WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission trading findings

  1. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  2. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  3. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  4. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  5. Emissions trading under market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, P.

    2013-08-15

    In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the effects of uncertain permit price on the firms choice of emission intensive and clean inputs in an multi-input production process. We also assess the risk aversion factors of some Finnish heat and power producers. Second, we study imperfect competition in output and permit markets with a two-stage model, where output decision is made before permit trades. The emphasis is on the strategic interaction between firms and on the efficiency increasing regulation. Third, we turn back to uncertainty and analyse the welfare difference between emissions trading and emission tax, when some of the firms may be noncompliant. The main finding is that welfare is greater with emission tax than with emissions trading, when at least one firm is noncompliant. Finally, we extend some existing models of permit banking and borrowing to encompass also noncompliant behavior of firms. Here, we analyse the incentives of compliant firms to become noncompliant at some point in time and also the time paths of the choice variables. (orig.)

  6. Price floors for emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Peter John, E-mail: Peter.J.Wood@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Jotzo, Frank, E-mail: frank.jotzo@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: {yields} Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. {yields} Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. {yields} We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. {yields} We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. {yields} We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  7. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The innovation impact of EU emission trading. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development, and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the rela-tive influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors, public acceptance) as well as firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size, vision). Empirically, our analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers, and project developers in the German power sector which we conducted from June 2008 until June 2009. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack in stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies tremendously across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions, and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and corporate procedural change. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS by itself may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate climate innovation activities at a level adequate for reaching political long-term targets. Based on the study's findings, we derive a set of policy and research recommendations. (orig.)

  9. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2011-01-15

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  10. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    that industry will have most influence on government policy, with environmental organizations taking second place. Our conclusion is that most interest groups prefer a combination of government trading and credit trading even though permit trading is more efficient. Furthermore, some governments prefer......The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...... government trading because it retains the possibility of hot air trading. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  11. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    The thesis discusses energy, environmental and economic aspects of polluting emissions with emphasis on greenhouse gas trade and political measures. 5 papers are included with titles: 1) Carbon trading across sources and periods constrained by the Marrakesh Accords which examines examine the potential effects on permit prices and abatement costs of four compliance rules governing emissions trade across sources and periods in the Kyoto Protocol: The banking rule that allows excess permits to be used later; the restoration rate rule that penalizes borrowing; the commitment period reserve rule that limits sales; and finally, the suspension rule that restricts borrowing and sales. Our framework is a two-period model where parties may be out of compliance in the Kyoto period, but are assumed to comply at a later time. Under varying assumptions about market power and US participation, we find that the rules may have pronounced effects on individual costs, but overall efficiency is not severely affected. 2) Affine price expectations and equilibrium in strategic markets which considers equilibrium in imperfect markets, featuring agents who exchange property rights. Important cases include trade in emission permits of greenhouse gases, or exchange of catch quotas of fish. Some players act strategically while others are price-takers. The ''demand curve'' is endogenous, and it affects all parties. The resulting, reduced objectives need not be concave. Therefore, existence of equilibrium is a delicate matter. To simplify things, and to ensure availability of ''equilibria up to first order'', we presume that all strategic agents form affine price expectations. 3) Greenhouse gases, quota exchange and oligopolistic competition that discusses the problem how quotas can be shared in the ''emissions market'' and how can the agents reach as overall equilibrium in the product market. 4) Strategic markets in property rights

  12. Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides the latest developments of announced, proposed and existing greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes (ETS) around the world since 2006. It also examines different potential design options for ETS (e.g. coverage, allocation mode, provision for offsets), and how these options are treated in the existing, announced or proposed schemes.

  13. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  14. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  15. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  16. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  17. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  18. Emissions trading and profit-neutral grandfathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, Cameron; Ritz, Robert; Quah, John (Oxford Univ., Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the amount of grandfathering needed for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to have a neutral impact on firm profits. We provide a simple formula to calculate profit-neutral grandfathering in an asymmetric Cournot model with a general demand function. Using this formula, we obtain estimates of profit-neutral grandfathering for the electricity, cement, newsprint and steel industries. Under the current EU ETS, firms obtain close to full grandfathering. We find no evidence that any industry as a whole could be worse off with full grandfathering. We also show that the common presumption that a higher rate of cost pass-through lowers profit-neutral grandfathering is unreliable

  19. 40 CFR 1042.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1042.720..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of... further trading transactions. (b) You may trade actual emission credits as described in this subpart. You...

  20. Cosmopolitanism, climate change, and greenhouse emissions trading

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether international markets in allowances conferring the right to emit greenhouse gases are consistent with a cosmopolitan approach to global and intergenerational justice. After placing emissions trading within the context of both climate change policy and cosmopolitan political theory, three normative objections are examined to the use of emissions trading to mitigate the threat of dangerous climate change. Each objection arises from a different appli...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1033.720... CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1033.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of emission credits between certificate holders. You...

  2. The implementation of emissions trading in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.; Antes, R.; Hansjürgens, B.; Letmathe, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates what activities large companies have undertaken to utilize emissions trading and/or offset projects as part of a strategy for climate change. The main objective is to explore how the political conditions in home countries have affected corporate activity towards emissions

  3. Including International Aviation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsch, Fredrik

    2011-07-01

    Starting on January 1 st, 2012, the international aviation sector will be included into the already existing EU ETS. All air crafts departing and arriving within the European Union will be obliged to hold permits corresponding to their total emissions of CO{sub 2} for those routes. Since emissions from the international aviation sector are not included under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Commission has decided to introduce a trading barrier between the sectors in order not to jeopardize the Kyoto targets. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the potential loss in cost-effectiveness of introducing such a trading barrier between two sectors taking into account that damage from emissions is not necessarily uniform. A theoretical model is developed to address the question and it is found that, at least for the case with linking the international aviation sector to the stationary sources within the EU ETS, the trading barrier might be unwarranted as it might lead to higher damage from emissions as compared to alternative ways to link the trading sectors. However, it should be stressed that this finding is not general and caution should be taken in the future when linking emission trading schemes as, depending on the heterogeneity of emission damage, a trading barrier might very well be justified

  4. Enforcement of emissions trading - sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Weishaar, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the need of an

  5. Enforcement of emissions trading: Sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Chen, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the

  6. Sectoral and regional expansion of emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Bouwe, Dijkstra; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    We consider an international emissions trading scheme with partial sectoral and regional coverage. Sectoral and regional expansion of the trading scheme is beneficial in aggregate, but not necessarily for individual countries. We simulate international CO{sub 2} emission quota markets using marginal abatement cost functions and the Copenhagen 2020 climate policy targets for selected countries that strategically allocate emissions in a bid to manipulate the quota price. Quota exporters and importers generally have conflicting interests about admitting more countries to the trading coalition, and our results indicate that some countries may lose substantially when the coalition expands in terms of new countries. For a given coalition, expanding sectoral coverage makes most countries better off, but some countries (notably the USA and Russia) may lose out due to loss of strategic advantages. In general, exporters tend to have stronger strategic power than importers.(Author)

  7. EU Emission Trading: Starting with Carbon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Morten; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2003-01-01

    The Commission of the European Union wants to start a limited emission trading scheme by 2005 within the Community to enable "learning-by-doing" prior to the Kyoto Protocol. This to accomplish the desired 8% target level for six different greenhouse gases. However, in the EU it is not clear whether...... all the six relevant greenhouse gases or only CO2 should be traded. What is the simplest and most practicable solution? We argue in favour of the latter option for three main reasons: the possible dominating global warming potential of CO2, expected future developments in CO2 emissions and the fact...

  8. Emissions credits traded : solar developer sees potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-12-01

    The issue of buying and selling carbon dioxide emissions reductions through credit trades was discussed. Canada`s Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Trading (GERT) pilot program is a first step toward developing a commodity market for greenhouse gas offsets. The program is based on a credit system in which site-specific baselines for emissions are defined. As currently set up, a source reducing its emissions below its baseline receives a credit which can be sold to another source if needed. The first trade submitted to GERT displaces fossil-fuelled electricity with electricity produced by wind turbines. In this deal Calgary`s distribution utility, Enmax, is selling wind power and the resulting emissions reductions to the federal government for use in its own buildings . Another deal which may soon be submitted to GERT is a solar pool-heating project at a recreation centre in Lillooet, British Columbia. It will replace a propane heater. The amount of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions will be calculated from the amount of propane that has been displaced by solar heating.

  9. Restricted linking of emissions trading systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Lambert; Lazarus, Michael; Lee, Carrie; Asselt, van Harro

    2017-01-01

    With over 17 emissions trading systems (ETSs) now in place across four continents, interest in linking ETSs is growing. Linking ETSs offers economic, political, and administrative benefits. It also faces major challenges. Linking can affect overall ambition, financial flows, and the location and

  10. Combined Heat and Power and Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this IEA Information Paper is to help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the challenges facing the incorporation of high efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) into greenhouse gas (GHG) Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) -- and to propose options for overcoming them.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Farber, Daniel A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The major regulatory experiment with greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU enables legal scholars to learn lessons regarding its design options and implementation problems. Some fundamental concerns are: (1) the issue of how to develop a fair allocation method, also in view of carbon leakage;

  12. EU emissions trading: Distinctive behavior of small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Naegele, Helene; ZAKLAN, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the European Union's climate policy and covers just under half of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. More than ten years since the EU ETS was first introduced, there continues to be substantial research interest regarding its functioning and the behavior of participating companies. DIW Berlin conducted three econometric studies based on microdata at company and/or installation level. The findings suggest that, overall, there are o...

  13. Non-utility producers fear emission trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J

    1990-02-01

    This paper reports on the reaction of a non-utility power organization to the emission trading provisions of the Clean Air Act. The proposed amendments now being considered by both houses of Congress would place an absolute cap on the total SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions that can be released from fossil-fired electric generating plants nationwide. Under the proposal, emissions of SO{sub 2} from fossil-fired plants must be reduced by 9 million tons/year below those of 1980. This would be accomplished in two phases: plants over 100 MW must reduce emissions down to 2.5 lb/MMBtu after 1995; and by 2001 plants larger than 75 MW must not exceed emissions of 1.2 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2}.

  14. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under these circu......To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... commitment period. In addition, the proposals are tested for their sensitivity to national circumstances and to market power. We find that penalties are sufficient to deter non-compliance if they are high enough and are effectively enforced. If the non-compliance penalties are weak or poorly enforced...

  15. The Liability Rules under International GHG Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    Article 17 or the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. in designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one

  16. Fishers, Fair Trade, and finding middle ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Megan; Bush, Simon; Oosterveer, Peter; Larastiti, Laksmi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of Fair Trade certification is to contribute to sustainable development by offering trading conditions that are transparent and equitable. One important condition is improved market access and strengthened producer organizations. In regions like Southeast Asia this goal can be hard to

  17. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  18. Emissions Trading and Promotion of Renewable Energy: We Need Both

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2009-01-01

    Emissions trading and the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources are key elements of German and European energy and climate policy. However, some critics oppose a targeted promotion of renewable energy, arguing in particular that this is ineffective or even damaging in conjunction with European emissions trading. Yet upon closer examination, the coexistence of emissions trading and promotion of renewable energy is not only possible, it is essential-provided the interactions bet...

  19. Contribution of an emission trading scheme to reduce road traffic induced CO2 emissions in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Link, Christoph; Stark, Juliane; Sonntag, Axel; Hössinger, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The Emission Trading Scheme for green house gases is a key tool of European climate protection. Including the road transport sector might be a promising strategy to limit its CO2 emissions. This could be realized within a common market (trans-sectoral trading permitted) or separated markets (trans-sectoral trading not permitted). Starting from different assumptions on emission reduction objectives, the impact of both options is analyzed using a quantitative model. Although an emission trading...

  20. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  1. CH4 and N2O emissions embodied in international trade of meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Dario; LoPresti, Anna; Davis, Steven J.; Bastianoni, Simone; Caldeira, Ken

    2014-11-01

    Although previous studies have quantified carbon dioxide emissions embodied in products traded internationally, there has been limited attention to other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Following IPCC guidelines, we estimate non-CO2 emissions from beef, pork and chicken produced in 237 countries over the period 1990-2010, and assign these emissions to the country where the meat is ultimately consumed. We find that, between 1990 and 2010, an average of 32.8 Mt CO2-eq emissions (using 100 year global warming potentials) are embodied in beef, pork and chicken traded internationally. Further, over the 20 year period, the quantity of CO2-eq emissions embodied in traded meat increased by 19%. The largest trade flows of emissions embodied in meat were from Brazil and Argentina to Russia (2.8 and 1.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively). Trade flows within the European region are also substantial: beef and pork exported from France embodied 3.3 Mt and 0.4 Mt of CO2-eq, respectively. Emissions factor of meat production (i.e. CO2-eq emissions per kg of meat) produced depend on ambient temperature, development level, livestock category (e.g. cattle, pork, and chicken) and livestock management practices. Thus, trade may result in an overall increase of GHG emissions when meat-consuming countries import meat from countries with a greater emissions intensity of meat production rather than producing the meat domestically. Comparing the emissions intensity of meat production of trading partners, we assess trade flows according to whether they tend to reduce or increase global emissions from meat production.

  2. The EU Emissions Trading Directive: Opportunities and Potential Pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Pizer, William; Kruger, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The European Union is on the verge of establishing an emissions trading program ten times the size of the Acid Rain trading program in the United States. Its design takes advantage of many lessons from existing experience with trading programs, as well as economic theory, and innovates in important ways. While we view this as an impressive development, concerns about equity, enforcement, and efficiency remain. Specifically, a lack of data and weaker environmental institutions in some EU Membe...

  3. the europeanisation of emissions trading gerard h.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    ABSTRACT. The adoption of carbon market trading in the European Union (EU) was far from assured. Prior to the Kyoto Protocol, the EU had been critical of market trading and had expressed grave reservations regarding its potential contribution to climate governance. Given this historical backdrop, the EU's conversion to ...

  4. Greenhouse Gases Emissions Reduction and WTO Trade Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghwan Kim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reductioGreenhouse gases (GHGs cannot be contained within nations' border and climate change is certainly a global issue that requires global actions. Therefore, when a country considers domestic measures to reduce GHGs emissions, their impacts beyond the nation's border should be examined carefully. Possible effects through international trade are particularly important in the globalized world with growing trade and expanding capital movements. After reviewing the current status of multilateral environment agreements (MEAs, how they are related to WTO trade rules, legal questions and dispute cases that are possibly related to GHGs emissions reduction, this paper examines recently proposed border GHGs adjustment measures and various WTO agreements as potential tools that are promising or not promising. This paper also suggests how to make WTO’s potential tools ready and how to build global consensus so that we can avoid unilateral trade measures for climate change. Finally, policy implications for Korea are discussed.

  5. Why quota trade should be restricted: The arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westskog, Hege

    2001-07-01

    In this paper I try to clarify the background and arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and their suggestions of how the supplementarity cap in the Kyoto agreement can be operationalized. I discuss economic arguments for restricting quota trade with a focus on the market power issue, transaction costs, and ancillary benefits of reducing emissions of climate gases. I also address the problem of hot air as an important argument to restrict quota trade, and arguments for restrictions connected to technological innovation. Finally, I look into the ethical considerations of restrictions. (author)

  6. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  7. Supply Chain Greenhouse Gas Management under Emission Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Fang LI

    2016-01-01

    To curb global warming man has to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) created to the atmosphere by human activities, and it cannot neglect the efforts of corporate communities. Indeed, companiesa direct emissions are dwarfed by supply chain GHGs from an industry sector. No matter to prepare for future environmental regulations or to improve competitive advantages, companies are realizing that they have to reduce and mitigate GHGs from the supply chain perspective. Emission trading (also ca...

  8. Evaluation of Emissions Trading. Final Report; Evaluatie Emissiehandel. Eindrapportage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, V. (and others)

    2007-08-15

    Evaluation of emission trading with recommendations for improving and simplifying the trading system. The research limits itself to the aspects that can be adjusted by the Dutch government or improvements that can be influenced in the European Union. [mk]. [Dutch] Evaluatie van de emissiehandel met aanbevelingen om het handelssysteem te verbeteren en te vereenvoudigen. Het onderzoek beperkt zich tot hetgeen de Nederlandse overheid aan het systeem kan aanpassen of verbeteringen die het in de Europese Unie kan beinvloeden.

  9. Emissions trading. Legal issues with the third allocation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Markus [SCHOLTKA und PARTNER, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    The rules governing the allocation of emission allowances will change radically for the third allocation (trading) period starting in 2013: the allocation of allowances for emissions trading will be based on uniform European provisions. There will no longer be any free emission allowances for electricity production; all allowances will have to be purchased at auction instead. By contrast, industry will be eligible for a free allocation of emission allowances based on uniform Union-wide benchmarks, however these benchmarks are very onerous. A decision, which set out the rules, including the benchmarks of greenhouse gas emissions performance, was formally adopted by the European Commission on 27 April 2011. The demands on installation operators during the allocation process, which is supposed to be concluded by as early as autumn 2011, are therefore greater than they were before, and will also present a challenge in terms of timeframe. (orig.)

  10. The European Union’s Emissions Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Andriana Vlachou

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), which is often presented as the cornerstone of the EU’s strategy for fighting climate change. The paper analyses the basic design of the scheme, its workings during the first trading period (2005–07), the adjustments made for the second trading period (2008–12) and its performance during the years 2008 and 2009. It also discusses the European Commission’s (EC) proposal to revise the EU ETS for the period 2013–20 a...

