plant tests through alkaline treatment are also shown in this report. (authors)

  9. Oil spills and their cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    1995-01-01

    Oil spills are an unfortunately common occurrence in the world's seas and can have extensive damaging environmental consequences. This article examines various methods of cleaning up oil spills, evaluates their effectiveness in various situations, and identifies areas where, current methods being inadequate, further research is needed. Containment, mechanical removal, shoreline cleanup, chemical treating agents, in situ burning, natural recovery and enhanced bioremediation are all assessed. The cleanup method must be selected to match environmental conditions. Results are good in quiet, sheltered waters, but need extensive development in open waters and high seas. (UK)

  10. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1200 - Emission computed tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emission computed tomography system. 892.1200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1200 Emission computed tomography system. (a) Identification. An emission computed tomography system is a device intended to detect the...

  12. Development of novel emission tomography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Geng

    In recent years, small animals, such as mice and rats, have been widely used as subjects of study in biomedical research while molecular biology and imaging techniques open new opportunities to investigate disease model. With the help of medical imaging techniques, researchers can investigate underlying mechanisms inside the small animal, which are useful for both early diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Based on tracer principle single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has increased popularity in small animal imaging due to its higher spatial resolution and variety of single-photon emitting radionuclides. Since the image quality strongly depends on the detector properties, both scintillation and semiconductor detectors are under active investigation for high resolution X-ray and gamma ray photon detection. The desired detector properties include high intrinsic spatial resolution, high energy resolution, and high detection efficiency. In this thesis study, we have made extensive efforts to develop novel emission tomography system, and evaluate the use of both semiconductor and ultra-high resolution scintillation detectors for small animal imaging. This thesis work includes the following three areas. Firstly, we have developed a novel energy-resolved photon counting (ERPC) detector. With the benefits of high energy resolution, high spatial resolution, flexible detection area, and a wide dynamic range of 27--200keV, ERPC detector is well-suited for small animal SPECT applications. For prototype ERPC detector excellent imaging (˜350microm) and spectroscopic performance (4keV Co-57 122keV) has been demonstrated in preliminary study. Secondly, to further improve spatial resolution to hundred-micron level, an ultra-high resolution Intensified EMCCD (I-EMCCD) detector has been designed and evaluated. This detector consists of the newly developed electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) sensor, columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator, and an electrostatic de-magnifier (DM) tube

  13. Test of the scroll pump in the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly. JFCU scroll pump test and result, JFCU stand alone tritium test 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Takumi; Konishi, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Ohira, Shigeru [and others

    1993-03-01

    In the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (JFCU), major subsystem of the TSTA simulated fusion fuel loop, a Normetex Scroll pump is used to pump out hydrogen isotope gases from the palladium diffuser. The characteristics of the pump was measured with hydrogen isotopes and helium, in a closed loop. Compression ratio and ultimate pressure were strongly affected by the delivery pressure and the species of the gas. Particularly with H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}, additional metal bellows pump was proved to be needed to satisfy the process requirement. For hydrogen isotopes, pumping characteristics improves with the mass of the gas and similar pumping capability was obtained with pure T{sub 2} and helium. (author).

  14. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the wildland fire emissions information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Donald McKenzie; Tyler Erickson; Benjamin Koziol; Michael Billmire; K. Endsley; Naomi K.Y. Scheinerman; Liza Jenkins; Mary E. Miller; Roger Ottmar; Susan Prichard

    2014-01-01

    As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive, spatial data are needed to improve quantitative maps of carbon emissions from fire. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) provides mapped estimates of carbon emissions from historical forest fires in the United States through a web browser. WFEIS improves access to data and provides a consistent...

  15. Water maser emission from exoplanetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmovici, C. B.; Pogrebenko, S.

    2018-01-01

    Since the first discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet in 1995 more than 2000 exo-planets have been found to exist around main sequence stars. The detection techniques are based on the radial velocity method (which involves the measurement of the star's wobbling induced by the gravitational field of the orbiting giant planets) or on transit photometry by using space telescopes (Kepler, Corot, Hubble and Spitzer) outside the absorbing Earth atmosphere. From the ground, as infrared observations are strongly limited by atmospheric absorption, radioastronomy offers almost the only possible way to search for water presence and abundance in the planetary atmospheres of terrestrial-type planets where life may evolve. Following the discovery in 1994 of the first water maser emission in the atmosphere of Jupiter induced by a cometary impact, our measurements have shown that the water maser line at 22 GHz (1.35 cm) can be used as a powerful diagnostic tool for water search outside the solar system, as comets are able to deliver considerable amounts of water to planets raising the fascinating possibility of extraterrestrial life evolution. Thus in 1999 we started the systematic search for water on 35 different targets up to 50 light years away from the Sun. Here we report the first detection of the water maser emission from the exoplanetary systems Epsilon Eridani, Lalande 21185 and Gliese 581. We have shown the peculiar feasibility of water detection and its importance in the search for exoplanetary systems especially for the Astrobiology programs, given the possibility of long period observations using powerful radiotelescopes equipped with adequate spectrometers.

  16. [Investigation of emission characteristics for light duty vehicles with a portable emission measurement system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Kun; Fu, Li-Xin; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Xin; Chen, Ai-Zhong; Ge, Wei-hu; Du, Xuan

    2008-10-01

    Emission from 7 typical light-duty vehicles under actual driving conditions was monitored using a portable emission measurement system to gather data for characterization of the real world vehicle emission in Shenzhen, including the effects of driving modes on vehicle emission, comparison of fuel consumption based emission factors (g x L(-1) with mileage based emission factors (g x km(-1)), and the average emission factors of the monitored vehicles. The acceleration and deceleration modes accounted for 66.7% of total travel time, 80.3% of traveling distance and 74.6%-79.2% of vehicle emission; the acceleration mode contributed more than other driving modes. The fuel based emission factors were less dependent on the driving speed; they may be utilized in building macro-scale vehicle emission inventory with smaller sensitivity to the vehicle driving conditions. The effect of vehicle technology on vehicle emission was significant; the emission factors of CO, HC and NO(x) of carbureted vehicles were 19.9-20.5, 5.6-26.1 and 1.8-2.0 times the more advanced vehicles of Euro II, respectively. Using the ECE + EUDC driving cycle would not produce the desired real-world emission rates of light duty vehicles in a typical Chinese city.

  17. [Study on emission standard system of air pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Zou, Lan; Wei, Yu-Xia; Ren, Chun

    2012-12-01

    Scientific and reasonable emission standard system of air pollutants helps to systematically control air pollution, enhance the protection of the atmospheric environment effect and improve the overall atmospheric environment quality. Based on the study of development, situation and characteristics of national air pollutants emission standard system, the deficiencies of system were pointed out, which were not supportive, harmonious and perfect, and the improvement measures of emission standard system were suggested.

  18. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Bouwman, Lex; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for

  19. Computer-aided cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Jones, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1992, the remedial investigation of operable unit 2 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in Fernald, Ohio was in trouble. Despite years of effort--including an EPA-approved field-investigation work plan, 123 soil borings, 51 ground-water-monitoring wells, analysis of more than 650 soil and ground-water samples, and preparation of a draft remedial-investigation (RI) report--it was not possible to conclude if contaminated material in the unit was related to ground-water contamination previously detected beneath and beyond the site boundary. Compounding the problem, the schedule for the RI, feasibility study and record of decision for operable unit 2 was governed by a DOE-EPA consent agreement stipulating penalties of up to $10,000 per week for not meeting scheduled milestones--and time was running out. An advanced three-dimensional computer model confirmed that radioactive wastes dumped at the Fernald, Ohio Superfund site had contaminated ground water, after years of previous testing has been inconclusive. The system is now being used to aid feasibility and design work on the more-than-$1 billion remediation project

  20. A tritium vessel cleanup experiment in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Owens, D.K.; Voorhees, D.; Mueller, D.; Ramsey, A.T.; La Marche, P.H.; Loughlin, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    A simple tritium cleanup experiment was carried out in TFTR following the initial high power deuterium-tritium discharges in December 1993. A series of 34 ohmic and deuterium neutral beam fueled shots was used to study the removal of tritium implanted into the wall and limiters. A very large plasma was created in each discharge to ''scrub'' an area as large as possible. Beam-fueled shots at 2.5 to 7.5 MW of injected power were used to monitor tritium concentration levels in the plasma by detection of DT-neutrons. The neutron signal decreased by a factor of 4 during the experiment, remaining well above the expected T-burnup level. The amount of tritium recovered at the end of the cleanup was about 8% of the amount previously injected with high power DT discharges. The experience gained suggests that measurements of tritium inventory in the torus are very difficult to execute and require dedicated systems with overall accuracy of 1%

  1. Accelerated cleanup risk reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1998-01-01

    well was 'capped'. Our results show the formation of an inclined gas phase during injection and a fast collapse of the steam zone within an hour of terminating steam injection. The majority of destruction occurs during the collapse phase, when contaminant laden water is drawn back towards the well. Little to no noncondensible gasses are created in this process, removing any possibility of sparging processes interfering with contaminant destruction. Our models suggest that the thermal region should be as hot and as large as possible. To have HPO accepted, we need to demonstrate the in situ destruction of contaminants. This requires the ability to inexpensively sample at depth and under high temperatures. We proved the ability to implies monitoring points at depths exceeding 150 feet in highly heterogeneous soils by use of cone penetrometry. In addition, an extractive system has been developed for sampling fluids and measuring their chemistry under the range of extreme conditions expected. We conducted a collaborative field test of HPO at a Superfund site in southern California where the contaminant is mainly creosote and pentachlorophenol. Field results confirm the destruction of contaminants by HPO, validate our field design from simulations, demonstrate that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells (and minimal capital cost) and yield reliable cost estimates for future commercial application. We also

  2. Cleanup of radioactivity contamination in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    1994-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity cleanup is needed under a large scale accident in a reactor or in an RI irradiation facility which associates big disperse of radioactivities. Here, the fundamental concept including a radiation protection target, a period classification, planning, an information data base, etc. Then, the methods and measuring instruments on radioactivity contamination and the cleanup procedure are explained. Finally, the real site examples of accidental cleanup are presented for a future discussion. (author)

  3. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the ∼200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by the

  4. Low emissions system featured on compressor drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, T.

    1995-01-01

    A high speed power turbine is offered as an option with direct drive capability for pipeline compressors and other high-speed applications. As developed, it features ease of maintenance with rotor and nozzle assembly in a single cartridge to allow quick change-out or replacement of parts on site. The new compressor drive builds extensively on proven technology and is expected to provide lower installed and life-cycle costs per unit horsepower than previous units. During its development stages, M ampersand IE preformed cost and risk assessment of several design configurations and concluded that a derivative approach based on the standard unit was an optimal solution in the 39,000 shp range. A two-shaft gas turbine is expected to be applied in the industrial and commercial marine markets, including 50- and 60-Hertz power generation applications, pipeline compression, gas injection, and fast ferry commercial marine uses. Emissions controls for the system will include water or steam injection using a standard combustor or M and IE's DLE combustion system

  5. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in

  6. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  7. Historical research in the Hanford site waste cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Michele S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will acquaint the audience with role of historical research in the Hanford Site waste cleanup - the largest waste cleanup endeavor ever undertaken in human history. There were no comparable predecessors to this massive waste remediation effort, but the Hanford historical record can provide a partial road map and guide. It can be, and is, a useful tool in meeting the goal of a successful, cost-effective, safe and technologically exemplary waste cleanup. The Hanford historical record is rich and complex. Yet, it poses difficult challenges, in that no central and complete repository or data base exists, records contain obscure code words and code numbers, and the measurement systems and terminology used in the records change many times over the years. Still, these records are useful to the current waste cleanup in technical ways, and in ways that extend beyond a strictly scientific aspect. Study and presentations of Hanford Site history contribute to the huge educational and outreach tasks of helping the Site's work force deal with 'culture change' and become motivated for the cleanup work that is ahead, and of helping the public and the regulators to place the events at Hanford in the context of WWII and the Cold War. This paper traces historical waste practices and policies as they changed over the years at the Hanford Site, and acquaints the audience with the generation of the major waste streams of concern in Hanford Site cleanup today. It presents original, primary-source research into the waste history of the Hanford Site. The earliest, 1940s knowledge base, assumptions and calculations about radioactive and chemical discharges, as discussed in the memos, correspondence and reports of the original Hanford Site (then Hanford Engineer Works) builders and operators, are reviewed. The growth of knowledge, research efforts, and subsequent changes in Site waste disposal policies and practices are traced. Examples of the strengths and limitations of the

  8. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M.; Baynes, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  10. Modeling carbon emissions from urban traffic system using mobile monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Jian; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Rui; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive analyses of urban traffic carbon emissions are critical in achieving low-carbon transportation. This paper started from the architecture design of a carbon emission mobile monitoring system using multiple sets of equipment and collected the corresponding data about traffic flow, meteorological conditions, vehicular carbon emissions and driving characteristics on typical roads in Shanghai and Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Based on these data, the emission model MOVES was calibrated and used with various sensitivity and correlation evaluation indices to analyze the traffic carbon emissions at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively. The major factors that influence urban traffic carbon emissions were investigated, so that emission factors of CO, CO 2 and HC were calculated by taking representative passenger cars as a case study. As a result, the urban traffic carbon emissions were assessed quantitatively, and the total amounts of CO, CO 2 and HC emission from passenger cars in Shanghai were estimated as 76.95kt, 8271.91kt, and 2.13kt, respectively. Arterial roads were found as the primary line source, accounting for 50.49% carbon emissions. In additional to the overall major factors identified, the mobile monitoring system and carbon emission quantification method proposed in this study are of rather guiding significance for the further urban low-carbon transportation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an administrative record system and information repository system to support environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, B.S.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an administrative record (AR) file system for the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This paper will focus on the background of the AR system and its implementation at the Hanford Site; the types of documents to be included in an AR file; the management system used to develop and implement the AR system; the unique characteristics of the AR system and the role of the information repositories. The objective of this session is to present the methodology used in developing an AR and information repository system so that common hurdles from various sites can be addressed and resolved similarly. Therefore unnecessary effort does not have to be put forth to resolve the same issues over and over again. The concepts described can be applied to all federal facility sites with a minimum amount of modification and revision. 9 refs

  12. Reliability of reactor plant water cleanup pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick 2 nuclear plant experienced a high reactor water cleanup pump-failure rate until inlet temperature and flow were reduced and mechanical modifications were implemented. Failures have been zero for about one year, and water cleanup efficiency has increased

  13. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary mission of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division is to propose, to develop and to evaluate solutions for a safe, acceptable and sustainable management of radioactive waste. The Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division programme consists in research, studies, development and demonstration aiming to realise the objective of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation on radioactively contaminated sites. Indeed, it participates in the realisation of an objective which is to ensure that radioactive wastes are safely managed, transported, stored and disposed of, with a view to protecting human health and the environment, within a wider framework of an interactive and integrated approach to radioactive waste management and safety. We believe that nuclear energy will be necessary for the sustainable development of mankind in the 21st century, but we well understand that it would not be maintained if it is not proven that within benefits of nuclear energy a better protection of the environment is included. Although the current waste management practices are both technically and from the environmental point of view adequate, efforts in relation of future power production and waste management technologies should be put on waste minimisation. Therefore, the new and innovative reactors, fuel cycle and waste management processes and installations should be designed so that the waste generation can be kept in minimum. In addition to the design, the installations should be operated so as to create less waste; consideration should be given e.g. to keeping water chemistry clean and other quality factors. SCK-CEN in general and the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division in particular are present in international groups preparing the development of innovative nuclear reactors, as Generation 4 and INPRO. Because performance assessments are often black boxes for the public, demonstration is needed for the acceptation of

  14. Emission operational strategy for combined cooling, heating, and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumo, Nelson; Mago, Pedro J.; Chamra, Louay M.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES), as technology that use thermal activated components to recover waste heat, are energy systems that offer key solution to global warming and energy security through high overall energy efficiency and better fuel use. Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP) Systems are IES that use recovered thermal energy from the prime mover to produce heating and cooling for the building. The CCHP operational strategy is critical and it has to be considered in a well designed system since it defines the ultimate goal for the benefits expected from the system. One of the most common operational strategies is the cost-oriented strategy, which allows the system to operate at the lowest cost. A primary energy strategy (PES) optimizes energy consumption instead of cost. However, as a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have gained a lot of interest. Therefore, for a CCHP system, an emission strategy (ES) would be an operational strategy oriented to minimize emission of pollutants. In this study, the use of an ES is proposed for CCHP systems targeted to reduce emission of pollutants. The primary energy consumption (PEC) reduction and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission reduction obtained using the proposed ES are compared with results obtained from the use of a PES. Results show that lower emission of CO 2 is achieved with the ES when compared with the PES, which prove the advantage of the ES for the design of CCHP systems targeted to emissions reduction.

  15. Buying time: Franchising hazardous and nuclear waste cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a private franchise approach to long-term custodial care, monitoring and eventual cleanup of hazardous and nuclear waste sites. The franchise concept could be applied to Superfund sites, decommissioning commercial reactors and safeguarding their wastes and to Department of Energy sites. Privatization would reduce costs by enforcing efficient operations and capital investments during the containment period, by providing incentives for successful innovation and by sustaining containment until the cleanup`s net benefits exceed its costs. The franchise system would also permit local governments and citizens to demand and pay for more risk reduction than provided by the federal government. In principle, they would have the option of taking over site management. The major political drawback of the idea is that it requires society to be explicit about what it is willing to pay for now to protect current and future generations. Hazardous waste sites are enduring legacies of energy development. Abandoned mines, closed refineries, underground storage tanks and nuclear facilities have often become threats to human health and water quality. The policy of the United States government is that such sites should quickly be made nonpolluting and safe for unrestricted use. That is, the policy of the United States is prompt cleanup. Orphaned commercial hazardous waste sites are addressed by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Superfund program. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Three Mile Island Cleanup: experiences, waste disposal, and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    These papers were presented in a two-session symposium during the American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1981 Summer National meeting in Detroit, Michigan, August 16-19, 1981. The cleanup activities described included the venting of the gases, mostly krypton-85, from the reactor containment building and several entries of personnel into the containment building to determine the physical conditions and the levels of radiation and radioactive contamination. Results of the latest process development tests of the flowsheet for the submerged Demineralizer Water Treatment System for decontaminating the water in the containment building were presented. The status of existing knowledge of radiation effects on ion exchange materials used in radioactive waste management were reviewed. A program to demonstrate incorporation of the loaded zeolite into a glass as a final waste form was also described. The generation, classification, treatment, and disposal of solid waste forms resulting from the cleanup were discussed with special consideration of the ion exchange media used for cleanup of liquids with relatively high radionuclide concentrations. The radiological, socioeconomic, and psychological impacts of the cleanup were evaluated. This work formed the basis for the recent issuance by the NRC of a programmatic environmental impact statement relative to decontamination and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from the accidents

  17. Enhancing aquifer cleanup with reinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, W.F.; Ziagos, J.; Rice, D. Jr.; Krauter, P.; Nichols, E.

    1992-09-01

    Injection of water or steam, with or without chemical surfactants, is a common petroleum industry technique to enhance product recovery. In the geothermal industry, reinjection (reinjection is used to mean the injection of ground water that was previously injected) of heat- depleted subsurface fluids is commonly used to maintain reservoir pressure, thus prolonging field productivity. The use reinjection in ground-water remediation projects allows for the application of both traditional production field management and a variety of additional enhancements to the cleanup process. Development of the ideas in this paper was stimulated by an initial suggestion by Dr. Jacob Bear (personal discussions, 1990--1991) that reinjected water might be heated to aid the desorption process

  18. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km 2 Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  20. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  1. The emission trading E U system: Assessment and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golini, G.

    2008-01-01

    The system of emission trading is a cap and trade mechanism aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions in an economically efficient way. It draws on Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol and was established by directive 2003/87/CE amended by Directive 2004/101/EC. [it

  2. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  3. Emissions and targets of greenhouse gases not included in the Emission Trading System 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report evaluates the European Commission's (EC) proposal to calculate Member States' targets for emissions not included in the Emission Trading System (ETS) (as announced in the so-called Effort Sharing Decision). The calculation procedures and data sources proposed by the EC have been used for calculating non-ETS emission targets for the Netherlands, for the years from 2013 to 2020. In order to compare results, an alternative approach also was introduced and evaluated. In this approach more transparent data sources were used. Furthermore, the report updates the emission forecast of non-ETS emission levels in the Netherlands, for 2020, and evaluates the consequences of excluding uncertainties related to monitoring from the (updated) emission forecast. It is concluded that, for the Netherlands, the non-ETS emission caps as proposed by the EC would result in an emission cap of 105 Mt CO2 equivalent by 2020. This is higher than in the alternative approach, which would result in a cap of 103 Mt CO2 equivalents. The difference is explained by the different data sources that were used. A drawback of the data sources used in the EC proposal is the lack of transparency of part of the data, which resulted in an additional uncertainty as not all issues could be verified. However, other Member States may not have similar data sources available, in case the EC decides to adopt the alternative approach. The calculated emission caps are to be considered as estimates based on the most recent (but sometimes uncertain) statistics. The EC will determine the definite caps by the end of 2012. Based on a 2010 forecast, and including both an updated division of emissions into ETS and non-ETS emissions and a revised methodology for calculating nitrous oxide emissions, we estimate that non-ETS emissions in the Netherlands would be 104 Mt CO2 equivalents by 2020, with an uncertainty range of between 96 and 112 Mt CO2 equivalents. It is our conclusion that non-ETS emission

  4. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  5. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  6. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  7. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  8. Credibility and trust in federal facility cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynes, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    The most important indicator of a well-managed site cleanup effort may no longer be funding or scientific expertise. While support for federal facility cleanup has included appropriations of more than $10 billion annually, these expenditures alone are unlikely to assure progress toward environmental remediation. open-quotes Trustclose quotes is now overwhelmingly mentioned as a prerequisite for progress with site cleanup in DOE's weapons complex. In part, federal budget deficits are forcing participants to focus on factors that build consensus and lead to cost-effective cleanup actions. In some cases, the stakeholders at cleanup sites are making efforts to work cooperatively with federal agencies. A report by 40 representatives of federal agencies, tribal and state governments, associations, and others developed recommendations to create a open-quotes new era of trust and consensus-building that allows all parties to get on with the job of cleaning up federal facilities in a manner that reflects the priorities and concerns of all stakeholders.close quotes Changes are underway affecting how federal agencies work with federal and state regulators reflecting this concept of shared responsibility for conducting cleanup. This paper addresses these changes and provides examples of the successes and failures underway

  9. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-01-01

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist

  10. Evaluation system for CO2 emission of hot asphalt mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Peng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The highway construction industry plays an important role in economic and development, but is also a primary source of carbon emission. Accordingly, with the global climate change, energy conservation and reduction of carbon emissions have become critical issues in the highway construction industry. However, to date, a model for the highway construction industry has not been established. Hence, to implement a low-carbon construction model for highways, this study divided asphalt pavement construction into aggregate stacking, aggregate supply, and other stages, and compiled a list of energy consumption investigation. An appropriate calculation model of CO2 emission was then built. Based on the carbon emission calculation model, the proportion of carbon emissions in each stage was analyzed. The analytic hierarchy process was used to establish the system of asphalt pavement construction with a judgment matrix, thereby enabling calculation of the weight coefficient of each link. In addition, the stages of aggregate heating, asphalt heating, and asphalt mixture mixing were defined as key stages of asphalt pavement construction. Carbon emissions at these stages accounted for approximately 90% of the total carbon emissions. Carbon emissions at each stage and their impact on the environment were quantified and compared. The energy saving construction schemes as well as the environmental and socioeconomic benefits were then proposed. Through these schemes, significant reductions in carbon emissions and costs can be achieved. The results indicate that carbon emissions reduce by 32.30% and 35.93%, whereas costs reduce by 18.58% and 6.03%. The proposed energy-saving and emission reduction scheme can provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the development of low-carbon highway construction.

  11. DRUCKFLAMM - Investigation on combustion and hot gas cleanup in pulverized coal combustion systems. Final report; DRUCKFLAMM - Untersuchungen zur Verbrennung und Heissgasreinigung bei der Druckkohlenstaubfeuerung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, K.R.G.; Benoehr, A.; Schuermann, H.; Stroehle, J.; Klaiber, C.; Kuhn, R.; Maier, J.; Schnell, U.; Unterberger, S.

    2001-07-01

    The ambitions of making energy supply more efficient and less polluting brought forth the development of coal based combined cycle power plants allowing considerable increases in net efficiencies. One of the regarded firing concepts for a coal based combined cycle power plant is represented by the pressurised pulverised coal combustion process which has the highest efficiency potential compared with the other coal based concepts. The fundamental purpose of the project was to gain firm knowledge concerning firing behaviour of coal in a pressurised pulverised coal combustion system. Detailed investigations were carried out in a pressurised entrained flow reactor taking into account fuel conversion and particle behaviour, pollutant formation and material behaviour under conditions of a pressurised pulverised coal firing. During the project's investigations several different measurement techniques were tested and partially also acquired (e.g. a two-colour-pyrometry system to measure simultaneous particle surface temperature and particle diameter of burning fuel particles). Calculation models under pressurised conditions for pressure vessel simulation and better scale-up were developed synchronously with the experimental investigations. The results gained using the pressurised entrained flow reactor show that many combustion mechanisms are influenced by increased pressure, for instance the fuel conversion is intensified and at the same time pollutant emissions decreased. The material investigations show that the ceramic materials used due to the very high combustion temperatures are very sensitive versus slagging and fast temperature changes, therefore further development requirements are needed to fully realise the high durability of ceramics in the pressurised furnace. Concerning the improvement of existing models for furnace simulation under pressurised conditions, a good resemblance can be observed when considering the actual measurement results from the test

  12. REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large refrigeration systems are found in several applications including supermarkets, cold storage warehouses, and industrial processes. The sizes of these systems are a contributing factor to their problems of high refrigerant leak rates because of the thousands of connections, ...

  13. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the tenth in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task I is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task I during the past quarter, analyses were performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. A site visit was made to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) to collect ash samples from the filter vessel and to document the condition of the filter vessel with still photographs and videotape. Particulate samples obtained during this visit are currently being analyzed for entry into the Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) data base. Preparations are being made for a review meeting on ash bridging to be held at Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center - Morgantown (DOE/FETC-MGN) in the near future. Most work on Task 2 was on hold pending receipt of additional funds; however, creep testing of Schumacher FT20 continued. The creep tests on Schumacher FT20 specimens just recently ended and data analysis and comparisons to other data are ongoing. A summary and analysis of these creep results will be sent out shortly. Creep

  14. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Lauren; Valenzuela, Viviana; Botterud, Audun; Zhou, Zhi; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2012-04-03

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  15. Electricity system planning under the CO2 emission restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Young; Lee, Man Ki; Roh, Jae Hyung; Kim, Eun Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Objective of this study is to analyze how the restriction of CO 2 emission from power generation will affect the national electricity supply system. The role of nuclear power is investigated under the restriction of CO 2 emission in Korea. A simplified electricity system was modeled for the analysis. To analyze the impact of CO 2 emission restriction, 2 different scenarios were established and compared with the base scenario. The first scenario was 'CO 2 emission restriction with new nuclear power installation'. In this scenario, a CO 2 emission restriction of 0.11kg-C/kWh was imposed and there was no restriction on the nuclear power construction. While, in the second scenario, 'CO 2 emission restriction without new nuclear power installation' the same amount of CO 2 restriction was imposed with no consideration of nuclear power installation. It is found out that the current national emission target(0.11kg- C/kWh) in the electricity sector can not be achieved without nuclear and renewable(wind power) options considered

  16. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  19. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  20. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5

  1. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5

  2. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  3. Design of acoustic emission monitoring system based on VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; He, Wei

    2015-12-01

    At present, a lot of companies at home and abroad have researched and produced a batch of specialized monitoring instruments for acoustic emission (AE). Most of them cost highly and the system function exists in less stable and less portability for the testing environment and transmission distance and other aspects. Depending on the research background and the status quo, a dual channel intelligent acoustic emission monitoring system was designed based on Microsoft Foundation Classes in Visual Studio C++ to solve some of the problems in the acoustic emission research and meet the needs of actual monitoring task. It contains several modules such as main module, acquisition module, signal parameters setting module and so on. It could give out corrosion AE waveform and signal parameters results according to the main menu selected parameters. So the needed information could be extracted from the experiments datum to solve the problem deeply. This soft system is the important part of AE detection g system.

  4. Simulating the Earth System Response to Negative Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Littleton, E. W.; Jones, C.; Canadell, J.; Peters, G. P.; van Vuuren, D.; Davis, S. J.; Jonas, M.; Smith, P.; Ciais, P.; Rogelj, J.; Torvanger, A.; Shrestha, G.

    2016-12-01

    The natural carbon sinks of the land and oceans absorb approximately half the anthropogenic CO2 emitted every year. The CO2 that is not absorbed accumulates in the Earth's atmosphere and traps the suns rays causing an increase in the global mean temperature. Removing this left over CO2 using negative emissions technologies (NETs) has been proposed as a strategy to lessen the accumulating CO2 and avoid dangerous climate change. Using CMIP5 Earth system model simulations this study assessed the impact on the global carbon cycle, and how the Earth system might respond, to negative emissions strategies applied to low emissions scenarios, over different times horizons from the year 2000 to 2300. The modeling results suggest that using NETs to remove atmospheric CO2 over five 50-year time horizons has varying effects at different points in time. The effects of anthropogenic and natural sources and sinks, can result in positive or negative changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Results show that historic emissions and the current state of the Earth System have impacts on the behavior of atmospheric CO2, as do instantaneous anthropogenic emissions. Indeed, varying background scenarios seemed to have a greater effect on atmospheric CO2 than the actual amount and timing of NETs. These results show how NETs interact with the physical climate-carbon cycle system and highlight the need for more research on earth-system dynamics as they relate to carbon sinks and sources and anthropogenic perturbations.