  11. Judicial aspects of emission trade. Emission trade in the European Union; Juridische aspecten van emissiehandel. Emissiehandel in de Europese Unie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beuge, M.J.J. [EnergieGroep Simmons en Simmons Trenite, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-02-01

    Emission trade will start in Europe in 2005. In a series of articles an overview will be given of several juridical aspects with respect to the international and national trade of emission. In part 1 attention was paid to the international judicial basis for the present climate policy. In this article an overview is given of developments with regard to emission trade in the European Union. [Dutch] In 2005 zal in Europa een begin worden gemaakt met de emissiehandel. In een aantal artikelen wordt een overzicht gegeven van de verschillende juridische aspecten die samenhangen met de internationale en nationale emissiehandel. In deel 1 werd ingegaan op de internationaalrechtelijke basis voor het huidige klimaatbeleid. In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van de ontwikkelingen m.b.t. emissiehandel in de Europese Unie.

  12. Pricing Strategies under Emissions Trading - an experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wraake, Markus; Myers, Erica; Mandell, Svante; Holt, Charles; Burtraw, Dallas

    2008-10-15

    An important feature in the design of an emissions trading program is how emission allowances are initially distributed into the market. The choice between an auction and free allocation should, according to economic theory, not have any influence on the firms' production choices nor on consumer prices. However, many observers are still incredulous that firms should be expected to raise product prices to include the value of emissions allowances they receive for free. Throughout much of Europe and the U.S., energy markets have been deregulated or are in the process of moving toward market liberalization. If market behavior does not conform to predictions of behavior in a competitive market, this may say a great deal about the nature of market liberalization in energy markets as well as about the behavior of environmental markets. If firms are able to voluntarily moderate commodity prices to be below competitive levels, it suggests an ability of these entities to exercise market power or collude - even if this is motivated by a desire to hold back and not pass through the value of emissions allowances in product prices. This paper reports on the use of experimental methods to investigate behavior with respect to how prices will be determined under a cap-and-trade program. We find participants in the experiments employ various approaches. Some participants initially recognize the opportunity cost of emission allowances and included them in their economic choices regardless of how the allowances have been obtained, and other subjects initially do not. However, given a simple economic setting in which payoffs depend on this behavior, we find that subjects learn to consider the value of allowances and overall behavior moves toward that predicted by economic theory. The observations from the experiments may help to understand the ongoing public debate over the interaction of the EU ETS and energy markets. Emission allowance markets are a new phenomenon to many

  13. Examining drivers of the emissions embodied in trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leying Wu

    Full Text Available Emissions embodied in provincial trade (EEPT have important effects on provinces' responsibilities for carbon emission reductions. Based on a multi-regional input-output model, we calculated EEPT for China's 30 provinces in 2002, 2007 and 2010, and we attempted to determine the drivers of EEPT. The results showed that, during this period, the ratio of EEPT to production-based emissions increased over time, reaching 40.24% in 2010. In consideration of its important role in carbon emissions, we analyzed the factors attributable to EEPT through structure decomposition analysis. The decomposition results showed that final demand and carbon emission intensity were two major factors in EEPT, while the final demand in other provinces and the carbon emission intensity in the local province were major factors for Emissions embodied in provincial exports and the final demand in the local province and the carbon emission intensity in other provinces were major factors for Emissions embodied in provincial imports. Regarding the differences among the EEPT of different provinces, changes in the structure of trade were the primary reason.

  14. The trading game : emissions trading schemes offer pollution as a market commodity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, D.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the market mechanisms for emissions trading. The concept emerged in signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol in response to their commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Emissions trading systems allow large polluters to buy and sell pollution credits in order to meet emission reduction targets. While member states in the European Union (EU) started trading in February 2005, Canada is still developing its own proposal that will be introduced in 2008 to correspond with the first phase of the Kyoto Protocol. In contrast to the European model that places absolute limits on GHG emissions, the Canadian system is intensity-based. Heavy polluters, known as large final emitters, will have to cut emissions of the 6 GHGs covered under the Kyoto Protocol as a percentage of their total industrial output. Companies that reduce their emissions more than their defined targets can trade the surplus as credits on the open domestic market. It was argued that this allows businesses to meet their own emissions targets while failing to contribute effectively to Canada's overall Kyoto target. In addition, in order to lessen the burden to industry, Canada has imposed a $15 cap on the price of credits, which is in contrast to the European system. It was argued that businesses in Europe will be more motivated to meet their targets because of the higher value on European pollution credits. With less onus on business in Canada to reduce absolute targets, the burden of reducing GHG emissions has shifted to federal taxpayers. The paper addressed some of the factors that led to Canada's decision to use an intensity-based system. One main factor was the refusal of the United States to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and the cost disadvantage this would create for Canadian firms. However, some argue that by paying more attention to energy use, companies can reduce emissions and increase shareholder value by achieving cost savings that are greater than the

  15. Emissions trading: a transatlantic journey for an idea?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedenkopf, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which the EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading system (ETS) affected the design of similar programs in North America. It investigates the conditions under which EU pioneering policy can play a role in extra-EU jurisdictions’ policy-making. The empirical

  16. A structural decomposition analysis of the emissions embodied in trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yan; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    The aim of this study is to quantify the driving forces behind the growth of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in trade (EET). The World Input-output Database is used to estimate EET in 40 countries during 1995-2007 after which a structural decomposition analysis is applied. To avoid biases in the

  17. Does EU Emissions trading bite? : An event study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Thijs; Couwenberg, Oscar; Woerdman, Edwin

    The aim of this paper is to examine whether shareholders consider the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as value-relevant for the participating firms. An analysis is conducted of the share prices changes as caused by the first publication of compliance data in April, 2006, which disclosed an

  18. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  19. Carbon pricing : transaction costs of emissions trading vs. carbon taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Coria, Jessica; Jaraite, Jurate

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we empirically compare the transaction costs from monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of two environmental regulations directed to cost-efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions: a carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and a tradable emissions system. We do this in the case of Sweden, where a set of firms are covered by both types of regulations, i.e., the Swedish CO2 tax and the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). This provides us with an excellent case study as i...

  20. Trading sulphur emissions under the Second Sulphur Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foersund, Finn R.; Naevdal, Eric

    1997-07-01

    Emission trading is a potent policy instrument in theoretical analyses of environmental policy. However, trading in emission quotas of non-uniformly dispersed pollutants requires that the offsetting quantities vary with location of sources. Such a system is not yet in use. The Second Sulphur Protocol for Europe makes it possible to try out a system of ``exchange rates`` through a clause allowing ``joint implementation`` of emission reductions. In this report, the authors investigate some properties of a system with exogenous exchange rates within a simultaneous trade model based on cost efficiency. Incorporation of constraints on depositions in third party countries may be necessary in order to get third party country cooperation. It is demonstrated that imposition of constraints is feasible, but it is also revealed what demands such incorporation places on the design of the institutional setting. Constraints on trade should only be introduced when the concern for the environment of the various receptors fail to be captured adequately by the calibration of the exchange rates. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  2. Does permit price reflect fundamentals in the European Union emissions trading market? Theory and econometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.; Ollikainen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Economics and Management

    2007-07-01

    The European Union launched the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions trading system (EU ETS) to alleviate climate change and reach its Kyoto commitment. The EU ETS is the largest and most ambitious emissions trading program in the world. Its development, price fluctuations and volumes exchanged have been of great interest before the start of the program and during the almost three years of trading. Most of the interest has focused on the following questions: Can the EU ETS actually achieve the desired reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, given the heterogeneity of countries and industries involved? Does the permit price follow fundamentals, given that the system is politically created and subject to all uncertainties associated with climate policies? Does the EU ETS provide sufficient incentives to invest in greener technologies and in renewable energy sources? The authors investigate how closely the price of emission permits reflects market fundamentals in the EU ETS. They postulate uncertain permit price and risk-averse firms. The firms produce final goods, abate their emissions and trade permits in the permit market. The dependence of the equilibrium permit price on exogenous variables is studied in a permit market model. They test their theoretical findings with empirical data from 2005--2006 in the EU ETS. They use forward prices of both EUA07 and EUA08 as their dependent variable. Given the dominant role of energy sector in the emissions trading market, they use electricity price as a representative of the price of final good and prices of fuels as the relevant cost items. They use an econometric model with stationary time series to discover that there is a strong relationship between the fundamentals, such as German electricity price and gas and coal prices and the price of EUA. The authors find that both EUA forward prices reflect the fundamentals, especially price of electricity, clean dark and clean spark spreads, as well as the gas-coal difference.

  3. Summary: Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  4. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upston-Hooper, K. [c/o Greenstream Network Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Perrells, A. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Greifswald (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The Project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  5. Legal frameworks for emissions trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.; Anttonen, K. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)). Email: kalle.maatta@joensuu.fi; Upston-Hooper, K. (GreenStream Networks, Helsinki (Finland)); Mehling, M. (Univ. of Greifswald (Germany)); Perrels, A. (Government Institute for Economic Research VATT, Helsinki (Finland)), email: adriaan.perrels@vatt.fi

    2009-07-01

    The project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. The methodology adopted has been to formulate a comprehensive questionnaire (of approximately 70 questions) to be used as the basis of national reports together with a stand alone analysis by VATT, and in turn use the national reports and VATT study as the building blocks of a comparative overview report. The questionnaire seeks to highlight those significant legal and regulatory issues that impact on the establishment of emission allowance trading arrangements within the respective jurisdictions. The comparative analysis of these issues will focus on 'golden threads' of similarity and difference that impact on the establishment of an internal market within the European Union for the trading of emissions allowances. (orig.)

  6. On the efficiency gains of emissions trading when climate deals are non-cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd; Holtsmark, Bjart

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies, in a numerical environment, climate treaties with emissions trading when national quotas result from strategic individual choice. We find that the larger the number of parties to the deal, the smaller are the emissions reductions and the lower the welfare. If insisting on stability with respect to participation, climate treaties involve few parties and yield practically no emissions reductions. While these results contrast with some optimistic studies, our numerical example conforms established results if modelling the problem in the more traditional sense. (Author)

  7. Emission trading scheme: market analysis and forecasting scenarios; Emission Trading scheme: analisi di mercato e scenari previsivi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clo, Stefano [Universita' di Bologna, Bologna (Italy). Facolta' di Economia; Desalvo, Tobia [Scuola Mattei Master MEDEA, (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    This article offers an economic analysis of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) and its institutional framework; we introduce an economic model able to simulate some possible market price's scenarios. The aim of this article is to offer a better market fundamentals' comprehension and to help economic agents building their expectations about market's development. [Italian] Questo articolo offre un'analisi economica dell'Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) e delle istituzioni pubbliche che lo interessano. Viene, inoltre, presentato un modello economico elaborato per simulare l'andamento futuro dei prezzi, con l'obiettivo di contribuire ad una migliore comprensione dei meccanismi di mercato e di facilitare la formulazione di aspettative.

  8. Influence of the Emissions Trading Scheme on generation scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kockar, Ivana; McDonald, James R. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Conejo, Antonio J. [University of Castilla, La Mancha Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The paper investigates the effects of emissions constraints and Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) on the generation scheduling outcome. ETS is a cap-and-trade market mechanism that has been introduced in European Union in order to facilitate CO{sub 2} emissions management. This scheme gives generators certain amount of CO{sub 2} allowances which they can use to cover emissions produced during energy generation. In a current setting, most of the allowances are given for free. However, under ETS generators also have an opportunity to buy and sell CO{sub 2} allowances on the market. Since generation power outputs are bounded by the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions that they are allowed to produce over time, it is becoming increasingly important for generating units to manage their allocations in the most profitable way and decide when and how much of permissions to spent to produce electricity. The method proposed here allows for modeling of this new limitation by including costs of buying and selling of CO{sub 2} allowance in the generation scheduling procedure. It also introduces additional emissions constraints in the problem formulation. Although CO{sub 2} permissions and energy are traded in separate markets, the proposed formulation permits analysis on how emission caps and emission market prices can influence market outcome. The method is illustrated on a 5-unit system. Given examples compare (i) a base-case when all generators have made a decision to use portions of their total free allocations that do not cause any shortfall during the investigated time period; (ii) two cases when the least expensive generators' decisions on the amount of free allowances they are willing to use during the considered period are insufficient. In all cases generators also submit prices at which they expect to be able to ''top-up'' or sell allowances on the market, however, only in the second and third case the ''buying'' option becomes

  9. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Honjo

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1. The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air, and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1 Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP. (2 The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  10. Cooperative Emissions Trading Game: International Permit Market Dominated by Buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Rapid reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is required to mitigate disastrous impacts of climate change. The Kyoto Protocol introduced international emissions trading (IET) to accelerate the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The IET controls CO2 emissions through the allocation of marketable emission permits to sovereign countries. The costs for acquiring additional permits provide buyers with an incentive to reduce their CO2 emissions. However, permit price has declined to a low level during the first commitment period (CP1). The downward trend in permit price is attributed to deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol: weak compliance enforcement, the generous allocation of permits to transition economies (hot air), and the withdrawal of the US. These deficiencies created a buyer's market dominated by price-making buyers. In this paper, I develop a coalitional game of the IET, and demonstrate that permit buyers have dominant bargaining power. In my model, called cooperative emissions trading (CET) game, a buyer purchases permits from sellers only if the buyer forms a coalition with the sellers. Permit price is determined by bargaining among the coalition members. I evaluated the demand-side and supply-side bargaining power (DBP and SBP) using Shapley value, and obtained the following results: (1) Permit price is given by the product of the buyer's willingness-to-pay and the SBP (= 1 - DBP). (2) The DBP is greater than or equal to the SBP. These results indicate that buyers can suppress permit price to low levels through bargaining. The deficiencies of the Kyoto Protocol enhance the DBP, and contribute to the demand-side dominance in the international permit market.

  11. 75 FR 69884 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... Implementation Plan (SIP) that create and amend the Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program... Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances Program? IV. What is EPA's evaluation of the Emissions Banking...

  12. Relationship between Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth and Trade in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Palamalai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the causal nexus between various sources of energy consumption, viz. Coal, Crude Oil, Electricity and Natural Gas, CO2 emissions, economic growth and trade in India using the Perron unit root test, Gregory and Hansen cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model. The study exhibits a long-run relationship between various sources of energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 emissions and trade in India. By and large, the empirical results confirm that economic growth fuels rate of various sources of energy consumption i.e. coal, crude petroleum, electricity and natural gas. The findings reveal that increase in CO2 emissions leads to achieve high level of economic activity in India. In addition, the study finds that foreign trade influences the various sources of non-renewable energy consumption in the long-term. However, the energy consumption do not significantly contributes towards promoting foreign trade, except crude petroleum, in the short-run.

  13. 76 FR 15 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... and amend the Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA Program establishes... Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA Program establishes a cap and trade program to...

  14. Emissions trading. A practical manual; Emissionshandel. Ein Praxishandbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elspas, M. [Deutsche Bahn AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Salje, P. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Stewing, C. (eds.) [Salzgitter Flachstahl GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The book describes the ecological and economic fundamentals of emissions trading. German legislation is viewed in the context of international and European law. Legal regulations and national allocation plans of other countries are presented. Legal and practical aspects of the allocation procedure are discussed, e.g. applications, monitoring, legal protection, and of emissions trading in general, e.g. buying, selling, transfer, registration. The user is also given valuable information on emission certificates in business economy, balancing, and taxation. Specific aspects of the industries concerned are discussed explicitly. [German] Das Werk beschreibt die oekologischen und oekonomischen Grundlagen des Emissionsrechtehandels. Es stellt die nationale Umsetzung in Deutschland in den voelker- und europarechtlichen Kontext; hierbei werden u. a. die Umsetzung der Vorgaben in den wesentlichen Teilnehmerstaaten und deren nationale Allokationsplaene vorgestellt. Das Handbuch behandelt rechtliche und praktische Fragen aus dem Zuteilungsverfahren (u. a. Antrag, Monitoring, Rechtsschutz) und aus dem Emissionsrechtehandel (z. B. An- und Verkauf, Uebertragung, Register). Zusaetzlich erhaelt der Nutzer wertvolle Informationen ueber die betriebswirtschaftliche, bilanzielle und steuerliche Behandlung der Emissionszertifikate. Auf branchenspezifische Besonderheiten der betroffenen Industriezweige wird explizit eingegangen.

  15. Assuring the credibility of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoolderman, H; Carrington, M. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The EU emission trading system (EU ETS) requires installations to monitor their emissions, to compile an annual emissions report and to have it independently verified. The verifier is also required to attest to the installation's compliance with the conditions of its GHG permit, the implementation of an approved emissions monitoring methodology and other relevant regulatory requirements. The verification of emissions within the EU ETS is required to ensure that the reported emissions are complete and accurate. This is essential to ensure the environmental integrity of the scheme, to instil confidence in the scheme and to ensure the efficient functioning of the market. In this article we introduce the basic framework for monitoring, reporting and verification outlined in the EU Emissions Trading Directive, and associated national regulations. In February 2005 the PricewaterhouseCoopers Climate Change Services network conducted a survey to investigate the current status of EU ETS accreditation and verification. For this purpose we approached the competent authorities of all EU Member States with a questionnaire. In this chapter we highlight the main findings and conclusions of the PwC-survey on EU ETS verification. The articles in part 3 ('Spotlights') provide background information for a better understanding of the issues raised and may help identifying solutions.

  16. Linking CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping to the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per [Nature Associates, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    The objective of the report is to analyse the feasibility of a cap-and-trade system for CO{sub 2} emissions from international shipping linked to the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS). The idea presented in the paper is to tie the permission for a ship to call at a port of a participating country to the vessels participation in a scheme for emissions trading under a common cap. The ship would be liable for emissions from fuel bunkered during, say, six months prior to a call at a participating port. With this design, emissions from the return voyages of ships involved in intercontinental traffic would automatically be covered, and shipowners and operators would gain nothing by calling at ports just outside the European Union. The geographical scope would thus be global, albeit limited to ships that call at ports of the European Union (and other participating states). The fuel consumption, that the surrendered CO{sub 2} allowances would have to match, could be declared by using the existing mandatory bunker delivery notes that all ships above 400 GT need to keep according to Regulation 18 of MARPOL Annex VI. The report discusses various ways for initial allocation of allowances and concludes that the least distorting method would be to sell them on auction and recycle all or most of the revenues to the shipping sector in a way that does not interfere with the objective of the trading scheme. In the case where Maritime Emissions Trading Scheme (METS) is initially limited to the ports of the European Union, at least 6 200 million ton less CO{sub 2} would be emitted over the 23 years between 2012 and 2035 compared to a business-as-usual scenario. However, a great part of this would be reductions in land-based sources paid indirectly by the shipping sector. (orig.)

  17. Legal Frameworks for Emissions Trading in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl Upston-Hooper, K. [Greenstream Network, Helsinki (Finland); Anttonen, K. [VATT, Helsinki (Finland); Mehling, M. [University of Griefswald (Germany)

    2006-12-19

    The Project is based on a comparative and pragmatic review of the legal frameworks for implementing the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in four EU jurisdictions (Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom and Germany). The project does not seek to examine the rationale of utilizing tradable mechanisms nor assess the costs and benefits of doing so. Its primary focus is to undertake a detailed study of the legal realities involved in implementing the EU ETS, particularly those issues of commercial importance such as taxation and accounting rules. (orig.)

  18. EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Investments in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapienza, M.D.; Stefanoni, S.

    2007-07-01

    How environmental regulation affects electricity players' investment decisions? Should policy makers look beyond for alternative mechanisms - such as energy efficiency, capture and storage of carbon dioxide, and incentives for renewables - to fulfill the environmental objectives set by Kyoto Protocol? This paper suggests - through a Real Option approach - how the efficacy of the EU Emission Trading Scheme on technological innovation, emissions reduction and energy price dynamics, is strongly affected by the 'hysteresis' emerging from the capital budgeting process of main utilities. As a matter of fact, long-term substitutions between coal-fired units and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine plants production only take place under quite restrictive conditions. (auth)

  19. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  20. An emerging equilibrium in the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredin, Don, E-mail: don.bredin@ucd.ie; Muckley, Cal, E-mail: cal.muckley@ucd.i

    2011-03-15

    The European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is the key policy instrument of the European Commission's Climate Change Program aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to eight percent below 1990 levels by 2012. A critically important element of the EU ETS is the establishment of a market determined price for EU allowances. This article examines the extent to which several theoretically founded factors including, economic growth, energy prices and weather conditions determine the expected prices of the European Union CO{sub 2} allowances during the 2005 through to the 2009 period. The novel aspect of our study is that we examine heavily traded futures instruments that have an expiry date in Phase 2 of the EU ETS. Our study adopts both static and recursive versions of the Johansen multivariate cointegration likelihood ratio test as well as a variation on this test with a view to controlling for time varying volatility effects. Our results are indicative of a new pricing regime emerging in Phase 2 and point to a maturing market driven by the fundamentals. These results are valuable both for traders of EU allowances and for those policy makers seeking to improve the design of the European Union ETS.

  1. Carbon dioxide emission and economic growth of China-the role of international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boamah, Kofi Baah; Du, Jianguo; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Boamah, Angela Jacinta; Abdul-Rasheed, Alhassan Alolo; Owusu, Samuel Mensah

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the role of international trade in mitigating carbon dioxide emission as a nation economically advances. This study disaggregated the international trade into total exports and total imports. A multivariate model framework was estimated for the time series data for the period of 1970-2014. The quantile regression detected all the essential relationship, which hitherto, the traditional ordinary least squares could not capture. A cointegration relationship was confirmed using the Johansen cointegration model. The findings of the Granger causality revealed the presence of a uni-directional Granger causality running from energy consumption to economic growth; from import to economic growth; from imports to exports; and from urbanisation to economic growth, exports and imports. Our study established the presence of long-run relationships amongst carbon dioxide emission, economic growth, energy consumption, imports, exports and urbanisation. A bootstrap method was further utilised to reassess the evidence of the Granger causality, of which the results affirmed the Granger causality in the long run. This study confirmed a long-run N-shaped relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, under the estimated cubic environmental Kuznet curve framework, from the perspective of China. The recommendation therefore is that China as export leader should transform its trade growth mode by reducing the level of carbon dioxide emission and strengthening its international cooperation as it embraces more environmental protectionisms.

  2. Emissions trading with offset markets and free quota allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Strand, Jon

    2012-07-01

    We study interactions between a 'policy bloc's' emissions quota market and an offset market where emissions offsets can be purchased from a non-policy 'fringe' of countries (such as for the CDM under the Kyoto Protocol). Policy-bloc firms are assumed to benefit from free quota allocations that are updated according to either past emissions or past outputs. We show that both overall abatement, and the allocation of given abatement between the policy bloc and the fringe, tend to be inefficient. When the policy-bloc quota market and offset markets are fully integrated (and firms buy offsets directly from the fringe), and all quotas and offsets must be traded at a single price, it is optimal for the policy bloc to either not constrain the offset market whatsoever, or to ban offsets completely. The former (latter) case occurs when free allocation of quotas is not too generous (very generous), and the offset market can profitably deliver large (only a small) quota amounts. Governments of policy countries would however instead prefer to buy offsets directly from the fringe at a price below the policy-bloc quota price. The offset price will then be below the marginal damage cost of emissions, and the quota price in the policy bloc above marginal damage cost. This solution is also inefficient as the policy bloc (acting as a monopsonist) purchases too few offsets from the fringe.(Author)

  3. Efficiency versus Equality: Comparing Design Options for Indirect Emissions Accounting in the Korean Emissions Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inha Oh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Korean emissions trading scheme (ETS has one special characteristic that makes it different from other schemes, such as the EU ETS. While the other schemes consider only direct emissions from fossil fuels, the Korean ETS also regulates indirect emissions arising from the consumption of electricity. The problem of double counting arises under this setting, in which emissions from the power sector can be accounted for twice, when electricity is produced and consumed. This study aims to compare design options on indirect emissions accounting for the Korean ETS using a computable general equilibrium model. Four scenarios are generated for options accounting for direct and/or indirect emissions and are evaluated in terms of efficiency and equality. The result shows that the ETS operates most efficiently when only direct emissions are considered. However, the option that includes both direct and indirect emissions produces a competent result in terms of equality by spreading the economic burden of emissions reduction among industries. We conclude that this option can be an alternative to meet the key purposes of the Korean ETS.

  4. NOx Emission Trading in a European Context: Discussion of the Economic, Legal, and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris P.A. Dekkers

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Emission trading is a new instrument in environmental policy. It is an alien notion in most European countries and it is often viewed with hesitation. The paper discusses the economic, legal, and perhaps more importantly, the cultural aspects to consider when one tries to explore the prospects for trading emissions of NOX and other substances in Europe. Issues to be addressed are the present legal framework in Europe in relation to the national emission ceilings on NOX and other substances on the basis of relevant EU directives and UNECE protocols. The paper will discuss the extent to which the legal framework within the EU imposes constraints on the design of a national emission trading scheme, and what options are available to fit emission trading into that legislative structure. The NOX emission trading programme developed in the Netherlands will be used to demonstrate the various aspects in a European context.

  5. Emissions trading - background, responsibilities, outlook; Emissionshandel in Deutschland - Hintergrund, Aufgaben, Ausblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettke, J. [DEKRA Umwelt GmbH (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The introduction of emissions trading in Europe has imposed new demands on companies. Classified as power-intensive, the ceramics industry is directly affected by the European Directive 2003/87/EC on emissions trading. The related duties can be grouped as follows: application for the allocation of allowances - monitoring of emissions - reporting of emissions. Since laws on emissions trading were passed in a rush, there are a number of open issues that now begin to be solved jointly by companies, consultants and the competent authorities. However, a special focus should be put on financial and management aspects which have frequently been considered the environmental officer's exclusive responsibility. (orig.)

  6. Impacts on CO2 Emission Allowance Prices in China: A Quantile Regression Analysis of the Shanghai Emission Trading Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Zhang; Lu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    A pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme (ETS) has been implemented in China for more than two years. An investigation into the impacts of different factors on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission allowance prices provides guidance for price-making in 2017 when the nation-wide ETS of China will be established. This paper adopts a quantile regression approach to estimate the impacts of different factors in Shanghai emission trading scheme (SH-ETS), namely, economic growth, energy prices and te...

  7. Developments in the emissions trading market 2009; Utvecklingen paa utslaeppsraettsmarknaden 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnstedt, Sophie; Karlberg, Marie; Myrman, Johanna

    2010-07-01

    The Energy Agency has analyzed the development of emissions trading within the EU and globally in 2009. The analysis relates to larger events which mainly affected the prices and traded volumes during the year. The analysis includes the market for European emissions, markets for the project-based mechanisms, development of trade with the assigned emission units (AAUs), the unregulated market and developments in other trading in the world. The report is based on existing studies and monitoring of markets development during January to November 2009

  8. Multinational corporations and emissions trading. Strategic responses to new institutional constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinkse, J.M.; Kolk, A.

    2007-01-01

    Although the Kyoto Protocol intended to implement emissions trading globally, this has so far been impossible. As a result, particularly Multinational Corporations (MNCs) currently face a wide variety of emissions trading schemes that differ in scope and enforcement, thus creating divergent levels

  9. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. A Laboratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, T.N. [Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1310 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of the allowances cannot redeem them to cover emissions. We find that allowing inspections significantly increases the reliability investment rate and overall efficiency. Prices of uninspected allowances usually trade at a substantial discount due to the buyer liability rule, which provides a strong market incentive for sellers to invest in reliability.

  10. Emission trading beyond Europe: linking schemes in a post-Kyoto world

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the economic impacts of linking the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to emerging schemes beyond Europe, in the presence of a post-Kyoto agreement in 2020. Simulations with a numerical multi-country model of the world carbon market show that linking the European ETS induces only marginal economic benefits: As trading is restricted to energy-intensive industries that are assigned generous initial emissions, the major compliance burden is carried by non-trading industries exc...

  11. Emissions and targets of greenhouse gases not included in the Emission Trading System 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.

    2011-06-15

    This report evaluates the European Commission's (EC) proposal to calculate Member States' targets for emissions not included in the Emission Trading System (ETS) (as announced in the so-called Effort Sharing Decision). The calculation procedures and data sources proposed by the EC have been used for calculating non-ETS emission targets for the Netherlands, for the years from 2013 to 2020. In order to compare results, an alternative approach also was introduced and evaluated. In this approach more transparent data sources were used. Furthermore, the report updates the emission forecast of non-ETS emission levels in the Netherlands, for 2020, and evaluates the consequences of excluding uncertainties related to monitoring from the (updated) emission forecast. It is concluded that, for the Netherlands, the non-ETS emission caps as proposed by the EC would result in an emission cap of 105 Mt CO2 equivalent by 2020. This is higher than in the alternative approach, which would result in a cap of 103 Mt CO2 equivalents. The difference is explained by the different data sources that were used. A drawback of the data sources used in the EC proposal is the lack of transparency of part of the data, which resulted in an additional uncertainty as not all issues could be verified. However, other Member States may not have similar data sources available, in case the EC decides to adopt the alternative approach. The calculated emission caps are to be considered as estimates based on the most recent (but sometimes uncertain) statistics. The EC will determine the definite caps by the end of 2012. Based on a 2010 forecast, and including both an updated division of emissions into ETS and non-ETS emissions and a revised methodology for calculating nitrous oxide emissions, we estimate that non-ETS emissions in the Netherlands would be 104 Mt CO2 equivalents by 2020, with an uncertainty range of between 96 and 112 Mt CO2 equivalents. It is our conclusion that non-ETS emission

  12. Study on the Coordination of Supply Chain Based on Carbon Emissions Trading Considering the Retailers’ Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the coordination of supply chain in the context of carbon emissions trading mechanism, which considering the competition between retailers. Centralized and decentralized supply chain models were constructed to discuss the price of product, to avoid the losses of profit from the decentralized decision-making, the revenue-sharing contract was introduced to coordinate the supply chain. Research shows that the carbon emissions trading reduce emissions effectively, but the higher price of carbon emissions trading cut down the total profit of supply chain; The competition between retailers upgrades the supply chain members’ profit; Coordination was achieved by introducing the revenue-sharing contract. Finally, numerical example was given to illustrate the validity of the revenue-sharing contract, and the sensitivity analysis of parameters such as the price of the emissions trading and the retailers’ competition were presented.

  13. The Impact of Emissions Trading on the Price of Electricity in Nord Pool : Market Power and Price Determination in the Nordic Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Oranen, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to find out how dominant firms in a liberalised electricity market will react when they face an increase in the level of costs due to emissions trading, and how this will effect the price of electricity. The Nordic electricity market is chosen as the setting in which to examine the question, since recent studies on the subject suggest that interaction between electricity markets and emissions trading is very much dependent on conditions specific to each market ...

  14. The Adaptation Law for emissions trading. Part 2. A level playing field for emissions trading?; De Aanpassingswet handel in emissierechten. Deel 2. Een level playing field voor emissiehandel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, S. [Praktijkgroep Energy and Carbon, De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    To supplement, clarify and simplify the regulations for emission trading, the Amendment Act emission trading II was submitted to the Dutch Lower Chamber end of 2009. This article discusses the pending bill and comments on a number of remarkable stipulations that may be important to the market parties. First a brief overview is provided of the basic principles of emission trading and the players in the CO2 market. [Dutch] Ter 'aanvulling, verduidelijking en vereenvoudiging' van de regelgeving m.b.t. emissiehandel werd eind 2009 bij de Tweede Kamer de Aanpassingswet handel in emissierechten II ingediend. Dit artikel bespreekt het hangende wetsvoorstel en plaatst kanttekeningen bij een aantal opmerkelijke bepalingen die voor marktpartijen van belang kunnen zijn. Eerst wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van de basisprincipes van emissiehandel en de spelers op de CO2-markt.

  15. Impact of Carbon Quota Allocation Mechanism on Emissions Trading: An Agent-Based Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes an agent-based simulation system of the carbon emissions trading in accordance with the complex feature of the trading process. This system analyzes the impact of the carbon quota allocation mechanism on emissions trading for three different aspects including the amount of emissions reduction, the economic effect on the emitters, and the emissions reduction cost. Based on the data of the carbon emissions of different industries in China, several simulations were made. The results indicate that the emissions trading policy can effectively reduce carbon emissions in a perfectly competitive market. Moreover, by comparing separate quota allocation mechanisms, we obtain the result that the scheme with a small extent quota decrease in a comprehensive allocation mechanism can minimize the unit carbon emission cost. Implementing this scheme can also achieve minimal effects of carbon emissions limitation on the economy on the basis that the environment is not destroyed. However, excessive quota decrease cannot promote the emitters to reduce emission. Taking into account that several developing countries have the dual task of limiting carbon emissions and developing the economy, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive allocation mechanism of the carbon quota and increase the initial proportion of free allocation.

  16. A Panel Estimation of the Relationship Between Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in BRICS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrara Mohsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, several studies have found an inverted-U relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation. This relationship, known as the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC, suggests that environmental degradation increases in the early stages of growth, but it eventually decreases as income exceeds a threshold level. However, this paper investigation relationship between per capita CO2 emission, growth economics and trade liberalization based on econometric techniques of unit root test, co-integration and a panel data set during the period 1960-1996 for BRICS countries. Data properties were analyzed to determine their stationarity using the LLC , IPS , ADF and PP unit root tests which indicated that the series are I(1. We find a cointegration relationship between per capita CO2 emission, growth economics and trade liberalization by applying Kao panel cointegration test. The evidence indi\tcates that in the long-run trade liberalization has a positive significant impact on CO2 emissions and impact of trade liberalization on emissions growth depends on the level of income Our findings suggest that there is a quadratic relationship between relationship between real GDP and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The estimated long-run coefficients of real GDP and its square satisfy the EKC hypothesis in all of studied countries. Our estimation shows that the inflection point or optimal point real GDP per capita is about 5269.4 dollars. The results show that on average, sample countries are on the positive side of the inverted U curve. The turning points are very low in some cases and very high in other cases, hence providing poor evidence in support of the EKC hypothesis. Thus, our findings suggest that all BRICS countries need to sacrifice economic growth to decrease their emission levels

  17. 75 FR 81484 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA Program establishes a cap and trade program to...

  18. Photochemical modeling of emissions trading of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in Houston, Texas. 1. Reactivity based trading and potential for ozone hot spot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Thompson, Tammy; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Webb, Alba; Allen, David T

    2007-04-01

    As part of the State Implementation Plan for attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality has created a Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOC) Emissions Cap and Trade Program for industrial point sources in the Houston/Galveston/Brazoria area. This program has a number of unique features, including its focus on a limited group of ozone precursors and its provisions for trading emissions based on atmospheric reactivity. This series of papers examines the potential air quality impacts of this new emission trading program through photochemical modeling of potential trading scenarios; this first paper in the series describes the air quality modeling methods used to assess potential trades, the potential for localized increases in ozone concentrations (ozone "hot spots") due to HRVOC emission trading, and the use of reactivity scales in the trading. When HRVOC emissions are traded on a mass basis, the simulations indicate that trading of HRVOC allowances between facilities resulted in less than 0.15 ppb (ozone concentrations, respectively. Maximum decreases in ozone concentrations associated with trading, as opposed to across-the-board reductions, were larger than the increases. All of these changes are small compared to the maximum changes in ozone concentrations due to the VOC emissions from these sources (up to 5-10 ppb for 8 h averages; up to 30 ppb for 1-h averages). When emissions of HRVOCs are traded for other, less reactive emissions, on a reactivity weighted basis, air quality simulations indicate that daily maximum ozone concentrations increased by less than 0.3%. Because these relatively small changes (ozone concentrations (all emissions traded into localized regions), the simulations indicate that the implementation of the trading program, as currently configured and possibly expanded, is unlikely to cause localized increases in ozone concentrations ("hot spots").