  5. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  6. Strategies to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions from herbivore production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schils, R L M; Eriksen, J; Ledgard, S F; Vellinga, Th V; Kuikman, P J; Luo, J; Petersen, S O; Velthof, G L

    2013-03-01

    Herbivores are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions. They account for a large share of manure-related N(2)O emissions, as well as soil-related N(2)O emissions through the use of grazing land, and land for feed and forage production. It is widely acknowledged that mitigation measures are necessary to avoid an increase in N(2)O emissions while meeting the growing global food demand. The production and emissions of N(2)O are closely linked to the efficiency of nitrogen (N) transfer between the major components of a livestock system, that is, animal, manure, soil and crop. Therefore, mitigation options in this paper have been structured along these N pathways. Mitigation technologies involving diet-based intervention include lowering the CP content or increasing the condensed tannin content of the diet. Animal-related mitigation options also include breeding for improved N conversion and high animal productivity. The main soil-based mitigation measures include efficient use of fertilizer and manure, including the use of nitrification inhibitors. In pasture-based systems with animal housing facilities, reducing grazing time is an effective option to reduce N(2)O losses. Crop-based options comprise breeding efforts for increased N-use efficiency and the use of pastures with N(2)-fixing clover. It is important to recognize that all N(2)O mitigation options affect the N and carbon cycles of livestock systems. Therefore, care should be taken that reductions in N(2)O emissions are not offset by unwanted increases in ammonia, methane or carbon dioxide emissions. Despite the abundant availability of mitigation options, implementation in practice is still lagging. Actual implementation will only follow after increased awareness among farmers and greenhouse gases targeted policies. So far, reductions in N(2)O emissions that have been achieved are mostly a positive side effect of other N-targeted policies.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  8. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  9. Cleanup of TMI-2 demineralizer resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.; King, L.J.; Knauer, J.B.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Thompson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocesium is being removed from Demineralizers A and B (DA and DB by a process that was developed from laboratory tests on small samples of resin from the demineralizers. The process was designed to elute the radiocesium from the demineralizer resins and then to resorb it onto the zeolite ion exchangers contained in the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS). The process was also required to limit the maximum cesium activities in the resin eluates (SDS feeds) so that the radiation field surrounding the pipelines would not be excessive. The process consists of 17 stages of batch elution. In the initial stage, the resin is contacted with 0.18 M boric acid. Subsequent stages subject the resin to increasing concentrations of sodium in NaH 2 BO 3 -H 3 BO 3 solution (total B = 0.35 M) and then 1 M sodium hydroxide in the final stages. Results on the performance of the process in the cleanup of the demineralizers at TMI-2 are compared to those obtained from laboratory tests with small samples of the DA and DB resins. To date, 15 stages of batch elution have been completed on the demineralizers at TMI-2 which resulted in the removal of about 750 Ci of radiocesium from DA and about 3300 Ci from DB

  10. Characterization of plutonium contamination at Maralinga: Dosimetry and cleanup criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Martin, L.J.; Williams, G.A.; Harries, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    An area of South Australia remained contaminated following British atomic tests at Maralinga during 1955-1963. Of importance is the long lived 239 Pu of which some 24 kg was explosively dispersed in several 'minor trials'. The extent, quantities and physical characteristics of the plutonium have been assessed and estimates of dose, dominated by the inhalation pathway in the critical group of Aborigines living a semi-traditional lifestyle, have been made for potential occupants. Dosimetry, together with social and economic factors, underpins the setting of cleanup criteria in terms of activity concentrations averaged over large areas and permissible concentrations of contaminated particles. The possibility of intentional behaviour such as fragment scavenging has also influenced limits on particulate contamination. Rehabilitation of the most contaminated areas is underway, with scraping of surface soil and burial on site completed. Vehicular-mounted radiation detector systems for wide area and particle monitoring have been developed, and procedures established for determining cleanup boundaries and for the verification monitoring to ensure that the cleanup process has met the specified criteria. Data are being obtained for a final dose and health risk assessment of the cleaned up site. (author)

  11. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission from energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, S.; Koyama, S.

    1992-01-01

    A linear programming model MARKAL is used to explore technology options and cost for meeting energy demands while reducing CO 2 emissions from energy system of Japan. The model consists of an extension of the existing energy system and possible alternative energy technologies available during 45 years from 1983 to 2027. Using two scenarios of high- and low-energy demand, an optimal configuration of the model is examined under the mix of specified constraints on the use of technologies and fuels. The results show that energy conservation is robust in yielding reduction in CO 2 emissions under a variety of conditions, and that stringent constraints on the national CO 2 emissions produce major shifts in the market shares of fossil and non-fossil fuels that necessitate advanced technologies and an increase in the total system cost

  12. Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Boden, T.

    2012-04-01

    Fossil-Fuel C02 Emissions Database and Exploration System Misha Krassovski and Tom Boden Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) quantifies the release of carbon from fossil-fuel use and cement production each year at global, regional, and national spatial scales. These estimates are vital to climate change research given the strong evidence suggesting fossil-fuel emissions are responsible for unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. The CDIAC fossil-fuel emissions time series are based largely on annual energy statistics published for all nations by the United Nations (UN). Publications containing historical energy statistics make it possible to estimate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions back to 1751 before the Industrial Revolution. From these core fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series, CDIAC has developed a number of additional data products to satisfy modeling needs and to address other questions aimed at improving our understanding of the global carbon cycle budget. For example, CDIAC also produces a time series of gridded fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates and isotopic (e.g., C13) emissions estimates. The gridded data are generated using the methodology described in Andres et al. (2011) and provide monthly and annual estimates for 1751-2008 at 1° latitude by 1° longitude resolution. These gridded emission estimates are being used in the latest IPCC Scientific Assessment (AR4). Isotopic estimates are possible thanks to detailed information for individual nations regarding the carbon content of select fuels (e.g., the carbon signature of natural gas from Russia). CDIAC has recently developed a relational database to house these baseline emissions estimates and associated derived products and a web-based interface to help users worldwide query these data holdings. Users can identify, explore and download desired CDIAC

  13. Improvement of cement plant dust emission by bag filter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyu Purnomo, Chandra; Budhijanto, Wiratni; Alfisyah, Muziibu; Triyono

    2018-03-01

    The limestone quarry in PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (ITP) in Cirebon is considered as a complex quarry in terms of chemical composition and material hardness. From the beginning of the plant operation up to the end of 2015, the dust removal was rely on electrostatic precipitator (EP) system. Whenever limestone from specific quarry zones were incorporated into Raw Mill (RM) feed or there was an upset condition, the dust emission increased significantly. Beside higher demand of electricity, an EP system requires lower gas inlet temperature in order to remove the dust effectively which requires larger cooling water in the previous gas conditioning tower to cool down gas from 400 °C to about 100 °C. By considering the drawbacks, the EP system was replaced by a bag filter (BF) system. The BF allows higher temperature of gas inlet and it has higher dust removal efficiency. In this study, the efficiency of the two different dust removal systems is compared. The effect of process variables i.e. RM feed, kiln feed, inlet temperature and pressure, and small size particle fraction to the dust emission are studied by multivariate linier regression analysis. It is observed that the BF system can reduce significantly the dust emission from 30 to 6 mg/m3 and in the same time reducing CO2 emission by 0.24 ton/year from the electricity consumption saving.

  14. DOE pursuing accelerated cleanup at Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, T.

    1996-01-01

    The timing is right, and officials at Fernald are ready to initiate final cleanup actions-at an accelerated pace. open-quotes We have a viable, aggressive plan in place that will reduce the risks associated with the site by accelerating the cleanup schedule, and save a lot of time and money in the process,close quotes said Don Ofte, president of the Fernald Environmental Restoration management Corporation (FERMCO). Ofte is referring to the accelerated cleanup plan that the U.S. Department of Energy has approved to complete the remediation of Fernald in approximately 10 years-instead of 25-30 years-at a cost savings to taxpayers of almost $3 billion. This article describes the scenario at Fernald and politically which has lead to this decision

  15. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  16. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  17. Retroactive insurance may fund TMI-2 cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A Pennsylvania task force recommended that nuclear utilities insure their plants with a mandatory national property insurance program. The proposed Nuclear Powerplant Property Damage Insurance Act of 1981 will cover the cleanup costs of onsite damage in excess of $350 million for a single accident ($50 million when private insurance is added on) and a ceiling of two billion dollars. Participation in the insurance pool would be in conjunction with licensing and would permit no grandfathering. Total payout for Three Mile Island-2 would cover 75% of the cleanup costs, the remainder to be apportioned among other parties. The insurance pool will have a $750 million goal supported by utility premiums

  18. Low emission turbo compound engine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk,; Carl, T [Denver, IA

    2011-05-31

    A diesel or HHCI engine has an air intake and an exhaust for products of combustion. A pair of turbochargers receive the products of combustion in a series relationship and an exhaust aftertreatment device receive the products of combustion from the downstream turbine. A power turbine receives the output from the exhaust aftertreatment device and an EGR system of the power turbine passes a selected portion of the output to a point upstream of the upstream turbocharger compressor. A device adds fuel to the aftertreatment device to regenerate the particulate filter and the power turbine recoups the additional energy. The power turbine may be used to drive accessories or the prime output of the engine.

  19. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junye; Cardenas, Laura M.; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Cuttle, Steve; Thorman, Rachel E.; Li Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Grazed grassland systems are an important component of the global carbon cycle and also influence global climate change through their emissions of nitrous oxide and methane. However, there are huge uncertainties and challenges in the development and parameterisation of process-based models for grazed grassland systems because of the wide diversity of vegetation and impacts of grazing animals. A process-based biogeochemistry model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), has been modified to describe N 2 O emissions for the UK from regional conditions. This paper reports a new development of UK-DNDC in which the animal grazing practices were modified to track their contributions to the soil nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry. The new version of UK-DNDC was tested against datasets of N 2 O fluxes measured at three contrasting field sites. The results showed that the responses of the model to changes in grazing parameters were generally in agreement with observations, showing that N 2 O emissions increased as the grazing intensity increased. - Highlights: ► Parameterisation of grazing system using grazing intensity. ► Modification of UK D NDC for the UK soil and weather conditions. ► Validation of the UK D NDC against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites. ► Estimating influence of animal grazing practises on N 2 O emissions. - Grazing system was parameterised using grazing intensity and UK-DNDC model was modified and validated against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites.

  20. Assessment of Global Emissions, Local Emissions and Immissions of Different Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Erdmann

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses and compares existing and new technologies for space heating in Germany (e.g., heat pumps, and solar thermal and wood pellet systems in terms of their environmental impacts. The various technologies were analyzed within the context of the new German legislation. The assessment was carried out on three levels: 1. Global emissions: a life cycle assessment was carried out in order to find the global environmental footprint of the various technologies; 2. Local emissions: the effects of local emissions on human health were analyzed; and 3. Immissions: the immissions were evaluated for the various technologies using a dispersion calculation. A special feature of this study is the substitution of frequently used database emission values by values obtained from field studies and our own measurements. The results show large differences between the different technologies: while electric heat pumps performed quite well in most categories, wood pellet systems performed the best with respect to climate change. The latter, however, are associated with high impacts in other environmental impact categories and on a local scale. The promotion of some technologies (especially systems based on fuel oil, a mixture of fuel oil and rapeseed oil, or a mixture of natural gas and biomethane by the newly introduced German legislation is doubtful. In terms of the immissions of wood pellet systems, it can be concluded that, even for extremely unfavorable meteorological conditions, the regulatory limits are not exceeded and the heating systems have a negligible influence on the total PM load in the ambient air.

  1. Validation of an online dual-loop cleanup device with an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry-based system for simultaneous quantitative analysis of urinary benzene exposure biomarkers trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.-C.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Shih, J.-F.; Shih, T.-S.G; Liao, P.-C.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to validate isotope-dilution electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS-MS) method with a dual-loop cleanup device for simultaneous quantitation of two benzene metabolites, trans, trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA), in human urine. In this study, a pooled blank urine matrix from rural residents was adopted for validation of the analytical method. The calibration curve, detection limit, recovery, precision, accuracy and the stability of sample storage for the system have been characterized. Calibration plots of ttMA and SPMA standards spiked into two kinds of urine matrixes over a wide concentration range, 1/32-8-fold biological exposure indices (BEIs) values, showed good linearity (R > 0.9992). The detection limits in pooled urine matrix for ttMA and SPMA were 1.27 and 0.042 μg g -1 creatinine, respectively. For both of ttMA and SPMA, the intra- and inter-day precision values were considered acceptable well below 25% at the various spiked concentrations. The intra- and inter-day apparent recovery values were also considered acceptable (apparent recovery >90%). The ttMA accuracy was estimated by urinary standard reference material (SRM). The accuracy reported in terms of relative error (RE) was 5.0 ± 2.0% (n = 3). The stability of sample storage at 4 or -20 deg. C were assessed. Urinary ttMA and SPMA were found to be stable for at least 8 weeks when stored at 4 or -20 deg. C. In addition, urine samples from different benzene exposure groups were collected and measured in this system. Without tedious manual sample preparation procedure, the analytical system was able to quantify simultaneously ttMA and SPMA in less than 20 min

  2. Estimating marginal CO2 emissions rates for national electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reduction afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO 2 intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the 'marginal emissions factor' (MEF). Accurate estimation of MEFs is crucial for performance assessment because their application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO 2 reduction strategies. This article contributes to formulating the principles by which MEFs are estimated, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in existing approaches, and presenting an alternative based on the observed behaviour of power stations. The case of Great Britain is considered, demonstrating an MEF of 0.69 kgCO 2 /kW h for 2002-2009, with error bars at +/-10%. This value could reduce to 0.6 kgCO 2 /kW h over the next decade under planned changes to the underlying generation mix, and could further reduce to approximately 0.51 kgCO 2 /kW h before 2025 if all power stations commissioned pre-1970 are replaced by their modern counterparts. Given that these rates are higher than commonly applied system-average or assumed 'long term marginal' emissions rates, it is concluded that maintenance of an improved understanding of MEFs is valuable to better inform policy decisions.

  3. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.

  4. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  5. EMISSIONS REDUCTION DATA FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured the pollutant emission reduction potential of 29 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on residential and commercial building rooftops across the U.S. from 1993 through 1997. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 21 electric power companies sponsor...

  6. Methodology for methane emission inventory from Snam transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, M.; Riva, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methane, the main component of natural gas, is recognised as one of the most important contributors of the greenhouse effect, responsible for about 22% of the total. Several industries of natural gas, among which Snam, have undertaken intensive programs focused on the quantification of the total amounts of methane emitted in their operating activities. Snam elaborated a scientifically reliable methodology, for evaluating the annual methane emissions from its transmission system, based on a statistic approach using specific 'activity factors', that are the emitting equipment population and the frequency of emitting events, and emission factors. Part of the latter are based on GRI-EPA emission factors calculated for natural gas systems in the U.S. and adjusted to Snam system, and the other were measured during a field campaign on a random sample of previously identified large emission sources in Snam compressor and metering and regulating stations. The study showed that the methane release to the air from Snam natural gas transmission system was only the 0.1% of the total amount of methane in the natural gas imported and produced in Italy in 1993. (au)

  7. Approaching Environmental Cleanup Costs Liability Through Insurance Principles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael A

    1994-01-01

    .... Applying insurance industry principles to environmental cleanup costs liability will provide a firm foundation to reduce the risk of loss to the taxpayer, reduce cleanup costs, and stimulate private...

  8. Environmental emissions of SOFC and SPFC system manufacture and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakoussis, V.; Leach, M.; Vorst, R. van der; Hart, D.; Lane, J.; Pearson, P.; Kilner, J.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives details of a study using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to examine the emissions and wastes produced in the manufacture of solid oxide and solid polymer fuel cells in order to identify any barrier to their commercial acceptance. The background to the study is traced, and the selection and definition of systems for studying are outlined. Life Cycle inventories for manufacture are explored focussing on material and energy inputs and emissions, and inventories and environmental burdens are considered. Potential commercial barriers for fuel cells from the environmental effects of manufacture and end-of-life are discussed, and recommendations for future work are given.

  9. Radioactive Waste and Clean-up Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, G.

    2001-01-01

    The main objectives of the Radioactive Waste and Clean-up division of SCK-CEN are outlined. The division's programme consists of research, development and demonstration projects and aims to contribute to the objectives of Agenda 21 on sustainable development in the field of radioactive waste and rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated sites

  10. Flood Cleanup to Protect Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a flood cleanup, the indoor air quality in your home or office may appear to be the least of your problems. However, failure to remove contaminated materials and to reduce moisture and humidity can present serious long-term health risks.

  11. Evaluation of contaminated groundwater cleanup objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arquiett, C.; Gerke, M.; Datskou, I.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating the approximately 230 contaminated groundwater sites across the DOE Complex. A major concern for remediation is choosing the appropriate cleanup objective. The cleanup objective chosen will influence the risk to the nearby public during and after remediation; risk to remedial and non-involved workers during remediation; and the cost of remediation. This paper discusses the trends shown in analyses currently being performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories' (ORNL's) Center for Risk Management (CRM). To evaluate these trends, CRM is developing a database of contaminated sites. This paper examines several contaminated groundwater sites selected for assessment from CRM's data base. The sites in this sample represent potential types of contaminated groundwater sites commonly found at an installation within DOE. The baseline risk from these sites to various receptors is presented. Residual risk and risk during remediation is reported for different cleanup objectives. The cost associated with remediating to each of these objectives is also estimated for each of the representative sites. Finally, the general trends of impacts as a function of cleanup objective will be summarized. The sites examined include the Savannah River site, where there was substantial ground pollution from radionuclides, oil, coal stockpiles, and other forms of groundwater contamination. The effects of various types of groundwater contamination on various types of future user is described. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  12. US nuclear cleanup shows signs of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, R.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's program for dealing with the radioactive and hazardous wastes at its former nuclear weapons production sites and at the national laboratories has been criticized for its expense and slow pace of cleanup. The largest environmental restoration and waste management program in the world faces formidable technical and scientific problems and these, according to numerous investigative committees and commissions, have been compounded by poor management, misuse of technology, and failure to appreciate the need for new basic scientific knowledge to solve many of the cleanup problems. In the past three years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM), often spurred by congressional action, has begun to trim costs and accomplish more. New measures have been introduced to improve contract efficiency, better utilize existing remediation technologies, renegotiate compliance agreements, and begin basic research. Environmental Management Assistant Undersecretary Alvin Alm, appointed in May 1996, is seeking to solidify these changes into an ambitious plan to clean up most of DOE's 130 sites by 2006. But there are widespread doubts that EM has the money, skill, and will to turn itself around. There are also concerns that, in the name of efficiency and economy, EM may be negotiating lower cleanup standards and postponing some difficult cleanup tasks. This article discusses these issues. 7 refs

  13. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

  14. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Recovery Act Funded Cleanups, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Recovery Act Funded Cleanup sites as part of the CIMC web service. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law...

  15. Effectiveness of cleanup criteria relative to an accidental nuclear release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yuan, Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the event of an accidental nuclear release, the associated long-term radiological risks would result primarily from ground contamination pathways. Cleanup of the contaminated ground surfaces is a necessary step toward reducing the radiological risk to the general population. Ideally, the radiological risk decreases as the level of cleanup effort increases; however, as the cleanup criterion (i.e., the required contaminant concentration after cleanup) becomes more stringent, the cleanup effort may become prohibitively costly. This study examines several factors that are important in determining the effectiveness of the cleanup criteria for selected radionuclides: (a) annual individual dose commitment (mrem/yr), (b) total population environmental dose commitment (person-rem), and (c) total area (km 2 ) requiring cleanup following an accident. To effectively protect the general population, the benefits of cleanup should be weighed against the potentially large increase in cleanup area (and the associated costs) as the cleanup criterion becomes more stringent. The effectiveness of cleanup will vary, depending largely on site-specific parameters such as population density and agricultural productivity as well as on the amount and type of radionuclide released. Determination of an optimum cleanup criterion should account for all factors, including a comprehensive cost/benefit analysis

  16. Fast-Track Cleanup at Closing DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fast-Track Cleanup program strives to make parcels available for reuse as quickly as possible by the transfer of uncontaminated or remediated parcels, the lease of contaminated parcels where cleanup is underway, or the 'early transfer' of contaminated property undergoing cleanup.

  17. Some scenarios of CO2 emission from the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liik, O.; Landsberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    After Estonia regained its independence, planning of energy policy became topical. Since 1989, several expert groups have worked on the urgent problems and developments of Estonia's power engineering. Comprehensive energy system planning by mathematical modeling was accomplished in 1994. Then Tallinn Technical University acquired the MARKAL model from the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). The influence of air pollution constraints on energy system development was first investigated in 1995. At the end of 1995, under the U.S. Country Studies Program, a detailed analysis of future CO 2 emissions and their reduction options began. During 1990-1993, energy demand lowered due to economic decline and sharp rise in the fuel and energy prices as well as a decrease in electricity exports, has resulting in 50% reduction of CO 2 emissions. For the same reasons, Estonia has been able to meet the requirements set in the agreements on SO 2 and NO x emissions with no special measures or costs. To meet the rigid ing SO 2 restrictions and growing energy consumption in the future, Estonia must invest in abatement and in new clean and efficient oil-shale combustion technology. Along with the old oil-shale plants closing and electricity consumption growing, other fuels will be used. The increase in energy demand then should not be fast due to constantly rising prices and efficient energy use. Measures to reduce SO 2 , and NO x emissions will also reduce CO 2 . In MARKAL runs the 1990 level of CO 2 emissions will be exceeded only along with high demand growth and absence of emissions control. Restricted availability of imported fuels and nuclear power or enabling electricity import can change the results significantly. The results discussed here can also change because the data base is being improved (such as detailed description of energy networks, description of demand-side technologies, accounting of energy conservation measures, addition of

  18. Ninth annual coal-fueled heat engines, advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion, and gas stream cleanup systems contractors review meeting: Welcoming address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The market for retrofit and new capacity in the electric utility is expected to be very large: 250 gigawatt (GW) and 500 GW by the year 2030--an amount which equals the presently installed capacity in the US Overseas, the market is even larger exclamation point This large market will be driven by a number of key ''drivers.'' In order for power generation systems to compete in this market, they will have to satisfy the market drivers. This will lead us inevitably to modular, low cost, super clean, efficient, and reliable products which are fuel flexible and can meet either retrofit, repowering, or new capacity applications. I believe clean coal technologies that we are developing will meet these market demands and will penetrate--and eventually dominate--the power generation market of the next century. But for this market penetration and widespread deployment to take place, the products we are jointly developing must be continuously improved. We must together set our goals on a rapid march down the learning curve from the present high ''projected costs'' of these systems to an acceptable market clearing price on the order of $1000 to $1200 per kilowatt (kw) and with heat rates approaching 7500 Btu per kilowatt-hour (kWh). The projected learning curve for integrated gasification combined cycle systems is a good illustration of the aggressive goals we need to achieve

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  20. Electrically induced spontaneous emission in open electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rulin; Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chiyung; Computation Algorithms Division (CSRC) Team; Theoretical; Computational Chemistry (HKU) Collaboration

    A quantum mechanical approach is formulated for simulation of electroluminescence process in open electronic system. Based on nonequilibrium Green's function quantum transport equations and combining with photon-electron interaction, this method is used to describe electrically induced spontaneous emission caused by electron-hole recombination. The accuracy and reliability of simulation depends critically on correct description of the electronic band structure and the electron occupancy in the system. In this work, instead of considering electron-hole recombination in discrete states in the previous work, we take continuous states into account to simulate the spontaneous emission in open electronic system, and discover that the polarization of emitted photon is closely related to its propagation direction. Numerical studies have been performed to silicon nanowire-based P-N junction with different bias voltage.

  1. Implementation of Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) for the Real-driving Emissions (RDE) Regulation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giechaskiel, Barouch; Vlachos, Theodoros; Riccobono, Francesco; Forni, Fausto; Colombo, Rinaldo; Montigny, Francois; Le-Lijour, Philippe; Carriero, Massimo; Bonnel, Pierre; Weiss, Martin

    2016-12-04

    Vehicles are tested in controlled and relatively narrow laboratory conditions to determine their official emission values and reference fuel consumption. However, on the road, ambient and driving conditions can vary over a wide range, sometimes causing emissions to be higher than those measured in the laboratory. For this reason, the European Commission has developed a complementary Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure using the Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PEMS) to verify gaseous pollutant and particle number emissions during a wide range of normal operating conditions on the road. This paper presents the newly-adopted RDE test procedure, differentiating six steps: 1) vehicle selection, 2) vehicle preparation, 3) trip design, 4) trip execution, 5) trip verification, and 6) calculation of emissions. Of these steps, vehicle preparation and trip execution are described in greater detail. Examples of trip verification and the calculations of emissions are given.

  2. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  3. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  4. Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system Bio-geophysical feedback between marine or continental ecosystems and the atmosphere potentially can alter climate change. A prominent feedback loop which is under discussion since 1983 bases on the emission of biologically produced gases - molecular oxygen, sulphur containing compounds and possibly isoprene, supersaturated in oceanic waters - into the marine troposphere. These by-products of phytoplankton metabolism lead to aerosol production and procure sustained influence on climate via modulation of cloud optical properties. In this contribution some findings related to the above mentioned climate processes are presented with special emphasis on marine ecosystems. A comparison of marine and continental ecosystems is made and different processes with major impact on feedbacks in the climate system are discussed.

  5. Integrated biomass energy systems and emissions of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, U.R.; Turnbull, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled ''Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration'', with the objective of investigating the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full fuel cycle for four of these case studies, which have been examined with regard to the emissions of carbon dioxide., CO 2 . Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO 2 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO 2 emissions from the DFSS. External energy is required for the production and transportation of the biomass feedstock, and this energy is mainly based on fossil fuels. By using this input energy, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are emitted. However, by utilizing biomass with fossil fuels as external input fuels, we would get about 10-15 times more electric energy per unit fossil fuel, compared with a 100% coal power system. By introducing a DFSS on former farmland the amount of energy spent for production of crops can be reduced, the amount of fertilizers can be decreased, the soil can be improved and a significant amount of energy will be produced compared with an ordinary farm crop. Compared with traditional coal-based electricity production, the CO 2 emissions are in the most cases reduced significantly by as much as 95%. The important conclusion is the great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the offset of coal by biomass. (author)

  6. Integrated biomass energy systems and emissions of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, U.R.; Turnbull, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US Department of Energy (DOE) have been funding a number of case studies under the initiative entitled 'Economic Development through Biomass Systems Integration', with the objective to investigate the feasibility of integrated biomass energy systems, utilizing a dedicated feedstock supply system (DFSS) for energy production. This paper deals with the full cycle for four of these case studies, which have been examined with regard to the emissions of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 . Although the conversion of biomass to electricity in itself does not emit more CO 2 than is captured by the biomass through photosynthesis, there will be some CO 2 -emissions from DFSS. External energy is required for the production and transportation of the biomass feedstock, and this energy is mainly based on fossil fuels. By using this input energy, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases are emitted. But, by utilizing biomass with fossil fuels as external input fuels, we would get about 10-15 times more electric energy per unit fossil fuel, compared to a 100% coal power system. By introducing a DFSS on former farmland, the amount of energy spent for production of crops can be reduced, the amount of fertilizers can be decreased, the soil can be improved, and a significant amount of energy will be produced, compared to an ordinary farm crop. Compared to traditional coal based electricity production, the CO 2 -emissions are in most cases reduced significantly, as much as 95%. The important conclusion is the great potential of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through the offset of coal by biomass. 23 refs,, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Calculation of CO2 emissions from the italian energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaldi, M.; La Motta, S.

    2001-01-01

    The calculation of CO2 emissions from the Italian energy system is the object of this work. The inventory method used is the Reference Approach from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC, 1996 revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) and the energy consumption data are taken from the Italian Energy Balance edited by the Ministry of Industry. The years analysed are those from 1990 to 2000 [it

  8. Air pathway analysis for cleanup at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Weldon Spring site is a mixed waste site located in St. Charles County, Missouri. Cleanup of the site is in the planning and design stage, and various engineering activities were considered for remedial action, including excavating soils, dredging sludge, treating various contaminated media in temporary facilities, transporting and staging supplies and contaminated material, and placing waste in an engineered disposal cell. Both contaminated and uncontaminated emissions from these activities were evaluated to assess air quality impacts and potential health effects for workers and the general public during the cleanup period. A site-specific air quality modeling approach was developed to address several complex issues, such as a variety of emission sources, an array of source/receptor configurations, and complicated sequencing/scheduling. This approach can be readily adapted to reflect changes in the expected activities as engineering plans are finalized

  9. Historical (1750–2014 anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Hoesly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new data set of annual historical (1750–2014 anthropogenic chemically reactive gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs, carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon – BC, and organic carbon – OC, and CO2 developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS. We improve upon existing inventories with a more consistent and reproducible methodology applied to all emission species, updated emission factors, and recent estimates through 2014. The data system relies on existing energy consumption data sets and regional and country-specific inventories to produce trends over recent decades. All emission species are consistently estimated using the same activity data over all time periods. Emissions are provided on an annual basis at the level of country and sector and gridded with monthly seasonality. These estimates are comparable to, but generally slightly higher than, existing global inventories. Emissions over the most recent years are more uncertain, particularly in low- and middle-income regions where country-specific emission inventories are less available. Future work will involve refining and updating these emission estimates, estimating emissions' uncertainty, and publication of the system as open-source software.

  10. Historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic emissions of reactive gases and aerosols from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesly, Rachel M.; Smith, Steven J.; Feng, Leyang; Klimont, Zbigniew; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Pitkanen, Tyler; Seibert, Jonathan J.; Vu, Linh; Andres, Robert J.; Bolt, Ryan M.; Bond, Tami C.; Dawidowski, Laura; Kholod, Nazar; Kurokawa, June-ichi; Li, Meng; Liu, Liang; Lu, Zifeng; Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; O'Rourke, Patrick R.; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    We present a new data set of annual historical (1750-2014) anthropogenic chemically reactive gases (CO, CH4, NH3, NOx, SO2, NMVOCs), carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon - BC, and organic carbon - OC), and CO2 developed with the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). We improve upon existing inventories with a more consistent and reproducible methodology applied to all emission species, updated emission factors, and recent estimates through 2014. The data system relies on existing energy consumption data sets and regional and country-specific inventories to produce trends over recent decades. All emission species are consistently estimated using the same activity data over all time periods. Emissions are provided on an annual basis at the level of country and sector and gridded with monthly seasonality. These estimates are comparable to, but generally slightly higher than, existing global inventories. Emissions over the most recent years are more uncertain, particularly in low- and middle-income regions where country-specific emission inventories are less available. Future work will involve refining and updating these emission estimates, estimating emissions' uncertainty, and publication of the system as open-source software.