  19. Emissions embodied in global trade have plateaued due to structural changes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Li, Shantong; Zhou, Dequn; Zhou, Peng

    2017-09-01

    In the 2000s, the rapid growth of CO2 emitted in the production of exports from developing to developed countries, in which China accounted for the dominant share, led to concerns that climate polices had been undermined by international trade. Arguments on "carbon leakage" and "competitiveness"—which led to the refusal of the U.S. to ratify the Kyoto Protocol—put pressure on developing countries, especially China, to limit their emissions with Border Carbon Adjustments used as one threat. After strong growth in the early 2000s, emissions exported from developing to developed countries plateaued and could have even decreased since 2007. These changes were mainly due to China: In 2002-2007, China's exported emissions grew by 827 MtCO2, amounting to almost all the 892 MtCO2 total increase in emissions exported from developing to developed countries, while in 2007-2012, emissions exported from China decreased by 229 MtCO2, contributing to the total decrease of 172 MtCO2 exported from developing to developed countries. We apply Structural Decomposition Analysis to find that, in addition to the diminishing effects of the global financial crisis, the slowdown and eventual plateau was largely explained by several potentially permanent changes in China: Decline in export volume growth, improvements in CO2 intensity, and changes in production structure and the mix of exported products. We argue that growth in China's exported emissions will not return to the high levels during the 2000s, therefore the arguments for climate polices focused on embodied emissions such as Border Carbon Adjustments are now weakened.

  20. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  1. Market power in tradable emission markets. A laboratory testbed for emission trading in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, Timothy N. [Department of Economics, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1310 (United States); Gangadharan, Lata [Department of Economics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Duke, Charlotte [Economics Branch, Natural Resources and the Environment, Level 13, 8 Nicholson St, East Melbourne, Vic. 3002 (Australia)

    2003-10-01

    In theory, competitive emission permit markets minimize total abatement costs. Permit markets are often imperfectly competitive, however, and may be thin and dominated by large firms. The dominant firm(s) could exercise market power and increase other firms' costs of pollution control, while reducing their own emission control costs. This paper reports a testbed laboratory experiment to examine whether a dominant firm can exercise market power in a permit market organized using the double auction trading institution. Our parameters approximate the abatement costs of sources in a proposed tradable emissions market for the reduction of nitrogen in the Port Phillip Watershed in Victoria, Australia. We vary across treatments the initial allocation of permits to sources, so that in one treatment the seller of permits is a monopolist and in another treatment the market is duopolistic. We also vary the information that subjects have about the number and abatement costs of their competitors. We find that prices and seller profits are higher and efficiency is lower on average in the monopoly sessions compared with the duopoly sessions, but the differences are not substantial and are not statistically significant due to pronounced variation across sessions. Moreover, prices, profits and transaction volumes are usually much closer to the competitive equilibrium (CE) than the monopoly equilibrium.

  2. A quadranomial real options model for evaluation of emissions trading and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Joseph; Tamarkin, Maurry

    2005-11-01

    Green house gas (GHG) emissions have been tied to global climate change. One popular policy instrument that seems to have gained credibility with explicit mention of its application in the Kyoto Protocol is the use of permit trading and cap-and-trade mechanisms. Organizations functioning within this environment will need to manage their resources appropriately to remain competitive. Organizations will either have the opportunity to purchase emissions credits (offsets) from a market trading scheme or seek to reduce their emissions through different measures. Some measures may include investment in new technologies that will reduce their reliance on GHG emitting practices. In many countries, large organizations and institutions generate their own power to operate their facilities. Much of this power is generated (or bought) from GHG producing technology. Specific renewable energy sources such as wind and solar photovoltaic technology may become more feasible alternatives available to a large percentage of these organizations if they are able to take advantage and incorporate the market for GHG emissions trading in their analyses. To help organizations evaluate investment in these renewable energy technologies we introduce a real options based model that will take into consideration uncertainties associated with the technology and those associated with the GHG trading market. The real options analysis will consider both the stochastic (uncertainty) nature of the exercise price of the technology and the stochastic nature of the market trading price of the GHG emissions.

  3. Impacts of the EU emissions trading scheme on the industrial competitiveness in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Verena; Schumacher, Katja; Matthes, Felix C.; Mohr, Lennart [Oeko Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Duscha, Vicky; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The authors of the contribution under consideration present a discussion of methods, and provide empirical results for the analysis of effects of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on product costs and subsequent impacts on international competitiveness. The discussion shows that the combination of intensity of trade indicators and value at stake indicators reveals meaningful results that allow assessing the potential for distortion in competitiveness by the EU Emissions Trading Schemes. The analysis of trade intensities and value at stake showed that a small number of sectors may in fact be exposed to distortions in competitiveness due to both high trade intensity and high value at stake. For Germany, these include 'basic iron and steel', 'fertilizers and nitrogen compounds', 'paper and paperboard', 'aluminium and aluminium products' and 'other basic inorganic chemicals'. A number of other sectors reveal a high intensity of trade but low value at stake which implies that the increase in product costs due to the EU Emissions Trading Scheme is relatively small and negative effects on competitiveness may not be likely. For the sectors that reveal high values at stake and high trade intensities, market positions are likely to change under the EU Emissions Trading system due to increased production costs and high exposure to international competition. When deciding on which sectors are highly exposed to possible distortions in competitiveness and which measures should be implemented to address competitiveness and leakage it should be kept in mind that CO{sub 2} costs are only one of multiple factors affecting companies' production and investment decisions. Other factors that may deserve detailed investigation include product differentiation and market segmentation within a sector (including specialty products), close cooperation with domestic/European partners and intrafirm trade, differences across countries in the

  4. Understanding the Design and Performance of Emissions Trading Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, M.

    1999-01-31

    Research Spotlight presents new research findings and projects underway at Resources for the Future that are relevant to the analysis of climate change policy. As interest in greenhouse gas trading policies grows in the United States and other Annex I countries, so does the need for stronger analytical tools. The paper by Tietenberg in this collection lays out some of the principal conceptual issues that analysts face in providing more accurate and relevant tools and results for decisionmakers. In this paper we build on Tietenberg's analysis to consider some of the key modeling challenges that analysts face in developing an improved capacity for quantitatively assessing real-world policies.

  5. 75 FR 69909 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and Trading of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Emissions Banking and... (SIP) that create and amend the Emissions Banking and Trading of Allowances (EBTA) Program. The EBTA...

  6. Implementing the Kyoto protocol : why JI and CDM show more promise than international emissions trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, E.

    The Kyoto protocol allows developed countries to achieve cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions abroad by means of international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article argues that JI and CDM projects will be more

  7. Contrasting emission trading in the EU and China: An exploration of the role of the courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Li, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    China and the EU have both engaged in formulating climate laws in order to contribute to a global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The focus of both is on emission trading. This instrument is designed and implemented according to very different political and legal systems in China and the EU.

  8. Developing a strategic framework for an airline dealing with the EU emission trading scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hasselt, M.; Van der Zwan, F.; Ghijs, S.; Santema, S.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has decided that the aviation sector will be included in the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) in 2012. This has significant impacts on the business and the strategy of airlines. All of a sudden, airlines must possess emission rights in order to be able to operate their

  9. Climate protection and emission trading in the agriculture; Klimaschutz und Emissionshandel in der Landwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luenenbuerger, Benjamin

    2013-01-15

    The percentage of the agriculture in the greenhouse-gas emissions in Germany amounts 7.1% in the year 2010. Despite its importance, climate protection instruments in the area of the German agriculture are still not developed. There are hardly special regulatory, informational or market-based instruments for the climate protection in the agriculture. The question arises whether the emission trading can be a suitable instrument for climate protection in the agriculture. Thus, the opportunities of the emission trading in the agriculture are investigated. Moreover, alternative and additional instruments of climate protection are considered with respect to the agriculture.

  10. Evaluation of Alternative Initial Allocation Mechanisms in a European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Allowance Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D. Jr.; Radov, D.

    2002-03-01

    This report is intended to provide background to assist Member States and the European Commission in determining the allocation mechanism to use in conjunction with the Commission's proposed emissions trading programme for carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHG). The Commission in October 2001 adopted a major package of initiatives to combat climate change. This package includes a proposed Directive on GHG emission trading as well as a proposal for the EC to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and a Communication setting out further methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions beyond the Directive on emissions trading. The proposed Directive provides the structure for an internal European Union (EU) trading programme. As noted by the Commission, emissions trading will reduce the cost of emission reductions by encouraging these reductions to be made where they are least costly, while at the same time achieving a pre-determined emission reduction from the activities covered by the trading programme. The proposed Directive is designed to provide a EU-wide cap-and-trade market for GHG emissions at various downstream plant-level sources that is free of distortions that might arise from separate Member State emissions trading schemes. An important element left to Member States (with approval by the Commission) is the initial allocation of allowances (i.e., rights to emit a tonne of CO2 or other GHG). Initial allocations provide the starting points for cost-reducing trades among facilities covered by the cap-and-trade programme. Setting the initial allocation typically has been one of the most contentious issues in developing a workable cap-and-trade programme. Based on the results of a recent study conducted for the Commission to assess the costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the total value of the allowances covered by the programme would be nearly 30 billion euro annually (substantially greater than the estimated control costs of 3.7 billion - 7

  11. EU emissions trading. The need for cap adjustment in response to external shocks and unexpected developments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of the various adaptation options will be discussed from an economic perspective. Firstly, the criteria for identifying a need for potentially legitimate adaptation should be investigated. Furthermore, the issue of appropriate timely intervention points prior to or within the trading period will be discussed. In what periods and scenarios are adjustments to the cap worthwhile from an economic perspective? To what extent could minimum prices or price ranges make sense? What role could a strategic reserve play? By addressing these issues, it will be fundamentally discussed as to how the emissions trading scheme could be further developed and strengthened by greater flexibility. After a brief characterisation of emissions trading in theory and practice in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 will identify potential external shocks and unexpected developments which may impair the functioning of an emissions trading scheme. The current problems of cap setting for the third trading period of the EU ETS will be described in Chapter 4. Against this background, cap adjustments will be discussed in Chapter 5, minimum and maximum prices in Chapter 6 and strategic reserves in emissions trading in Chapter 7. The conclusions are summarised in Chapter 8.

  12. European union emissions trading system with regard to climate change mitigation in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruse, Ilze

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the volumes of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the European Union Emissions Trading System's (EU ETS) participants in Latvia in relation to their participation therein. After describing and discussing the EU ETS mechanism and its operation in Latvia in the period 2005-2010, the interconnectedness between the GHG emissions and the EU ETS participants' operation is analysed. The analysis concludes that, although the EU ETS has contributed towards GHG emission reduction, due to the growth of the economy, overall GHG emissions from the EU ETS participants in Latvia are increasing.

  13. Limiting overselling in international emissions trading 1: Costs and environmental impacts of alternative proposals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2002-07-01

    Emission trading allows a country with an emission limitation commitment, an Annex B Party, to sell parts of its assigned amount (AAUs) to other Annex B Parties. If the seller subsequently does not have sufficient AAUs to cover its actual emissions it will be subject to the penalties for non-compliance. The revenue from the sale of AAUs may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or difficult to enforce. Under these circumstances emission trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. Liability proposals seek to ensure that non-compliance is not rewarded, by limiting sales of AAUs to amounts surplus to the seller's compliance needs. This study develops and applies a model to assess the performance of different liability proposals. A simple model based on the Emissions Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is used for the analysis. (BA)

  14. Trade and the Future of China's Black Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, G.; Oppenheimer, M.; Naik, V.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions of black carbon aerosols in China have increased by over 200% during the last 50 years, with negative implications both for human health and for regional and global climate. The Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emissions scenarios all assume that China's future black carbon emissions will decrease. However, this decline partially depends on the assumption that the evolution of future pollutant emissions in developing nations will match the observed historical relationship between air quality and income in developed nations. Recent research has demonstrated that a substantial portion of China's current black carbon emissions are driven by the production of goods exported for consumption elsewhere. This constitutes an external demand for black carbon-emitting activity in China that is much smaller in the developed nations on which the historical air quality/income relationship is based. We here show using integrated assessment model output, general circulation modeling, and emissions and economic data that (1) China must achieve a faster technological and regulatory evolution than did developed countries in order achieve the same air quality/income trajectory; (2) China's uniquely large share of export-related black carbon-emitting activities and their potential growth are a plausible explanation for this disparity; and (3) the climate and health implications of these export-related black carbon emissions, if unmitigated, are of interest from a policy perspective. Together these results indicate that the production of goods for export will steepen the mitigation curve for China relative to developed nations, if China is to achieve the future black carbon emissions reductions assumed in the RCPs.

  15. International trade and CO{sub 2} emissions; International handel og CO{sub 2}-udledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L. [AKF, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lenzen, M. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO{sub 2} emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO{sub 2} reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in international traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national greenhouse gas responsibility. Founded in the concepts of 'producer CO{sub 2} responsibility', 'consumer CO{sub 2} responsibility' and 'CO{sub 2} trade balance' the aim of the present study has been to develop the single-region input-output model as used in a previous study into a multi-region input-output model in order to get a more realistic description of the production technologies actually used in the countries of imports. The study concludes that trade is the key to define CO{sub 2} responsibility on macroeconomics level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. The study also points at the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating national reduction targets and base line scenarios within the context of international climate agreements. (BA)

  16. Proposed global trading schemes for ocean disposal of greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nove, J.E.

    2000-07-01

    Current levels of climate change compared to those existing over the last 15000 years show that a major event has and is occurring. Such a major event requires major reductions in greenhouse emissions. This paper sets a policy framework for a transition between our current growth lifestyle and our desire for sustainability. Disposal of greenhouse gas emissions into select ocean locations and issuing carbon trading rights are consequently recommended. This paper concludes that UNESCO needs to be appointed the authority to control ocean disposal and the resulting trading in environmental credits. UNICEF needs to be appointed to the task of environmental education of future generations of children.

  17. International trade and carbon emissions: The role of Chinese institutional and policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik N G

    2018-01-01

    The carbon dioxide embodied in Chinese exports to developed countries increased rapidly from 1995 to 2008. We test the extent to which institutional reforms in China can explain this increase. We focus on five areas of reforms: trade liberalization, environmental institutions, legal and property rights, institutional risk and exchange rate policy. Our results show that trade liberalization, weak environmental institutions, exchange rate policy, and legal and property rights affect emissions. Our results also indicate that the lack of reform in the utilities sector is an important factor in the rapid increase in embodied emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. EPA`s new emissions trading mechanism: A laboratory evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, T.N. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Plott, C.R. [California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The centerpiece of the acid rain control program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is a system of tradable emission permits. Utilities must hold permits to emit sulfur dioxide, and the number of available permits will decline over time to reduce total emissions. This paper reports 12 laboratory markets that investigate trader behavior in this new institution and evaluate its performance relative to the more commonly observed uniform price call mmarket The uniform price version is found to be more efficient, induces more truthful revelation of underlying values and costs, provides more accurate price information, and is more responsive to and recovers more quickly from changes in the underlying market conditions.

  19. Essays on Energy and Climate Policy - Green Certificates, Emissions Trading and Electricity Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerberg, Anna

    2011-05-15

    Paper I: An Electricity Trading System with Tradable Green Certificates and CO{sub 2}-emission Allowances Combinations of various policy instruments to deal with the threat of climate change are used throughout the world. The aim of this article is to investigate an electricity market with two different policy instruments, Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) and CO{sub 2} emission allowances (an Emission Trading System, ETS). We analyze both the short- and long-run effects of a domestic market and a market ... more with trade. We find that increasing the TGC quota obligation will decrease the electricity produced using non-renewable sources as well as the long-run total production of electricity. For the electricity produced using renewable energy sources, an increase in the quota obligation leads to increased production in almost all cases, with assumptions based on historical data. The impacts of the ETS price on the electricity production are negative for all electricity production, which is surprising. This means that the combination of ETS and TGCs gives unexpected and unwanted results for the electricity production using renewable sources, since an increase in the ETS price leads to a decrease in this production. Paper II: The Impact of the EU Emissions Trading System on CO{sub 2} Intensity in Electricity Generation The primary objective of EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. We study the effect of the EU ETS on CO{sub 2} intensity of Swedish electricity generation, using an econometric time series analysis on weekly data for the period 2004-2008. We control for effects of other input prices and hydropower reservoir levels. Our results do not indicate any link between the price of EU ETS and the CO{sub 2} intensity. The most likely reasons to explain this is that emission reductions are generally cheaper in other sectors and that other determinants of fossil fuel use diminish the effects of the EU ETS. Paper III: Attitudes to

  20. 75 FR 24648 - Order Finding That the Socal Border Financial Basis Contract Traded on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... financial integrity of futures markets; (3) price discovery; (4) sound risk management practices; and (5... Commission's supervision and oversight and generally enhance the financial integrity of the markets. c... COMMISSION Order Finding That the Socal Border Financial Basis Contract Traded on the Intercontinental...