  11. Cleanup around an old waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandergaast, G.; Moffett, D.; Lawrence, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    42,500 m 3 of contaminated soil were removed from off-site areas around an old, low-level radioactive waste site near Port Hope, Ontario. The cleanup was done by means of conventional excavation equipment to criteria developed by Eldorado specific to the land use around the company's waste management facility. These cleanup criteria were based on exposure analyses carried out for critical receptors in two different scenarios. The excavated soils, involving eight different landowners, were placed on the original burial area of the waste management facility. Measures were also undertaken to stabilize the soils brought on-site and to ensure that there would be no subsequent recontamination of the off-site areas

  12. GPU seeks new funding for TMI cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1982-01-01

    General Public Utilities (GPU) wants approval for annual transfer of money from base rate increases in other accounts to pay for the cleanup at Three Mile Island (TMI) until TMI-1 returns to service or the public utility commission takes further action. This proposal confirms fears of a delay in TMI-1 startup and demonstrates that the January negotiated settlement will produce little funding for TMI-2 cleanup. A review of the settlement terms outlines the three-step process for base rate increases and revenue adjustments after the startup of TMI-1, and points out where controversy and delays due to psychological stress make a new source of money essential. GPU thinks customer funding will motivate other parties to a broad-based cost-sharing agreement

  13. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.

  14. Development of a matrix approach to estimate soil clean-up levels for BTEX compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbas-White, I.; San Juan, C.

    1993-01-01

    A draft state-of-the-art matrix approach has been developed for the State of Washington to estimate clean-up levels for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in deep soils based on an endangerment approach to groundwater. Derived soil clean-up levels are estimated using a combination of two computer models, MULTIMED and VLEACH. The matrix uses a simple scoring system that is used to assign a score at a given site based on the parameters such as depth to groundwater, mean annual precipitation, type of soil, distance to potential groundwater receptor and the volume of contaminated soil. The total score is then used to obtain a soil clean-up level from a table. The general approach used involves the utilization of computer models to back-calculate soil contaminant levels in the vadose zone that would create that particular contaminant concentration in groundwater at a given receptor. This usually takes a few iterations of trial runs to estimate the clean-up levels since the models use the soil clean-up levels as ''input'' and the groundwater levels as ''output.'' The selected contaminant levels in groundwater are Model Toxic control Act (MTCA) values used in the State of Washington

  15. Accelerating cleanup. Paths to closure Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    1998-01-01

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE's national strategy, the Richland Operations Office's Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established

  16. Cleanup standards and pathways analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Remediation of a radioactively contaminated site requires that certain regulatory criteria be met before the site can be released for unrestricted future use. Since the ultimate objective of remediation is to protect the public health and safety, residual radioactivity levels remaining at a site after cleanup must be below certain preset limits or meet acceptable dose or risk criteria. Release of a decontaminated site requires proof that the radiological data obtained from the site meet the regulatory criteria for such a release. Typically release criteria consist of a composite of acceptance limits that depend on the radionuclides, the media in which they are present, and federal and local regulations. In recent years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a pathways analysis model to determine site-specific soil activity concentration guidelines for radionuclides that do not have established generic acceptance limits. The DOE pathways analysis computer code (developed by Argonne National Laboratory for the DOE) is called RESRAD (Gilbert et al. 1989). Similar efforts have been initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop and use dose-related criteria based on genetic pathways analyses rather than simplistic numerical limits on residual radioactivity. The focus of this paper is radionuclide contaminated soil. Cleanup standards are reviewed, pathways analysis methods are described, and an example is presented in which RESRAD was used to derive cleanup guidelines

  17. Prioritization of environmental cleanup problems at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    New technologies and scientific research are needed to clean up the Hanford Site. However, there is insufficient funding to develop every technology that is identified or to undertake every scientific research project that is proposed. Thus, the Department of Energy (DOE) must focus its resources on science and technology (S ampersand T) that will have the most significant impacts on the overall cleanup effort. Hanford has recognized the importance of identifying and prioritizing its most critical problems and the most promising solutions to them. Hanford cleanup will require numerous decisions about technology development and implementation, which will be complicated because there are substantial uncertainties about the risks and the costs of new technologies. Further, the choice of a specific technology for a specific application must be evaluated with respect to multiple (and often conflicting) objectives (e.g., risk reduction, increasing effectiveness, cost reduction, increasing public acceptability, regulatory compliance). This paper provides an overview of the decision analysis methodology that was used to prioritize S ampersand T needs for Hanford cleanup

  18. A Preliminary Study Application Clustering System in Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Bahari Nur Amira Afiza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE is a non-destructive testing known as assessment on damage detection in structural engineering. It also can be used to discriminate the different types of damage occurring in a composite materials. The main problem associated with the data analysis is the discrimination between the different AE sources and analysis of the AE signal in order to identify the most critical damage mechanism. Clustering analysis is a technique in which the set of object are assigned to a group called cluster. The objective of the cluster analysis is to separate a set of data into several classes that reflect the internal structure of data. In this paper was used k-means algorithm for partitioned clustering method, numerous effort have been made to improve the performance of application k-means clustering algorithm. This paper presents a current review on application clustering system in Acoustic Emission.

  19. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-01-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process. (letter)

  20. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  1. Systems and methods to mitigate NO.sub.x and HC emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aniket; Cunningham, Michael J.; Ruth, Michael J.; Chilumukuru, Krishna P.

    2017-06-14

    Systems and methods are provided for managing low temperature NO.sub.x and HC emissions, such as during a cold start of an internal combustion engine. The systems and methods include storing NO.sub.x and HC emissions at low temperatures and passively releasing and treating these emissions as the temperature of the exhaust system increases.

  2. Environmental systems analysis of biogas systems-Part I: Fuel-cycle emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Pal; Berglund, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Fuel-cycle emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon oxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), hydrocarbons (HC), methane (CH 4 ), and particles are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for different biogas systems based on six different raw materials. The gas is produced in large- or farm-scale biogas plants, and is used in boilers for heat production, in turbines for co-generation of heat and electricity, or as a transportation fuel in light- and heavy-duty vehicles. The analyses refer mainly to Swedish conditions. The levels of fuel-cycle emissions vary greatly among the biogas systems studied, and are significantly affected by the properties of the raw material digested, the energy efficiency of the biogas production, and the status of the end-use technology. For example, fuel-cycle emission may vary by a factor of 3-4, and for certain gases by up to a factor of 11, between two biogas systems that provide an equivalent energy service. Extensive handling of raw materials, e.g. ley cropping or collection of waste-products such as municipal organic waste, is often a significant source of emissions. Emission from the production phase of the biogas exceeds the end-use emissions for several biogas systems and for specific emissions. Uncontrolled losses of methane, e.g. leakages from stored digestates or from biogas upgrading, increase the fuel-cycle emissions of methane considerably. Thus, it is necessary to clearly specify the biogas production system and end-use technology being studied in order to be able to produce reliable and accurate data on fuel-cycle emission

  3. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  4. Life-cycle air emissions from PV power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, M.E.; Johnson, A.J.; Outhred, H.R.; Ellis, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the air emission of grid supply versus grid-connected and off-grid photovoltaic power generation, using the framework of life-cycle assessment, in the contents of rural household energy supply in Australia. Emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxde and nitrous oxides are calculated for the three life-cycle stages of manufacture, use and disposal. Sensitivities to materials and data inputs, as well as to component efficiencies, lifetimes and sizing are discussed. For each supply option, demand management options, including insulation and appliance choice, and the substitution of solar heating or bottled gas for electricity are considered. The best option in all cases, in terms of life-cycle air emissions, is a grid-connected photovoltaic system used to supply an energy-efficient household with a mix of solar, gas and electric appliances. However, in financial terms, with current Australian energy prices, this option represents a high capital and life-cycle costs. Additionally, for the grid options, electricity costs do not significantly disadvantage the high demand scenarios. Both results provide a clear illustration of current Australian energy-pricing policies being in conflict with long-term environmental sustainability. (Author)

  5. Bayesian modelling of the emission spectrum of the Joint European Torus Lithium Beam Emission Spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J; Brix, M; Ghim, Y-C

    2016-02-01

    A Bayesian model of the emission spectrum of the JET lithium beam has been developed to infer the intensity of the Li I (2p-2s) line radiation and associated uncertainties. The detected spectrum for each channel of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy system is here modelled by a single Li line modified by an instrumental function, Bremsstrahlung background, instrumental offset, and interference filter curve. Both the instrumental function and the interference filter curve are modelled with non-parametric Gaussian processes. All free parameters of the model, the intensities of the Li line, Bremsstrahlung background, and instrumental offset, are inferred using Bayesian probability theory with a Gaussian likelihood for photon statistics and electronic background noise. The prior distributions of the free parameters are chosen as Gaussians. Given these assumptions, the intensity of the Li line and corresponding uncertainties are analytically available using a Bayesian linear inversion technique. The proposed approach makes it possible to extract the intensity of Li line without doing a separate background subtraction through modulation of the Li beam.

  6. Vehicle emission factors of solid nanoparticles in the laboratory and on the road using Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barouch eGiechaskiel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emission inventories are used to quantify sources and identify trends in the emissions of air pollutants. They use vehicle-specific emission factors that are typically determined in the laboratory, through remote-sensing, vehicle chasing experiments and, more recently, on-board Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS. Although PEMS is widely applied to measure gaseous pollutants, their application to Solid Particle Number (SPN emissions is new. In this paper, we discuss the current status of determining SPN emission factors both on the chassis dynamometer and on-road using PEMS-SPN. First, we determine the influence of the measurement equipment, ambient temperature, driving style and cycle characteristics, and the extra mass of the PEMS equipment on the SPN emissions. Afterward, we present the SPN emissions under type-approval conditions as well as on the road of two heavy-duty diesel vehicles equipped with Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF (one Euro VI, two light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with DPF, one light-duty vehicle equipped with a Port Fuel Injection engine (PFI, and seven Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI passenger cars (two Euro 6. We find that cold-start and strong accelerations tend to substantially increase SPN emissions. The two heavy-duty vehicles showed emissions around 2×10^13 p/km (Euro V truck and 6×10^10 p/km (Euro VI truck, respectively. One of the DPF-equipped light-duty vehicles showed emissions of 8×10^11 p/km, while the other one had one order of magnitude lower emissions. The PFI car had SPN emissions slightly higher than 1×10^12 p/km. The emissions of GDI cars spanned approximately from 8×10^11 p/km to 8×10^12 p/km. For the cars without DPF, the SPN emissions remained within a factor of two of the laboratory results. This factor was on average around 0.8 for the Euro 6 and 1.6 for the Euro 5 GDIs. The DPF equipped vehicles showed a difference of almost one order of magnitude between laboratory and on-road tests

  7. Aviation safely management, Valdez oil spill clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesenhahn, M.J.; McKeown, W.L.; Williams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The March 24, 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound (PWS) resulted in an unprecedented mobilization of personnel and oil spill clean-up equipment. This paper describes the comprehensive safety management system implemented for aviation operations supporting the clean-up response in PWS and the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Aviation support operations quickly expanded to over 100 aircraft obtained from numerous sources. Beginning with early surveillance flights, aviation operations were subject to comprehensive safety management programs, including safety assessments, minimum flight weather criteria, operational standards and procedures, air carrier qualifications, equipment and procedure audits, and emergency response. Communication networks and flight following procedures were established, arctic survival training was conducted, and a full complement of survival equipment was required. These programs were largely responsible for safety performance of the spill response effort-during the 1989-92 response activities, over 56,000 flight hours, 159,000 equivalent passengers, and 20,000 tons of cargo were handled without an aviation related injury. The programs are applicable to offshore development and operational activities, particularly those located in more remote, severe environments

  8. Specification of matrix cleanup goals in fractured porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David J; Kueper, Bernard H

    2013-01-01

    Semianalytical transient solutions have been developed to evaluate what level of fractured porous media (e.g., bedrock or clay) matrix cleanup must be achieved in order to achieve compliance of fracture pore water concentrations within a specified time at specified locations of interest. The developed mathematical solutions account for forward and backward diffusion in a fractured porous medium where the initial condition comprises a spatially uniform, nonzero matrix concentration throughout the domain. Illustrative simulations incorporating the properties of mudstone fractured bedrock demonstrate that the time required to reach a desired fracture pore water concentration is a function of the distance between the point of compliance and the upgradient face of the domain where clean groundwater is inflowing. Shorter distances correspond to reduced times required to reach compliance, implying that shorter treatment zones will respond more favorably to remediation than longer treatment zones in which back-diffusion dominates the fracture pore water response. For a specified matrix cleanup goal, compliance of fracture pore water concentrations will be reached sooner for decreased fracture spacing, increased fracture aperture, higher matrix fraction organic carbon, lower matrix porosity, shorter aqueous phase decay half-life, and a higher hydraulic gradient. The parameters dominating the response of the system can be measured using standard field and laboratory techniques. © 2012, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  9. An automated blood sampling system used in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fast dynamic function studies with positron emission tomography (PET), has the potential to give accurate information of physiological functions of the brain. This capability can be realised if the positron camera system accurately quantitates the tracer uptake in the brain with sufficiently high efficiency and in sufficiently short time intervals. However, in addition, the tracer concentration in blood, as a function of time, must be accurately determined. This paper describes and evaluates an automated blood sampling system. Two different detector units are compared. The use of the automated blood sampling system is demonstrated in studies of cerebral blood flow, in studies of the blood-brain barrier transfer of amino acids and of the cerebral oxygen consumption. 5 refs.; 7 figs

  10. Firms vie to offer DOE a prize-winning recipe for cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Eager to get the most bang for its waste cleanup bucks, the US Department of Energy is conducting its own version of the Pillsbury bake-off. DOE is pitting two environmental contractors, Rust International Corp. and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., against each other to come up with the prize-winning recipe for cleaning up some nasty waste problems

  11. Preplanning of early cleanup. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A pre-study 'Pre-planning of early cleanup after fallout of radioactive material' made by Studvik EcoSafe has pointed out the need and request for pre-planning of actions. Based on the pre-study this project was started with the goal to work out guidelines and checklists. Because of the common interest between the Nordic countries NKS is the organization responsible for the project. The results of the project will be a document pointing out what can be planned in advance, including guidelines and checklists, regarding early cleanup actions after a nuclear plant accident in or in the vicinity of the Nordic countries. In this work 'early' means the three first weeks after an accident. The project only deals with questions concerning external radiation. The document shall be usable by persons in charge of planning or decision makers on the appropriate level of organization for each country. The document shall principally be aimed towards persons without professional competence in the field of radiology. The result will be presented for a limited number of generalized environments and fallout situations: urban/suburban/rural (concentrating on urban/suburban); regional differences (in for example house types and constructing material); dry or wet deposition. Five housing environments, ten cleanup actions and wet or dry deposition are treated. For 66 combinations calculations are made and the results are documented as data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. (EG)

  12. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  13. Study of nuclear heat application systems for arresting CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto; Ogata, Kan; Yamada, Seiya.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of the paper is to investigate the systems for arresting CO 2 emission and for the effective utilization of fossil fuel. We studied the fossil fuel reforming systems to decrease the CO 2 emission rate per unit amount of heat generation by fossil fuel. Feed materials for reforming system were natural gas, crude oil, oil sand, oil shale and coal. Products by reforming were hydrogen, methane, methanol and gasoline. We examined CO 2 emission ratio of ten systems with different feed material and product. The CO 2 emission ratio was the ratio of CO 2 emission rate per unit amount of heat generation between the products and the feed materials, and was the important index. As the results, the CO 2 emission ratio for the coal to methane reforming system using steam gasifier had the lowest value of 51%. It means that the CO 2 emission rate of the product from the coal to methane reforming system was 51% of the emission rate of the feed material, that is, the system is very effective to arrest the CO 2 emission. The CO 2 emission ratio increases in the following order: the reforming systems from coal to methanol, heavy oil to hydrogen and natural gas to hydrogen. It was clarified that the system of coal to methane reforming was very effective for arresting CO 2 emission compared to the other systems, moreover the nuclear heat using rate and thermal efficiency of the plant of the system were the highest. (author)

  14. Cleanup criteria for the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is prescribing decontamination and decommissioning (cleanup) criteria for the West Valley Demonstration Project and the West Valley, New York, site. The site is contaminated with various forms of residual radioactive contamination and contains a wide variety of radioactive waste. The NRC is planning to issue cleanup criteria for public comment in Fall 1999. Due to the complexity of the site, and the newness of NRC's cleanup criteria policy, applying NRC's cleanup criteria to this site will be an original regulatory undertaking. (author)

  15. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  16. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  18. Reduction of CO2 emissions from road transport in cities impact of dynamic route guidance system on greenhouse gas emission

    CERN Document Server

    Markiewicz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Michal Markiewicz presents the outcomes of his research regarding the influence of dynamic route guidance system on overall emission of carbon dioxide from road transport in rural areas. Sustainable transportation in smart cities is a big challenge of our time, but before electric vehicles replace vehicles that burn fossil fuels we have to think about traffic optimization methods that reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Contents Comparison of Travel Time Measurements Using Floating Car Data and Intelligent Infrastructure Integration of Cellular Automata Traffic Simulator with CO2 Emission Model Impact of Dynamic Route Guidance System on CO2 Emission Naxos Vehicular Traffic Simulator Target Groups Lecturers and students of computer science, transportation and logistics Traffic engineers The Author Dr. Michal Markiewicz defended his PhD thesis in computer science at the University of Bremen,TZI Technologie-Zentrum Informatik und Informationstechnik, Germany. Currently, he is working on commercializat...

  19. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  20. An emission-line model for AM Herculis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, L.; Tuohy, I.R.; Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Australian National Univ., Canberra)

    1989-01-01

    The optical spectra of the AM Herculis binaries are characterized by extremely complex emission lines whose profiles can be resolved into at least three components which are formed in different regions of the accretion stream leading from the companion star toward the magnetic white dwarf. A theoretical model is presented for the radial velocity and velocity dispersion of the broad emission line component assuming that it originates mainly in the gas which is diverted out of the orbital plane and funneled onto the white dwarf surface along magnetic field lines. The model is used to locate the line-forming region in three AM Her variables: E1405-451, CW 1103+254, and EXO 033319-2554.2, using as constraints the radial velocity and velocity dispersion data. The analyses of these systems show that the material is threaded by the magnetic field in a very azimuthally extended coupling region located 0.5-0.75 of the way between the white dwarf and the inner Lagrange point. 36 refs

  1. Positron Emission Tomography imaging with the SmartPET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: cooperrj@ornl.gov; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P.; Mather, A.R. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-21

    The Small Animal Reconstruction Tomograph for Positron Emission Tomography (SmartPET) project is the development of a small animal Positron Emission Tomography (PET) demonstrator based on the use of High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors and state of the art digital electronics. The experimental results presented demonstrate the current performance of this unique system. By performing high precision measurements of one of the SmartPET HPGe detectors with a range of finely collimated gamma-ray beams the response of the detector as a function of gamma-ray interaction position has been quantified, facilitating the development of parametric Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in detector performance. These algorithms have then been applied to data from PET imaging measurements using two such detectors in conjunction with a specially designed rotating gantry. In this paper we show how the use of parametric PSA approaches allows over 60% of coincident events to be processed and how the nature and complexity of an event has direct implications for the quality of the resulting image.

  2. Creating a level playing field? The concentration and centralisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    This article questions the assumption that carbon markets create a level playing field by exploring the relationship between the organisation of capital and the organisation of emissions in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). It constructs a database by matching installations and owners to reveal that a relatively small number of large-scale coal-fired power stations, owned by a very small group of states and corporations, are responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. The findings are analysed by considering how technological dependence on coal together with the corporate institutional form combine to support the socio-spatial concentration and centralisation of capital and emissions. Case studies of the consolidation of the seven largest polluting owners from Europe's coal-dependent electricity sector and the carbon trading strategies of the two largest polluters, RWE and E.ON, then assess the impacts of energy liberalisation and emissions trading policies. The article concludes that EU energy and climate policies are pulling in different directions by clustering responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions and diffusing responsibility to address climate change. The uneven distribution of emissions within the EU ETS makes an alternative policy approach that directly targets the biggest corporate and state polluters both feasible and necessary. - Highlights: • 20 ultimate owners are responsible for one-half of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • 83 installations are responsible for one-third of 2005–12 EU ETS emissions. • Focus on technological dependence on coal and the corporate institutional form. • Energy liberalisation policy has consolidated responsibility for emissions. • Carbon markets have diffused responsibility for addressing climate change.

  3. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Antonio; Romano, Matteo C.; Lozza, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H 2 S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO 2 -laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  4. NOx emission control for gas turbines: A 1991 update on regulations and technology (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The technologies that are available for the control of NO x emissions from gas turbines utilize the factors that impact the formation of NO x described in the previous section and include (1) diluent injection (i.e., water or steam) into the combustion zone, which is a front-end control technology that lowers the combustor flame temperature, (2) selective catalytic reduction (SCR), which is a back-end exhaust gas cleanup system, (3) dry low NO x combustors (DLN), which use staged combustion and very lean fuel-air mixtures (they are currently being introduced), and (4) catalytic combustion systems that hold the promise of achieving extremely low emission levels without resorting to exhaust gas cleanup. This last option is being developed to burn very lean fuel-air mixtures, but will require significant technological breakthroughs; it is still several years away from becoming commercially available

  5. Annual CO-emissions of combined pellet and solar heating systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank; Persson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    Emissions are an important aspect of a pellet heating system. High carbon monoxide emissions are often caused by unnecessary cycling of the burner when the burner is operated below the lowest combustion power. Combining pellet heating systems with a solar heating system can significantly reduce cycling of the pellet heater and avoid the inefficient summer operation of the pellet heater. The aim of this paper was to study CO-emissions of the different types of systems and to compare the yearly...

  6. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  7. Diabetes mellitus morbidity in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstaya, E.V.; Ermakova, D.P.; Glinskaya, T.N.

    2016-01-01

    Acute and total diabetes mellitus morbidity in Chernobyl clean-up workers was examined during 1995-2014 period. During all the period of investigations levels of acute and total morbidity were higher in clean-up workers, than in total Belarusian population. (authors)

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 107-D5 Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpuz, F.M.; Fancher, J.D.; Blumenkranz, D.B.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents the results of remedial action objectives performed at the 107-D5 Sludge Trench, located at the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The 107-D5 Sludge Trench is also identified in the Hanford Waste Information Data System as Waste Site 100-D-4 (site code). The selected remedial action was (1) excavation of the site to the extent required to meet specified soil cleanup levels, (2) disposal of contaminated excavation materials at the Environmental Restoration and Disposal Facility at the 200 Area of the Hanford Site, and (3) backfilling the site with clean soil to adjacent grade elevations

  9. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it

  10. Characterization of the emissions impacts of hybrid excavators with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tanfeng; Russell, Robert L; Durbin, Thomas D; Cocker, David R; Burnette, Andrew; Calavita, Joseph; Maldonado, Hector; Johnson, Kent C

    2018-04-13

    Hybrid engine technology is a potentially important strategy for reduction of tailpipe greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other pollutants that is now being implemented for off-road construction equipment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the emissions and fuel consumption impacts of electric-hybrid excavators using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS)-based methodology. In this study, three hybrid and four conventional excavators were studied for both real world activity patterns and tailpipe emissions. Activity data was obtained using engine control module (ECM) and global positioning system (GPS) logged data, coupled with interviews, historical records, and video. This activity data was used to develop a test cycle with seven modes representing different types of excavator work. Emissions data were collected over this test cycle using a PEMS. The results indicated the HB215 hybrid excavator provided a significant reduction in tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions (from -13 to -26%), but increased diesel particulate matter (PM) (+26 to +27%) when compared to a similar model conventional excavator over the same duty cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of time resolved photodetector systems for Positron Emission Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Powolny, François

    The main topic of this work is the study of detector systems composed of a scintillator, a photodetector and readout electronics, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In particular, the timing properties of such detector systems are studied. The first idea is to take advantage of the good timing properties of the NINO chip, which is a fast preamplifier-discriminator developed for the ALICE Time of flight detector at CERN. This chip uses a time over threshold technique that is to be applied for the first time in medical imaging applications. A unique feature of this technique is that it delivers both timing and energy information with a single digital pulse, the time stamp with the rising edge and the energy from the pulse width. This entails substantial simplification of the entire readout architecture of a tomograph. The scintillator chosen in the detector system is LSO. Crystals of 2x2x10mm3 were used. For the photodetector, APDs were first used, and were then replaced by SiPMs to make use of their highe...

  12. Image-reconstruction algorithms for positron-emission tomography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.N.C.

    1982-01-01

    The positional uncertainty in the time-of-flight measurement of a positron-emission tomography system is modelled as a Gaussian distributed random variable and the image is assumed to be piecewise constant on a rectilinear lattice. A reconstruction algorithm using maximum-likelihood estimation is derived for the situation in which time-of-flight data are sorted as the most-likely-position array. The algorithm is formulated as a linear system described by a nonseparable, block-banded, Toeplitz matrix, and a sine-transform technique is used to implement this algorithm efficiently. The reconstruction algorithms for both the most-likely-position array and the confidence-weighted array are described by similar equations, hence similar linear systems can be used to described the reconstruction algorithm for a discrete, confidence-weighted array, when the matrix and the entries in the data array are properly identified. It is found that the mean square-error depends on the ratio of the full width at half the maximum of time-of-flight measurement over the size of a pixel. When other parameters are fixed, the larger the pixel size, the smaller is the mean square-error. In the study of resolution, parameters that affect the impulse response of time-of-flight reconstruction algorithms are identified. It is found that the larger the pixel size, the larger is the standard deviation of the impulse response. This shows that small mean square-error and fine resolution are two contradictory requirements

  13. Latvian Chernobyl clean-up workers dynamics of morbidity 15 years of the post radiation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvagule, T.; Eglite, M.; Bruvere, R.; Gabruseva, N.; Feldmane, G.

    2003-01-01

    Nearly 1.0% of the male population of Latvia were sent (1986-1991) to Chernobyl to assist in the clean-up activities after the nuclear power plant accident (1986). The prevalence of all types of diseases, dynamic of breaking out of the key symptoms and interferon status were evaluated in respect to date of work, duration of work and kind of work in the whole clean-up workers group and in the particular group with seizures of unconsciousness. The disease incidence in clean-up workers from Latvia exceeds that observed in age and sex matched male population. Most had several diseases each and their poly-symptomatic sicknesses exhibited tendency to progress even 10-14 years after the exposure (during 1996-2000). Diseases of nervous, digestive and circulatory system, mental disorders and diseases of muscles and connective tissue were the most frequent. The primary outset of symptoms being low in the first 2-3 years after the work gradually increased during the following 10 years. Leukopenia was predominant in 1990-1993 and leucocytosis in 1997-2000. Ability of leukocytes to produce interferons was significantly decreased. Since the external radiation doses did not exceed 50 centyGy (cGy) there is sufficient reasons to believe that the principal cause of the gradually increased frequency of health problems is the long-life radioisotopes incorporated in the clean-up workers bodies as permanent radiation and toxic compounds source. (authors)

  14. Reactor water clean-up device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Sankichi; Takashima, Yoshie.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To efficiently eliminate radioactive materials such as iron oxide and cobalt ions with less heat loss by the use of an electrode assembly applied with a direct current. Constitution: In a reactor water clean-up device adapted to pass reactor water through an electrode assembly comprising at least a pair of anode and cathode applied with a direct current to eliminate various types of ions contained in the reactor water by way of the electrolysis or charge neutralization at the anode, the cathode is constituted with a corrosion resistant grid-like or porous metal plate and a layer to the upper portion of the metal plate filled with a plurality of metal spheres of about 1 - 5 mm diameter, and the anode is made of insoluble porous or spirally wound metal material. (Seki, T.)

  15. Fernald incident underscores DOE cleanup woes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Miscalculations and poor safety planning led to a large release of deadly gas during an error-plagued effort to plug a leaking uranium hexafluoride canister discovered lying in a scrap heap at the Energy Department's Fernald plant last year, according to a DOE investigative report. Investigators with DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health said serious injury was avoided only because the wind happened to blow the toxic cloud of hydrogen fluoride gas away from inadequately protected Fernald workers watching the July 1993 canister-plugging operation at the Ohio plant. The investigators said the 25-minute canister repair effort - captured on videotape - was marked by poor planning by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp. (FERMCO), a Fluor Daniel subsidiary hired by DOE for its cleanup expertise

  16. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  17. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  18. Helping with the clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1990-01-01

    Successes in public involvement efforts for nuclear waste management are so few that they deserve careful documentation and analysis. This paper chronicles the goals, process, problems and outcomes of one such success, the Northwest Defense Waste Citizens Forum (CF), created by the DOE-Richland manager in 1986 to advise DOE on its plans for nuclear waste disposal and cleanup of the Hanford site n eastern Washington state. In the evolving, often-controversial, highly-visible area of agency-public interactions, citizen task forces (TFs) have been shown to be useful in developing public policy at the local level. Making them work at the state level is more problematic. This case shows that a diverse, two-state citizen group can make significant contributions to complex EIS evaluations with heavy technical components. The CFs principal contribution to public policy was communication of its findings to business and professional groups, to area political representatives and state agencies, thereby laying the ground work for refocusing the Northwest upon the need for action on DW cleanup at Hanford. In going well beyond NEPA requirements for public involvement in agency decision making, DOE-Richland demonstrated innovative ways of dealing with the difficult issues of public confidence and public trust by means of agency openness, responsiveness to citizen needs for information, and good faith two-way communication. The success of this pro-active DOE initiative was due to many factors including selecting the right issue (existing wastes), structuring the CF at a broad, regional level, and intensive implementation of trust-building strategies

  19. Carbon dioxide emissions effects of grid-scale electricity storage in a decarbonizing power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Michael T.; Jaramillo, Paulina; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    While grid-scale electricity storage (hereafter ‘storage’) could be crucial for deeply decarbonizing the electric power system, it would increase carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in current systems across the United States. To better understand how storage transitions from increasing to decreasing system CO2 emissions, we quantify the effect of storage on operational CO2 emissions as a power system decarbonizes under a moderate and strong CO2 emission reduction target through 2045. Under each target, we compare the effect of storage on CO2 emissions when storage participates in only energy, only reserve, and energy and reserve markets. We conduct our study in the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) system and use a capacity expansion model to forecast generator fleet changes and a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to quantify system CO2 emissions with and without storage. We find that storage would increase CO2 emissions in the current ERCOT system, but would decrease CO2 emissions in 2025 through 2045 under both decarbonization targets. Storage reduces CO2 emissions primarily by enabling gas-fired generation to displace coal-fired generation, but also by reducing wind and solar curtailment. We further find that the market in which storage participates drives large differences in the magnitude, but not the direction, of the effect of storage on CO2 emissions.