  1. The future European Emission Trading Scheme and its impact on biomass use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaiger, H.; Tuerk, A.; Pena, N. [JOANNEUM RESEARCH Forschungsgesellschaft mbH/Institute of Energy Research, Elisabethstrasse 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Sijm, J. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam Office, Radarport Building, Radarweg 60, NL - 1043 NT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Arrasto, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland); Kettner, C [Austrian Institute of Economic Research, Arsenal Objekt 20, 1030 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-03-15

    Based on research carried out within the NoE, this paper assesses possible impacts of changes to the European Emission Trading Scheme on solid and the possible future inclusion of liquid biomass use in the EU. Based on these assessments, recommendations are outlined for optimising support for solid and liquid biofuels. In December 2008 the European Council agreed on the European Energy and Climate Package. This agreement contains fundamental changes to the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), which started in 2005. With some exceptions, emissions allowances in the power sector will be auctioned starting with the third trading period of the scheme in 2013. This may have significant impacts on the sector's fuel mix and investment decisions. To the extent to which the EU-ETS results in a price on CO2 emissions, it increases the competitiveness of low carbon fuels. Under current regulations no CO2 emissions are attributed to combustion of biomass, thus it functions as a zero-carbon fuel. The paper shows that while the use of biomass is already viable under CO2 prices that have been reached within the EU-ETS, investments in new biomass plants need a higher price level as well as more stable prices, conditions which cannot be predicted with any confidence. The road transport sector, which has significant scope to increase its use of biofuels is currently not part of the EU-ETS, and will not be included in the third trading period which begins in 2013 but may be included later. The likely consequences of including transportation fuels under the EU-ETS are considered as well as options which involve separate trading schemes for liquid biofuels. The paper also reviews other trading mechanisms which might serve as more effective vehicles for increasing the share of liquid biofuels, taking sustainability issues into account.

  2. Assessment of emission trading impacts on competitive electricity market price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, S.N.; Saxena, D.; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Besides organizational changes in the electricity supply industry there are growing concerns about environmental issues derived from the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as well as promoting renewable energies. The purpose of this paper is to address the sour...

  3. Trade, production fragmentation, and China's carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Pei, Jiansuo; Yang, Cuihong

    An input-output framework is adopted to estimate China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as generated by its exports in 2002. More than one half of China's exports are related to international production fragmentation. These processing exports generate relatively little value added but also

  4. How to include farmers in the emission trading system?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2011-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to an ambitious 20 % reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) by 2020 compared to the 1990 emissions level. Moreover, the EU goal beyond 2012 is to strengthen, expand and improve climate change initiatives. Therefore, there is a strong need to consider more carefully how...

  5. Municipal solid waste management planning considering greenhouse gas emission trading under fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

    2014-03-15

    Waste management activities can release greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere, intensifying global climate change. Mitigation of the associated GHG emissions is vital and should be considered within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic integer programming (FPIM) model has been developed for waste management facility expansion and waste flow allocation planning with consideration of GHG emission trading in an MSW management system. It can address the interrelationships between MSW management planning and GHG emission control. The scenario of total system GHG emission control is analyzed for reflecting the feature that GHG emission credits may be tradable. An interactive solution algorithm is used to solve the FPIM model based on the uncertainty-averse preferences of decision makers in terms of p-necessity level, which represents the certainty degree of the imprecise objective. The FPIM model has been applied to a hypothetical MSW planning problem, where optimal decision schemes for facility expansion and waste flow allocation have been achieved with consideration of GHG emission control. The results indicate that GHG emission credit trading can decrease total system cost through re-allocation of GHG emission credits within the entire MSW management system. This will be helpful for decision makers to effectively determine the allowable GHG emission permits in practices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. Wilmar - deliverable 4.1

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ravn, H.F.; Schmidt, R.; Weber, C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets” (WILMAR) and describes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEP’s) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGC’s) forelectricity produced from renewable energy sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spo...

  7. The European Union's emissions trading system in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Denny Ellerman; Paul L. Joskow [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The performance of the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) to date cannot be evaluated without recognizing that the first three years from 2005 through 2007 constituted a 'trial' period and understanding what this trial period was supposed to accomplish. Its primary goal was to develop the infrastructure and to provide the experience that would enable the successful use of a cap-and-trade system to limit European GHG emissions during a second trading period, 2008-12, corresponding to the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. The trial period was a rehearsal for the later more serious engagement and it was never intended to achieve significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions in only three years. In light of the speed with which the program was developed, the many sovereign countries involved, the need to develop the necessary data, information dissemination, compliance and market institutions, and the lack of extensive experience with emissions trading in Europe, we think that the system has performed surprisingly well. Although there have been plenty of rough edges, a transparent and widely accepted price for tradable CO{sub 2} emission allowances emerged by January 1, 2005, a functioning market for allowances has developed quickly and effortlessly without any prodding by the Commission or member state governments, the cap-and-trade infrastructure of market institutions, registries, monitoring, reporting and verification is in place, and a significant segment of European industry is incorporating the price of CO{sub 2} emissions into their daily production decisions. The development of the EU ETS and the experience with the trial period provides a number of useful lessons for the U.S. and other countries. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Emissions trading and fuel efficiency in road transport. An analysis of the benefits of combining instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, Bettina; Davidson, Marc D.; Faber, Jasper (CE, Delft (Netherlands))

    2008-11-15

    Despite EU and national climate policies, CO{sub 2}-emissions in the transport sector have grown steadily in the past decades, whereas many other sectors have managed to reduce emissions. Now that increasingly ambitious CO{sub 2}-emission reduction targets are being discussed for 2020 and beyond, the pressure on the transport sector to contribute to reaching these goals is clearly increasing. One of the options for additional climate policy in road transport is CO{sub 2}- emissions trading. The sector could, for example, be included in the EU ETS, or a separate trading system could be set up. The present report, commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, discusses these options. First, an overview is provided of the key literature published on this topic so far. Second, the potential drawbacks and benefits of combining this type of policy with a CO{sub 2} emission regulation for new passenger cars is assessed. In the past years, various reports have been written on emissions trading in road transport. Some of these reports were broad, scouting studies; others went into somewhat more detail, focussing on specific options or effects. From these studies we conclude that emission trading could be an effective means to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the road transport sector, if an upstream trading system is chosen, i.e. a system in which the oil companies are the trading entities. It is also concluded that a CO{sub 2} tax on fuel may have the same effect as an emissions trading system, at lower cost for the society, provided that the tax rate is set at the appropriate level. This measure may, however, face political difficulties. The societal costs of emission reduction are relatively high in the road transport sector. Consequently, if a separate trading system is set up for road (or surface) transport and the transport sector is required to reduce emissions by the same percentage as other sectors, then the price of emission allowances will be much

  9. Important aspects of sinks for linking emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsbrunner, Simon; Taenzler, Dennis; Reuster, Lena [Adelphi Research gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    The discussion on how to design policy instruments to reduce emissions and enhance removals from land use, land use change, and forestry is likely to be a key feature of a future global climate protection framework and will also influence the design of an emerging global carbon market. By analyzing different ETSs it turns out that very specific provisions are in place to deal with carbon sinks. Different instruments, eligible activities and standards reflect the prevailing emissions profile and cultural preferences of a geographic area. The inclusion of forestry in a cap, for instance, makes provisions on additionality and non-permanence obsolete, but increases the relevance of other issues such as accounting and enforcement. (orig.)

  10. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); McDermott, K.A. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies)

    1992-01-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry's SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  11. Emissions trading and compliance: Regulatory incentives and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, D.W.; Bailey, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McDermott, K.A. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies

    1992-04-01

    The Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) authorizes the use of transferable emission allowances to achieve reductions in the power generating industry`s SO{sub 2} emissions at a minimum possible cost. All electricity generators (greater than 25 MW) are required to hold emissions allowances equal to the amount (tons) of SO{sub 2} emitted during a given year, and meet NO{sub x} reduction levels indicated by the Revised New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). This paper will examine the multifaceted goals and problems of states and utilities relative to compliance with Title IV, and in particular as they pertain to the development and functioning of the allowance market together with utility pollution control and power generation technology choice. Section 2 presents possible utility compliance strategies along with possible barriers that utilities may confront regarding the development of a SO{sub 2} allowance market. Section 3 discusses current regulatory barriers and requirements being implemented by state public utility commissions, and Section 4 offers some policy recommendations to achieve the goals of Title IV. Finally, Section 5 presents a summary and conclusions; Appendix A provides programs/mandates developed to data by high sulfur coal states in response to Title IV compliance requirements.

  12. Strategic planning problems and emission trading; Strategische Planungsfragen im Zuge des Emissionshandels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzensberger, N.; Hermes, H.D. [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    The contribution outlines the consequences of emission trading for the various compartments of strategic business planning. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags soll der Einfluss des Emissionsrechtehandels und der damit verbundenen Notwendigkeit einer Emissionsrechtebewirtschaftung auf die verschiedenen Planungsbereiche der strategischen Unternehmensplanung aufgezeigt werden. (orig.)

  13. The effect of agricultural trade liberalisation on land-use related greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, R.W.; Stehfest, E.; Woltjer, G.B.; Eickhout, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects of agricultural trade liberalisation and concomitant changes in agricultural areas and livestock production on greenhouse gas emissions using the coupled LEITAP–IMAGE modelling system. The results indicate that liberalisation leads to an increase in total greenhouse

  14. The design and implementation of an international trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    The inclusion of emissions trading in the Kyoto Protocol reflects an important decision to address climate-change issues through flexible market mechanisms. The author addresses a number of policy issues that must be considered in designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG)

  15. Fuel change and capacity modifications in emissions trading; Brennstoffwechsel und Kapazitaetsmodifizierungen im Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Christian P.

    2011-07-01

    Economic considerations and the need for modernization may induce power plant operators to change the mode of operation of their power systems. Against the background of European and German constitutional law, the author investigates the consequences of fuel change, with particular regard to the German laws TEHG and EEG. Also, the consequences of plant modification for emission certificates trading are gone into.

  16. Trade-off between carbon dioxide emissions and logistics costs based on multiobjective optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, N.S.; Janic, M.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the freight transport costs and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in given intermodal and truckonly freight networks. When the trade-off, which is represented as the relationship, is changed, the freight mode share and route choice are also modified. To

  17. The potential for CO2 emissions trading in transport. The case of personal vehicles and freight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raux, C. [Laboratoire d' Economie des Transports, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, ENTPE, ISH, 14 avenue Berthelot, 69363 Lyon, Cedex 07 (France)

    2010-05-15

    Transport currently accounts for around 25-30% of global CO2 emissions and this contribution is growing rapidly. Moreover, road transport holds by far the major part in these emissions. Because of the social and political reluctance to increase fuel taxation, it is of some interest to explore the inclusion of road transport in emission trading schemes. Starting from the theory about tradable permits, their relevance in transport emissions, their appropriate targets and their potential for practical implementation are analysed. Two proposals of 'tradable rights for fuel consumption' are presented, the one for drivers of private vehicles, the other for freight transportation. Finally, potential pitfalls and implementation issues are also discussed. It is concluded that the cost of operating markets of fuel rights would be the price to be paid for an effective involvement of the transport sector in the effort to reduce emissions.

  18. Carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central Europe between 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlčková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and environmental policies are widely discussed, but much less is known about emissions embodied in goods traded internationally, and the distinction between emission producers and consumers. The carbon dioxide emissions embodied in international trade in Central European countries are subject to examination in this paper. As a result of industrial restructuring and environmental legislation, air pollution has improved significantly in Central European countries since the 1989 transition. On the other hand, economic growth has been accompanied by a rise in consumerism. Despite the increasing role of exports, the Visegrad group countries have become net importers of carbon dioxide emissions between 1995 and 2008. This seems to be the ‘standard trajectory’ of a country’s transition toward a more developed and consumption-oriented economy. The global patterns of carbon dioxide emissions embodied in manufacturing exports are also mapped, using network analysis and constructing ‘product space’. The analysis confirms that industrial re-structuring played an important role in lowering the production of carbon dioxide emissions in the Visegrad countries.

  19. Impacts on CO2 Emission Allowance Prices in China: A Quantile Regression Analysis of the Shanghai Emission Trading Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A pilot regional carbon emission trading scheme (ETS has been implemented in China for more than two years. An investigation into the impacts of different factors on carbon dioxide (CO2 emission allowance prices provides guidance for price-making in 2017 when the nation-wide ETS of China will be established. This paper adopts a quantile regression approach to estimate the impacts of different factors in Shanghai emission trading scheme (SH-ETS, namely, economic growth, energy prices and temperature. The empirical analysis shows that: (i the economic growth in Shanghai leads to a drop in the carbon allowance prices; (ii the oil price has a slightly positive effect on the allowance prices regardless of the ordinary least squares (OLS or quantile regression method; (iii a long-run negative relationship exists between the coal price and the Shanghai emission allowances (SHEA prices, but a positive interaction under different quantiles, especially the 25%–50% quantiles; (iv temperature has a significantly positive effect at the 20%–30% quantiles and a conspicuous negative impact at the right tail of the allowances prices.

  20. Game Analysis and Simulation of the River Basin Sustainable Development Strategy Integrating Water Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water emission trading (WET is promising in sustainable development strategy. However, low participation impedes its development. We develop an evolutionary game model of two enterprise populations’ dynamics and stability in the decision-making behavior process. Due to the different perceived value of certain permits, enterprises choose H strategy (bidding for permit or D strategy (not bidding. External factors are simplified according to three categories: rH-bidding related cost, G-price and F-penalty. Participation increase equals reaching point (H,H in the model and is treated as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS. We build a system dynamics model on AnyLogic 7.1.1 to simulate the aforementioned game and draw four conclusions: (1 to reach ESS more quickly, we need to minimize the bidding related cost rH and price G, but regulate the heavy penalty F; (2 an ESS can be significantly transformed, such as from (D,D to (H,H by regulating rH, G and F accordingly; (3 the initial choice of strategy is essential to the final result; (4 if participation seems stable but unsatisfying, it is important to check whether it is a saddle point and adjust external factors accordingly. The findings benefit both water management practice and further research.

  1. The impact of CO{sub 2} emissions trading on the European transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaageson, Per

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this report is to analyse how a common European scheme for CO{sub 2} emissions trading covering all sectors of society would affect the transport sector. Transport externalities other than CO{sub 2} are assumed to be internalised by kilometer charging. This means road fuels will no longer be subject to taxation. The European Union's commitment under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol can be reached at a marginal abatement cost around 65 Euro per tonne of CO{sub 2} in a case where emissions trading replaces all current taxes on fossil fuels. In a case where emissions trading is supplementary to today's energy and carbon taxes, the current average taxation (45-50 Euro per tonne CO{sub 2}) and the shadow price of the emission permits (33 Euro per tonne) would together give a total marginal abatement cost around 80 Euro per tonne Of CO{sub 2}. Having to buy emission permits would significantly raise the cost of fuel and electricity used in rail, aviation and short sea shipping, as these modes are currently not taxed at all. The resulting long-term (2025) improvement in specific energy efficiency is estimated at around 25 per cent compared to trend for rail and 20 and 40 per cent respectively for aviation and sea transport. A combination of CO{sub 2} emissions trading and km charging would moderately raise the variable cost of driving a gasoline car. The cost of using diesel vehicles would rise considerably in most Member States. Annual mileage per car would therefore decline somewhat. The fuel, however, would become cheaper than today (especially gasoline) and this would reduce the incentive to buy fuel-efficient vehicles. The reform would thus hamper the introduction of new, more efficient, technologies that might be needed for meeting more long-term commitments. Emissions trading would not encourage the introduction of biofuels in road transport. The incremental cost of producing ethanol or RME is much too high and cannot be expected to fall to the

  2. Does emissions trading render the promotion of renewable energies superfluous?; Macht der Emissionshandel die Foerderung erneuerbarer Energien ueberfluessig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, Erik [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie; Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Infrastruktur und Ressourcenmanagement; Lehmann, Paul [Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung GmbH - UFZ, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. Oekonomie

    2011-03-15

    Since the introduction of European emissions trading there have been critical voices questioning the economic soundness of running an emissions permit trading system alongside the promotion of renewable energy through the Renewable Energy Law (EEG). They assert that rather than contributing to climate protection the EEG actually makes its realisation more expensive and that it undermines emissions trading, an instrument considered ideally suited to its purpose. However this line of argumentation overlooks the fundamental economic, political and institutional conditions that govern the market-driven competition between technologies. These conditions speak in favour of a policy mix.

  3. Potential cost savings from internal/external CO{sub 2} emissions trading in the Korean electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myunghun, E-mail: leemh@inha.ac.kr [Department of International Trade, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Korea plans to introduce an emissions trading scheme for the controlling greenhouse gas emissions in 2015. Using Shephard's (1970) output distance function, we first estimate the shadow price of CO{sub 2} for power generators in the Korean fossil-fueled electric generation industry. Then, by assuming that each power generator is required to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by one ton, we compute the potential cost savings from internal trading among generators within the same plant and from external trading across plants at prevailing market prices. The results indicate that, on average, the generators paid $14.63 to abate one ton of CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. Plants realized additional gains through external trading. In particular, cost savings from trades between different fuel-fired plants were substantial. - Highlights: > We estimated the shadow price of CO{sub 2} for the Korean steam power plants. > On average, the generators paid $14.63 to abate one ton of CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. > We computed the potential cost savings from internal trading and external trading. > Plants realized additional gains through external trading.