  20. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values

  1. MTU locomotive drive systems for EU emissions stage IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Emissions limits for diesel locomotives within the European Union are regulated by EU Non-road Directive 97/68/EC which places restrictions on the pollutants NOx, particulate, CO and HC. MTU has developed suitable diesel engines for EU Emissions stage IIIB. (orig.)

  2. Implementing a system of emissions trading to manage GHGs; La mise en oeuvre des systemes de quotas d'emission echangeables dans la gestion des emissions de GES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, A. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    The exact geographical location of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has no bearing on climate change. In this context the Kyoto Protocol recognizes mechanisms of flexibility for countries to attain their GHG emissions reductions. Emission trading takes advantage of this flexibility, allowing GHGs to be sold, traded, or stockpiled. An emission quota allows the owner of an energy facility to emit a certain amount of GHGs throughout the year. If this quota is not used, it can be stockpiled for the following year or it could be traded to another enterprise and owner. If the amount of emissions exceeds the initial quotas, facilities can adopt different strategies, such as reducing their GHG purchasing quotas from national enterprises that have reduced their emissions or purchase quotas from international markets. The initial allocation of quotas is an important political decision since it determines the initial distribution of the GHG reduction effort. The establishment of a quota system can contribute to economical competition and can be used to fulfill environmental objectives regarding energy source development. It is also the most effective way to minimize greenhouse gas emissions and the associated environmental impacts. This paper reviewed the regulations regarding the design of the quota system; how the ceiling of emission levels was determined; the criteria for allocating the quotas and the rules for the exchange of emission quotas. Canada and the European countries have expressed interest in this system of emissions trading. 7 refs.

  3. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  4. Developments in acoustic emission for application to nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Developments in acoustic emission are summarised as they relate to the principal applications to nuclear reactors, and light water reactor pressure vessels in particular. Improvement in the understanding of acoustic emission has come from materials tests and these confirm the problems in applying the technique for in-service or periodic proof test monitoring of growing fatique cracks. Applications in LMFBR have confirmed that acoustic emission can be applied in the nuclear environment and the detection of stress corrosion cracking in both BWR and LMFBR seems possible. Some information is included on the developing interest in applying the techniques of acoustic emission for leak detection during shop hydro and in-service monitoring. Acoustic emission is also being developed for weld fabrication monitoring and recently introduced pattern recognition techniques are having a significant impact in this application. (author)

  5. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project's multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition

  6. Visualization of portal venous system by single photon emission CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, T; Ikawa, T; Azuma, M; Matsuda, H; Yoshioka, H; Mitsutani, N; Koizumi, T

    1987-03-01

    Single photon emission CT (SPECT) was performed for the intra-abdominal blood pool with /sup 99m/Tc autologous red blood cells (RBC) in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis. Twenty mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-RBC labeled by in vivo technique were administered intravenously and tomographic imaging of the intra-abdominal vascular blood pool was performed as follows. For each subject, 64 views were obtained over 360 deg of elliptic rotation at 30 seconds per view using a high resolution low energy parallel-hole collimator. Portal vein and portosystemic collaterals were clearly observed in coronal images. In 12 of 15 patients, portal vein was delineated. Portosystemic collaterals such as coronary vein, splenorenal shunt and umbilical vein were also shown in 12 patients. These images were consistent with images obtained by scintiphotosplenoportography or arterial portography. Therefore, it is considered that SPECT study for the intra-abdominal blood pool is clinically very useful for the diagnosis of abnormality of portal venous system in portal hypertension.

  7. Characteristic of the immunological state of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers in a late period after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Zvagule, T.; Curbakova, E.; Bruvere, R.; Romanova, T.; Sitova, O; Hagina, E.; Socnevs, A.

    2001-01-01

    No differences in the number of immunologically competent cells and other immunological variables were found among the clean-up workers, depending on the time they were in Chernobyl. However, a statistically significant reduction in the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD16+ and CD19+, decrease in the levels of IgG and suppression of APH and the phagocytic activity of neutrophils with a simultaneous increase in the levels of IgA and C3d was found in all clean-up workers when compared to controls. In a small group of clean-up workers, the levels of some plasma cytokines were detected. A statistically significant increase in IL-6 levels was found in the clean-up workers when compared to controls. The irradiation received by the Chernobyl accident clean-up workers was large enough to cause disturbances in the function of cells and organ systems through immune system disorders with a resultant weakening of the body response and adaptation mechanisms. (authors)

  8. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, A.; Tolis, A.; Tatsiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases

  9. Imaging of the dopaminergic neurotransmission system using single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography in patients with parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booij, J.; Tissingh, G.; Winogrodzka, A.; Royen, E.A. van

    1999-01-01

    Parkinsonism is a feature of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. The results of post-mortem studies point to dysfunction of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in patients with parkinsonism. Nowadays, by using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and positron emission tomography (PET) it is possible to visualise both the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the striatal dopamine D 2 receptors in vivo. Consequently, SPET and PET imaging of elements of the dopaminergic system can play an important role in the diagnosis of several parkinsonian syndromes. This review concentrates on findings of SPET and PET studies of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in various parkinsonian syndromes. (orig.)

  10. Global distribution of N2O emissions from aquatic systems : natural emissions and anthropogenic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Styles, R.V.; Kroeze, C.

    2000-01-01

    Context Abstract: Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas, are increasing due to human activities. Our analysis suggests that a third of global anthropogenic N2O emission is from aquatic sources (rivers, estuaries, continental shelves) and the terrestrial sources comprise the

  11. Nitrous oxide emissions in Chinese vegetable systems: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Zou, Chunqin; Gao, Xiaopeng; Guan, Xilin; Zhang, Wushuai; Zhang, Yueqiang; Shi, Xiaojun; Chen, Xinping

    2018-04-16

    China accounts for more than half of the world's vegetable production, and identifying the contribution of vegetable production to nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions in China is therefore important. We performed a meta-analysis that included 153 field measurements of N 2 O emissions from 21 field studies in China. Our goal was to quantify N 2 O emissions and fertilizer nitrogen (N) based-emission factors (EFs) in Chinese vegetable systems and to clarify the effects of rates and types of N fertilizer in both open-field and greenhouse systems. The results indicated that the intensive vegetable systems in China had an average N 2 O emission of 3.91 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 and an EF of 0.69%. Although the EF was lower than the IPCC default value of 1.0%, the average N 2 O emission was generally greater than in other cropping systems due to greater input of N fertilizers. The EFs were similar in greenhouse vs. open-field systems but N 2 O emissions were about 1.4 times greater in greenhouses. The EFs were not affected by N rate, but N 2 O emissions for both open-field and greenhouse systems increased with N rate. The total and fertilizer-induced N 2 O emissions, as well as EFs, were unaffected by the type of fertilizers in greenhouse system under same N rates. In addition to providing basic information about N 2 O emissions from Chinese vegetable systems, the results suggest that N 2 O emissions could be reduced without reducing yields by treating vegetable systems in China with a combination of synthetic N fertilizer and manure at optimized economic rates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  13. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  14. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions and management practices that impact them in US rice systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reviews have quantified factors affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems, but not from rice systems typical for the United States, which often vary considerably particularly in practices (i.e., water and carbon management) that affect emissions. Usi...

  16. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  17. 47 CFR 90.691 - Emission mask requirements for EA-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission mask requirements for EA-based systems. 90.691 Section 90.691 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND... of Ea-Based Smr Systems in the 809-824/851-869 Mhz Band § 90.691 Emission mask requirements for EA...

  18. Near-zero emissions combustor system for syngas and biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yongho, Kim; Rosocha, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A multi-institutional plasma combustion team was awarded a research project from the DOE/NNSA GIPP (Global Initiative for Prolifereation Prevention) office. The Institute of High Current Electronics (Tomsk, Russia); Leonardo Technologies, Inc. (an American-based industrial partner), in conjunction with the Los Alamos National Laboratory are participating in the project to develop novel plasma assisted combustion technologies. The purpose of this project is to develop prototypes of marketable systems for more stable and cleaner combustion of syngas/biofuels and to demonstrate that this technology can be used for a variety of combustion applications - with a major focus on contemporary gas turbines. In this paper, an overview of the project, along with descriptions of the plasma-based combustors and associated power supplies will be presented. Worldwide, it is recognized that a variety of combustion fuels will be required to meet the needs for supplying gas-turbine engines (electricity generation, propulsion), internal combustion engines (propulsion, transportation), and burners (heat and electricity generation) in the 21st Century. Biofuels and biofuel blends have already been applied to these needs, but experience difficulties in modifications to combustion processes and combustor design and the need for flame stabilization techniques to address current and future environmental and energy-efficiency challenges. In addition, municipal solid waste (MSW) has shown promise as a feedstock for heat and/or electricity-generating plants. However, current combustion techniques that use such fuels have problems with achieving environmentally-acceptable air/exhaust emissions and can also benefit from increased combustion efficiency. This project involves a novel technology (a form of plasma-assisted combustion) that can address the above issues. Plasma-assisted combustion (PAC) is a growing field that is receiving worldwide attention at present. The project is focused on

  19. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  20. The Tree Drought Emission MONitor (Tree DEMON, an innovative system for assessing biogenic volatile organic compounds emission from plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Lüpke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emitted by plants play an important role for ecological and physiological processes, for example as response to stressors. These emitted compounds are involved in chemical processes within the atmosphere and contribute to the formation of aerosols and ozone. Direct measurement of BVOC emissions requires a specialized sample system in order to obtain repeatable and comparable results. These systems need to be constructed carefully since BVOC measurements may be disturbed by several side effects, e.g., due to wrong material selection and lacking system stability. Results In order to assess BVOC emission rates, a four plant chamber system was constructed, implemented and throughout evaluated by synthetic tests and in two case studies on 3-year-old sweet chestnut seedlings. Synthetic system test showed a stable sampling with good repeatability and low memory effects. The first case study demonstrated the capability of the system to screen multiple trees within a few days and revealed three different emission patterns of sweet chestnut trees. The second case study comprised an application of drought stress on two seedlings compared to two in parallel assessed seedlings of a control. Here, a clear reduction of BVOC emissions during drought stress was observed. Conclusion The developed system allows assessing BVOC as well as CO2 and water vapor gas exchange of four tree specimens automatically and in parallel with repeatable results. A canopy volume of 30 l can be investigated, which constitutes in case of tree seedlings the whole canopy. Longer lasting experiments of e.g., 1–3 weeks can be performed easily without any significant plant interference.

  1. First image from a combined positron emission tomography and field-cycled MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindseil, Geron A; Gilbert, Kyle M; Scholl, Timothy J; Handler, William B; Chronik, Blaine A

    2011-07-01

    Combining positron emission tomography and MRI modalities typically requires using either conventional MRI with a MR-compatible positron emission tomography system or a modified MR system with conventional positron emission tomography. A feature of field-cycled MRI is that all magnetic fields can be turned off rapidly, enabling the use of conventional positron emission tomography detectors based on photomultiplier tubes. In this demonstration, two photomultiplier tube-based positron emission tomography detectors were integrated with a field-cycled MRI system (0.3 T/4 MHz) by placing them into a 9-cm axial gap. A positron emission tomography-MRI phantom consisting of a triangular arrangement of positron-emitting point sources embedded in an onion was imaged in a repeating interleaved sequence of ∼1 sec MRI then 1 sec positron emission tomography. The first multimodality images from the combined positron emission tomography and field-cycled MRI system show no additional artifacts due to interaction between the systems and demonstrate the potential of this approach to combining positron emission tomography and MRI. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Management of industrial sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions in Alberta - description of the existing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, W.S.; Bietz, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    In addition to being key primary air contaminants, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are also major contributors to acidic deposition. The current management system for controlling industrial sources of SO(2) and NO(x) emissions in Alberta was developed in the late 1960s/early 1970s. The focus is on control of point source emissions through the use of appropriate technology. The approach taken for managing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions is similar to the approach taken to other industrial air and wastewater pollutants in Alberta. It is a command and control regulatory system. There are three main industry categories in Alberta which emit SO(2): sour gas processing, oil sand plants and thermal power plants. For NO(x) emissions, the two main categories with emissions: are natural gas production and thermal power plants. The two main goals of the existing industrial air quality management systems are to ensire that: (1) emissions from industrial facilities are minimized through the use of best available demonstrated technology, and (2) ambient levels of air contaminants in the vicinity of industrial facilities do not exceed Alberta guidelines. The four main policies which support these two goals of the existing management system are described. There are a number of key components of the existing management system including: ambient guideline levels, source emission standards, plume dispersion modelling, ambient air and source emission monitoring, environmental reporting, emission inventories, and approvals. 32 refs., 13 figs

  3. Classification of nutrient emission sources in the Vistula River system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    Eutrophication of the Baltic sea still remains one of the biggest problems in the north-eastern area of Europe. Recognizing the sources of nutrient emission, classification of their importance and finding the way towards reduction of pollution are the most important tasks for scientists researching this area. This article presents the chemometric approach to the classification of nutrient emission with respect to the regionalisation of emission sources within the Vistula River basin (Poland). Modelled data for mean yearly emission of nitrogen and phosphorus in 1991-2000 has been used for the classification. Seventeen subcatchements in the Vistula basin have been classified according to cluster and factor analyses. The results of this analysis allowed determination of groups of areas with similar pollution characteristics and indicate the need for spatial differentiation of policies and strategies. Three major factors indicating urban, erosion and agricultural sources have been identified as major discriminants of the groups. - Two classification methods applied to evaluate the results of nutrient emission allow definition of major sources of the emissions and classification of catchments with similar pollution.

  4. Radiation Dose to Post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation dose calculation for post-Chernobyl Cleanup Workers in Ukraine - both external radiation exposure due to fallout and internal doses due to inhalation (I131 intake) or ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs.

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete

  6. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems : Emission factors based on a meta-analysis of available measurement data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Smith, Pete; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Bouwman, Lex; Bondeau, Alberte; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for N2O, distinguishing the

  7. Oil spill cleanup for soft sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Tookey, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experimental trials are in progress to investigate the effectiveness and consequences of oil spill cleanup methods for areas of mud flats and salt marsh. Trials have shown that wheeled and tracked vehicles have limited utility. Field measurements of the load bearing capacity of the mud can show where such vehicles may be used. Lightweight hover craft provide a useful means of transport. Shallow-draft boats can have a useful transport role: whether such craft can be used depends on the local topography and tidal regime. The trials showed that practical problems associated with implementing low-pressure flushing operations (lack of water for flushing, recovery of the flushed oil) can be overcome - although the environmental effects have yet to be assessed. The use of straw matting as a sorbent material was also demonstrated. The objective of the first two phases of the project, reported here, was to select workable methods with a view to subsequently employing them in larger-scale trials. The environmental consequences of using the selected methods will be examined in the later trials

  8. Coolant cleanup method in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masayoshi; Nishimura, Shigeoki; Takahashi, Sankichi; Izumi, Kenkichi; Motojima, Kenji.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To effectively adsorb to remove low molecular weight organic substances from iron exchange resins for use in the removal of various radioactive nucleides contained in reactor coolants. Method : Reactor coolants are recycled by a main recyling pump in a nuclear reactor and a portion of the coolants is cooled and, thereafter, purified in a coolant desalter. While on the other hand, high pressure steams generated from the reactor are passed through a turbine, cooled in a condensator, eliminated with claddings or the likes by the passage through a filtration desalter using powderous ion exchange resins and then further passed through a desalter (filled with granular ion exchange resins). For instance, an adsorption and removing device for organic substances (resulted through the decomposition of ion exchange resins) precoated with activated carbon powder or filled with granular activated carbon is disposed at the downstream for each of the desalters. In this way, the organic substances in the coolants are eliminated to prevent the reduction in the desalting performance of the ion exchange resins caused by the formation of complexes between organic substances and cobalt in the coolants, etc. In this way, the coolant cleanup performance is increased and the amount of wasted ion exchange resins can be decreased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Challenges encountered in hydrocarbon contaminated soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzarettro, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Much of the author's experience relating to the cleanup of hydrocarbon contaminated soils has been garnered from serving the city of Santa Fe Springs, California as a redevelopment consultant and project manager. In this paper, the author's comments will be centered on that community. To set the stage the author believes it might be helpful to relate some of the history and background of Santa Fe Springs (SFS). The community was first founded as an agricultural settlement in the latter part of the nineteenth century, with virtually all of the farms and ranches either planted in orchards or engaged in raising cattle and livestock. The Southern Pacific Railroad had a line running through the area primarily to serve the needs of the ranchers and farmers. The community at the time was known as Fulton Wells in honor of a large hotel complex which had been erected around a well-known mineral spring touted for its curative value. The local population had been aware for some time of the presence of brackish water in shallow wells and of the peculiar odor which permeated much of the surrounding area

  10. March 28, 1979 plus 42 months, or a status report on the TMI-2 cleanup program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckamp, Herman

    1982-01-01

    The author gives a general overview of the TMI-2 cleanup program, including regulatory, financial, and public or political aspects. He reviews some of the major technical accomplishments, including the controlled venting of krypton, processing of more than half a million gallons of water from the auxiliary building using the EPICOR-II process, decontamination of over 600,000 gallons of water from the containment building using the submerged demineralizer system, processing of water from the reactor coolant system, and manned entries into the containment building. Cleaning up after a major reactor accident is expensive, not only because of the hostile physical environment in which the work must be carried out, but also because of regulatory, political and public acceptance constraints. The technological ingredients of a cleanup program exist, but the task of assembling those ingredients, ensuring a balance between cost, schedule and risk, and selling the resulting program to regulators and the public is a demanding one

  11. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided

  12. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  13. Zero Emission Mobility Systems in Cities. Inductive Recharge System Planning in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Maternini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, “Sustainable” and “Smart” mobility became concepts of fundamental importance and led national government to adopt programmes and measures aimed at reducing the carbon emissions of private and commercial vehicles. The final goal is to pursue the EU objectives of reducing the greenhouse gases emission in transportation sector. The progressive electrification of the circulating vehicles represents a possible solution to the air pollution relating problems. A recent innovative research field, which could significantly contribute to the diffusion of the electric vehicles, consists of the inductive recharge systems for electric vehicles. This technology could also bring to considerably environmental and logistic advantages, especially in urban areas. Starting from the analysis of the main ongoing experimentations of these innovative systems in the world, the present paper proposes a possible application of the inductive recharge technology to the public transport vehicles, through the presentation of the case study of Brescia.

  14. Solvent degradation and cleanup: a survey and recent ORNL studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper surveys the mechanisms for degradation of the tributyl phosphate and diluent components of Purex solvent by acid and radiation, reviews the problems encountered in plant operations resulting from the presence of these degradation products, and discusses methods for minimizing the formation of degradation products and accomplishing their removal. Scrubbing solutions containing sodium carbonate or hydroxylamine salts and secondary cleanup of solvents using solid sorbents are evaluated. Finally, recommendations for improved solvent cleanup are presented. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  16. Report on DOE labs takes aim at cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    This article is a review of the Galvin report on the environmental restoration activities at DOE nuclear facilities. The report is highly critical of DOE efforts, calling for a management overhaul and partial privitization of some facilities. Urging that the facilities be more integrated into the environmental management program, the report asserts that the low quality of science and technology in field cleanup work is the most important reason for the limited pace of cleanup activities. Excessive administrative costs were also cited

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems can provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional farming practices cannot. Importantly, these systems have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by reducing the need for external inputs, enhancing nutrient cycling and promoting C seques...

  18. The Approach to Cleanup at West Cumbria's Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, T.

    2006-01-01

    The cleanup of West Cumbria's nuclear sites is one of the most important and demanding managerial, technical and environmental challenges facing the UK over the next century. Considerable progress has already been made in cleaning up the Sellafield, Calder Hall, and Low-level Waste Repository (LLWR) sites but there remains significant challenge ahead. There are more than 200 nuclear facilities at the sites including redundant fuel storage ponds, redundant chemical plants and silos of solid waste and sludge. These legacy buildings exist alongside commercially operating reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. They are all linked together by a complex network of services including gas supplies, water supplies, waste disposal routes, and chemical supply routes. Many of the buildings requiring cleanup are very old and date back to the early years of the British nuclear industry. They were not designed with decommissioning in mind, and some require substantial improvement to provide a safe foundation from which to retrieve waste and decommission. The cleanup of these legacy facilities must be carefully balanced with the ongoing operations that provide services to commercial customers. Cleanup must be carried out safely and efficiently, without impacting upon commercial operations whose revenue is vital to funding the Cleanup organizations scope of work. This paper will introduce the cleanup approach at West Cumbria's Sellafield nuclear site. It will provide an overview of what is being done in preparation to meet the formidable but rewarding challenge ahead. (authors)

  19. Development of international criteria for the cleanup of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Barraclough, I.; Meck, R.; Gnugnoli, G.; Stegnar, P.

    1999-01-01

    IAEA TECDOC-987, Application of radiation protection principles to the cleanup of contaminated areas, provides a coherent framework and consistent guidance needed for approaches to cleanup that encompass the entire range of contamination situations. A major goal of cleanup is usually to re-establish that the environment can acceptably support habitation and use. Difficult situations include chronic exposures due to radioactivity associated with the discovery of contamination from a previously discontinued practice and post-accident situations. and post-accident situations. The concepts of justification, optimization, and limitation can be applied to cleanup from 'trivial' to 'intolerable' situations by taking into account not only radiological risk, but the entire range of social values including the ability of the society to feed and shelter itself and to sustain a productive economy. TECDOC-987 proposes six ranges, or bands, of doses that correspond to trivial, acceptable, tolerable - clean-up unlikely (unless constrained), tolerable - clean-up likely, unacceptable, and intolerable risks. Remedial actions may vary from 'none' to elaborate decontamination or restricted or prohibited use. (author)

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-3, Minor Construction Burial Ground waste site. This site was an open field covered with cobbles, with no vegetation growing on the surface. The site received irradiated reactor parts that were removed during conversion of the 105-F Reactor from the Liquid 3X to the Ball 3X Project safety systems and received mostly vertical safety rod thimbles and step plugs

  1. How accounting for climate and health impacts of emissions could change the US energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Kristen E.; Henze, Daven K.; Milford, Jana B.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine how incorporating damages into energy costs would impact the US energy system. Damages from health impacting pollutants (NO_x, SO_2, particulate matter - PM, and volatile organic compounds - VOCs) as well as greenhouse gases (GHGs) are accounted for by applying emissions fees equal to estimated external damages associated with life-cycle emissions. We determine that in a least-cost framework, fees reduce emissions, including those not targeted by the fees. Emissions reductions are achieved through the use of control technologies, energy efficiency, and shifting of fuels and technologies used in energy conversion. The emissions targeted by fees decrease, and larger fees lead to larger reductions. Compared to the base case with no fees, in 2045, SO_2 emissions are reduced up to 70%, NO_x emissions up to 30%, PM_2_._5 up to 45%, and CO_2 by as much as 36%. Emissions of some pollutants, particularly VOCs and methane, sometimes increase when fees are applied. The co-benefit of reduction in non-targeted pollutants is not always larger for larger fees. The degree of co-reduced emissions depends on treatment of life-cycle emissions and the technology pathway used to achieve emissions reductions, including the mix of efficiency, fuel switching, and emissions control technologies. - Highlights: • Fees based on damages related to energy use are modeled on the US energy system. • Health impacting air pollutants and greenhouse gases are targeted by fees. • Both targeted and other pollutants are reduced compared to a system without fees. • Control technologies, energy efficiency, and shifts in fuels reduce emissions. • Co-benefits do not necessarily increase as fees increase.

  2. System for quantitative measurements of methane emission from dairy cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter; Johannes, Maike

    The methane emission from the digestive tract of cattle in Denmark accounts for 45% of the total methane emission based on the assumption that 6% of the gross energy is metabolized to methane. There is a lack of newer experimental data available for Danish cattle; therefore we have built a unit...... expectations for a system for exact measurements of methane emission in dairy cows at production level under close to natural in barn conditions, where cows’ behavior can be expected to be natural....

  3. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.

    2002-01-01

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  4. Houdini: Site and locomotion analysis-driven design of an in-tank mobile cleanup robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes design and locomotion analysis efforts to develop a new reconfigurable and collapsible working machine, dubbed Houdini, to remotely clean up hazardous-waste and petroleum storage tanks. The tethered robot system is designed to allow remote entry through man-way openings as small as 0.61 m in diameter, after which it expands its locomotors and opens up its collapsible backhoe/manipulator and plow to subsequently perform waste or material handling operations. The design is optimized to meet stringent site and safety requirements, and represents a viable alternative to (1) the long-reach manipulation systems proposed for hazardous storage tank cleanup, and (2) confined-entry manual cleanup approaches. The system development has been funded to provide waste mobilization and removal solutions for the hazardous waste storage tanks in the Department of Energy (DoE) Fernald and Oak Ridge complexes. Other potential applications areas are the cleanup of heavy-crude petroleum storage tanks. The author has developed a fully operational prototype which is currently undergoing testing

  5. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland.

  6. Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from the Yukon River system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; McDonald, Cory P.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Stets, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions are important, but poorly quantified, components of riverine carbon (C) budgets. This is largely because the data needed for gas flux calculations are sparse and are spatially and temporally variable. Additionally, the importance of C gas emissions relative to lateral C exports is not well known because gaseous and aqueous fluxes are not commonly measured on the same rivers. We couple measurements of aqueous CO2 and CH4 partial pressures (pCO2, pCH4) and flux across the water-air interface with gas transfer models to calculate subbasin distributions of gas flux density. We then combine those flux densities with remote and direct observations of stream and river water surface area and ice duration, to calculate C gas emissions from flowing waters throughout the Yukon River basin. CO2emissions were 7.68 Tg C yr−1 (95% CI: 5.84 −10.46), averaging 750 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to water surface area, and 9.0 g C m−2 yr−1 normalized to river basin area. River CH4 emissions totaled 55 Gg C yr−1 or 0.7% of the total mass of C emitted as CO2 plus CH4 and ∼6.4% of their combined radiative forcing. When combined with lateral inorganic plus organic C exports to below head of tide, C gas emissions comprised 50% of total C exported by the Yukon River and its tributaries. River CO2 and CH4 derive from multiple sources, including groundwater, surface water runoff, carbonate equilibrium reactions, and benthic and water column microbial processing of organic C. The exact role of each of these processes is not yet quantified in the overall river C budget.

  7. Enforcement and Environmental Quality in a Decentralized Emission Trading System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, Alessio (Univ. of Rome, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy)); Valentini, Edilio (Univ. G. D' Annunzio di Chieti-Pescara, DEST, Fac. di Economia, Pescara (Italy))

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether the powers of monitoring compliance and allocating allowances under emissions trading within an economic union should be centralized or delegated to single states. To this end, we develop a two stage game played by two governments choosing allowances and monitoring effort to achieve full compliance, and their respective polluting industries. We show that cost advantage in favor of national states is not sufficient to justify decentralization. Nevertheless, cost differential in monitoring violations can imply lower emissions and greater welfare under a decentralized institutional setting than under a centralized one

  8. Emission Spectrum Property of Modulated Atom-Field Coupling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yun-Feng; Feng Jian; Li Yue-Ke

    2013-01-01

    The emission spectrum of a two-level atom interacting with a single mode radiation field in the case of periodic oscillation coupling coefficient is investigated. A general expression for the emission spectrum is derived. The numerical results for the initial field in pure number stare are calculated. It is found that the effect of the coupling coefficient modulation on the spectral structure is very obvious in the case of a low modulation frequency and larger amplitude when the initial field is vacuum, which is potentially useful for exploring a modulated light source. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (Wide Beach section of Brant, New York)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Wide-spread contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) threatened the Wide Beach section of Brant, New York, a popular vacation resort. EPA's Superfund program effectively completed a permanent cleanup of Wide Beach in the span of one year. Other highlights included: a new and innovative technology to remove PCB contamination; reduction of PCBs to one-fifth of acceptable levels; temporary relocation of residents who were concerned for their health while cleanup activities took place; newly paved roads and driveways, re-landscaped yards, and a new storm sewer system; and restoration of ecologically sensitive wetlands. EPA's achievements significantly reduced PCB risks at Wide Beach, and left a satisfied community in Brant

  10. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  11. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration by agroforestry systems in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Moreira Miquelino Eleto; Jacovine, Laércio Antônio Gonçalves; Nolasco de Olivera Neto, Sílvio; Fraisse, Clyde William; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; de Castro Neto, Fernando; Ferreira, Lino Roberto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Lemes, Pedro Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    Agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems can increase carbon sequestration, offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce the carbon footprint generated by animal production. The objective of this study was to estimate GHG emissions, the tree and grass aboveground biomass production and carbon storage in different agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems in southeastern Brazil. The number of trees required to offset these emissions were also estimated. The GHG emissions were calculated based on pre-farm (e.g. agrochemical production, storage, and transportation), and on-farm activities (e.g. fertilization and machinery operation). Aboveground tree grass biomass and carbon storage in all systems was estimated with allometric equations. GHG emissions from the agroforestry systems ranged from 2.81 to 7.98 t CO 2 e ha -1 . Carbon storage in the aboveground trees and grass biomass were 54.6, 11.4, 25.7 and 5.9 t C ha -1 , and 3.3, 3.6, 3.8 and 3.3 t C ha -1 for systems 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The number of trees necessary to offset the emissions ranged from 17 to 44 trees ha -1 , which was lower than the total planted in the systems. Agroforestry systems sequester CO 2 from the atmosphere and can help the GHG emission-reduction policy of the Brazilian government.