  4. Evaluating CO2 emissions, cost, and service quality trade-offs in an urban delivery system case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Wygonik

    2011-07-01

    The results demonstrate there is not a trade-off between CO2 emissions and cost, but that these two metrics trend together. This suggests the most effective way to encourage fleet operators to limit emissions is to increase the cost of fuel or CO2 production, as this is consistent with current incentives that exist to reduce cost, and therefore emissions.

  5. The real option to fuel switch in the presence of expected windfall profits under the EU Emission Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca Taschini; Simon Urech [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom). Grantham Research Institute

    2010-07-01

    This paper develops a simple model to evaluate the value and the activation frequencies of a generation system consisting of coal-fired and a gas-fired power plants using a real options approach, and the notions of clean-spark and clean-dark spreads. Under a cap-and-trade scheme, the use of emission permits represents an opportunity cost. In the energy industry different generation technologies produce different levels of CO{sub 2} emissions and, therefore, different opportunity costs. Addressing the question of how expected windfall profits affect the profitability of a generation plant and its activation frequencies, the paper shows that conventional findings are reversed. When the opportunity cost is internalized, the rate of activation of the gas plant decreases while that of the coal plant increases.

  6. Fraud risks in emissions trading; Frauderisico's bij handel in emissierechten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The system of emission trading is a complex composed entity with on the one hand a strong environmental component and on the other hand a financial world that hooked on this instrument. In chapter 2 an introduction is provided to the emission trading system. The subsequent chapters elaborate Types of Fraud (Chapter 3), Powers (Chapter 4), and Instruments (Chapter 5). The report shows that various forms of fraud are occurring in emission trading, such as VAT fraud and identity theft. [Dutch] Het systeem van emissiehandel is een complex samengesteld geheel met aan de ene kant een belangrijke milieucomponent en aan de andere kant een financiele wereld die ingehaakt heeft op dit instrument. In hoofdstuk 2 wordt een introductie gegeven op het systeem van emissiehandel. In de volgende hoofdstukken wordt dieper ingegaan op Fraudevormen (hoofdstuk 3), Bevoegdheden (hoofdstuk 4), en Instrumentarium (hoofdstuk 5). Uit het rapport blijkt dat verschillende vormen van fraude zijn optreden bij de handel in emissierechten, zoals BTW-fraude en identiteitsfraude.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    A debate has - most notably as a result of the introduction of fixed caps within the framework of emissions trading - been raised about the need for using additional instruments of climate and energy policy. A common line of argument is that the targets set within the emissions trading scheme are going to be met with a high degree of certainty, and flexibility among the regulated stakeholders will lead to market-based discovery processes. Additional instruments would only generate additional costs and would therefore have to be rejected. However, closer analysis of these fundamental arguments shows that they are constructed on a very high level of abstraction and sometimes rely on strongly simplifying or idealising assumptions. Their theoretical assumptions are, at least in part, very questionable and do not correspond to conditions in the real world for climate and energy policy. At the same time the debate about policy instruments cannot be held autonomously of the specific context of the problem at hand. In this sense the very extensive (complete) and above all effective decarbonisation of the economies of industrialised countries in a comparatively short time frame is the key basic condition for the analysis, assessment and design of the climate policy mix. Essentially, the question is what the best instruments are for purging the whole economic system almost entirely of CO{sub 2} emissions within a period of only forty years. The introduction of emissions trading schemes for greenhouse gases in an increasing number of OECD countries undoubtedly constitutes an important landmark of climate policy. They: - provide a high degree of certainty in terms of meeting targets; - create, on the basis of a standardised price signal, a clearing mechanism for the broad spectrum of emission reduction options close to the market, at least in the short to medium term; and - represent, by means of linking, an interesting option in terms of the globalisation of climate policy

  8. Electricity trade and GHG emissions: Assessment of Quebec's hydropower in the Northeastern American market (2006-2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Amor, Mourad, E-mail: ben.amor@b2b2c.c [CIRAIG-Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada); Pineau, Pierre-Olivier [CIRAIG-HEC Montreal (Canada); Gaudreault, Caroline [NCASI (Canada); Samson, Rejean [CIRAIG-Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Worldwide electricity sector reforms open up electricity markets and increase trades. This has environmental consequences as exports and imports either increase or decrease local production and consequently greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper's objective is to illustrate the importance of electricity trade's impact on GHG emissions by providing an estimate of the net GHG emissions resulting from these trades. To achieve this objective, Quebec hourly electricity exchanges with adjacent jurisdictions were examined over the 2006-2008 period. In order to associate a specific GHG emission quantity to electricity trades, hourly marginal electricity production technologies were identified and validated using the Ontario hourly output per power plant and information released in the Quebec adjacent system operator reports. It is estimated that over three years, imports into Quebec were responsible for 7.7 Mt of GHG, while Quebec hydropower exports avoided 28.3 Mt of GHG emissions. Hence, the net result is 20.6 Mt of avoided emissions over 2006-2008, or about 7 Mt per year, which corresponds to more than 8% of the Quebec yearly GHG emissions. When GHG emissions from all life cycle stages (resource extraction to end-of-life) are accounted for, the net avoided GHG emissions increase by 35%, to 27.9 Mt. - Research highlights: {yields} Environmental benefits of hydropower exports are considerable. {yields} Detailed GHG assessment of such electricity trade is missing from the literature. {yields} Net GHG emissions estimate resulting from such trade is provided. {yields} GHG gains are significant in the Northeast American electricity market due to such electricity trade.

  9. The feasibility of domestic CO{sub 2} emissions trading in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missfeldt, F. [ed.; Hauff, J.

    2000-10-01

    In early 2000, neither a comprehensive upstream system nor an all-encompassing downstream approach to CO{sub 2} emissions permit trading seems feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) sector is thought to be a realistic option in the near future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion of the coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil sector, seems possible within a relatively short time, relying on an upstream approach without the coal sector is not advisable. Once the restructuring of the coal sector as well as the privatization of the gas and oil sector is advanced, an upstream approach might become an option again. A comprehensive downstream approach would regulate CO{sub 2} emissions at their source, that is mostly at point of combustion of fossil fuels. A system which includes industry, households and transport can be assumed to be infeasible. Instead, a 'core program' was examined, which would focus on power and heat generation as well as energy intensive industries. Such an approach was found feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including all enterprises in the relevant sectors would require significant improvements in monitoring and reporting reliability. A pilot emissions permit trading system could be introduced in the professional power and heat sector. Here, awareness concerning the instrument was found to be high and the system could be based on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream

  10. CO2-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. Wilmar - deliverable 4.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ravn, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project “Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets” (WILMAR) and describes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emissions Permits (TEP’s) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGC’s) forelectricity produced from renewable energy...... sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot pricesat the electricity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power...... generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise thefossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEP’s is expected...

  11. The best (and worst of GHG Emission Trading Schemes: Comparing the EU ETS with its followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Borghesi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Emission Trading System (EU ETS is generally considered as the prototype system for the other Emission Trading Systems (ETSs for the reduction of Greenhouse Gases (GHG that are rapidly spreading around the world. To get a deeper understanding on the actual capacity of the EU ETS to stand as a model for the other ETSs, the present paper discusses the differences and similarities of the EU ETS with respect to the other main ETSs and the emerging trends that these systems seem to share, comparing the different cap and trade regimes in order to identify the best practices and the desirable features that future ETSs should have. As emerges from the comparative analysis performed in this article, although the followers share some common flaws with the EU ETS, they have also shown the capacity to innovate and possibly devise alternative ways to manage their own ETS regimes, which may in the long term jeopardise the EU leadership in the ETSs context.

  12. Evaluation of policy options to reform the EU Emissions Trading System. Effects on carbon price, emissions and the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Brink, C.; Vollebergh, H.; Roelfsema, M.

    2013-04-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is a key instrument of EU climate policy, providing a clear reduction pathway for CO2 emissions. The current carbon price (of about 3 euros per tonne of CO2, April 2013) is much lower than previously expected (which was around 30 euros) and is likely to remain low for a long time. This fuels doubts about whether the ETS will remain a key policy instrument in the long term. Such doubts also increase investment uncertainty, which is likely to have a negative impact on further investments in low-carbon technologies needed for a low-carbon economy in 2050. In November 2012, the European Commission put forward six options for a more structural reform of the EU ETS. The proposed options vary from reducing the cap and expanding the ETS to include other sectors, to strengthening the ETS by measures directly affecting allowance prices. The Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (IenM) asked the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency to assess the impact of these options. Four categories of options for reforming the ETS were evaluated: (1) reducing the supply of emission allowances; (2) expanding the ETS by including other sectors; (3) a minimum price for auctioned allowances; and (4) combining ETS with a carbon tax. Recently, the European Parliament voted against the European Commission's proposal to temporarily set aside emission allowances. In an earlier assessment of this proposal, PBL concluded that the impact of this backloading proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. All options analysed would reduce emissions and cause the emission price to increase. A minimum price on carbon, however, would provide the best opportunity to make the ETS more robust against unforeseen events, such as a further deterioration of the economy. Such a minimum price would result in more emission reductions if abatement proves to be cheaper

  13. Municipal waste incineration and emissions trading; Die Einbeziehung von Siedlungsabfallverbrennungsanlagen in den Emissionsrechtehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treder, Martin [ITAD und VKU (Germany). AG Klimaschutz und Abfallwirtschaft

    2011-11-15

    The task of energetic waste recovery is the disposal of nonrecyclable waste in an environmentally sound way, while recovering as much of the energetic content as possible. The objective therefore is to reach a complete combustion of the biogenic and fossil carbon, thus transforming it into carbon dioxide. Hence the amount of greenhouse gas emitted solely depends on the amount and type of waste incinerated. Taking into account the climate neutrality of the biogenic fraction and the fossil fuels substituted, the German WtE-plants are contributing to climate protection by relieving it of a burden of around 4 billion each year. For these reasons municipal waste incineration plants are not included in the emissions trading scheme. Since the term 'municipal waste' is not defined within the acts, it is vital to settle for an interpretation including all wastes stemming from municipal wastes. Otherwise plants accepting presorted or conditioned municipal waste are prone to an inclusion in the emissions trading scheme. This would not only cause costs for the emission allowances without any sensible steering effects, but also face the operator with numerous reporting-, measuring and sampling obligations. This would lead to shifts in waste mass flows but also cause waste fees to increase. (orig.)

  14. From Pilot to the National Emissions Trading Scheme in China: International Practice and Domestic Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle climate change and build a low-carbon economy, China has selected seven provinces and cities as carbon trading pilots and plans to establish the national emissions trading scheme (ETS in 2017. However, since China has not yet reached peak carbon emissions, and as a major developing country, the conflict between increasing energy demand and the requirement to reduce emissions brings challenges to the design of a national ETS suitable for China’s development. In this paper, we summarize the current situation of China’s seven ETS pilots with respect to coverage, allowance allocation, transactions, punishment mechanisms and especially the market performance. By analyzing the common practice of three international mandatory schemes, combined with China’s current circumstances and characteristics of market construction and regulation, we emphasize China’s own economic reality, and propose several recommendations for building a suitable and effective national ETS. This paper could provide new perspectives towards scheme design for China and other similar countries.

  15. REGULATION AND TRADING WITH GREEN HOUSE EFFECT GASES AND ADVANTAGES OF SERBIA'S ENTRY IN THE EMISSION MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Petrovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendency to make flexible mechanism in order to stop climate change developed new kind of market based on emission trading system. Market as regulatory mechanism is capable to stop further pollution of the environment and achieve primary goal in allocation of emission permits between those who need them and those who possess them. Modern prediction are based on opinion that carbon markets will have great impact on global economy in near future. However today his influence is miserable comparing to some other markets, even though there are several very influential trading projects that are established inside EU, one of them is EU ETS. European Union trading scheme is not only important for developed countries, but also for those who have aspiration to become part of EU. Therefore basic purpose of this work is to represent principles of Carbon trading market, his function and historical development and connect them with possible advantages of Serbia's entry in the emission market.

  16. The law as an instrument for climate protection: the case of integrated approaches to understanding emissions trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Cörvers, Ron; de Kraker, Joop; Martens, Pim; Kemp, René; van Lente, Harro

    2016-01-01

    This chapter illustrates the need for cross-cutting studies regarding the question how the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, particularly by means of "emissions trading", can be regulated in an effective and efficient way within the boundaries of the rule of law. It identifies the following

  17. Emission allowance origination and trading : How does it affect ABB and its Group Treasury Operations?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Jonas; Lund, Linus

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to determine how ABB’s treasury department (GTO) should respond to an increasing awareness and interest in the carbon credit markets. Emission caps have been introduced on national levels and also for certain industries in Europe as a consequence of the Kyoto Protocol. This allows for trading of certain carbon credits as well as for the creation of new credits. ABB is a company which has many solutions for efficient energy use; solutions that aim to reduce electri...

  18. Optimal design methodologies under the carbon emission trading program using MIP, GA, SA, and TS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadegheih, A. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Yazd University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, an adaptation of MIP, GA, SA, and TS to network planning under the carbon emission trading program is described and computational results are given. As will be shown, the results are very encouraging. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses, the power generation costs and carbon emission costs. The optimization model has the ability to minimize the total costs and provides the best solutions, which are both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. This method of solution is demonstrated on the real problem. Finally, the performance of the proposed procedure is compared with that of the most well-known as mixed-integer programming. (author)

  19. The political economy of emissions trading; L'economie politique des marches de permis d'emissions negociables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanoteau, J

    2004-06-15

    This thesis is a positive analysis of emissions trading systems' implementation. We explain why allowances are generally granted for free even though normative economic analysis recommends their sale. We show empirically that free tradable permits, source of windfall profit, motivate rent seeking behaviours. The study focuses on the US market for SO{sub 2} emissions allowances. The initial allocation rule resulted from parliamentary discussions that looked like a zero sum game. We formalize it as an endogenous sharing rule, function of lobbying effort, and we test it using political (money) contributions.We analyse theoretically the behaviour of an influenced regulator that has chosen to organize a market for permits and that must still decide on two policy variables: the whole quantity of permits and the way to allocate them initially. We formalize this decisions making process with the common agency model of politics.We show that the choice of an initial allocation rule is not neutral in presence of political market failures (lobbying). The decision to sell the permits or to grant them for free modifies the shareholders' incentive, in a polluting industry, to pressure for or against the reduction of legal emissions.Then, we analyse the public arbitration between the two policy variables when several industrial lobbies play a partially cooperative game for the free permits. The regulator chooses in priority to grant the rights for free rather than to manipulate their quantity, and this constitutes an efficient answer to the political influence. (author)

  20. Opportunities and trade-offs of biomass based negative emissions within planetary boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Vera; Gerten, Dieter; Lucht, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Paris Agreement requires "a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of the century" (UNFCCC, 2015). Without a full decarbonization of the energy and land use sector until the second half of this century, negative emission technologies (NETs) are required to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated assessment studies indicate that bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), a land based NET, has the potential to contribute substantially to balancing anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions. However, significant negative emission potentials from BECCS require substantial biomass potentials, which can only be achieved by intensively managed (fertilized and irrigated) large-scale biomass plantations. Additional to direct trade-offs of land and water availability, the implementation of large-scale biomass plantations implies major restructuring of the land surface on top of existing land use and would be accompanied by indirect trade-offs such as changes in moisture and energy fluxes. In the context of the planetary boundaries framework as proposed by Rockström et al. (2009), BECCS might contribute to reduce the transgression of the planetary boundary (PB) for climate change, but would most likely steer the Earth system closer to the PB for freshwater use and lead to further transgression of the PBs for land system change, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows. This presentation will investigate the opportunities of second generation biomass potentials within the safe operating space for humanity and highlight the multidimensional trade-offs between biomass potentials for BECCS in relation to the PBs. Scenarios of land availability for biomass plantations and land based carbon sequestration were developed with a spatially explicit multi-criterial optimization framework, considering the precautionary need to stay within the safe operating space vis-à-vis the need to

  1. Are Emissions Trading Policies Sustainable? A Study of the Petrochemical Industry in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongrok Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Korea inaugurated an emissions trading scheme (ETS. In this regard, many studies have considered the sustainable performance and efficiency of industries that emit carbon; however, few have examined ETS at company level. This paper focuses on companies’ data related to Korean ETS in the petrochemical industry. Based on the non-radial, nonparametric directional distance function (DDF, the paper evaluates the governance factors related to ETS policies and sustainable performance in terms of carbon technical efficiency (CTE, the shadow price of carbon emissions, and Morishima elasticity between the input and undesirable output of carbon emissions. Using a dual model, the paper shows that Korean ETS has huge potential for participating companies to improve CTE. If all companies consider the production possibility frontier, they could potentially improve efficiency by 52.8%. Further, Morishima elasticity shows strong substitutability between capital and energy, implying that green technology investment should bring a higher degree of energy-saving performance. Unfortunately, however, the market price of carbon emissions is far too low compared with its shadow price, suggesting that the Korean government’s price-oriented market intervention has resulted in the ETS producing poor sustainable performance. As the title suggests, ETS of Korea is not sustainable at the current stage, but with more efforts on the transition period, all the developing countries should support the governance factors of the ETS in terms of the more effective green investment with easier access to the green technology.

  2. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  3. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions’ cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions’ discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games. PMID:26402322

  4. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  5. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by using a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Guan, D. B.; Davis, S. J.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2015-05-01

    Substantial anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and this has generated considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated; however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutant was transferred through economic and trade activities remains a challenge. For the first time, we quantified and tracked China's air pollutant emission flows embodied in interprovincial trade, using a multiregional input-output model framework. Trade relative emissions for four key air pollutants (primary fine particle matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds) were assessed for 2007 in each Chinese province. We found that emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces owing to interprovincial trade. Large amounts of emissions were embodied in the imports of eastern regions from northern and central regions, and these were determined by differences in regional economic status and environmental policy. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers and producers within national agreements to encourage efficiency improvement in the supply chain and optimize consumption structure internationally. The consumption-based air pollutant emission inventory developed in this work can be further used to attribute pollution to various economic activities and final demand types with the aid of air quality models.

  6. Statistical regularities of Carbon emission trading market: Evidence from European Union allowances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo; Li, Guihong; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2015-05-01

    As an emerging financial market, the trading value of carbon emission trading market has definitely increased. In recent years, the carbon emission allowances have already become a way of investment. They are bought and sold not only by carbon emitters but also by investors. In this paper, we analyzed the price fluctuations of the European Union allowances (EUA) futures in European Climate Exchange (ECX) market from 2007 to 2011. The symmetric and power-law probability density function of return time series was displayed. We found that there are only short-range correlations in price changes (return), while long-range correlations in the absolute of price changes (volatility). Further, detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) approach was applied with focus on long-range autocorrelations and Hurst exponent. We observed long-range power-law autocorrelations in the volatility that quantify risk, and found that they decay much more slowly than the autocorrelation of return time series. Our analysis also showed that the significant cross correlations exist between return time series of EUA and many other returns. These cross correlations exist in a wide range of fields, including stock markets, energy concerned commodities futures, and financial futures. The significant cross-correlations between energy concerned futures and EUA indicate the physical relationship between carbon emission and energy production process. Additionally, the cross-correlations between financial futures and EUA indicate that the speculation behavior may become an important factor that can affect the price of EUA. Finally we modeled the long-range volatility time series of EUA with a particular version of the GARCH process, and the result also suggests long-range volatility autocorrelations.

  7. An Optimization Scheduling Model for Wind Power and Thermal Power with Energy Storage System considering Carbon Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-huan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power has the characteristics of randomness and intermittence, which influences power system safety and stable operation. To alleviate the effect of wind power grid connection and improve power system’s wind power consumptive capability, this paper took emission trading and energy storage system into consideration and built an optimization model for thermal-wind power system and energy storage systems collaborative scheduling. A simulation based on 10 thermal units and wind farms with 2800 MW installed capacity verified the correctness of the models put forward by this paper. According to the simulation results, the introduction of carbon emission trading can improve wind power consumptive capability and cut down the average coal consumption per unit of power. The introduction of energy storage system can smooth wind power output curve and suppress power fluctuations. The optimization effects achieve the best when both of carbon emission trading and energy storage system work at the same time.

  8. Viability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration Retrofits for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants under an Emission Trading Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Morgan, M Granger

    2016-12-06

    Using data on the coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs) in Texas we assess the economic feasibility of retrofitting existing units with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in order to comply with the Clean Power Plan's rate-based emission standards under an emission trading scheme. CCS with 90% capture is shown to be more economically attractive for a range of existing units than purchasing emission rate credits (ERCs) from a trading market at an average credit price above $28 per MWh under the final state standard and $35 per MWh under the final national standard. The breakeven ERC trading prices would decrease significantly if the captured CO 2 were sold for use in enhanced oil recovery, making CCS retrofits viable at lower trading prices. The combination of ERC trading and CO 2 use can greatly reinforce economic incentives and market demands for CCS and hence accelerate large-scale deployment, even under scenarios with high retrofit costs. Comparing the levelized costs of electricity generation between CCS retrofits and new renewable plants under the ERC trading scheme, retrofitting coal-fired EGUs with CCS may be significantly cheaper than new solar plants under some market conditions.

  9. The surveillance of the electricity wholesale market and emission trading market; Die Ueberwachung von Stromgrosshandelsmarkt und Emissionshandelsmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedemann, Volker [Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Forschungszentrum Energiewirtschaft/Energierecht (fee); Hochschule Osnabrueck (Germany). Wirtschafts- und Wettbewerbsrecht; Konar, Selma [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The Regulation on Wholesale Market Integrity and Transparency (REMIT) and the German Law on the Establishment of a Market Transparency Office for Wholesale Trade in Electricity and Gas (MTS-G) have fundamentally changed the surveillance of electricity wholesale trade in Germany. From now on the Federal Network Agency and the Federal Cartel Office will be jointly responsible for monitoring the electricity wholesale trade for suspicious market phenomena and abusive behaviour. The REMIT specifies that the electricity trade must be surveilled ''with due consideration to interactions'' with the emission trade system. However, occurrences observed in recent years have shown that the emission trading system is in need of reform. This has also been recognised and has prompted extensive corrective action by the regulatory authorities of the European Union. These changes have yet to be transposed into the national surveillance regimes. The present article explains why the new role accorded to the Federal Network Agency under the REMIT fails to eliminate the structural shortcomings of the old surveillance system. At least the decision to put the collection and evaluation of data exclusively in the hands of the market transparency office and the cooperation this will prompt between the supervisory authorities responsible will make the task of surveilling the energy wholesale trading market a lot easier for the authorities. The energy transition and its exigencies will yet lead to further changes in the market and its surveillance regime.

  10. CO2 emissions, real output, energy consumption, trade, urbanization and financial development: testing the EKC hypothesis for the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Eyup; Turkekul, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption, real output (GDP), the square of real output (GDP(2)), trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in the USA for the period 1960-2010. The bounds testing for cointegration indicates that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. In the long run, energy consumption and urbanization increase environmental degradation while financial development has no effect on it, and trade leads to environmental improvements. In addition, this study does not support the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the USA because real output leads to environmental improvements while GDP(2) increases the levels of gas emissions. The results from the Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causality between CO2 and GDP, CO2 and energy consumption, CO2 and urbanization, GDP and urbanization, and GDP and trade openness while no causality is determined between CO2 and trade openness, and gas emissions and financial development. In addition, we have enough evidence to support one-way causality running from GDP to energy consumption, from financial development to output, and from urbanization to financial development. In light of the long-run estimates and the Granger causality analysis, the US government should take into account the importance of trade openness, urbanization, and financial development in controlling for the levels of GDP and pollution. Moreover, it should be noted that the development of efficient energy policies likely contributes to lower CO2 emissions without harming real output.

  11. 75 FR 23704 - Order Finding That the NWP Rockies Financial Basis Contract Traded on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... contracts, the Commission will consider whether the price of the potential SPDC moves in such harmony with... located in Erath, Louisiana, is the primary cash market trading and distribution center for natural gas in... transmission system to markets throughout the Rockies and Pacific Northwest. The Opal market center, a trading...

  12. Designing an emissions trading scheme for China. An up-to-date climate policy assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebler, Michael [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany); Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Environmental Economics and World Trade; Loeschel, Andreas; Voigt, Sebastian [Zentrum fuer Europaeische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH (ZEW), Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    We assess recent Chinese climate policy proposals in a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium model with a Chinese carbon emissions trading scheme (ETS). When the emissions intensity per GDP in 2020 is required to be 45% lower than in 2005, the model simulations indicate that the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2020, measured as the level of GDP and welfare in 2020 under climate policy relative to their level under business-as-usual (BAU) in the same year, is about 1%. The Chinese welfare loss in 2020 slightly increases in the Chinese rate of economic growth in 2020. When keeping the emissions target fixed at the 2020 level after 2020 in absolute terms, the welfare loss will reach about 2% in 2030. If China's annual economic growth rate is 0.5 percentage points higher (lower), the climate policy-induced welfare loss in 2030 will rise (decline) by about 0.5 percentage points. Full auctioning of carbon allowances results in very similar macroeconomic effects as free allocation, but full auctioning leads to higher reductions in output than free allocation for ETS sectors. Linking the Chinese to the European ETS and restricting the transfer volume to one third of the EU's reduction effort creates at best a small benefit for China, yet with smaller sectoral output reductions than auctioning. These results highlight the importance of designing the Chinese ETS wisely.

  13. The emissions trading in view of the jurisdiction. Pt. 1; Der Emissionshandel im Lichte der Rechtsprechung. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobes, Stefan [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Emissionshandel zur Bekaempfung des Treibhauseffektes' ' ; Engel, Gernot-Ruediger [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany)

    2011-02-28

    With the introduction of emissions trading in the year 2003, the legislator has created a new, complex field of law which specially challenges the jurisdiction. The task of the jurisdiction primarily consisted to clarify constitutional issues and to design the system. Meanwhile there exist more than 100 decisions of European and German courts. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the German jurisprudence on the Directive 2003/87/EC and on general issues of emissions trading in the period between 1st September, 2004 and 30th June, 2010.

  14. Modeling an emissions peak in China around 2030: Synergies or trade-offs between economy, energy and climate security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Min Chai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China has achieved a political consensus around the need to transform the path of economic growth toward one that lowers carbon intensity and ultimately leads to reductions in carbon emissions, but there remain different views on pathways that could achieve such a transformation. The essential question is whether radical or incremental reforms are required in the coming decades. This study explores relevant pathways in China beyond 2020, particularly modeling the major target choices of carbon emission peaking in China around 2030 as China-US Joint Announcement by an integrated assessment model for climate change IAMC based on carbon factor theory. Here scenarios DGS-2020, LGS2025, LBS-2030 and DBS-2040 derived from the historical pathways of developed countries are developed to access the comprehensive impacts on the economy, energy and climate security for the greener development in China. The findings suggest that the period of 2025–2030 is the window of opportunity to achieve a peak in carbon emissions at a level below 12 Gt CO2 and 8.5 t per capita by reasonable trade-offs from economy growth, annually −0.2% in average and cumulatively −3% deviation to BAU in 2030. The oil and natural gas import dependence will exceed 70% and 45% respectively while the non-fossil energy and electricity share will rise to above 20% and 45%. Meantime, the electrification level in end use sectors will increase substantially and the electricity energy ratio approaching 50%, the labor and capital productivity should be double in improvements and the carbon intensity drop by 65% by 2030 compared to the 2005 level, and the cumulative emission reductions are estimated to be more than 20 Gt CO2 in 2015–2030.

  15. Trading forests: land-use change and carbon emissions embodied in production and exports of forest-risk commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henders, Sabine; Persson, U. Martin; Kastner, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Production of commercial agricultural commodities for domestic and foreign markets is increasingly driving land clearing in tropical regions, creating links and feedback effects between geographically separated consumption and production locations. Such teleconnections are commonly studied through calculating consumption footprints and quantifying environmental impacts embodied in trade flows, e.g., virtual water and land, biomass, or greenhouse gas emissions. The extent to which land-use change (LUC) and associated carbon emissions are embodied in the production and export of agricultural commodities has been less studied. Here we quantify tropical deforestation area and carbon emissions from LUC induced by the production and the export of four commodities (beef, soybeans, palm oil, and wood products) in seven countries with high deforestation rates (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). We show that in the period 2000-2011, the production of the four analyzed commodities in our seven case countries was responsible for 40% of total tropical deforestation and resulting carbon losses. Over a third of these impacts was embodied in exports in 2011, up from a fifth in 2000. This trend highlights the growing influence of global markets in deforestation dynamics. Main flows of embodied LUC are Latin American beef and soybean exports to markets in Europe, China, the former Soviet bloc, the Middle East and Northern Africa, whereas embodied emission flows are dominated by Southeast Asian exports of palm oil and wood products to consumers in China, India and the rest of Asia, as well as to the European Union. Our findings illustrate the growing role that global consumers play in tropical LUC trajectories and highlight the need for demand-side policies covering whole supply chains. We also discuss the limitations of such demand-side measures and call for a combination of supply- and demand-side policies to effectively limit tropical

  16. Interaction with environmental policy tools with the Emissions Trading System; Interactie Milieubeleidsinstrumenten met het ETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    Successively, this paper first discusses some characteristics of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) and then gives the main objectives of the most important targets of interest for the deployment of additional environmental policy instruments. The memo concludes with an analysis in which the interaction between the ETS and some characteristic environmental policy instruments are explained. Next the question is posed whether the implementation of those environmental policy instruments can be understood on the basis of other targets [Dutch] Achtereenvolgens bespreekt deze notitie eerst enkele kenmerken van het ETS om vervolgens een overzicht te geven van de belangrijkste doelstellingen die van belang zijn bij de inzet van aanvullende milieubeleidsinstrumenten. De notitie sluit af met een analyse waarin de interactie tussen het ETS en enkele karakteristieke milieubeleidsinstrumenten wordt toegelicht om vervolgens de vraag te stellen of de inzet van deze milieubeleidsinstrumenten wellicht vanuit andere doelstellingen begrepen kan worden.

  17. EUROPEAN EMISSION TRADING SCHEME AT A TURNING POINT – FROM THE PILOT PHASE TO POST-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Carmen Slate

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Climate change action has become a top priority for the European governments and for the European Union. Since the polluters are part of the energy-intensive industries, the mechanisms designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions should focus on the economic sector as a primary source of concern. Therefore, environmental issues interrelate with the economic ones and one viable expression of this relation is the EU ETS, a cap-and-trade mechanism. The ETS started with a pilot phase in year 2005 and will continue with a third phase after 2012, period which coincides with the end of Kyoto’s commitment. Although statistical data prove that the EU ETS is becoming more efficient with each phase, in the absence of global involvement the efforts invested in the scheme will be made in vain.

  18. Methane emissions from a high arctic valley: findings and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Ström, Lena

    2008-01-01

    Wet tundra ecosystems are well-known to be a significant source of atmospheric methane. With the predicted stronger effect of global climate change on arctic terrestrial ecosystems compared to lower-latitudes, there is a special obligation to study the natural diversity and the range of possible...... feedback effects on global climate that could arise from Arctic tundra ecosystems. One of the prime candidates for such a feedback mechanism is a potential change in the emissions of methane. Long-term datasets on methane emissions from high arctic sites are almost non-existing but badly needed...... for analyses of controls on interannual and seasonal variations in emissions. To help fill this gap we initiated a measurement program in a productive high arctic fen in the Zackenberg valley, NE Greenland. Methane flux measurements have been carried out at the same location since 1997. Compared...

  19. 75 FR 23686 - Order Finding That the Carbon Financial Instrument Contract Offered for Trading on the Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... public; (2) efficiency, competitiveness, and financial integrity of futures markets; (3) price discovery... integrity of the markets. The Commission has concluded that the Chicago Climate Exchange's Carbon Financial... COMMISSION Order Finding That the Carbon Financial Instrument Contract Offered for Trading on the Chicago...

  20. Efficiency of the emission trading. A contribution to the climate protection law; Effizienz im Emissionshandel. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg-, Umwelt- und Europarecht; Wimmers, Kristina [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution discusses the following topics: Inclusion of additional sectors into the emission trading: road traffic and sea traffic, the stepwise realization and difficulties; the failed inclusion of air traffic, rigid penalties in case of violation of the fee delivery, thread for the complete mechanism, over-compliance in Germany and international perspectives.

  1. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system : An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based

  2. Impacts of the abolition of NOx emission trade; Effecten van de afschaffing van NOx- emissiehandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    The consequences of abolishing the NOx emission trade have been analyzed for the installations that are covered by BEMS legislation (Dutch decree on emission limits for medium-sized combustion plants). The following aspects have been analyzed: What are the enforcement costs if these installations need to comply with BEMS requirements as of 2014?; How are these costs distributed across the various sectors and in particular for the sectors of onshore/offshore gas and oil extraction, greenhouse horticulture and hospitals?; To what extent can costs be lowered by allowing a 2-,3- or 5-year delay of the implementation date for existing installations in BEMS? To answer the above questions, data were used from the NEA (Netherlands Emission Authority) at sector level. Model calculations were conducted to determine the costs and effects [Dutch] De gevolgen van de afschaffing van NOx-emissiehandel zijn geanalyseerd voor het installatiepark dat terugvalt op BEMS-wetgeving (Besluit emissie-eisen middelgrote stookinstallaties). De volgende zaken zijn geanalyseerd: Wat zijn de nalevingskosten indien vanaf 2014 deze installaties aan de BEMS-eisen moeten voldoen?; Hoe zijn deze kosten verdeeld over de verschillende sectoren en in het bijzonder voor de sectoren offshore/onshore gas- en oliewinning, de glastuinbouw en ziekenhuizen?; In hoeverre zijn de kosten te verlagen door 2, 3 of 5 jaar uitstel te geven ten opzichte van de implementatiedatum voor bestaande installaties in BEMS? Voor het beantwoorden van de bovenstaande vragen is gebruik gemaakt van gegevens van de NEa (Nederlandse Emissie autoriteit) op sectorniveau. Met modelberekeningen zijn hiermee kosten en effecten bepaald.

  3. Finding a pareto-optimal solution for multi-region models subject to capital trade and spillover externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics and Statistics

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm that deals with trade interactions within a multi-region model. In contrast to traditional approaches this algorithm is able to handle spillover externalities. Technological spillovers are expected to foster the diffusion of new technologies, which helps to lower the cost of climate change mitigation. We focus on technological spillovers which are due to capital trade. The algorithm of finding a pareto-optimal solution in an intertemporal framework is embedded in a decomposed optimization process. The paper analyzes convergence and equilibrium properties of this algorithm. In the final part of the paper, we apply the algorithm to investigate possible impacts of technological spillovers. While benefits of technological spillovers are significant for the capital-importing region, benefits for the capital-exporting region depend on the type of regional disparities and the resulting specialization and terms-of-trade effects. (orig.)