  13. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  14. Heat pumps as a way to Low or Zero Emission district heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiszczak Piotr

    2017-01-01

    In traditional district heating (DH system heat is generated from fossil fuel (FF combustion in heating only boilers (HOB or in combined heat and power (CHP plants. It results in greenhouse gases and other pollutants emission. The reduction of emission is one of the main target in EU climate policy. Among the alternative technologies in DH heat pumps (HP play a crucial role and enable to decrease or even eliminate emission to create a low or zero emission (LZE DH system. The emission reduction effect of integration the large scale HP units into DH systems can by defined by four groups of factors: the share of HP in the heat demand, the heat source for HP, the driving energy for HP and heat sink for HP. This paper illustrates the main options for large scale HP units application for LZE DH based on HP technology.

  15. Low emission transport systems. Reduction of emissions with low-pollutant lubricants; Emissionsarmer Verkehr. Emissionsminderung durch schadstoffarme Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D; Boehncke, A; Mangelsdorf, I

    2001-07-01

    Due to the lower EURO 4 emission limits, exhaust aftertreatment systems for heavy- and light-duty vehicles will be necessary which are more efficient than the today 3-way- or oxidation-type catalysts. Practicable exhaust aftertreatment systems are, for example, particle traps, SCR or NOx- adsorber catalysts, and combinations of these systems. Most of these exhaust control devices require fuels with sulphur contents below 10 ppm. Then the sulphate emissions from lubricants containing about 0.5% sulphur is in the same order of magnitude as sulphate emissions from low sulfur fuels. Measured data on the influence of sulphur from lubricating oils on future exhaust treatment systems are very limited. Conclusions have mostly been drawn from experimental results with low sulphur fuels. It cannot be ruled out, especially for NOx- adsorbers, that sulphur will adversely affect performance, thus making a reduction of sulphur levels in engine oils necessary. As far as diesel exhaust is concerned lubricants contribute approximately 20 - 26% to total particulate matter and more than 50% to the soluble organic fraction (SOF). Ash deposits derived from additives that contain zinc, calcium, sulphur, or phosphorous are likely to block the newly developed particle filter systems. Also for diesel technologies incorporating precious-metal catalysts (e.g. DOC, CDPF, CR-DPF, Urea- SCR) low sulphur levels are advantageous because the mass of sulphate particulate matter formed from fuel or lubricant sulphur is reduced. Conventional three-way catalysts are less sensitive, the light-off temperature being mainly affected. In summary, all available studies suggest that the lower the level of sulphur the lower emissions are. Furthermore phosphorous (associated with the antiwear additive ZDTP) was shown to limit catalyst life and, together with thermal degradation, is responsible for reduced catalyst efficiency over time. Although there is still a lack of quantitative technical information, it

  16. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents scenarios for power production without greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden by 2050. The Nordic region already has a high share of renewables in its power production portfolio (about 60% in 2010), and possibilities for further deployment are very...

  17. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...

  18. Advanced emission control system: CO2 sequestration using algae integrated management system (AIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Isa Syed Alwi; Mohd Norsham Che Yahya; Ruzanna Abdul Rahman

    2010-01-01

    One of the companies under Algae tech, Sasaran Bio fuel Sdn. Bhd. provides project management, technology transfer and technical expertise to develop a solution to minimize and mitigate Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through the diversion of the CO 2 to open algal ponds and enclosed photo-bioreactors as algal propagation technologies to consume CO 2 waste stream. The company is presently consulting a listed company from Indonesia to address the technology know-how and implementation of microalgae development from the flue gas of the Groups power plants. Nowadays, one of the aspects that contribute to the air pollution is the emission of flue gases from the factories. So, we provide a system that can reduce the emission of flue gas to the atmosphere and at the same time, cultivate certain strain of algae. With the technology, Algae Integrated Management System (AIMS), it will be for sure a new beginning for way to reduce air pollution. The utilization of power plant resources for growing selected microalgae at a low energy cost for valuable products and bio-fuels while providing CO 2 sequestering. In the same time, it also a low cost algae agriculture. By doing so, it provides all year algae production which can be an income. This residual energy used CO 2 produced from power stations and industrial plants to feed the process (CO 2 recycling and bio-fixation) in cultivation of algae. This will be a low cost flue gas (CO 2 ) to the developer. In a nutshell, CO 2 Sequestration by algae reactors is a potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission by using the CO 2 in the stack gases to produce algae. (author)

  19. Measuring the respiratory gas exchange of grazing cattle using the GreenFeed emissions monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminants are a significant source of enteric methane, which has been identified as a powerful greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. With interest in developing technologies to decrease enteric methane emission, systems are currently being developed to measure the methane emission by c...

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems may provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional agriculture cannot, e.g. potentially mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by enhancing nutrient cycling, since tree roots can capture nutrients not taken up by crops. However, greenhouse gas emission ...

  1. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  2. Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the existing Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Gas Source; hot Gas Cleanup Units to mate to all gas streams; and Combustion Gas Turbine. Fuel Cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF).

  3. A look at some systemic properties of self-bioluminescent emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creath, Katherine

    2008-08-01

    Self-bioluminescent emission (SBE) is a type of biological chemiluminescence where photons are emitted as part of chemical reactions occurring during metabolic processes. This emission is also known as biophoton emission, ultraweak photon emission and ultraweak bioluminescence. This paper outlines research over the past century on some systemic properties of SBE as measured with biological detectors, photomultiplier detectors and ultra-sensitive imaging arrays. There is an apparent consensus in the literature that emission in the deep blue and ultraviolet (150-450nm) is related to DNA / RNA processes while emission in the red and near infrared (600-1000nm) is related to mitochondria and oxidative metabolisms involving reactive oxygen species, singlet oxygen and free radicals in plant, animal and human cells along with chlorophyll fluorescent decay in plants. Additionally, there are trends showing that healthy, unstressed and uninjured samples have less emission than samples that are unhealthy, stressed or injured. Mechanisms producing this emission can be narrowed down by isolating the wavelength region of interest and waiting for short-term fluorescence to decay leaving the ultraweak long-term metabolic emission. Examples of imaging this emission in healthy versus unhealthy, stressed versus unstressed, and injured versus uninjured plant parts are shown. Further discussion poses questions still to be answered related to properties such as coherence, photon statistics, and methodological means of isolating mechanisms.

  4. Radioactive waste spill and cleanup on storage tank at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boore, W.G.; McNatt, F.G.; Ryland, R.K.; Scaggs, R.A.; Strother, E.D.; Wilson, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    This report was prepared for historical purpose to document events associated with a radioactive spill and subsequent cleanup efforts at the Savannah River Plant. On December 29, 1983, approximately 100 gallons of liquid radioactive waste, containing an estimated 200-600 curies of cesium-137, leaked from a flushwater line onto the top of the Savannah River Plant's Tank 13 in H-area. The highest measured radiation rate was 100 R/hr at 12 inches from the evaporator feed pump riser. The leak was caused by a series of events involving inadequate heat tracing on a flushwater line, failure of a gasket in 7 0 F weather, failure of personnel to follow a procedure, and leakage across a gate valve seat. Some of the leaked solution migrated into storm water ditches during rain, and a total of 237 millicuries migrated to a nearby stream over several months. However, no significant increase in the cesium-137 concentration occurred in the Savannah River or in the groundwater under the impacted area. Cleanup, costing 3.7 million dollars, took place over the following eighteen months. Cleanup involved water flushing, chemical flushing and mechanical removal of a portion of the concrete tank-top surface, followed by excavation of 1383 cubic yards of soil surrounding the tank. Stringent and effective radiological controls, including development of remote decontamination methods, allowed the cleanup to be accomplished with a total radiation dose to personnel of 58 rems. New safeguards were built into the system to protect against spills and to provide greater assurance of spill containment. Lead sheeting and a 4- to 6-inch-thick concrete overpour were bonded over the remaining contaminated concrete to reduce the radiation levels to less than 20 mR/hr at 3 feet. The Tank 13 evaporator feed system resumed operation in June 1985. 3 refs., 42 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Vehicle emission implications of drivers' smart advisory system for traffic operations in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication systems have been broadly applied in various complicated traffic operations to improve mobility and safety on roads, which may raise a concern about the implication of the new technology on vehicle emissions. This paper explores how the wireless communication systems improve drivers' driving behaviors and its contributions to the emission reduction, in terms of Operating Mode (OpMode) IDs distribution used in emission estimation. A simulated work zone with completed traffic operation was selected as a test bed. Sixty subjects were recruited for the tests, whose demographic distribution was based on the Census data in Houston, Texas. A scene of a pedestrian's crossing in the work zone was designed for the driving test. Meanwhile, a wireless communication system called Drivers Smart Advisory System (DSAS) was proposed and introduced in the driving simulation, which provided drivers with warning messages in the work zone. Two scenarios were designed for a leading vehicle as well as for a following vehicle driving through the work zone, which included a base test without any wireless communication systems, and a driving test with the trigger of the DSAS. Subjects' driving behaviors in the simulation were recorded to evaluate safety and estimate the vehicle emission using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released emission model MOVES. The correlation between drivers' driving behavior and the distribution of the OpMode ID during each scenario was investigated. Results show that the DSAS was able to induce drivers to accelerate smoothly, keep longer headway distance and stop earlier for a hazardous situation in the work zone, which driving behaviors result in statistically significant reduction in vehicle emissions for almost all studied air pollutants (p-values range from 4.10E-51 to 2.18E-03). The emission reduction was achieved by the switching the distribution of the OpMode IDs from higher emission zones to lower emission zones

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  8. Data acquisition and processing system of the electron cyclotron emission imaging system of the KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. B.; Lee, W.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    A new innovative electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) diagnostic system for the Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) produces a large amount of data. The design of the data acquisition and processing system of the ECEI diagnostic system should consider covering the large data production and flow. The system design is based on the layered structure scalable to the future extension to accommodate increasing data demands. Software architecture that allows a web-based monitoring of the operation status, remote experiment, and data analysis is discussed. The operating software will help machine operators and users validate the acquired data promptly, prepare next discharge, and enhance the experiment performance and data analysis in a distributed environment.

  9. Cities' Role in Mitigating United States Food System Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohareb, Eugene A; Heller, Martin C; Guthrie, Peter M

    2018-05-15

    Current trends of urbanization, population growth, and economic development have made cities a focal point for mitigating global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The substantial contribution of food consumption to climate change necessitates urban action to reduce the carbon intensity of the food system. While food system GHG mitigation strategies often focus on production, we argue that urban influence dominates this sector's emissions and that consumers in cities must be the primary drivers of mitigation. We quantify life cycle GHG emissions of the United States food system through data collected from literature and government sources producing an estimated total of 3800 kg CO 2 e/capita in 2010, with cities directly influencing approximately two-thirds of food sector GHG emissions. We then assess the potential for cities to reduce emissions through selected measures; examples include up-scaling urban agriculture and home delivery of grocery options, which each may achieve emissions reductions on the order of 0.4 and ∼1% of this total, respectively. Meanwhile, changes in waste management practices and reduction of postdistribution food waste by 50% reduce total food sector emissions by 5 and 11%, respectively. Consideration of the scale of benefits achievable through policy goals can enable cities to formulate strategies that will assist in achieving deep long-term GHG emissions targets.

  10. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  11. Important aspects of sinks for linking emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsbrunner, Simon; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [Adelphi Research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The discussion on how to design policy instruments to reduce emissions and enhance removals from land use, land use change, and forestry is likely to be a key feature of a future global climate protection framework and will also influence the design of an emerging global carbon market. By analyzing different ETSs it turns out that very specific provisions are in place to deal with carbon sinks. Different instruments, eligible activities and standards reflect the prevailing emissions profile and cultural preferences of a geographic area. The inclusion of forestry in a cap, for instance, makes provisions on additionality and non-permanence obsolete, but increases the relevance of other issues such as accounting and enforcement. (orig.)

  12. Continuous emission monitoring systems for power plants. The state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of power plant emissions is performed to improve combustion and control equipment efficiency, and in response to various government agency requirements. This paper focuses upon recent developments in Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) and Systems (CEMS) for power plants. Topics presented include the perspective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the states: Continuous Monitoring of Power Plant Emissions - An EPA Perspective; Pennsylvania's Proposed Continuous Emission Monitoring System Data Telemetry Requirements for Municipal, Hospital and Infectious Waste Incinerators; the importance of quality assurance; Continuous Emission Monitoring and Quality Assurance Requirements for New Power Plants; Highlights of Pennsylvania's Continuous Emission Monitoring System Quality Assurance Program; improved system specifications and data acquisition methods; Improved Specifications for Continuous Emission Monitoring; A Microcomputer-Based Data Acquisition System for CEMS; CEMS applications; Expanded Use of CEMS in Acid Rain Control Programs: Opinions of Users, Control Agencies and Vendors; and an innovative measurement technique to assess electrostatic precipitator performance; The Assessment of Pulverized Coal Fly Ash Collection in Electrostatic Precipitators Using an Instrumental Assessment Technique

  13. ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue which has attracted the attention of many scientists is the climate change and global warming due to greenhouse gas emission which has caused the world faced with a great human and environmental disaster. In this study, the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions was estimated in the semi-traditional and semi-mechanized rice production systems in Dargaz region, Iran. All the agricultural and consuming inputs procedures responsible for greenhouse gas emissions were collected and recorded in both systems. The amount of GHG emission in semi-traditional and semi-mechanized was 813.17 and 968.31 kg CO2-eq ha-1, respectively. The fuel consumption with the share of 38.22% in semi-traditional method and 43.32% in semi-mechanized system had the largest share in GHG emission and using Nitrogen fertilizer on farms with the share of 31.97% in semi-traditional method and 26.91% in semi-mechanized system is in the second place of GHG emission. The semi-traditional system had greater GHG emissions in the unit of tone of harvested grain and unit of energy output. The use of alternative methods such as conservation tillage and organic fertilizers can be effective in improving the environmental status of the production area.

  14. An assessment of the real-world driving gaseous emissions from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, José M.; Bermúdez, Vicente; Dolz, Vicente; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Recent investigations demonstrated that real-world emissions usually exceed the levels achieved in the laboratory based type approval processes. By means of on-board emissions measurements, it has been shown that nitrogen oxides emitted by diesel engines substantially exceed the limit imposed by the Euro 6 regulation. Thus, with the aim of complementing the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test cycle, the real driving emissions cycle will be introduced after 1 September 2017 to regulate the vehicle emissions in real-world driving situations. This paper presents on-board gaseous emissions measurements from a Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle in a real-world driving route using a portable emissions measurement system. The test route characteristics follow the requirements imposed by the RDE regulation. The analysis of the raw emissions results suggests that the greatest amount of nitrogen oxides and nitrogen dioxide are emitted during the urban section of the test route, confirming that lower speeds with more accelerations and decelerations lead to higher nitrogen oxides emissions levels than constant high speeds. Moreover, the comparison of the two calculation methods proposed by the real driving emissions regulation has revealed emissions rates differences ranging from 10% to 45% depending on the pollutant emission and the trip section considered (urban or total). Thus, the nitrogen oxides emissions conformity factor slightly varies from one method to the other.

  15. Active-to-Passive Environmental Cleanup Transition Strategies - 13220

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Mills, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site uses a graded approach to environmental cleanup. The selection of groundwater and vadose zone remediation technologies for a specific contamination area is based on the size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration, and configuration of the plume. These attributes are the result of the nature and mass of the source of contamination and the subsurface characteristics in the area of the plume. Many large plumes consist of several zones that are most efficiently addressed with separate complementary corrective action/remedial technologies. The highest concentrations of contaminants are found in the source zone. The most robust, high mass removal technologies are often best suited for remediation of the source zone. In the primary plume zone, active remedies, such as pump-and-treat, may be necessary to remove contaminants and exert hydraulic control of the plume. In the dilute fringe zone, contaminants are generally lower in concentration and can often be treated with passive techniques. A key determination in achieving an acceptable and cost-effective end state for a given waste unit is when to transition from an active treatment system to a more passive or natural approach (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or enhanced attenuation). This paper will discuss the considerations for such a transition as well as provide examples of successful transitions at the Savannah River Site. (authors)

  16. A new direction for prioritizing federal agency cleanups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrillis, L.

    1995-01-01

    Departments and agencies of the federal government manage a vast array of activities at 27,000 facilities. Due to the nature of such activities, federal facilities could be contaminated with hazardous substances. It is estimated that the federal government ultimately will be responsible for or have a significant role in the cleanup of up to 500,000 sites. Although federal facilities comprise only a small percentage of the community regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), federal facilities owned or operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD) are usually larger and more complex than their private industrial counterparts. Federal facilities routinely have a larger number of sites on their facilities with varying degrees of risk. At present, the approaches for allocating resources for environmental restoration of federal facilities, for incorporating stakeholder concerns in the allocation, and for obtaining funding from Congress vary greatly from one agency to another. In light of these concerns, the federal government recognizes the need to evaluate the current resource allocation system for funding remediation projects and to establish a broader-based publicly supported priority-setting method. This paper outlines a possible new direction and summarizes the conclusions reached in a handful of forums created to address the issue of priority setting

  17. Selecting protective gloves for oil spill response and cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Oil spill responders and cleanup workers must be provided with gloves that prevent skin contact while permitting them to do their job safely and efficiently. Glove selection is largely based on professional judgment, considering permeation, resistance to puncture and abrasion, and whether the material gets slick when coated with oil. This paper consolidates the most useful information from various studies and presents a selection rationale. In general, we found neoprene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and nitrile to be the glove materials of choice for protection in oil spills. The skin toxicity potential for most petroleum materials encountered in a spill is low. Some fresh crudes may contain hydrocarbon molecules that may penetrate the skin and cause some systemic toxicity with high enough exposure. However, as crude weathers, the more volatile hydrocarbons evaporate rapidly, leaving behind the heavier fraction, which often contains polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. Some PNAs have caused skin cancer in animals after prolonged and repeated contact. As a reference, most weathered crude is similar to used motor oil in skin toxicity; prolonged and repeated skin contact should be avoided, but there is no cause for concern if some gets on the skin. The typical skin problems from excessive skin contact are drying and cracking from the defatting action of the oil itself or from the soap or hand cleaners used to remove the oil, and pustules (similar to boils) if the oil plugs the sweat glands in the skin

  18. Some statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.G.; Giacomini, J.J.; Friesen, H.N.

    1979-01-01

    Cleaning up the radionuclide contamination at Enewetak Atoll has involved a number of statistical design problems. Theoretical considerations led to choosing a grid sampling pattern; practical problems sometimes lead to resampling on a finer grid. Other problems associated with using grids have been both physical and statistical. The standard sampling system is an in situ intrinsic gamma detector which measures americium concentration. The cleanup guidelines include plutonium concentration, so additional sampling of soil is required to establish Pu/Am ratios. The soil sampling design included both guidelines for location of the samples and also a special pattern of subsamples making up composite samples. The large variance of the soil, sample results makes comparison between the two types difficult anyway, but this is compounded by vegetation attenuation of the in situ readings, soil disturbance influences, and differences in devegetation methods. The constraints inherent in doing what amounts to a research and development project, on a limited budget of time and money, in a field engineering environment are also considered

  19. High-level waste vitrification off-gas cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This brief overview is intended to be a basis for discussion of needs and problems existing in the off-gas clean-up technology. A variety of types of waste form and processes are being developed in the United States and abroad. A description of many of the processes can be found in the Technical Alternative Documents (TAD). Concurrently, off-gas processing systems are being developed with most of the processes. An extensive review of methodology as well as decontamination factors can be found in the literature. Since it is generally agreed that the most advanced solidification process is vitrification, discussion here centers about the off-gas problems related to vitrification. With a number of waste soldification facilities around the world in operation, it can be shown that present technology can satisfy the present requirement for off-gas control. However, a number of areas within the technology base show potential for improvement. Fundamental as well as verification studies are needed to obtain the improvements

  20. Simulation scenarios for rapid reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in the western electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a computer simulation analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the electric power system in the western United States. Legislation at both the state and federal level would impose a price on emissions via cap-and-trade in allowances for carbon dioxide emissions. The simulation scenarios for the western system indicate that dramatic reductions in emissions are possible with generating technologies that exist today. Wind and biomass generators play a key role even with conservative assumptions about their future costs. In contrast, generation from advanced technologies provide only a minor contribution by the year 2025. These scenarios provide support to those who argue that the US should move expeditiously to put a price on carbon dixoide emissions

  1. Consolidating federal facility cleanup: Some pros and cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynes, D.B.; Boss, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested that Congress establish a permanent, full-time, independent national commission for radioactive waste management activities at DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex. DOE regulates certain aspects of its treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive waste by orders that are not promulgated by ''notice and comment'' or other procedures in the Administration Procedures Act. Because many agencies are not legally and technologically structured to handle their own cleanup problems, these activities might be conducted by one entity that can share information and staff among these agencies. There are rational arguments for both sides of this issue. Some of the advantages of such an organization include: focusing Congress's attention on an integrated federal facility cleanup instead of a fragmented, agency by agency approach, and an ability to prioritize cleanup decisions among agencies. Some significant obstacles include: reluctance by Congress and the executive branch to create any new bureaucracy at a time of budget deficits, and a loss of momentum from the progress already being made by the agencies. Given that more than $9 billion was proposed for FY 93 alone for federal facilities' cleanup programs and that decades will pass before all problems are addressed, it is appropriate to consider new approaches to environmental cleanup. This paper begins the dialogue about new ways to improve decision-making and government spending

  2. Worldwide analysis of marine oil spill cleanup cost factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    The many factors that influence oil spill response costs were discussed with particular emphasis on how spill responses differ around the world because of differing cultural values, socio-economic factors and labor costs. This paper presented an analysis of marine oil spill cleanup costs based on the country, proximity to shoreline, spill size, oil type, degree of shoreline oiling and cleanup methodology. The objective was to determine how each factor impacts per-unit cleanup costs. Near-shore spills and in-port spills were found to be 4-5 times more expensive to clean than offshore spills. Responses to spills of heavy fuels also cost 10 times more than for lighter crudes and diesel. Spill responses for spills under 30 tonnes are 10 times more costly than on a per-unit basis, for spills of 300 tonnes. A newly developed modelling technique that can be used on different types of marine spills was described. It is based on updated cost data acquired from case studies of more than 300 spills in 40 countries. The model determines a per-unit cleanup cost estimation by taking into consideration oil type, location, spill size, cleanup methodology, and shoreline oiling. It was concluded that the actual spill costs are totally dependent on the actual circumstances of the spill. 13 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  3. 40 CFR 60.1730 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.1730 Section 60.1730 Protection of Environment... continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15185 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 62.15185 Section 62.15185 Protection of Environment... make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure oxygen (or...

  5. 40 CFR 60.3039 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.3039 Section 60.3039 Protection of Environment... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b...

  6. Pollutant emissions from vehicles with regenerating after-treatment systems in regulatory and real-world driving cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Weilenmann, Martin; Novak, Philippe

    2008-07-15

    Regenerating exhaust after-treatment systems are increasingly employed in passenger cars in order to comply with regulatory emission standards. These systems include pollutant storage units that occasionally have to be regenerated. The regeneration strategy applied, the resultant emission levels and their share of the emission level during normal operation mode are key issues in determining realistic overall emission factors for these cars. In order to investigate these topics, test series with four cars featuring different types of such after-treatment systems were carried out. The emission performance in legislative and real-world cycles was monitored as well as at constant speeds. The extra emissions determined during regeneration stages are presented together with the methodology applied to calculate their impact on overall emissions. It can be concluded that exhaust after-treatment systems with storage units cause substantial overall extra emissions during regeneration mode and can appreciably affect the emission factors of cars equipped with such systems, depending on the frequency of regenerations. Considering that the fleet appearance of vehicles equipped with such after-treatment systems will increase due to the evolution of statutory pollutant emission levels, extra emissions originating from regenerations of pollutant storage units consequently need to be taken into account for fleet emission inventories. Accurately quantifying these extra emissions is achieved by either conducting sufficient repetitions of emission measurements with an individual car or by considerably increasing the size of the sample of cars with comparable after-treatment systems.

  7. Efficiency of different protocols for enamel clean-up after bracket debonding: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Carvalho Freitas Sigilião

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the efficiency of six protocols for cleaning-up tooth enamel after bracket debonding.Methods:A total of 60 premolars were divided into six groups, according to the tools used for clean-up: 12-blade bur at low speed (G12L, 12-blade bur at high speed (G12H, 30-blade bur at low speed (G30L, DU10CO ORTHO polisher (GDU, Renew System (GR and Diagloss polisher (GD. Mean roughness (Ra and mean roughness depth (Rz of enamel surface were analyzed with a profilometer. Paired t-test was used to assess Ra and Rz before and after enamel clean-up. ANOVA/Tukey tests were used for intergroup comparison. The duration of removal procedures was recorded. The association between time and variation in enamel roughness (∆Ra, ∆Rz were evaluated by Pearson's correlation test. Enamel topography was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Results:In Groups G12L and G12H, original enamel roughness did not change significantly. In Groups G30L, GDU, GR and GD, a smoother surface (p < 0.05 was found after clean-up. In Groups G30L and GD, the protocols used were more time-consuming than those used in the other groups. Negative and moderate correlation was observed between time and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Ra and (∆Ra, ∆Rz; Rz (r = - 0.445, r = - 0.475, p < 0.01.Conclusion:All enamel clean-up protocols were efficient because they did not result in increased surface roughness. The longer the time spent performing the protocol, the lower the surface roughness.

  8. Modeling methane emissions by cattle production systems in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Ku Vera, J.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from livestock is one of the largest sources of methane in Mexico. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a realistic estimate of the national inventory of methane produced by the enteric fermentation of cattle, based on an integrated simulation model, and to provide estimates of CH4 produced by cattle fed typical diets from the tropical and temperate climates of Mexico. The Mexican cattle population of 23.3 million heads was divided in two groups. The first group (7.8 million heads), represents cattle of the tropical climate regions. The second group (15.5 million heads), are the cattle in the temperate climate regions. This approach allows incorporating the effect of diet on CH4 production into the analysis because the quality of forages is lower in the tropics than in temperate regions. Cattle population in every group was subdivided into two categories: cows (COW) and other type of cattle (OTHE), which included calves, heifers, steers and bulls. The daily CH4 production by each category of animal along an average production cycle of 365 days was simulated, instead of using a default emission factor as in Tier 1 approach. Daily milk yield, live weight changes associated with the lactation, and dry matter intake, were simulated for the entire production cycle. The Moe and Tyrrell (1979) model was used to simulate CH4 production for the COW category, the linear model of Mills et al. (2003) for the OTHE category in temperate regions and the Kurihara et al. (1999) model for the OTHE category in the tropical regions as it has been developed for cattle fed tropical diets. All models were integrated with a cow submodel to form an Integrated Simulation Model (ISM). The AFRC (1993) equations and the lactation curve model of Morant and Gnanasakthy (1989) were used to construct the cow submodel. The ISM simulates on a daily basis the CH4 production, milk yield, live weight changes associated with lactation and dry matter intake. The total daily CH

  9. Determination of OB/OD/SF Emission Factors Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation to the Demilitarization Symposium. This proposal will present the methods of tethered aerostat and unmanned aerial system for collection of plume samples and determination of emission factors form open burning, open detonation, and static firing for weapon demilita...

  10. Power train and emission control: allocation procedure by OBD-II system for automotive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Porag

    2017-06-01

    OBD-II, systems were designed to maintain low emissions of in use vehicles, including light and medium duty vehicles. In 1989, the California code of Regulations (CCR) known as OBD - II was adopted by the California Air Resource Board (CARB) and the objective to reduce hydrocarbon (HC) emission caused by malfunction of the vehicles emission control systems. OBD-II provides additional information to engineer for diagnosis and repair of emissions related problems. OBD-II, standardizes on the amount of memory (Freeze Frame) it uses to store the readings of the vehicle sensor when it logs on emission related Intermittent Trouble code (IT). The intent of OBD-II, systems is to detect most vehicle malfunctions when performance of a power train component or system deteriorates to the point that the vehicle’s HC emission exceed standard. The vehicle operator is notified at the time when the vehicle begins to marginally exceed emission standards, by illuminating the Malfunctions Indicator Light (MIL).

  11. System for detecting acoustic emissions in multianvil experiments: Application to deep seismicity in the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haemyeong; Fei Yingwei; Silver, Paul G.; Green, Harry W.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major goals in the experimental study of deep earthquakes is to identify slip instabilities at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) that might be responsible for the occurrence of earthquakes. Detecting acoustic emissions from a specimen during faulting provides unique constraints on the instability process. There are few experimental studies reporting acoustic emissions under HPHT conditions, due to technical challenges. And those studies have used only one or at most two acoustic sensors during the experiments. Such techniques preclude the accurate location of the acoustic emission source region and thus the ability to distinguish real signal from noise that may be coming from outside the sample. We have developed a system for detecting acoustic emissions at HPHT. Here we present a four-channel acoustic emission detecting system working in the HPHT octahedral multianvil apparatus. Each channel has high resolution (12 bits) and a sampling rate of 30 MHz. In experiments at the pressures up to 6 GPa and temperatures up to 770 deg. C, we have observed acoustic emissions under various conditions. Analyzing these signals, we are able to show that this system permits us to distinguish between signal and noise, locate the source of the acoustic emission, and obtain reliable data on the radiation pattern. This system has greatly improved our ability to study faulting instabilities under high pressure and high temperature

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems: Where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo; Deletic, Ana; Fowdar, Harsha; Fu, Guangtao; Kleidorfer, Manfred; McCarthy, David; Steen Mikkelsen, Peter; Rauch, Wolfgang; Sweetapple, Chris; Vezzaro, Luca; Yuan, Zhiguo; Willems, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA/IAHR Joint Committee on Urban Drainage, reviews the state-of-the-art and modelling tools developed recently to understand and manage GHG emissions from IUDS. Further, open problems and research gaps are discussed and a framework for handling GHG emissions from IUDSs is presented. The literature review reveals that there is a need to strengthen already available mathematical models for IUDS to take GHG into account.

  13. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H.; Ou, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO 2 -equivelant (CO 2 -eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10 5 tons CO 2 -eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

  14. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, H.H.; Guo, H., E-mail: ceguohai@polyu.edu.hk; Ou, J.M.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Halocarbon emissions from MVACS were characterized using bottom up approach. • Quantification of emission inventory was revealed using AUV Tools. • Potential emission reduction was estimated under 3 possible mitigation scenarios. • The results are useful for the policy makers to formulate and implement future phase-out schedule. - Abstract: During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO{sub 2}-equivelant (CO{sub 2}-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10{sup 5} tons CO{sub 2}-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

  15. Emissions of halocarbons from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H H; Guo, H; Ou, J M

    2014-08-15

    During the implementation of Montreal Protocol, emission inventories of halocarbons in different sectors at regional scale are fundamental to the formulation of relevant management strategy and inspection of the implementation efficiency. This study investigated the emission profile of halocarbons used in the mobile vehicle air conditioning system, the leading sector of refrigeration industry in terms of the refrigerant bank, market and emission, in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, using a bottom-up approach developed by 2006 IPCC Good Practice Guidance. The results showed that emissions of CFC-12 peaked at 53 tons ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) in 1992 and then gradually diminished, whereas HFC-134a presented an increasing emission trend since 1990s and the emissions of HFC-134a reached 65,000 tons CO2-equivelant (CO2-eq) by the end of 2011. Uncertainty analysis revealed relatively high levels of uncertainties for special-purpose vehicles and government vehicles. Moreover, greenhouse gas (GHG) abatements under different scenarios indicated that potential emission reduction of HFC-134a ranged from 4.1 to 8.4 × 10(5)tons CO2-eq. The findings in this study advance our knowledge of halocarbon emissions from mobile vehicle air conditioning system in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry: A scenario analysis using system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Huiquan; He, Peng

    2017-01-01

    China announced its promise on CO_2 emission peak. When and what level of CO_2 emission peak China's primary aluminum industry will reach is in suspense. In this paper, a system dynamic model is established, with five subsystems of economy development, primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, CO_2 emission intensity and policies making involved. The model is applied to examine potential CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry in next fifteen years with three scenarios of “no new policies”, “13th five-year plan” and “additional policies”. Simulation results imply that: merely relying on rapid expansion of domestic scarps recycling and reuse could not mitigate CO_2 emission continuously. Combination of energy-saving technology application and electrolytic technology innovation, as well as promoting hydropower utilization in primary aluminum industry are necessary for long term low-carbon development. From a global prospective, enhancing international cooperation on new primary aluminum capacity construction in other countries, especially with rich low-carbon energy, could bring about essential CO_2 emission for both China's and global primary aluminum industry. - Highlights: • A system dynamic model is established for future CO_2 emission trend of China's primary aluminum industry. • Three potential policy scenarios are simulated. • The impacts of potential policies implication on the CO_2 emission trend are discussed.

  17. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsa Duarte Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV and the dark house (DH. The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d, pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up wood shaving litter using an average flock density of 14 bird m–2. Temperature and relative humidity inside the broiler houses were recorded in the morning during the grow-out period. A factorial experimental design was adopted, with two types of houses, four replicates and two flocks with two replicates each. A deterministic model was used to predict ammonia emissions using the litter pH and temperature, and the day of grow-out. The highest litter temperature and pH were found at 42 d of growth in both housing systems. Mean ambient air temperature and relative humidity did not differ in either system. Mean model predicted ammonia emission was higher in the DH rearing system (5200 mg NH3 m−2h−1 at 42 d than in the TV system (2700 mg NH3m−2 h−1 at 42 d. TV presented the lowest mean litter temperature and pH at 42 d of growth. In the last week of the broilers’ grow-out cycle, estimated ammonia emissions inside DH reached 5700 mg m−2h−1 in one of the flocks. Ammonia emissions were higher inside DH, and they did not differ between flocks. Assuming a broiler market weight in Brazil of close to 2 kg, ammonia emissions were equivalent to 12 g NH3 bird-marketed−1. Model-predicted ammonia emissions provided comprehensible estimations and might be used in abatement strategies for NH3 emission.

  18. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  19. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL's Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed

  20. Cleanup of contaminated areas; La bonifica di aree contaminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beone, G; Carbone, A I; Zagaroli, M [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell' Uomo, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy)

    1989-01-15

    The paper deals with the problem of contaminated areas cleanup, in order to eliminate every possible damage for man safety and environment and to site recovery for some utilization, The first step of cleanup operation is site characterization, that is followed by a pianificazion activity for a better definition of staff qualification, technology to be used, protection and prevention instruments for the risks due to contaminants handling. The second section describes the different remedial technologies for contaminated sites. Remedial technologies may be divided into on-site/off-site and in-situ treatments, according to whether materials (waste, soil, water) are moved to another location or not, respectively. Finally, it is outlined that contaminated areas cleanup is a typical multidisciplinary activity because very different competences are required. (author)

  1. The improvement of CO2 emission reduction policies based on system dynamics method in traditional industrial region with large CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fujia; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Zehong; Li, Yu; Li, Shantong; Wan, Yongkun

    2012-01-01

    Some traditional industrial regions are characterized by high industrial proportion and large CO 2 emission. They are facing dual pressures of maintaining economic growth and largely reducing CO 2 emission. From the perspective of study of typological region, taking the typical traditional industrial region—Liaoning Province of China as a case, this study establishes a system dynamics model named EECP and dynamically simulates CO 2 emission trends under different conditions. Simulation results indicate, compared to the condition without CO 2 emission reduction policies, CO 2 emission intensity under the condition of implementing CO 2 emission reduction policies of “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” is decreased by 11% from 2009 to 2030, but the economic cost is high, making the policies implementation faces resistance. Then some improved policies are offered and proved by EECP model that they can reduce CO 2 emission intensity after 2021 and decrease the negative influence to GDP, realizing the improvement objects of reducing CO 2 emission and simultaneously keeping a higher economy growth speed. The improved policies can provide reference for making and improving CO 2 emission reduction policies in other traditional industrial regions with large CO 2 emission. Simultaneously, EECP model can provide decision-makers with reference and help for similar study of energy policy. - Highlights: ► We build EECP model for CO 2 emission reduction study in traditional industry region. ► By the model, we simulate CO 2 emission trend and improve emission reduction policy. ► By improvement, both CO 2 emission intensity and economic cost can be largely reduced. ► Besides CO 2 emission is reduced effectively, higher GDP increment speed is kept. ► EECP model can be widely used for making and improving regional energy policies.

  2. Alternatives for methane emission mitigation in livestock systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lascano,Carlos E.; Cárdenas,Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Human activities are contributing to Global Climate Change through the production of Green House Gases (GHG), which result in increased air, land and ocean temperatures and extreme changes in precipitation in regions of low and high rainfall. The most important GHG's are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). It is estimated that 18 % of the annual GHG emissions come from different types of livestock and that 37% of CH4, with higher global warming potential (23) relative...

  3. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  4. The fundamentals of the future international emissions trading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankeviciute, Loreta; Kitous, Alban; Criqui, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to analyze the sectoral marginal abatements cost curves for a number of EU countries as well as to examine the efficiency aspects and the economic impacts for the major sectors of the ETS under different carbon market configurations in 2010 and 2020. To produce a consistent and realistic assessment, we employ sources such as GHG National Inventories, NAPs and POLES world energy model to constitute the sectoral base year and 2010, 2020 emission levels in different countries and regions. We then use the market analysis tool ASPEN, which enables to derive supply and demand from sectoral MACCs produced with the POLES model, and to evaluate the economic impacts on the carbon market participants. The paper shows that, in compliance with the Kyoto targets, the benefits of an enlarged carbon market are significant, since more than 50% of the abatement in the short term have to be achieved in ETS sectors, which may indeed use CDM or JI credits. A second major conclusion is that in 2020 the new flexibility margins provided by the adjustment of investments in new capacities compensate for the increase in pressure towards stronger emission reductions. This reduces the relative importance of the enlarged carbon market

  5. Short term economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy systems using improved water cycle algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroon, S.S.; Malik, T.N.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing environmental concerns, the demand of clean and green energy and concern of atmospheric pollution is increasing. Hence, the power utilities are forced to limit their emissions within the prescribed limits. Therefore, the minimization of fuel cost as well as exhaust gas emissions is becoming an important and challenging task in the short-term scheduling of hydro-thermal energy systems. This paper proposes a novel algorithm known as WCA-ER (Water Cycle Algorithm with Evaporation Rate) to inspect the short term EEPSHES (Economic Emission Power Scheduling of Hydrothermal Energy Systems). WCA has its ancestries from the natural hydrologic cycle i.e. the raining process forms streams and these streams start flowing towards the rivers which finally flow towards the sea. The worth of WCA-ER has been tested on the standard economic emission power scheduling of hydrothermal energy test system consisting of four hydropower and three thermal plants. The problem has been investigated for the three case studies (i) ECS (Economic Cost Scheduling), (ii) ES (Economic Emission Scheduling) and (iii) ECES (Economic Cost and Emission Scheduling). The results obtained show that WCA-ER is superior to many other methods in the literature in bringing lower fuel cost and emissions. (author)

  6. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca; Scoma, Alberto; Michoud, Gregoire; Aulenta, Federico; Boon, Nico; Borin, Sara; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  7. Biomass gasification hot gas cleanup for power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, B.C.; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States); Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Horazak, D.A. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Reading, PA (United States); Ruel, R.H. [The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In support of the US Department of Energy`s Biomass Power Program, a Westinghouse Electric led team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C), and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR), is conducting a 30 month research and development program. The program will provide validation of hot gas cleanup technology with a pressurized fluidized bed, air-blown, biomass gasifier for operation of a gas turbine. This paper discusses the gasification and hot gas cleanup processes, scope of work and approach, and the program`s status.

  8. Biotechnologies for Marine Oil Spill Cleanup: Indissoluble Ties with Microorganisms

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca

    2017-05-13

    The ubiquitous exploitation of petroleum hydrocarbons (HCs) has been accompanied by accidental spills and chronic pollution in marine ecosystems, including the deep ocean. Physicochemical technologies are available for oil spill cleanup, but HCs must ultimately be mineralized by microorganisms. How environmental factors drive the assembly and activity of HC-degrading microbial communities remains unknown, limiting our capacity to integrate microorganism-based cleanup strategies with current physicochemical remediation technologies. In this review, we summarize recent findings about microbial physiology, metabolism and ecology and describe how microbes can be exploited to create improved biotechnological solutions to clean up marine surface and deep waters, sediments and beaches.

  9. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Emissions of Gases and Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Hansen, Brian Brun; Lin, Weigang

    2015-01-01

    performance has been verified by field tests in private homes. The main components of an Autopilot IHS wood stove are: a modern wood stove with three separate combustion air inlets, and a control system composing of measuring devices for vital process parameters and a system of controlling valves to regulate...... combustion charges and phases. The experiments showed that the digital control of the combustion process ensures constant and optimal temperatures and overall oxygen concentrations in the combustion chamber resulting in low PM and CO emissions.......A collaboration project between the CHEC research Centre, at DTU Chemical Engineering, and the stove manufacturing company HWAM A/S has been established during the last years and has led to development and marketing of wood stoves (Autopilot IHS) equipped with a digital control system. The improved...

  10. An automated online turboflow cleanup LC/MS/MS method for the determination of 11 plasticizers in beverages and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ebru; Mittendorf, Klaus; Senyuva, Hamide

    2013-01-01

    An automated sample preparation technique involving cleanup and analytical separation in a single operation using an online coupled TurboFlow (RP-LC system) is reported. This method eliminates time-consuming sample preparation steps that can be potential sources for cross-contamination in the analysis of plasticizers. Using TurboFlow chromatography, liquid samples were injected directly into the automated system without previous extraction or cleanup. Special cleanup columns enabled specific binding of target compounds; higher MW compounds, i.e., fats and proteins, and other matrix interferences with different chemical properties were removed to waste, prior to LC/MS/MS. Systematic stepwise method development using this new technology in the food safety area is described. Selection of optimum columns and mobile phases for loading onto the cleanup column followed by transfer onto the analytical column and MS detection are critical method parameters. The method was optimized for the assay of 10 phthalates (dimethyl, diethyl, dipropyl, butyl benzyl, diisobutyl, dicyclohexyl, dihexyl, diethylhexyl, diisononyl, and diisododecyl) and one adipate (diethylhexyl) in beverages and milk.

  11. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  12. Nuclear cleanup and decontamination for dismantling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargues, S.; Solignac, Y.; Lapierre, Y.

    2003-01-01

    In the May 2003 issue of the review 'Controle', the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de Surete Nucleaire or ASN) reviewed the radiation protection and waste management principles applicable to dismantling operations carried out on nuclear installations, i.e. reactors, research laboratories, fuel cycle installations and nuclear power reactors. Estelle Chapelain, of the DGSNR (French General Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection), pointed out that dismantling work does not involve the same radioactive risks as operating an installation. For instance, 'the risk of disseminating radioactive material is generally greater because the dismantling process supposes the removal of one or more containment barriers'. In addition to this risk of internal exposure, the possibility of external irradiation of personnel must be taken into account due to the nature of the work carried out by the operators. The probability of conventional hazards is also accentuated, these hazards varying as work progresses (fire hazards during cutting operations, hazards associated with handling tasks, etc). Other risks must also be considered: hazards due to the ageing of installations, to loss of traceability, and finally the risks associated with waste management. Waste management falls within a strict regulatory framework specified by the decree dated December 31, 1999, which makes it compulsory to carry out a 'waste survey' with the aim of producing an inventory of waste and improving waste management. These surveys include 'waste zoning' to identify those areas liable to have been contaminated. These requirements lead operators to adapt their cleanup methodology in order to distinguish suspect rooms or equipment from those that can be deemed with certainty to be conventional. In its conclusion, the safety authority recalls the importance of 'the safety and radiation protection of dismantling operations being effectively managed and optimised, without imposing

  13. Community system updating and extension concerning greenhouse gas emissions duties trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta-Langarika, I.

    2010-01-01

    Approving 29/2009/CE Directive, that amends Directive 2003/87/EC, relating to a trading system for allowances of greenhouse gas emissions in the Community, the European Union wants to improve this system, and, in that way, providing an appropriate tool for achieving the emissions reduction targets, set for 2020: in particular, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in a 20% compared to 1990 levels. Recognizing the virtues of this system as an innovative tool for reducing emissions, it should be harmonized through the use of common standards that ensure equal conditions of the facilities affected and their update, among others, increasing their scope and establishing a system of re-allocation to reduce emissions. At the same time, the regulation adopted by the EU should not address possible competition difficulties, that may arise for the industries affected by this emission trading system, more specifically, the problem of carbon leakage: the phenomenon refers to the risk that European industries must move outside the EU for not being able to cope with competition from other countries with less stringent limitations on this matter. In any case, the regime established by Directive 29/2009/CE is subject to possible changes in function of international countries might conclude. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the design of urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Recent investments in the transit sector to address greenhouse gas emissions have concentrated on purchasing efficient replacement vehicles and inducing mode shift from the private automobile. There has been little focus on the potential of network and operational improvements, such as changes in headways, route spacing, and stop spacing, to reduce transit emissions. Most models of transit system design consider user and agency cost while ignoring emissions and the potential environmental benefit of operational improvements. We use a model to evaluate the user and agency costs as well as greenhouse gas benefit of design and operational improvements to transit systems. We examine how the operational characteristics of urban transit systems affect both costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The research identifies the Pareto frontier for designing an idealized transit network. Modes considered include bus, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail transit (LRT), and metro (heavy) rail, with cost and emissions parameters appropriate for the United States. Passenger demand follows a many-to-many travel pattern with uniformly distributed origins and destinations. The approaches described could be used to optimize the network design of existing bus service or help to select a mode and design attributes for a new transit system. The results show that BRT provides the lowest cost but not the lowest emissions for our large city scenarios. Bus and LRT systems have low costs and the lowest emissions for our small city scenarios. Relatively large reductions in emissions from the cost-optimal system can be achieved with only minor increases in user travel time. (letter)

  15. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan; Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D; Heber, Albert J; Grant, Richard H

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) emissions vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and management. Because emission measurement is difficult and expensive, process-based models provide an alternative for estimating whole farm emissions. A model that simulates the processes of NH formation, speciation, aqueous-gas partitioning, and mass transfer was developed and incorporated in a whole farm simulation model (the Integrated Farm System Model). Farm sources included manure on the floor of the housing facility, manure in storage (if used), field-applied manure, and deposits on pasture (if grazing is used). In a comprehensive evaluation of the model, simulated daily, seasonal, and annual emissions compared well with data measured over 2 yr for five free stall barns and two manure storages on dairy farms in the eastern United States. In a further comparison with published data, simulated and measured barn emissions were similar over differing barn designs, protein feeding levels, and seasons of the year. Simulated emissions from manure storage were also highly correlated with published emission data across locations, seasons, and different storage covers. For field applied manure, the range in simulated annual emissions normally bounded reported mean values for different manure dry matter contents and application methods. Emissions from pastures measured in northern Europe across seasons and fertilization levels were also represented well by the model. After this evaluation, simulations of a representative dairy farm in Pennsylvania illustrated the effects of animal housing and manure management on whole farm emissions and their interactions with greenhouse gas emissions, nitrate leaching, production costs, and farm profitability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Consideration of black carbon and primary organic carbon emissions in life-cycle analysis of Greenhouse gas emissions of vehicle systems and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q

    2014-10-21

    The climate impact assessment of vehicle/fuel systems may be incomplete without considering short-lived climate forcers of black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (POC). We quantified life-cycle BC and POC emissions of a large variety of vehicle/fuel systems with an expanded Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Life-cycle BC and POC emissions have small impacts on life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of gasoline, diesel, and other fuel vehicles, but would add 34, 16, and 16 g CO2 equivalent (CO2e)/mile, or 125, 56, and 56 g CO2e/mile with the 100 or 20 year Global Warming Potentials of BC and POC emissions, respectively, for vehicles fueled with corn stover-, willow tree-, and Brazilian sugarcane-derived ethanol, mostly due to BC- and POC-intensive biomass-fired boilers in cellulosic and sugarcane ethanol plants for steam and electricity production, biomass open burning in sugarcane fields, and diesel-powered agricultural equipment for biomass feedstock production/harvest. As a result, life-cycle GHG emission reduction potentials of these ethanol types, though still significant, are reduced from those without considering BC and POC emissions. These findings, together with a newly expanded GREET version, help quantify the previously unknown impacts of BC and POC emissions on life-cycle GHG emissions of U.S. vehicle/fuel systems.

  17. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  18. 40 CFR 60.1240 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.1240 Section 60.1240 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1240 How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous...

  19. A model for particle emission from a fissioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milek, B.; Reif, R.; Revai, J.

    1987-04-01

    The differential emission probability for a neutron emitted in a binary fission process due to non-adiabatic effects in the coupling of the single particle degrees of freedom to the accelerated relative motion of the fragments is investigated wihtin a model, which represents each nucleus by a non-deformed one-term separable potential. The derivation of measurable quantities from the asymptotic solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for the single particle wave function is examined. Numerical calculations were performed for parameter values, which correspond to 252 Cf(sf). The calculated energy spectra and angular distributions of the emitted particles are presented in dependence on the mass asymmetry. (author)

  20. Studies of the brain cannabinoid system using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.

    1995-10-01

    Studies using radiolabeled psychoactive drugs in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) have permitted the imaging of binding sites in the human brain. Similar studies of marijuana have been hampered by the unsuitability of radiolabeled THC for PET studies, and the current unavailability of other in vivo imaging agents for cannabinoid receptors. Recent developments in medicinal chemistry suggest that a PET radiotracer for cannabinoid receptors will soon become available. This chapter briefly reviews these developments, together with the results of PET studies of the effects of marijuana and other abused drugs on brain metabolism. It also reviews PET studies of cocaine binding sites, to demonstrate the kind of investigations that will be possible when a cannabinoid receptor PET radioligand becomes available.

  1. Studies of the brain cannabinoid system using positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, S.J.; Volkow, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Studies using radiolabeled psychoactive drugs in conjunction with positron emission tomography (PET) have permitted the imaging of binding sites in the human brain. Similar studies of marijuana have been hampered by the unsuitability of radiolabeled THC for PET studies, and the current unavailability of other in vivo imaging agents for cannabinoid receptors. Recent developments in medicinal chemistry suggest that a PET radiotracer for cannabinoid receptors will soon become available. This chapter briefly reviews these developments, together with the results of PET studies of the effects of marijuana and other abused drugs on brain metabolism. It also reviews PET studies of cocaine binding sites, to demonstrate the kind of investigations that will be possible when a cannabinoid receptor PET radioligand becomes available

  2. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  3. Direct measurements show decreasing methane emissions from natural gas local distribution systems in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Brian K; Edburg, Steven L; Ferrara, Thomas W; Howard, Touché; Harrison, Matthew R; Kolb, Charles E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Dyck, Wesley; Possolo, Antonio; Whetstone, James R

    2015-04-21

    Fugitive losses from natural gas distribution systems are a significant source of anthropogenic methane. Here, we report on a national sampling program to measure methane emissions from 13 urban distribution systems across the U.S. Emission factors were derived from direct measurements at 230 underground pipeline leaks and 229 metering and regulating facilities using stratified random sampling. When these new emission factors are combined with estimates for customer meters, maintenance, and upsets, and current pipeline miles and numbers of facilities, the total estimate is 393 Gg/yr with a 95% upper confidence limit of 854 Gg/yr (0.10% to 0.22% of the methane delivered nationwide). This fraction includes emissions from city gates to the customer meter, but does not include other urban sources or those downstream of customer meters. The upper confidence limit accounts for the skewed distribution of measurements, where a few large emitters accounted for most of the emissions. This emission estimate is 36% to 70% less than the 2011 EPA inventory, (based largely on 1990s emission data), and reflects significant upgrades at metering and regulating stations, improvements in leak detection and maintenance activities, as well as potential effects from differences in methodologies between the two studies.

  4. Warm Cleanup of Coal-Derived Syngas: Multicontaminant Removal Process Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, Kurt A.; Rainbolt, James E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Braunberger, Beau; Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2017-02-15

    Warm cleanup of coal- or biomass-derived syngas requires sorbent and catalytic beds to protect downstream processes and catalysts from fouling. Sulfur is particularly harmful because even parts-per-million amounts are sufficient to poison downstream synthesis catalysts. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a conventional sorbent for sulfur removal; however, its operational performance using real gasifier-derived syngas and in an integrated warm cleanup process is not well reported. In this paper, we report the optimal temperature for bulk desulfurization to be 450oC, while removal of sulfur to parts-per-billion levels requires a lower temperature of approximately 350oC. Under these conditions, we found that sulfur in the form of both hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide could be absorbed equally well using ZnO. For long-term operation, sorbent regeneration is desirable to minimize process costs. Over the course of five sulfidation and regeneration cycles, a ZnO bed lost about a third of its initial sulfur capacity, however sorbent capacity stabilized. Here, we also demonstrate, at the bench-scale, a process and materials used for warm cleanup of coal-derived syngas using five operations: 1) Na2CO3 for HCl removal, 2) regenerable ZnO beds for bulk sulfur removal, 3) a second ZnO bed for trace sulfur removal, 4) a Ni-Cu/C sorbent for multi-contaminant inorganic removal, and 5) a Ir-Ni/MgAl2O4 catalyst employed for ammonia decomposition and tar and light hydrocarbon steam reforming. Syngas cleanup was demonstrated through successful long-term performance of a poison-sensitive, Cu-based, water-gas-shift catalyst placed downstream of the cleanup process train. The tar reformer is an important and necessary operation with this particular gasification system; its inclusion was the difference between deactivating the water-gas catalyst with carbon deposition and successful 100-hour testing using 1 LPM of coal-derived syngas.

  5. The on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system (TOTEMS) : proof\\0x2010 of\\0x2010concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-03

    An on-board tailpipe emissions instrumentation system was designed, assembled and tested as proof-of-concept : for the University of Vermonts Transportation Research Center (TRC) Signature Project #2 real-world vehicle : emissions data colle...

  6. Planning for cleanup of large areas contaminated as a result of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of large areas of contaminated as a result of an accident at a nuclear facility could cost hundreds of millions of dollars and cause inconvenience to the public. Such a cleanup programme would be undertaken only if the detriment to health and social life resulting from cleanup activities would be less than that resulting from further exposures. All reasonable means should, however, be used to minimize the costs and detriment to humans of such a cleanup. For such a cleanup to be carried out safely, efficiently and as quickly as possible under adverse conditions requires: Good preliminary and final planning; A cleanup team having a well defined management structure and well trained personnel; and Suitable cleanup methods and equipment and cleanup criteria. 35 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  7. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  8. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  9. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  10. Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1987-07-01

    The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs

  11. Differential neutrino rates and emissivities from the plasma process in astrophysical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratkovic, Sasa; Iyer Dutta, Sharada; Prakash, Madappa

    2003-01-01

    The differential rates and emissivities of neutrino pairs from an equilibrium plasma are calculated for the wide range of density and temperature encountered in astrophysical systems. New analytical expressions are derived for the differential emissivities which yield total emissivities in full agreement with those previously calculated. The photon and plasmon pair production and absorption kernels in the source term of the Boltzmann equation for neutrino transport are provided. The appropriate Legendre coefficients of these kernels, in forms suitable for multi-group flux-limited diffusion schemes are also computed

  12. Modification of electric and magnetic dipole emission in anisotropic plasmonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noginova, N; Hussain, R; Noginov, M A; Vella, J; Urbas, A

    2013-10-07

    In order to investigate the effects of plasmonic environments on spontaneous emission of magnetic and electric dipoles, we have studied luminescence of Eu³⁺ ions in close vicinity to gold nanostrip arrays. Significant changes in the emission kinetics, emission polarization, and radiation patterns have been observed in the wavelength range corresponding to the plasmonic resonance. The effect of the plasmonic resonance on the magnetic dipole transition ⁵D₀-->⁷F₁ is found to be very different from its effect on the electric dipole transitions. This makes Eu³⁺₋ containing complexes promising for mapping local distributions of magnetic and electric fields in metamaterials and plasmonic systems.

  13. Biopiles and biofilters combined for soil cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, J.; Sansregret, J.L.; Cyr, B.

    1994-01-01

    Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils can be completed using a combination of biopile and biofiltration technologies. Target contaminants, such as gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel and other petroleum-derived products are removed from the soil by biodegradation and volatilization in the biopile. Air emissions from the biopile containing volatile hydrocarbons are treated subsequently in a biofilter, where the pollutants are degraded and mineralized by heterotrophic aerobic microorganisms. In the biopile process, contaminated soil is excavated and stockpiled in a treatment area. Remediation of the soil relies on microbial degradation and volatilization of hydrocarbons under controlled treatment conditions

  14. Factors governing the ability of clean-up plant to remove settling particles from contaminants: theory for stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, J.P.

    1979-11-01

    Consideration is given to the processes by which particles are removed from fluid systems. In particular, it is noted that in tank, as opposed to loop, systems the natural process of gravitational settling competes with engineered removal systems. Calculational methods are given for estimating the relative amounts of settling and removal to clean-up plant for well-mixed fluids, unmixed fluids with horizontal or vertical flow, and turbulent diffusion with incomplete mixing. The criteria for complete mixing are discussed. (author)

  15. Bayesian modelling of the emission spectrum of the JET Li-BES system

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Sehyun; Svensson, J.; Brix, M.; Ghim, Y. -c.; Contributors, JET

    2015-01-01

    A Bayesian model of the emission spectrum of the JET lithium beam has been developed to infer the intensity of the Li I (2p-2s) line radiation and associated uncertainties. The detected spectrum for each channel of the lithium beam emission spectroscopy (Li-BES) system is here modelled by a single Li line modified by an instrumental function, Bremsstrahlung background, instrumental offset, and interference filter curve. Both the instrumental function and the interference filter curve are mode...

  16. Model-predicted ammonia emission from two broiler houses with different rearing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Nilsa Duarte Silva; Garcia,Rodrigo Garófallo; Nääs,Irenilza Alencar; Caldara,Fabiana Ribeiro; Ponso,Roselaine

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from broiler production can affect human and animal health and may cause acidification and eutrophication of the surrounding environment. This study aimed to estimate ammonia emissions from broiler litter in two systems of forced ventilation, the tunnel ventilation (TV) and the dark house (DH). The experiment was carried out on eight commercial broiler houses, and the age of the birds (day, d), pH and litter temperature were recorded. Broilers were reared on built-up w...

  17. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  18. Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiger, Susan G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hargis, Kenneth M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, George J [NNSL/LASO

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  19. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... greater which are subject to decontamination requirements under TSCA, including those spills listed under... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other... than 1 pound of PCBs by weight (less than 270 gallons of untested mineral oil)—(1) Decontamination...

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-47 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutlip, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of interim remedial action for the 600-47 waste site. This site consisted of several areas of surface debris and contamination near the banks of the Columbia River across from Johnson Island. Contaminated material identified in field surveys included four areas of soil, wood, nuts, bolts, and other metal debris

  1. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulloway, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.S.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.W.; Mitchell, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste

  4. A risk-based approach to cleanup: Problems and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.

    1995-10-01

    This paper details information dealing with the meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Topics discussed include: Radtest program to summarize all data on radiation doses resulting from nuclear weapons testing; current status of US cleanup strategies; development of new milestones for the project due to reduced budgets; health hazards; and risk reduction

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  6. Cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - The Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiger, S.G.; Hargis, K.; Graham, M.; Rael, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup - the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: - Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from one of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; - Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; - Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; - Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; - A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and - A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL. (authors)

  7. Cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiger, Susan G.; Hargis, Kenneth M.; Graham, Michael J.; Rael, George J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  8. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, W.

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll

  9. Real-world operation conditions and on-road emissions of Beijing diesel buses measured by using portable emission measurement system and electric low-pressure impactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihua; Ge, Yunshan; Johnson, Kent C; Shah, Asad Naeem; Tan, Jianwei; Wang, Chu; Yu, Linxiao

    2011-03-15

    On-road measurement is an effective method to investigate real-world emissions generated from vehicles and estimate the difference between engine certification cycles and real-world operating conditions. This study presents the results of on-road measurements collected from urban buses which propelled by diesel engine in Beijing city. Two widely used Euro III emission level buses and two Euro IV emission level buses were chosen to perform on-road emission measurements using portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous pollutant and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for particulate matter (PM) number emissions. The results indicate that considerable discrepancies of engine operating conditions between real-world driving cycles and engine certification cycles have been observed. Under real-world operating conditions, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions can easily meet their respective regulations limits, while brake specification nitrogen oxide (bsNO(x)) emissions present a significant deviation from its corresponding limit. Compared with standard limits, the real-world bsNO(x) emission of the two Euro III emission level buses approximately increased by 60% and 120% respectively, and bsNO(x) of two Euro IV buses nearly twice standard limits because Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system not active under low exhaust temperature. Particle mass were estimated via particle size distribution with the assumption that particle density and diameter is liner. The results demonstrate that nanometer size particulate matter make significant contribution to total particle number but play a minor role to total particle mass. It is suggested that specific certified cycle should be developed to regulate bus engines emissions on the test bench or use PEMS to control the bus emissions under real-world operating conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of biochar and liming on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesised mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize cropping system, we set up a field trial with a 20t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment (pH 6.5), and a control treatment without any addition (pH 6.1). An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg N ha-1 in three applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg N ha-1 as ammonium nitrate. Cumulative N2O emissions were 52 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.27) because of the large variability in the data set. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. There is no evidence that reduced N2O emissions with biochar relative to the control is solely caused by a higher soil pH.

  11. Strategic research on CO2 emission reduction for China. Application of MARKAL to China energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping

    1995-09-01

    MARKAL was applied to the energy system for analyzing the CO 2 emission reduction in China over the time period from 1990 to 2050. First the Chinese Reference Energy System (CRES) was established based on the framework of MARKAL model. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. When shifting from scenario LH (low useful energy demand and high import fuel prices) to HL (high demand and low prices), another 33 EJ of primary energy will be consumed and another 2.31 billion tons of CO 2 will be emitted in 2050. Detailed analyses on the disaggregation of CO 2 emissions by Kaya Formula show. The energy intensity (primary energy/GDP) decreases much faster in scenario HL, but the higher growth rate of GDP per capita is the overwhelming factor that results in higher CO 2 emission per capita in the baseline case of scenario HL in comparison with LH. When the carbon taxes are imposed on CO 2 emissions, the residential sector will make the biggest contribution to CO 2 emission abatement from a long-term point of view. However, it's difficult to stabilize CO 2 emission per capita before 2030 in both scenarios even with heavy carbon taxes. When nuclear moratorium occurs, more 560 million tons of CO 2 will be emitted to the atmosphere in 2050 under the same CO 2 tax regime. From the analysis of value flow, CO 2 emission reduction depends largely on new or advanced technologies particularly in the field of electricity generation. The competent technologies switch to those CO 2 less-emitting technologies when surcharging CO 2 emissions. Nuclear power shows significant potential in saving fossil energy resources and reducing CO 2 emissions. (J.P.N.)

  12. Influence of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions of intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Lee, Jae Woo; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Sharma, Keshab; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing segments of the food economy in modern times. It is also being considered as an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, limited studies have been conducted on GHG emissions from aquaculture system. In this study, daily addition of fish feed and soluble starch at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 16:1 (w/w) was used to examine the effects of carbohydrate addition on nitrogen transformations and GHG emissions in a zero-water exchange intensive aquaculture system. The addition of soluble starch stimulated heterotrophic bacterial growth and denitrification, which led to lower total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in aqueous phase. About 76.2% of the nitrogen output was emitted in the form of gaseous nitrogen (i.e., N2 and N2O) in the treatment tank (i.e., aquaculture tank with soluble starch addition), while gaseous nitrogen accounted for 33.3% of the nitrogen output in the control tank (i.e., aquaculture tank without soluble starch addition). Although soluble starch addition reduced daily N2O emissions by 83.4%, it resulted in an increase of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 91.1%. Overall, starch addition did not contribute to controlling the GHG emissions from the aquaculture system. © 2013.

  13. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  14. PROGRESS and CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m 3 (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m 3 (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to

  15. Positron emission tomography in degenerative disorders of the dopaminergic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbe, H; Holthoff, V; Huber, M; Herholz, K; Wienhard, K; Wagner, R; Heiss, W D [Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie und Max-Planck-Institut fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    1992-01-01

    21 patients who had Parkinson's disease (PD), PD plus dementia of Alzheimer type (PDAT) or progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) using ({sup 18}F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). In one patient with strictly unilateral PD side differences in striatal dopa uptake were studied with 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa (F-dopa). In patients with PD PET with FDG did not show any significant change in regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMR(Glu)). In PDAT glucose metabolism was generally reduced, the most severe decrease was found in parietal cortex. The metabolic pattern was similar to that typically found in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the patient with strictly unilateral PD rCMR(Glu) was normal, F-dopa PET, however, revealed a distinct reduction of dopa uptake in the contralateral putamen. In PSP glucose metabolism was significantly decreased in subcortical regions (caudatum, putamen and brainstem) and in frontal cortex. Thus PET demonstrated a clear difference of metabolic pattern between PDAT and PSP. (authors).

  16. Mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from intensive rice production systems in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Vu, Quynh Duong; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2017-01-01

    -growing seasons in northern Vietnam, to evaluate the effectiveness of drainage patterns on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions under farmers’ variable conditions. Two improved drainage practices (pre-planting plus midseason [PM] drainage and early-season plus midseason [EM] drainage) were compared...... with local practices of water management (midseason drainage [M] and conventional continuous flooding (control) [C]) with full residue [F] and reduced residue [R] (local practice of residue management) incorporation. The GHG mitigation potential of water regimes was tested in two water management systems...... (efficient field water management [EWM] system and inefficient field water management [IWM] system). In EWM system, EM resulted an average 14% and 55% reduction in CH4 emissions compared to M with R and F respectively. The EM lowered the CH4 emissions by 67% and 43% compared to C in the EWM and IWM...

  17. Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility for gasification and pressurized combustion. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The major particulate control device issues to be addressed include the integration of the particulate control devices into coal utilization systems, on-line cleaning techniques, chemical and thermal degradation of components, fatigue or structural failures, blinding, collection efficiency as a function of particle size, and scale-up of particulate control systems to commercial size. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility and integrating the particulate control devices (PCDs) into structural and process designs. Substantial progress in underground construction activities was achieved during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. Delivery and construction of coal handling and process structural steel began during the quarter. MWK equipment at the grade level and the first tier are being set in the structure.

  18. Design of a portable optical emission tomography system for microwave induced compact plasma for visible to near-infrared emission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathore, Kavita, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in; Munshi, Prabhat, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Programme, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep, E-mail: kavira@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: pmunshi@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: sudeepb@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2016-03-15

    A new non-invasive diagnostic system is developed for Microwave Induced Plasma (MIP) to reconstruct tomographic images of a 2D emission profile. A compact MIP system has wide application in industry as well as research application such as thrusters for space propulsion, high current ion beams, and creation of negative ions for heating of fusion plasma. Emission profile depends on two crucial parameters, namely, the electron temperature and density (over the entire spatial extent) of the plasma system. Emission tomography provides basic understanding of plasmas and it is very useful to monitor internal structure of plasma phenomena without disturbing its actual processes. This paper presents development of a compact, modular, and versatile Optical Emission Tomography (OET) tool for a cylindrical, magnetically confined MIP system. It has eight slit-hole cameras and each consisting of a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor linear image sensor for light detection. The optical noise is reduced by using aspheric lens and interference band-pass filters in each camera. The entire cylindrical plasma can be scanned with automated sliding ring mechanism arranged in fan-beam data collection geometry. The design of the camera includes a unique possibility to incorporate different filters to get the particular wavelength light from the plasma. This OET system includes selected band-pass filters for particular argon emission 750 nm, 772 nm, and 811 nm lines and hydrogen emission H{sub α} (656 nm) and H{sub β} (486 nm) lines. Convolution back projection algorithm is used to obtain the tomographic images of plasma emission line. The paper mainly focuses on (a) design of OET system in detail and (b) study of emission profile for 750 nm argon emission lines to validate the system design.

  19. Global and local emission impact assessment of distributed cogeneration systems with partial-load models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancarella, Pierluigi; Chicco, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale distributed cogeneration technologies represent a key resource to increase generation efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with respect to conventional separate production means. However, the diffusion of distributed cogeneration within urban areas, where air quality standards are quite stringent, brings about environmental concerns on a local level. In addition, partial-load emission worsening is often overlooked, which could lead to biased evaluations of the energy system environmental performance. In this paper, a comprehensive emission assessment framework suitable for addressing distributed cogeneration systems is formulated. Local and global emission impact models are presented to identify upper and lower boundary values of the environmental pressure from pollutants that would be emitted from reference technologies, to be compared to the actual emissions from distributed cogeneration. This provides synthetic information on the relative environmental impact from small-scale CHP sources, useful for general indicative and non-site-specific studies. The emission models are formulated according to an electrical output-based emission factor approach, through which off-design operation and relevant performance are easily accounted for. In particular, in order to address the issues that could arise under off-design operation, an equivalent load model is incorporated within the proposed framework, by exploiting the duration curve of the cogenerator loading and the emissions associated to each loading level. In this way, it is possible to quantify the contribution to the emissions from cogeneration systems that might operate at partial loads for a significant portion of their operation time, as for instance in load-tracking applications. Suitability of the proposed methodology is discussed with respect to hazardous air pollutants such as NO x and CO, as well as to greenhouse gases such as CO 2 . Two case study applications based on the emission

  20. Epidemiology of Late Health Effects in Ukrainian Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Prysyazhnyuk, Anatoly; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Belyi, David; Chumak, Vadim; Buzunov, Volodymyr

    2018-07-01

    This article summarizes the results of 30 y of follow-up of cancer and noncancer effects in Ukrainian cleanup workers after the Chornobyl accident. The number of power plant employees and first responders with acute radiation syndrome under follow-up by the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine decreased from 179 in 1986-1991 to 105 in 2011-2015. Cancers and leukemia (19) and cardiovascular diseases (21) were the main causes of deaths among acute radiation syndrome survivors (54) during the postaccident period. Increased radiation risks of leukemia in the Ukrainian cohort of 110,645 cleanup workers exposed to low doses are comparable to those among survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in Japan in 1945. Additionally, an excess of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was demonstrated in the cleanup workers cohort for 26 y after the exposure. A significant excess of multiple myeloma incidence [standardized incidence rate (SIR) 1.61 %, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.21], thyroid cancer (SIR 4.18, 95% CI 3.76-4.59), female breast cancer (SIR 1.57 CI 1.40-1.73), and all cancers combined (SIR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05-1.09) was registered. High prevalence was demonstrated for cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases and mental health changes. However, the reasons for the increases require further investigation. To monitor other possible late effects of radiation exposure in Chornobyl cleanup workers, analytical cohort and case-control studies need to include cardiovascular pathology, specifically types of potentially radiogenic cancers using a molecular epidemiology approach. Possible effects for further study include increased rates of thyroid, breast, and lung cancers and multiple myeloma; reduction of radiation risks of leukemia to population levels; and increased morbidity and mortality of cleanup workers from cardio- and cerebrovascular pathology.

  1. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meybodi, Mehdi Aghaei; Behnia, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  2. Effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from intensive aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shukra Raj; Choi, Ohkyung; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Chandran, Kartik; Kim, Sungpyo; Lee, Jae Woo

    2015-06-15

    This study examines the effects of temperature on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in a bench-scale intensive aquaculture system rearing Koi fish. The water temperature varied from 15 to 24 °C at interval of 3 °C. Both volumetric and specific rate for nitrification and denitrification declined as the temperature decreased. The concentrations of ammonia and nitrite, however, were lower than the inhibitory level for Koi fish regardless of temperature. The effects of temperature on N2O emissions were significant, with the emission rate and emission factor increasing from 1.11 to 1.82 mg N2O-N/d and 0.49 to 0.94 mg N2O-N/kg fish as the temperature decreased from 24 to 15 °C. A global map of N2O emission from aquaculture was established by using the N2O emission factor depending on temperature. This study demonstrates that N2O emission from aquaculture is strongly dependent on regional water temperatures as well as on fish production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable cropping system in Northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Feifei; Jiang Rongfeng; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo; Su Fang

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from a typical greenhouse vegetable system in Northern China were measured from February 2004 to January 2006 using a close chamber method. Four nitrogen management levels (NN, MN, CN, and SN) were used. N 2 O emissions occurred intermittently in the growing season, strongly correlating with N fertilization and irrigation. No peak emissions were observed after fertilization in the late Autumn season due to low soil temperature. 57-94% of the seasonal N 2 O emissions came from the initial growth stage, corresponding to the rewetting process in the soil. The annual N 2 O emissions ranged from 2.6 to 8.8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 , accounting for 0.27-0.30% of the annual nitrogen input. Compared with conventional N management, site-specific N management reduced N fertilization rate by 69% in 2004 and by 76% in 2005, and consequently reduced N 2 O emissions by 51% in 2004 and 27% in 2005, respectively. - High N 2 O emissions coming from the initial growth stage can be attributed to the rewetting process in the greenhouse soil.

  4. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  5. Development of a portable remote sensing system for measurement of diesel emissions from passing diesel trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    A wireless remote-sensing system has been developed for measurement of NOx and particulate matters (PM) emissions from passing diesel trucks. The NOx measurement system has a UV light source with quartz fiber optics that focused the light source into...

  6. Ammonia emission from aviary housing systems for laying hens : inventory, characteristics and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    1998-01-01

    The development and practical application of welfare friendly aviary housing systems for laying hens, that generally emit more ammonia per hen than battery cage housing systems, would conflict with the Dutch policy to substantially reduce the total emission of ammonia from animal

  7. Electric-power systems planning and greenhouse-gas emission management under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ►A multistage stochastic integer programming model is developed for planning electric-power systems. ►Uncertain and dynamic information can be incorporated within a multilayer scenario tree. ►This can help minimize system cost under random energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement goal. ►Results can support decisions of facility expansion, electricity supply and GHG mitigation. - Abstract: In this study, a multistage interval-stochastic integer programming model is formulated for managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and planning electric-power systems under uncertainty. The developed model can reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of energy systems. Besides, the model can be used for answering questions related to types, times, demands and mitigations of energy systems planning practices, with the objective of minimizing system cost over a long-time planning horizon. The solutions can help generate electricity-generation schemes and capacity-expansion plans under different GHG-mitigation options and electricity-demand levels. Tradeoffs among system cost, energy security, and emission management can also be tackled. A high system cost will increase renewable energy supply and reduce GHG emission, while a desire for a low cost will run into risks of a high energy deficiency and a high GHG emission.

  8. Marine Aerosol Precursor Emissions for Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltrud, Mathew Einar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-25

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is generated by marine ecosystems and plays a major role in cloud formation over the ocean. Currently, Earth System Models use imposed flux of DMS from the ocean to the atmosphere that is independent of the climate state. We have added DMS as a prognostic variable to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that depends on the distribution of phytoplankton species, and thus changes with climate.

  9. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  10. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-05-14

    To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Register-based cohort study. Estonia. An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A Power System Optimal Dispatch Strategy Considering the Flow of Carbon Emissions and Large Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.

  12. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  13. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  14. The Elusive Soft Emission from Hard X-ray Symbiotic System RT Cru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    RT Cru is a fascinating member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries showing X-ray emission extending to over 50keV. While its hard X-ray emission has been studied in detail, the soft component of the spectrum, including flares, remains elusive, since previous observations have focused on the high-energy regime. We propose Chandra HRC-S/LETG observations to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the source of the soft X-ray emission with a goal to establish the origin of the soft component, and determine whether and how it is tied to the hard component. Determining the origin of the soft emission is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understanding the geometry, energetics, and the environment of WD accretion in this class of symbiotic systems.

  15. Cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites including representative costs of cleanup and treatment of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmage, S.S.; Chilton, B.D.

    1987-09-01

    This review summarizes available information on cleanup procedures at the Nevada Test Site and at other radioactively contaminated sites. Radionuclide distribution and inventory, size of the contaminated areas, equipment, and cleanup procedures and results are included. Information about the cost of cleanup and treatment for contaminated land is presented. Selected measures that could be useful in estimating the costs of cleaning up radioactively contaminated areas are described. 76 refs., 16 tabs

  16. Design and Use of a Full Flow Sampling System (FFS) for the Quantification of Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N

    2016-06-12

    The use of natural gas continues to grow with increased discovery and production of unconventional shale resources. At the same time, the natural gas industry faces continued scrutiny for methane emissions from across the supply chain, due to methane's relatively high global warming potential (25-84x that of carbon dioxide, according to the Energy Information Administration). Currently, a variety of techniques of varied uncertainties exists to measure or estimate methane emissions from components or facilities. Currently, only one commercial system is available for quantification of component level emissions and recent reports have highlighted its weaknesses. In order to improve accuracy and increase measurement flexibility, we have designed, developed, and implemented a novel full flow sampling system (FFS) for quantification of methane emissions and greenhouse gases based on transportation emissions measurement principles. The FFS is a modular system that consists of an explosive-proof blower(s), mass airflow sensor(s) (MAF), thermocouple, sample probe, constant volume sampling pump, laser based greenhouse gas sensor, data acquisition device, and analysis software. Dependent upon the blower and hose configuration employed, the current FFS is able to achieve a flow rate ranging from 40 to 1,500 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM). Utilization of laser-based sensors mitigates interference from higher hydrocarbons (C2+). Co-measurement of water vapor allows for humidity correction. The system is portable, with multiple configurations for a variety of applications ranging from being carried by a person to being mounted in a hand drawn cart, on-road vehicle bed, or from the bed of utility terrain vehicles (UTVs). The FFS is able to quantify methane emission rates with a relative uncertainty of ± 4.4%. The FFS has proven, real world operation for the quantification of methane emissions occurring in conventional and remote facilities.

  17. Design and Use of a Full Flow Sampling System (FFS) for the Quantification of Methane Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Derek R.; Covington, April N.; Clark, Nigel N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of natural gas continues to grow with increased discovery and production of unconventional shale resources. At the same time, the natural gas industry faces continued scrutiny for methane emissions from across the supply chain, due to methane's relatively high global warming potential (25-84x that of carbon dioxide, according to the Energy Information Administration). Currently, a variety of techniques of varied uncertainties exists to measure or estimate methane emissions from components or facilities. Currently, only one commercial system is available for quantification of component level emissions and recent reports have highlighted its weaknesses. In order to improve accuracy and increase measurement flexibility, we have designed, developed, and implemented a novel full flow sampling system (FFS) for quantification of methane emissions and greenhouse gases based on transportation emissions measurement principles. The FFS is a modular system that consists of an explosive-proof blower(s), mass airflow sensor(s) (MAF), thermocouple, sample probe, constant volume sampling pump, laser based greenhouse gas sensor, data acquisition device, and analysis software. Dependent upon the blower and hose configuration employed, the current FFS is able to achieve a flow rate ranging from 40 to 1,500 standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM). Utilization of laser-based sensors mitigates interference from higher hydrocarbons (C2+). Co-measurement of water vapor allows for humidity correction. The system is portable, with multiple configurations for a variety of applications ranging from being carried by a person to being mounted in a hand drawn cart, on-road vehicle bed, or from the bed of utility terrain vehicles (UTVs). The FFS is able to quantify methane emission rates with a relative uncertainty of ± 4.4%. The FFS has proven, real world operation for the quantification of methane emissions occurring in conventional and remote facilities. PMID:27341646

  18. Fuel Consumption and Vehicle Emission Models for Evaluating Environmental Impacts of the ETC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental outcome of the Electronic Toll Collection (ETC system is an important aspect in evaluating the impacts of the ETC system, which is influenced by various factors including the vehicle type, travel speed, traffic volume, and average queue length of Manual Toll Collection (MTC lanes. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a field data-based practical model for evaluating the effects of ETC system on the fuel efficiency and vehicle emission. First, laboratory experiments of seven types of vehicles under various scenarios for toll collection were conducted based on the Vehicle Emissions Testing System (VETS. The indicator calculation models were then established to estimate the comprehensive benefit of ETC system by comparing the test results of MTC lane and ETC lane. Finally, taking Beijing as a case study, the paper calibrated the model parameters, and estimated the monetization value of environmental benefit of the ETC system in terms of vehicle emissions reduction and fuel consumption decrease. The results shows that the applications of ETC system are expected to save fuel consumption of 4.1 million liters and reduce pollution emissions by 730.89 tons in 2013 in Beijing.

  19. Refueling emissions from cars in Japan: Compositions, temperature dependence and effect of vapor liquefied collection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Refueling emissions from cars available on the Japanese market, which were not equipped with specific controlling devices, were investigated. For the composition analysis, a proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry (PTR + SRI-MS), which is capable of real-time measurement, was used. In addition, the performance of a vapor liquefied collection system (VLCS), which is a recently developed controlling device, was evaluated and compared with an onboard refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) system. The refueling emission factor of uncontrolled vehicles at 20 °C was 1.02 ± 0.40 g/L in the case dispensing 20 L of fuel. The results of composition analysis indicated that the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) of refueling emissions in Japan was 3.49 ± 0.83. The emissions consist of 80% alkanes and 20% alkenes, and aromatics and di-enes were negligible. C4 alkene had the highest impact on the MIR of refueling emissions. The amounts of refueling emissions were well reproduced by a function developed by MOVE2010 in the temperature range of 5-35 °C. The compositions of the refueling emissions varied in this temperature range, but the change in MIR was negligible. The trapping efficiency of VLCS was the same level as that of the ORVR (over 95%). The MIRs of refueling and evaporative emissions were strongly affected by that of the test fuel. This study and our previous study indicated that MIRbreakthrough ≈ MIRrefueling ≈ MIRfuel + 0.5 and MIRpermeation ≈ MIRfuel. The real-world estimated average MIRfuel in Japan was about 3.0.

  20. Mitigation of methane emission from Fakse landfill using a biowindow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Fredenslund, Anders M.; Chanton, Jeffrey; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Landfills are significant sources of atmospheric methane (CH 4 ) that contributes to climate change, and therefore there is a need to reduce CH 4 emissions from landfills. A promising cost efficient technology is to integrate compost into landfill covers (so-called 'biocovers') to enhance biological oxidation of CH 4 . A full scale biocover system to reduce CH 4 emissions was installed at Fakse landfill, Denmark using composted yard waste as active material supporting CH 4 oxidation. Ten biowindows with a total area of 5000 m 2 were integrated into the existing cover at the 12 ha site. To increase CH 4 load to the biowindows, leachate wells were capped, and clay was added to slopes at the site. Point measurements using flux chambers suggested in most cases that almost all CH 4 was oxidized, but more detailed studies on emissions from the site after installation of the biocover as well as measurements of total CH 4 emissions showed that a significant portion of the emission quantified in the baseline study continued unabated from the site. Total emission measurements suggested a reduction in CH 4 emission of approximately 28% at the end of the one year monitoring period. This was supported by analysis of stable carbon isotopes which showed an increase in oxidation efficiency from 16% to 41%. The project documented that integrating approaches such a whole landfill emission measurements using tracer techniques or stable carbon isotope measurements of ambient air samples are needed to document CH 4 mitigation efficiencies of biocover systems. The study also revealed that there still exist several challenges to better optimize the functionality. The most important challenges are to control gas flow and evenly distribute the gas into the biocovers.

  1. In-situ gamma-analysis support for Phase I, Middlesex cleanup project, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, R.T.

    1983-07-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Energy Measurements Group of EG and G participated in the Remedial Action program for the former Middlesex Sampling Plant and associated properties at Middlesex, New Jersey from July to November 1980. EG and G provided real time analysis of the radiological character of the soil of each property included in the Phase I cleanup before, during, and after decontamination. The method used for the analysis was in situ gamma spectroscopy employing a high purity germanium detector. This report describes the in situ system and displays the results of the in situ measurements before and after decontamination of the properties surveyed during Phase I

  2. A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

  3. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a user's guide for an updated Personal Computer version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS2), allowing users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and soil nitrogen oxide emissions for any county in the contig...

  4. Data to calculate emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. McAuliffe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental burdens originating from livestock production, the importance of farming system evaluation has never been greater. In order to form a basis for trade-off analysis of pasture-based cattle production systems, liveweight data from 90 Charolais × Hereford-Friesian calves were collected at a high temporal resolution at the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP in Devon, UK. These data were then applied to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC modelling framework to estimate on-farm methane emissions under three different pasture management strategies, completing a foreground dataset required to calculate emissions intensity of individual beef cattle.

  5. Demand driven salt clean-up in a molten salt fast reactor - Defining a priority list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, B; Litskevich, D; Gregg, R; Mount, A R

    2018-01-01

    The PUREX technology based on aqueous processes is currently the leading reprocessing technology in nuclear energy systems. It seems to be the most developed and established process for light water reactor fuel and the use of solid fuel. However, demand driven development of the nuclear system opens the way to liquid fuelled reactors, and disruptive technology development through the application of an integrated fuel cycle with a direct link to reactor operation. The possibilities of this new concept for innovative reprocessing technology development are analysed, the boundary conditions are discussed, and the economic as well as the neutron physical optimization parameters of the process are elucidated. Reactor physical knowledge of the influence of different elements on the neutron economy of the reactor is required. Using an innovative study approach, an element priority list for the salt clean-up is developed, which indicates that separation of Neodymium and Caesium is desirable, as they contribute almost 50% to the loss of criticality. Separating Zirconium and Samarium in addition from the fuel salt would remove nearly 80% of the loss of criticality due to fission products. The theoretical study is followed by a qualitative discussion of the different, demand driven optimization strategies which could satisfy the conflicting interests of sustainable reactor operation, efficient chemical processing for the salt clean-up, and the related economic as well as chemical engineering consequences. A new, innovative approach of balancing the throughput through salt processing based on a low number of separation process steps is developed. Next steps for the development of an economically viable salt clean-up process are identified.

  6. Assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions from cogeneration and trigeneration systems. Part I: Models and indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, Gianfranco; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of cogeneration and trigeneration plants as local generation sources could bring significant energy saving and emission reduction of various types of pollutants with respect to the separate production of electricity, heat and cooling power. The advantages in terms of primary energy saving are well established. However, the potential of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling heat and power (CCHP) systems for reducing the emission of hazardous greenhouse gases (GHG) needs to be further investigated. This paper presents and discusses a novel approach, based upon an original indicator called trigeneration CO 2 emission reduction (TCO 2 ER), to assess the emission reduction of CO 2 and other GHGs from CHP and CCHP systems with respect to the separate production. The indicator is defined in function of the performance characteristics of the CHP and CCHP systems, represented with black-box models, and of the GHG emission characteristics from conventional sources. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is shown in the companion paper (Part II: Analysis techniques and application cases) with application to various cogeneration and trigeneration solutions

  7. Utilizing the right mix of environmental cleanup technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, Wade; Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990's), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical / pH-adjusting injection, phyto-remediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baro-balls, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and micro-blowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works pro-actively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  8. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  9. International trade and Austria's livestock system: Direct and hidden carbon emission flows associated with production and consumption of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilova, Olga; Jonas, Matthias; Erb, Karlheinz; Haberl, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol created a framework of responsibilities and mechanisms to mitigate climate change by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere. The Protocol stipulates accounting and reporting of GHG emissions and removals, such as energy use, industrial processes, agriculture, waste and net emissions resulting from land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) activities. Emissions reported according to the rules set by the Kyoto Protocol do not include GHG emissions outside a country's boundaries resulting from the production of imported goods or services. As a result, GHG accounts constructed according to the Kyoto Protocol reflect the GHG emissions resulting from the production system of a country, but not all the emissions resulting from the consumption of goods and services within the country. However, as previous studies demonstrate, a country's emission balance changes remarkably if emissions related to goods or services imported and exported are taken into account. Here, we go beyond the aforementioned studies which mainly focus on GHG emissions from fossil fuel combustion. We assess, in a first-order approach, upstream emissions that result from LULUC activities outside a country while the produced goods are consumed within the country. In our study we focus on Austria's livestock system to elucidate the difference between production and consumption-related emissions accounting approaches. We study direct and 'hidden' (embodied) GHG emissions associated with Austria's bilateral trade in livestock and livestock-related products, based on the integration of full carbon accounting (FCA) and life cycle analysis (LCA). (author)

  10. Characterization and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from different heating systems in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkurdi, Farouk; Karabet, François; Dimashki, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    Traffic has long been recognized as the major contributor to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions to the urban atmosphere. Stationary combustion sources, including residential space heating systems, are also a major contributor to PAH emissions. The aim of this study was to determine the profile and concentration of PAHs in stack flue gas emissions from different kinds of space heaters in order to increase the understanding of the scale of the PAH pollution problem caused by this source. This study set out to first assess the characteristics of PAHs and their corresponding benzo[a]pyrene equivalent emissions from a few types of domestic heaters and central heating systems to the urban atmosphere. The study, enabled for the first time, the characterization of PAHs in stationary combustion sources in the city of Damascus, Syria. Nine different types of heating systems were selected with respect to age, design, and type of fuel burned. The concentrations of 15 individual PAH compounds in the stack flue gas were determined in the extracts of the collected samples using high-performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC) equipped with ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence detectors. In general, older domestic wood stoves caused considerably higher PAH emissions than modern domestic heaters burning diesel oil. The average concentration of ΣPAH (sum of 15 compounds) in emissions from all types of studied heating systems ranged between 43 ± 0.4 and 316 ± 1.4 μg/m(3). Values of total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent ranged between 0.61 and 15.41 μg/m(3).

  11. A Novel Four-Dimensional Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction System and Its Linear Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new four-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction chaotic system. The system is obtained in accordance with the complicated relationship between energy saving and emission reduction, carbon emission, economic growth, and new energy development. The dynamics behavior of the system will be analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponents and equilibrium points. Linear feedback control methods are used to suppress chaos to unstable equilibrium. Numerical simulations are presented to show these results.

  12. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.

    1982-02-01

    This NRC Plan, which defines NRC's functional role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role, is the first revision to the initial plan issued in July 1980 (NUREG-0698). Since 1980, a number of policy developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision reflects these developments in the area of NRC's review and approval process with regard to cleanup operations as well as NRC's interface with the Department of Energy's involvement in the cleanup and waste disposal. This revision is also intended to update the cleanup schedule by presenting the cleanup progress that has taken place and NRC's role in ongoing and future cleanup activities

  13. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  14. Analysis of Transport Policy Effect on CO2 Emissions Based on System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emission from the transport sector attracts the attention of both transport and climate change policymakers because of its share in total green house gas emissions and the forecast of continuous growth reported in many countries. This paper takes the urban transport in Beijing as a case and builds a system dynamics model for analysis of the motorization trend and the assessment of CO2 emissions mitigation policy. It is found that the urban transport condition and CO2 emissions would be more serious with the growth of vehicle ownership and travel demand. Compared with the baseline do-nothing scenario, the CO2 emissions could be reduced from 3.8% to 24.3% in 2020 by various transport policies. And the policy of controlling the number of passenger cars which has been carried out in Beijing and followed by some cities could achieve good results, which may help to increase the proportion of public transit to 55.6% and reduce the CO2 emission by 18.3% compared with the baseline scenario in 2020.

  15. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J; Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F; Dong, Fengxia; Du Xiaodong; Martin, Pamela A; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-01-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO 2 -equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  16. Tradeable CO2 emission permits. A quantitative analysis of a TEP system between Annex I countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutstaal, P.R.; Kram, T.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1997-11-01

    Tradeable emission permits can be a cost-effective way to achieve emission reductions between countries or firms. In this study, the role of trading CO 2 emission permits between the Annex I countries of the FCCC is analysed. It is assumed that only countries are allowed to trade and that there is a perfect market without transaction costs and strategic behaviour. For several cases, the consequences for abatement costs, before and after trade, the volume of permits traded and emissions per capita are studied. Moreover, the gains from trade are determined. This study was undertaken before the Kyoto conference, therefore as a starting point for the different cases it was assumed that all countries should reduce their emissions with 10%. The cases studied are: a flat rate of 10% for each country; the differentiated EU distribution combined with a 10% reduction for the other OECD countries; and the so-called Triptych approach applied to all OECD countries. Two trading systems are considered, one covering only the OECD countries and one which also covers Middle and Eastern European countries (in a simplified way). Furthermore, two extreme cases are studied for the OECD trading scheme: equal costs (after trade) per unit of GNP and equal emission per capita (before trade). Tradeable emission permits will considerably reduce total costs compared with no trade by about 50%. The EU will considerably reduce total costs compared with no trade by about 50%. The EU will be a net exporter of permits in an OECD trading scheme (without Middle and Eastern Europe), mainly because the low costs possibilities for reduction of CO 2 emissions in Germany and the United Kingdom. 13 refs

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  18. Crack Propagation Analysis Using Acoustic Emission Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Walter; Steck, James

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace systems are expected to remain in service well beyond their designed life. Consequently, maintenance is an important issue. A novel method of implementing artificial neural networks and acoustic emission sensors to form a structural health monitoring (SHM) system for aerospace inspection routines was the focus of this research. Simple structural elements, consisting of flat aluminum plates of AL 2024-T3, were subjected to increasing static tensile loading. As the loading increased, designed cracks extended in length, releasing strain waves in the process. Strain wave signals, measured by acoustic emission sensors, were further analyzed in post-processing by artificial neural networks (ANN). Several experiments were performed to determine the severity and location of the crack extensions in the structure. ANNs were trained on a portion of the data acquired by the sensors and the ANNs were then validated with the remaining data. The combination of a system of acoustic emission sensors, and an ANN could determine crack extension accurately. The difference between predicted and actual crack extensions was determined to be between 0.004 in. and 0.015 in. with 95% confidence. These ANNs, coupled with acoustic emission sensors, showed promise for the creation of an SHM system for aerospace systems. PMID:24023536

  19. 40 CFR 60.2940 - How do I make sure my continuous emission monitoring systems are operating correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emission monitoring systems are operating correctly? 60.2940 Section 60.2940 Protection of Environment... monitoring systems are operating correctly? (a) Conduct initial, daily, quarterly, and annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems that measure carbon monoxide and oxygen. (b) Complete your...

  20. Road dust emissions from paved roads measured using different mobile systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjola, Liisa; Johansson, Christer; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Stojiljkovic, Ana; Karlsson, Hans; Hussein, Tareq

    2010-12-01

    Very few real-world measurements of road dust suspension have been performed to date. This study compares two different techniques (referred to as Sniffer and Emma) to measure road dust emissions. The main differences between the systems are the construction of the inlet, different instruments for recording particulate matter (PM) levels, and different loads on the wheel axes (the weight of Sniffer was much higher than that of Emma). Both systems showed substantial small-scale variations of emission levels along the road, likely depending on-road surface conditions. The variations observed correlated quite well, and the discrepancies are likely a result of variations in dust load on the road surface perpendicular to the driving direction that cause variations in the measurements depending on slightly different paths driven by the two vehicles. Both systems showed a substantial influence on the emission levels depending on the type of tire used. The summer tire showed much lower suspension than the winter tires (one nonstudded and one studded). However, the relative importance of the nonstudded versus studded tire was rather different. For the ratio of studded/nonstudded, Emma shows higher values on all road sections compared with Sniffer. Both techniques showed increased emission levels with increasing vehicle speed. When the speed increased from 50 to 80 km hr(-1), the relative concentrations increased by 30-170% depending on the tire type and dust load. However, for road sections that were very dirty, Sniffer showed a much higher relative increase in the emission level with the nonstudded tire. Sniffer's absolute concentrations were mostly higher than Emma's. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper. Both systems can be used for studying relative road dust emissions and for designing air quality management strategies.

  1. Emissions of N2O from peat soils under different cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Lisbet; Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture use leads to an increase in nitrogen turnover rate causing emissions of N2O to the atmosphere. Agriculture contributes to a substantial part of the anthropogenic emissions of N2O therefore mitigation options for the farmers are important. Here we present a field study with the aim to investigate if the choice of cropping system can mitigate the emission of N2O from cultivated organic soils. The sites used in the study represent fen peat soils with a range of different soil properties located in different parts of southern Sweden. All sites are on active farms with good drainage. N2O emissions from the soil under two different crops grown on the same field, with the same soil type, drainage intensity and weather conditions, are compared by gas sampling. The crops included are oat, barley, carrot, potato and grassland. Three or four sampling occasions during the growing season in 2010 were carried out with static chambers. The N2O emission is calculated from the linear increase of gas concentration in the chamber headspace during the incubation time of 40 minutes. Parallel to the gas sampling soil temperature and soil moisture are measured and some soil properties determined. The result from the gas sampling and measurements show no significant difference in seasonal average N2O emission between the compared crops at any site. There are significant differences in N2O emissions between the compared crops at some of the single sampling occasions but the result vary and no crop can be pointed out as a mitigation option. The seasonal average N2O emissions varies from 16±17 to 1319±1971 μg N2O/m2/h with peaks up to 3317 μg N2O/m2/h. The N2O emission rate from peat soils are determined by other factors than the type of crops grown on the field. The emission rates vary during the season and especially between sites. Although all sites are fen peat soil the soil properties are different, e.g. carbon content varies between 27-43% and

  2. Global freshwater thermal emissions from steam-electric power plants with once-through cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptis, Catherine E.; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of heat are rejected into freshwater bodies from power plants employing once-through cooling systems, often leading to temperature increases that disturb aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this work was to produce a high resolution global picture of power-related freshwater thermal emissions and to analyse the technological, geographical and chronological patterns behind them. The Rankine cycle was systematically solved for ∼2400 generating units with once-through cooling systems, distinguishing between simple and cogenerative cycles, giving the rejected heat as a direct output. With large unit sizes, low efficiencies, and high capacity factors, nuclear power plants reject 3.7 GW heat into freshwater on average, contrasting with 480 MW rejected from coal and gas power plants. Together, nuclear and coal-fuelled power plants from the 1970s and 1980s account for almost 50% of the rejected heat worldwide, offering motivation for their phasing out in the future. Globally, 56% of the emissions are rejected into rivers, pointing to potential areas of high thermal pollution, with the rest entering lakes and reservoirs. The outcome of this work can be used to further investigate the identified thermal emission hotspots, and to calculate regionalized water temperature increase and related impacts in environmental, energy-water nexus studies and beyond. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic cycles of ∼2400 power units with once-through cooling were solved. • Global freshwater heat emissions depend on technology, geography & chronology. • Half the global emissions come from nuclear and coal plants from the 70s & 80s. • Hotspots of freshwater thermal emissions were identified globally. • Global georeferenced emissions are available for use in water temperature models.

  3. Combining innovative technology demonstrations with dense nonaqueous phase liquids cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Koegler, K.J.; Rohay, V.J.; Trent, S.J.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.; Tomich, S.

    1993-05-01

    Radioactively contaminated acidic aqueous wastes and organic liquids were discharged to the soil column at three disposal sites within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site, Washington. As a result, a portion of the underlying groundwater is contaminated with carbon tetrachloride several orders of magnitude above the maximum contaminant level accepted for a drinking water supply. Treatability testing and cleanup actions have been initiated to remove the contamination from both the unsaturated soils to minimize further groundwater contamination and the groundwater itself. To expedite cleanup, innovative technologies for (1) drilling, (2) site characterization, (3) monitoring, (4) well field development, and (5) contaminant treatment are being demonstrated and subsequently used where possible to improve the rates and cost savings associated with the removal of carbon tetrachloride from the soils and groundwater

  4. San Diego perspective on UST clean-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1994, CalEPA State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/University of California (LLNL/UC) to review the current UST regulatory framework and cleanup process. As a result of their review, LLNL/UC recommended changes to expedite the cleanup process at leaking UST sites. The LLNL/UC report concludes that natural attenuation of petroleum is an important factor in stabilizing plumes and may be the only remedial activity necessary in the absence of the source. After a review of existing literature and a study of selected leaking UST cases primarily from Coastal Range sedimentary or valley alluvium hydrogeochemical provinces, the LLNL/UC report found that petroleum plumes tend to stabilize close to the source, generally occur in shallow groundwater, and rarely impact drinking water wells in the state. The study and report recommendations focused solely on fuel petroleum hydrocarbon constituents

  5. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean-atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towles, N.; Olson, P.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR) model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b), we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  6. Scaling laws for perturbations in the ocean–atmosphere system following large CO2 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Towles

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scaling relationships are found for perturbations to atmosphere and ocean variables from large transient CO2 emissions. Using the Long-term Ocean-atmosphere-Sediment CArbon cycle Reservoir (LOSCAR model (Zeebe et al., 2009; Zeebe, 2012b, we calculate perturbations to atmosphere temperature, total carbon, ocean temperature, total ocean carbon, pH, alkalinity, marine-sediment carbon, and carbon-13 isotope anomalies in the ocean and atmosphere resulting from idealized CO2 emission events. The peak perturbations in the atmosphere and ocean variables are then fit to power law functions of the form of γ DαEβ, where D is the event duration, E is its total carbon emission, and γ is a coefficient. Good power law fits are obtained for most system variables for E up to 50 000 PgC and D up to 100 kyr. Although all of the peak perturbations increase with emission rate E/D, we find no evidence of emission-rate-only scaling, α + β = 0. Instead, our scaling yields α + β ≃ 1 for total ocean and atmosphere carbon and 0 < α + β < 1 for most of the other system variables.

  7. Bioremediation case study: Fuel-contaminated soil cleanup in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machanoff, R.

    1992-01-01

    Using microbes to degrade fuels in contaminated soils is becoming increasingly more attractive as an approach to environmental restoration. Removing contamination by traditional methods is costly, does not always eliminate the problem, and often just moves it somewhere else. Biodegradation of contaminants can often be accomplished in situ, resulting in the actual destruction of the contaminants by microbial conversion to harmless by-products. Bioremediation is not applicable to all forms of environmental contamination but has been demonstrated to be particularly effective on petroleum hydrocarbon based fuels. Bioremediation can offer a cost-effective means for site cleanup, particularly where challenging logistical considerations have to be factored into cleanup projects. Logistical considerations have made bioremediation the method of choice for the decontamination of fuel-containing soils on Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Kwajalein is located more than 2,100 miles west of Hawaii in the southernmost part of the North Pacific. The site of a major missile range of the Strategic Defense Command (SDC), Kwajalein has been the center of US defense activities for almost 50 years. The island is part of a typical coral atoll and is only 2.5 miles long and 0.5 miles wide. Mission-related activities over the past 5 decades have resulted in about 10% of the island being contaminated with diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. SDC has executed an agreement with the Department of Energy for the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), a division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to assist the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) in the management of the Base restoration activities on Kwajalein Atoll. HAZWRAP initiated sampling and feasibility studies to determine whether bioremediation was a viable choice for site cleanup at USAKA

  8. Public participation in the evaluation of innovative environmental cleanup technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Serie, P.; Niesen, K.

    1994-08-01

    Technologies for remediation of contamination are urgently needed to clean up US Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the country. DOE is managing a national program to develop, demonstrate, and deploy new technologies with promise to expedite this cleanup. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is one such effort. Time and resources, however, are too limited to be invested in methods of remediation that will never be deployed because they have not been rigorously evaluated or because they face the withering opposition of stakeholders. Therefore the VOC-Arid ID is assessing technology both in terms of its technical effectiveness and its stakeholder acceptability. Only if a technology performs as required and is acceptable to regulators, users of technology, and the public will the VOC-Arid ID recommend its use. What distinguishes public involvement in the VOC-Arid ID is the direct influence stakeholders have on the design of technology demonstrations by working directly with technology developers. Stakeholders participated in defining the criteria with which innovative environmental cleanup technology is being evaluated. The integrated demonstration is committed to providing stakeholders with the information they've indicated they need to reach reasoned judgments about the use of specific cleanup technologies. A guiding principle of the VOC-Arid ID is that stakeholder participation improves the technologies being developed, enhances the acceptance of the technologies, and will lead to the broad and timely deployment of appropriate and effective methods of environmental remediation. The VOC-Arid ID has involved stakeholders from the host demonstration site, Hanford, Washington, and from other and sites where the ID technologies may be deployed

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Capron

    2006-02-09

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste.

  10. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  11. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-259 Waste Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capron, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 600-259 waste site. The site was the former site of the Special Waste Form Lysimeter, consisting of commercial reactor isotope waste forms in contact with soils within engineered caissons, and was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to collect data regarding leaching behavior for target analytes. A Grout Waste Test Facility also operated at the site, designed to test leaching rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive waste

  12. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-3 Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-3 Solid Waste Burial Ground, also referred to as Burial Ground Number 3 and the Dry Waste Burial Ground Number 3. During its period of operation, the 618-3 site was used to dispose of uranium-contaminated construction debris from the 311 Building and construction/demolition debris from remodeling of the 313, 303-J and 303-K Buildings

  14. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  15. User needs for a standardized CO2 emission assessment methodology for intelligent transport systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, D.; Rekiel, J.; Wolfermann, A.; Klunder, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Amitran FP7 project will define a reference methodology to assess the impact of intelligent transport systems on CO2 emissions. The methodology is intended to be used as a reference by future projects and covers both passenger and freight transport. The project will lead to a validated

  16. The integrated modeling system STONE for calculating nutrient emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Groenendijk, P.; Kroon, T.; Rötter, R.P.; Zeijts, van H.

    2003-01-01

    For the Netherlands, a nutrient emission modeling system, called STONE, has been developed. It was designed for evaluation at the national and regional scale of the effects of changes in the agricultural sector (e.g. changes in fertilizer recommendations and cropping patterns) and in policy measures

  17. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O)emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O...

  18. Nitrogen management impacts nitrous oxide emissions under varying cotton irrigation systems in the American Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid Western US. The objective of these studies...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from a wheat-maize double cropping system with different nitrogen fertilization regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.K.; Su, F.; Ju, X.T.; Gao, B.; Oenema, O.; Christie, P.; Huang, B.X.; Jiang, R.F.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a two-years field experiment aimed at the quantification of the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from the dominant wheat maize double cropping system in North China Plain. The experiment had 6 different fertilization strategies, including a control treatment,

  20. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  1. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  2. Optimization of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements with the system IL096

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at Aalborg University are performed with the commercial system ILO96 from Otodynamics. The default measuring setup is not adequate for monitoring the recovery of DPOAEs after noise exposure because (1) data collection is interrupte...

  3. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  4. A vertex including emission of spin fields for an arbitrary bc system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, P.; Madsen, R.A.; Roland, K.

    1990-01-01

    We construct the (N+2M) Point Vertex involving the emission of N Neveu-Schwarz and 2M Ramond states for a bosonic and fermionic bc system with a bockground charge Q. From it one can compute correlation functions on the sphere involving any number of spin fields. We show in detail that the vertex satisfies overlap conditions. (orig.)

  5. Characteristics of a single photon emission tomography system with a wide field gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonnat, F.; Soussaline, F.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Kellershohn, C.

    1979-01-01

    This text summarizes a work study describing the imagery possibilities of a single photon emission tomography system composed of a conventional wide field gamma camera, connected to a computer. The encouraging results achieved on the various phantoms studied suggest a significant development of this technique in clinical work in Nuclear Medicine Departments [fr

  6. Fast ion emission from the plasma produced by the PALS laser system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wolowski, J.; Badziak, J.; Boody, F. P.; Hora, H.; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Jungwirth, Karel; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Parys, P.; Peřina, Vratislav; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Ryc, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Woryna, E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2002), s. 1277-1283 ISSN 0741-3335 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : emission * plasma produced * PALS laser system ? Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2002

  7. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  8. Lessons learned at TMI: cleanup for respiratory protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, B.A.; Gee, E.F.

    1987-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) presented GPU Nuclear with technical challenges unprecedented in the nuclear power industry. Among these challenges were a myriad of health physics problems that had to be solved to ensure a radiologically safe environment for workers performing cleanup activities. The application of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) philosophy has been a fundamental aspects in protecting cleanup workers. The unique conditions produced by the accident, however, have necessitated novel and innovative approaches in making this philosophy effective. The option to use respirators is based on which method will result in the lowest radiation dose to the worker. Inherent to this program has been the training of workers to overcome the perception that any internal contamination is of foremost concern and is orders of magnitude greater in biological effect than an identical external dose. It is, of course, the total dose (internal dose plus external dose) that must be minimized to implement a true ALARA philosophy. The need for considering the total radiation dose when making decisions to use respirators has been clear during the TMI-2 cleanup. Prescribing respirators is not always good for the ALARA concept

  9. Biological effects of three different shoreline cleanup methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, J.; Lethinen, C.; Linden, O.

    1981-06-01

    In order to simulate a real oil spill the shore of a small island in the Baltic proper was treated with a weathered crude oil. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare environmental impact of some shoreline cleanup techniques as well as the effectiveness of these methods. Hot water was the quickest cleanup method, whereas cleaning with a solvent took twice as much time and mechanical recovery three and a half time as much. The hot water treatment resulted in the smallest amounts of oil left in the soil compared to the two other methods, where two to three times as much was left. The oil content in sedimenting material and in mussels was highest outside the area cleaned with hot water. The oil content in mussel tissues increased 75 times after cleaning and the sediment contained about twice as much oil as outside the other areas. The vegetation on all four oiled areas was considerably reduced and the soil fauna was completely eliminated. Since no animals were found on the four oiled areas, not even on the untreated area, it appeared to be the oil itself that caused this effect. The number of animals caught with pitfall traps decreased after oiling and cleanup to between 10-40 % of the original amount. The results from the investigation of the fauna in the Cladophora-belt do not indicate any effects so far.

  10. Thyroid disorders in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Orlikovs, G.; Ritenberga, R.; Skudra, M.; Lemane, R.; Lemanis, A.; Curbakova, E.; Groma, V.; Socnevs, A.

    1999-01-01

    The condition of thyroid was examined in 2188 Chernobyl clean-up workers residing in Latvia and a control group consisting of 1041 employees of the Ministry of International Affairs. Thyroid examinations included palpation, ultrasonography, selective scintigraphy and detection of the level of thyroid hormones in blood serum:L STH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), total T3 (triiodothyronine), and T4 (thyroxine). Thyroid was registered in 394 Chernobyl clean-up workers. Of these cases, 28 patients with suspected thyroid cancer were operated, and morphological examinations revealed papillary adenocarcinoma (in 5 patients), follicular adenocarcinoma (2), nodular colloid goiter (16); toxic diffuse goiter (1), papillary-follicular adenoma (3), and chronic thyroiditis (1). It was determined that the thyroid pathology in the Chernobyl clean-up workers had a tendency to progress (27 cases in 1987 versus 394 cases in 1998 in total; and absence of thyroid cancer in 1987, compared with 7 cases in 1998); thyroid nodules increased twice (64 cases in 1997, compare with 126 cases in 1998). (author)

  11. Environmental Cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park Year One - Execution with Certainty SM - 13120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, A.L. [URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-7294 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    On August 1, 2011, URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) began its five-year, $1.4 billion cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), located on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. UCOR will close out cleanup operations that began in 1998 under a previous contract. When the Contract Base scope of work [1] is completed in 2016, the K-25 gaseous diffusion building will have been demolished and all waste dispositioned, demolition will have started on the K-27 gaseous diffusion building, all contact-handled and remote-handled transuranic waste in inventory (approximately 500 cubic meters) will have been transferred to the Transuranic Waste Processing Center, previously designated 'No-Path-To-Disposition Waste' will have been dispositioned to the extent possible, and UCOR will have managed DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM)- owned facilities at ETTP, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Y-12 National Security Complex in a safe and cost-effective manner. Since assuming its responsibilities as the ETTP cleanup contractor, UCOR has completed its life-cycle Performance Measurement Baseline; received its Earned Value Management System (EVMS) certification; advanced the deactivation and demolition (D and D) of the K-25 gaseous diffusion building; recovered and completed the Tank W-1A and K-1070-B Burial Ground remediation projects; characterized, packaged, and shipped contact-handled transuranic waste to the Transuranic Waste Processing Center; disposed of more than 90,000 cubic yards of cleanup waste while managing the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF); and provided operations, surveillance, and maintenance activities at DOE EM facilities at ETTP, ORNL, and the Y-12 National Security Complex. Project performance as of December 31, 2012 has been excellent: - Cost Performance Index - 1.06; - Schedule Performance Index - 1.02. At the same time, since safety is the foundation of

  12. Distributions of emissions intensity for individual beef cattle reared on pasture-based production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, G A; Takahashi, T; Orr, R J; Harris, P; Lee, M R F

    2018-01-10

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of livestock production systems is often based on inventory data for farms typical of a study region. As information on individual animals is often unavailable, livestock data may already be aggregated at the time of inventory analysis, both across individual animals and across seasons. Even though various computational tools exist to consider the effect of genetic and seasonal variabilities in livestock-originated emissions intensity, the degree to which these methods can address the bias suffered by representative animal approaches is not well-understood. Using detailed on-farm data collected on the North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) in Devon, UK, this paper proposes a novel approach of life cycle impact assessment that complements the existing LCA methodology. Field data, such as forage quality and animal performance, were measured at high spatial and temporal resolutions and directly transferred into LCA processes. This approach has enabled derivation of emissions intensity for each individual animal and, by extension, its intra-farm distribution, providing a step towards reducing uncertainty related to agricultural production inherent in LCA studies for food. Depending on pasture management strategies, the total emissions intensity estimated by the proposed method was higher than the equivalent value recalculated using a representative animal approach by 0.9-1.7 kg CO 2 -eq/kg liveweight gain, or up to 10% of system-wide emissions. This finding suggests that emissions intensity values derived by the latter technique may be underestimated due to insufficient consideration given to poorly performing animals, whose emissions becomes exponentially greater as average daily gain decreases. Strategies to mitigate life-cycle environmental impacts of pasture-based beef productions systems are also discussed.

  13. Combined solar and pellet heating systems : Study of energy use and CO-emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Frank

    2006-01-01

    In this study 4 solar and pellet heating systems have been studied with the help of annual dynamic simulations. Two of the systems comprised a pellet stove and two systems were solar combisystems; one with a store integrated pellet burner, the other with a separate pellet boiler. The aim was to evaluate their thermal performance and their CO-emissions. The systems have been modelled based on lab measurements of the single system components. The used models allow a detailed study of the dynami...

  14. Enteric methane emissions and their response to agro-ecological and livestock production systems dynamics in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svinurai, Walter; Mapanda, Farai; Sithole, Dingane; Moyo, Elisha N; Ndidzano, Kudzai; Tsiga, Alois; Zhakata, Washington

    2018-03-01

    Without disregarding its role as one of the key sources of sustainable livelihoods in Zimbabwe and other developing countries, livestock production contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation. For the livestock sector to complement global efforts to mitigate climate change, accurate estimations of GHG emissions are required. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in Zimbabwe were quantified over 35years under four production systems and five agro-ecological regions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission factor methodology was used to derive CH 4 emissions from seven livestock categories at national level. Emission intensities based on human population, domestic export of livestock meat and climate variables were used to assess emission drivers and predict future emission trends. Over the past 35years, enteric fermentation CH 4 emissions from all livestock categories ranged between 158.3 and 204.3Ggyear -1 . Communal lands, typified by indigenous livestock breeds, had the highest contribution of between 58% and 75% of the total annual emissions followed by livestock from large scale commercial (LSC) farms. The decreasing livestock population on LSC farms and consequent decline in production could explain the lack of a positive response of CH 4 emissions to human population growth, and decreasing emissions per capita over time at -0.3kg CH 4 capita -1 year -1 . The emissions trend showed that even if Zimbabwe's national livestock population doubles in 2030 relative to the 2014 estimates, the country would still remain with similar magnitude of CH 4 emission intensity as that of 1980. No significant correlations (P>0.05) were found between emissions and domestic export of beef and pork. Further research on enhanced characterisation of livestock species, population and production systems, as well as direct measurements and modelling of emissions from indigenous and exotic livestock breeds were

  15. TEST REPORT OF MOBILE SOURCE EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVICES DONALDSON COMPANY INC.SERIES 6100 DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST MUFFLER AND SPIRACLE CLOSED CRANKCASE FILTRATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is on an environmental verification of the emissions characteristics of a Donaldson Corp. catalytic muffler and catalyic crankcase emissions control. It was found the systems reduced emissions.

  16. Change impact analysis on the life cycle carbon emissions of energy systems – The nuclear example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper evaluates the life cycle carbon emission of nuclear power in a scenario based approach. • It quantifies the impacts to the LCA results from the change in design parameters. • The methodology can give indications towards preferred or favorable designs. • The findings contribute to the life cycle inventories of energy systems. - Abstract: The life cycle carbon emission factor (measured by t-CO 2 /GW h) of nuclear power is much lower than those of fossil fueled power generation technologies. However, the fact of nuclear energy being a low carbon power source comes with many assumptions. These assumptions range from system and process definitions, to input–output definitions, to system boundary and cut-off criteria selections, and life cycle inventory dataset. However, there is a somewhat neglected but critical aspect – the design aspect. This refers to the impacts on the life cycle carbon emissions from the change in design parameters related to nuclear power. The design parameters identified in this paper include: (1) the uranium ore grade, (2) the critical process technologies, represented by the average initial enrichment concentration of 235 U in the reactor fuel, and (3) the size of the nuclear power reactor (measured by the generating capacity). If not properly tested, assumptions in the design aspect can lead to an erroneous estimation on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. In this paper, a methodology is developed using the Process Chain Analysis (PCA) approach to quantify the impacts of the changes in the selected design parameters on the life cycle carbon emission factor of nuclear power. The concept of doing so broadens the scope of PCAs on energy systems from “one-off” calculation to analysis towards favorable/preferred designs. The findings from the analyses can serve as addition to the life cycle inventory database for nuclear power as well as provide indications for the sustainability of

  17. Evaluating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Systems for Agricultural Waste Burning Using MODIS Active Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H.; Jin, Y.; Giglio, L.; Foley, J. A.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. We evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries and the consistency of emissions reporting among countries. We also evaluated the success of the individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. We combined global crop maps with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. At a global scale, we recommend adding ground nuts, cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, pulse other and rye from the UNFCCC list of 14 crops. This leads to an overall increase of 6% of the active fires covered by the reporting system. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 10% to 20%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico and Nigeria) would capture over 58% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the U.S. and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year-to-year variations in agricultural fire emissions. Remote sensing provides an efficient tool for an independent assessment of current UNFCCC emissions reporting system; and, if combined with census data, field experiments and expert opinion, has the potential for improving the robustness of the next generation inventory

  18. Bacteria Provide Cleanup of Oil Spills, Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Marshall Space Flight Center, Micro-Bac International Inc., of Round Rock, Texas, developed a phototrophic cell for water purification in space. Inside the cell: millions of photosynthetic bacteria. Micro-Bac proceeded to commercialize the bacterial formulation it developed for the SBIR project. The formulation is now used for the remediation of wastewater systems and waste from livestock farms and food manufacturers. Strains of the SBIR-derived bacteria also feature in microbial solutions that treat environmentally damaging oil spills, such as that resulting from the catastrophic 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. A multicrystal two dimensional BGO detector system for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, M.E.; Nutt, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of a new multicrystal detector system as it is implemented in Positron Emission Tomography. The system consists of a 32 x 8 matrix of BGO crystals, a tuned light pipe, and four photomultipliers. The electronics that decodes the position consists of fast preamps, gated integrators, and level comparators. This detector represents a major development toward reducing the cost of PET

  20. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.