  4. Strengthening the European Union emissions trading scheme and raising climate ambition. Facts, measures and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Matthes, Felix C. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    EU energy and climate policy faces manifold challenges. The debate on tougher emis-sions reduction targets for 2020 is gaining momentum, the need for an integrated framework and long-term targets as well as consistent and interim targets for 2020 and 2030 is becoming clear and adjustments to the EU's Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) seem to be indispensable to preserve its role as a central pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy mix. The EU is very close to fulfilling its recent greenhouse gas emission commitments for 2020. Including the committed and projected use of external emissions reduction credits, only a gap of three percentage points remains, which is theoretically already gap-filled with the cap of the EU ETS by 2020. The current situation is also challenging for the EU ETS, which is facing significantly falling allowance prices. The fundamental reason for this price trend is the massive supply of EU emission allowances (EUA) and emission reduction credits which exceeds the demand significantly. This surplus was 950 million EUA in 2011, will reach approx. 2 billion EUA in 2013 and still amount to 1.4 billion EUA in 2020. It results from huge entitlements for the use of external emission reduction credits from CDM and JI and the long-term impacts of the economic crisis. Only a minor contribution to the surplus results from the support for renewable energy sources (RES) with complementary policies to the EU ETS because the recent growth plans for RES match quite well with the assumptions made for cap-setting in 2008. Two different approaches were used to analyse potential interventions and adjustments of the EU ETS. Firstly, a set aside of 1,400 million allowances combined with a tighter cap for the EU ETS by increasing the linear reduction factor from a recent 1.74 % to 2.25 % from 2014 onwards. Secondly, the adjustment of the linear reduction factor was derived from more ambitious goals for the total domestic emission reductions. An

  5. Changing Energy Policy. The proposed Energy Efficiency Directive and its consequences for Renewable Energy and EU Emission Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, D. [European Renewable Energies Federation EREF, BRussels (Belgium); Nysten, J. [Becker Buettner Held BBH, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    When the foundations for the EU Emission Trade System were laid in 1998, neither renewable energy nor energy efficiency were explicitly taken into account. Now, over a decade later, the EU's climate and energy policy include three-pronged 2020 targets to increase efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure a minimum share of renewables in the energy mix. However, without careful coordination between the different legislative measures, it is likely that one system will distort the functioning of the other and in the end, the EU will fall short of its bigger energy and climate goals. The Commission's recent Proposal for an Energy Efficiency Directive has been sent to the Parliament and, most recently, a Draft Report has been released by the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. Against this backdrop, the following article examines the compatibility of the Commission's proposal with the existing Emission Trade System and the Renewable Energy Directive.

  6. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.

  7. Carbon Emission Trading. A survey of regional and national emission trading schemes outside the European Union; Handel med utslaeppsraetter. Kartlaeggning av EU-externa regionala och nationella system foer handel med koldioxidutslaepp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widegren, Karin

    2007-03-15

    For those countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol this is naturally one of the most important incentives for the introduction of mandatory measures such as emissions trading schemes. At the same time, there are major similarities between the political discussions in countries that ratified the Kyoto Protocol and countries that did not. In all countries there is a great interest in market-based regulation such as emissions trading, at the same time as the political difficulties in achieving unity on the limits and shaping of the systems are very substantial. In countries with a federal government, operators at the regional level frequently have a prominent role. The driving force for the regional players is frequently a desire to influence the federal policy from below at the same time as goodwill is created and a learning process is developed that may become a competitive advantage the day a federal system is introduced. Regional initiatives and the introduction of different voluntary programs for emissions trading have also contributed to an increased interest on the part of industry and industrial operators. They have in several cases actively participated in the design of such programs. When it comes to the operational status of the different schemes none of the studied countries is expected to have a nationally compulsory trading system in operation prior to 2010. Most initiatives are at the initial stage and have been delayed many times on account of significant administrative and political difficulties. It may be established that as regards market volume, liquidity and practical experiences EU ETS is in a class of its own. The most common trading system that is planned or debated is of the type 'cap and trade'. Systems focus almost without exception on the energy sector and on emissions of carbon dioxide. Frequently, proposals include a wide variety of approved emission credits (offset). The design of these emission credits often reflects other

  8. Assessment of China's virtual air pollution transport embodied in trade by a consumption-based emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Davis, S. J.; Guan, D.; Liu, Z.; Huo, H.; Lin, J. T.; Liu, W. D.; He, K. B.

    2014-10-01

    High anthropogenic emissions from China have resulted in serious air pollution, and it has attracted considerable academic and public concern. The physical transport of air pollutants in the atmosphere has been extensively investigated, however, understanding the mechanisms how the pollutants were transferred through economic and trade activities remains challenge. In this work, we assessed China's virtual air pollutant transport embodied in trade, by using consumption-based accounting approach. We first constructed a consumption-based emission inventory for China's four key air pollutants (primary PM2.5, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC)) in 2007, based on the bottom-up sectoral emission inventory concerning their production activities - a production-based inventory. We used a multiregional input-output (MRIO) model to integrate the sectoral production-based emissions and the associated economic and trade activities, and finally obtained consumption-based inventory. Unlike the production-based inventory, the consumption-based inventory tracked emissions throughout the supply chain related to the consumption of goods and services and hereby identified the emission flows followed the supply chains. From consumption-based perspective, emissions were significantly redistributed among provinces due to interprovincial trade. Large amount of emissions were embodied in the net imports of east regions from northern and central regions; these were determined by differences in the regional economic status and environmental policies. We also calculated the emissions embodied in exported and imported goods and services. It is found that 15-23% of China's pollutant emissions were related to exports for foreign consumption; that proportion was much higher for central and export-oriented coastal regions. It is suggested that measures should be introduced to reduce air pollution by integrating cross-regional consumers

  9. Metastatic meningioma: positron emission tomography CT imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, C

    2010-12-01

    The imaging findings of a case of metastasing meningioma are described. The case illustrates a number of rare and interesting features. The patient presented with haemoptysis 22 years after the initial resection of an intracranial meningioma. CT demonstrated heterogeneous masses with avid peripheral enhancement without central enhancement. Blood supply to the larger lesion was partially from small feeding vessels from the inferior pulmonary vein. These findings correlate with a previously published case in which there was avid uptake of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose peripherally with lesser uptake centrally. The diagnosis of metastasing meningioma was confirmed on percutaneous lung tissue biopsy.

  10. EU energy-intensive industries and emissions trading: losers becoming winners?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wettestad, Joergen

    2008-11-15

    The EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) initially treated power producers and energy-intensive industries similarly, despite clear structural differences between these industries regarding pass through of costs and vulnerability to global competition. Hence, the energy-intensive industries could be seen as losing out in the internal distribution. In the January 2008 proposal for a reformed ETS post-2012, a differentiated system was proposed where the energy-intensive industries come out relatively much better. What is the explanation for the change taking place? Although power producers still have a dominant position in the system, the increasing consensus about windfall profits has weakened their standing. Conversely, the energy-intensive industries have become better organised and more active. This balance shift is first and foremost noticeable in several important EU-level stake holder consultation processes. Energy-intensive industries have, however, also successfully utilised the national pathway to exert influence on Brussels policy-making. Finally, growing fear of lax global climate policies and related carbon leakage has strengthened the case of these industries further. The latter dimension indicates that although energy-intensive industries have managed to reduce internal distribution anomalies, external challenges remain. (author). 9 refs

  11. Understanding the differing governance of EU emissions trading and renewable: feedback mechanisms and policy entrepreneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of two central EU climate policies: the revised Emissions Trading System (ETS), and the revised Renewable Energy Directive (RES). Both were originally developed in the early 2000s and revised policies were adopted in December 2008. While the ETS from 2013 on will have a quite centralized and market-streamlined design, the revised RES stands forward as a more decentralized and technology-focused policy. Differing institutional feed-back mechanisms and related roles of policy entrepreneurs can shed considerable light on these policy differences. Due to member states' cautiousness and contrary to the preferences of the Commission, the initial ETS was designed as a rather decentralized and 'politicized' market system, creating a malfunctioning institutional dynamic. In the revision process, the Commission skillfully highlighted this ineffective dynamic to win support for a much more centralized and market-streamlined approach. In the case of RES, national technology-specific support schemes and the strong links between the renewable industry and member states promoted the converse outcome: decentralization and technology development. Members of the European Parliament utilized these mechanisms through policy networking, while the Commission successfully used developments within the global climate regime to induce some degree of centralization. (Author)

  12. Lobbying during the revision of the European emissions trading system: Easier for Swedish industrial insiders than for Norwegian outsiders?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miard, Kadri

    2011-07-01

    This report examines and compares the lobbying routes taken by Swedish and Norwegian energy-intensive industry firms during the revision of the European Emissions Trading System. Two key explanatory factors are in focus here - whether the company has its origin in the EU member state Sweden or in non-member Norway; and the size of the company. Six companies are chosen as cases: Norsk Hydro, Norcem and Norske Skog from Norway; and SSAB, Cementa and Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget from Sweden. A key finding is the extensive use of European associations by all these firms in lobbying EU institutions. Also prevalent is the use of national associations, which would indicate benefits in the form of better institutional response to collective lobbying and resource-sharing aspects. Although Norwegian firms seem to have struggled more than Swedish firms when it comes to lobbying EU institutions, due to lack of access to the EU, not all differences can be explained by the fact of originating in an EU member state Sweden or non-member Norway. While company size has a positive effect on the number of available lobbying routes, this appears to depend on cross-border production and possibly other influences as well.(auth)

  13. European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances; Europaeischer Emissionshandel, Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz und das Recht der Umweltbeihilfen. Plaedoyer fuer einen ''more environmental approach'' im EU-Wettbewerbsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Max

    2016-07-01

    The book on European emission trading, renewable energy law and the law of governmental environmental allowances covers the following issues: The European emission trading system and the European law on competition, the European emission trading system and competitive concerns; The European renewable energy law and the European law on competition, The European renewable energy law and competitive concerns; environmental protection the European competition policy.

  14. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-15

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation And Agriculture, Trade-off Or Win-win Situation: Bioeconomic Farm Modelling In The Sudanian Area of Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, T. E.; Barbier, B.

    2015-12-01

    Climate changes talks regularly underline that developing countries' agriculture could play a stronger role in GHGs mitigation strategies and benefit from the Kyoto Protocol program of subsidies. Scientists explain that agriculture can contribute to carbon mitigation by storing more carbon in the soil through greener cropping systems. In this context, a growing number of research projects have started to investigate how developing countries agriculture can contribute to these objectives. The clean development mechanism (CDM) proposed in the Kyoto protocol is one particular policy instrument that can incite farmers to mitigate the GHG balance towards more sequestration and less emission. Some economists such as Michael Porter think that environmental regulation lead to a win-win outcome, in which case subsidies are not necessary. If it is a trade-off between incomes and the environment, subsidies are required. CDM can be mobilized to support the mitigation strategy. Agriculture implies the use of inputs. Reducing the emission implies the reduction of those inputs which will in turn imply a yield decrease. The study aims to assess whether this measure will imply a trade-off between environmental and economic objectives or a win-win situation. I apply this study to the case of small farmers in Burkina Faso through environmental instruments such as the emissions limits and agroforestry using a bioeconomic model, in which the farmers maximize their utility subject to constraints. The study finds that the limitation of emissions in annual crops production involves a trade-off. by impacting negatively their net cash come. By integrating perennial crops in the farming system, the farmers' utility increases. Around 6,118 kg are sequestrated individually. By computing the value on this carbon balance, farmers' net cash incomes go better. Then practicing agroforestry is a win-win situation, as they reach a higher level of income, and reduce emissions. Policymakers must

  16. The emissions trading in view of the jurisdiction. Pt. 2; Der Emissionshandel im Lichte der Rechtsprechung. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobes, Stefan [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany); Bundesumweltministerium, Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Emissionshandel zur Bekaempfung des Treibhauseffektes' ' ; Engel, Gernot-Ruediger [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH Berlin (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Meanwhile, European and German courts have clarified a variety of important legal issues of emissions trading in Germany. The authors of the contribution under conideration report on the jurisdiction up to 30th June, 2010 with regard to individual rules of allocation of the ZuG 2007 and the ZuG 2012 (ZuG - Law on the National Allocation Plan for greenhouse gas emission certificates), the reporting and sanctions procedures, the Project-related Mechanisms Act, issues of legal protection and levying fees as well as claims to information under the Environmental Information Act.

  17. Overview of Findings from the World Trade Center Disaster Outcome Study: Recommendations for Future Research after Exposure to Psychological Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents ...

  18. Putting a price on carbon. Econometric essays on the European Union emissions trading scheme and its impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aatola, P.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation examines the main instrument of the European Union climate policy, the emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) during its first years. Emission trading provides a cost-efficient way to reduce emissions. It creates a price on carbon dioxide and thereby incentives for cleaner production. The four empirical studies in this dissertation provide new information on the price determination in the emissions trading market, market efficiency and market interactions with the electricity markets. This information is useful for many purposes. It benefits the market participants who make choice between trading of emission allowances in the market and abatement of emissions. For the authorities and policy planners the price signal and the efficiency of the markets reveal unique real-time information on marginal abatement costs, impacts of policy decisions and impacts of institutional design of this policy instrument. To be a well-functioning policy instrument the EU ETS should create a credible price signal and efficient markets for trading allowances. The objective of this dissertation is to analyze the EU ETS markets and the price of the European Union emissions allowance, EUA, with econometric time series models. A large data set on market fundamentals is used to analyze the price series. The results of this dissertation reveal that EU ETS is functions well. Carbon has a price that reflects to a large extent the market fundamentals in the study period. The markets are maturing even if not fully informational efficient yet. Interactions with electricity markets are close. The impact of price of carbon on the price of electricity is positive but spatially uneven. In the long run, also climate change affects the electricity bill. The first study of this dissertation investigates the price determination in the market. The empirical results based on years 2005-2011 show that the price of the EUA is largely determined by the market fundamentals. Especially the price of

  19. The Optimization Model for Interregional Power System Planning considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Renewable Energy Quota Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the rapid construction of ultra-high-voltage (UHV transmission lines promotes interregional resource optimizing configuration and interregional power system planning. This paper analyzes external environment of interregional power system planning from geographical, technical, and policy environments. Then, the paper takes the minimum system investment cost as the optimization objective and constructs the optimization model of interregional power system planning considering carbon emissions trading (CET and renewable energy quota mechanism (REQ. Finally, this paper sets base scenario, carbon emissions trading scenario, renewable energy quota mechanism scenario, and comprehensive scenario for case simulation. The results show that interregional power system planning could connect power grids in different regions, enlarge wind power consumption space, and relieve the inconformity problem between power resource and load demand. CET and REQ can increase the installed proportion of clean energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but the cost of transmission lines construction and system reserve will increase correspondingly. The optimization effect of REQ on power system planning is better than CET. When they are both introduced, the power structure will reach the best, carbon dioxide emissions will achieve the minimum, and comprehensive benefits will become more balanced.

  20. Clean coal technology and emissions trading: Is there a future for high-sulfur coal under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); McDermott, K.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The near-term and long-term fate of high-sulfur coal is linked to utility compliance plans, the evolution of emission allowance trading, state and federal regulation, and technological innovation. All of these factors will play an implicit role in the demand for high-sulfur coal. This paper will explore the potential impact that emissions trading will have on high-sulfur coal utilization by electric utilities. 28 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Trade-offs between nitrous oxide emission and C-sequestration in the soil: the role of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, J.; Lubbers, I. M.; Giannopoulos, G.

    2008-12-01

    The rapidly rising concentrations of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has spurred the interest in soils as a potential carbon (C) sink. However, there are many reports indicating that C- sequestration is often negated by elevated emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is not yet clear what the driving factors behind this trade-off are, nor how it can be avoided. We suggest that earthworm activity may be partly responsible for the trade-off. Earthworm activity is increasingly recognized as being beneficial to C-sequestration through stabilization of SOM. We report experimental results suggesting that they can also lead to strongly elevated N2O-emissions. In a first experiment, dried grass residue (Lolium perenne) was applied at the top of a loamy soil or mixed through the soil, and N2O-emission was followed for three months. Treatments included presence of the epigeic earthworm Lumbricus rubellus and the anecic earthworm Aporrectodea longa. Cumulative N2O-emissions increased significantly for both species. The strongest effect was measured for L. rubellus, where N2O-emissions significantly increased from 55.7 to 789.1 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. This effect was only observed when residue was applied on top of the soil. In a second experiment we determined the effect of epigeic (L. rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) earthworms on N2O-emissions for two different soil types (loam and sand) in the presence of 15N-labeled radish residue (Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus). Both species showed significant increases in N2O-emissions, which differed with residue application method and soil type. N2O- emissions were generally larger in loamy soils and the strongest effect was measured for A. caliginosa when residue was mixed into the soil, increasing emissions from 1350.1 to 2223.2 micro g N2O-N kg- 1 soil. L. rubellus only resulted in elevated N2O-emissions when residue was applied on top. These studies make it

  2. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China’s power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China’s power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based modeling is one appealing new methodology that has the potential to overcome some shortcomings...... solar power generation in particular develops significantly, with final proportion increasing by 14%. (3) Emission-based allocation brings about both higher electricity and carbon prices than by output-based allocation which encourages producers to be environmentally friendly. Therefore, output......In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40–45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential...

  3. Short-term impact of green certificates and CO{sub 2} emissions trading in the Swedish district heating sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsson, David; Werner, Sven; Ahlgren, Erik O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Energy Systems Technology, Department of Energy and Environment

    2006-12-15

    Swedish district-heating (DH) systems use a wide range of energy sources and technologies for heat-and-power generation. This provides the DH utilities with major flexibility in changing their fuel and technology mix when the economic conditions for generation change. Two recently introduced policy instruments have changed the DH utilities' costs for generation considerably; the tradable green-certificate (TGC) scheme introduced in 2003 in Sweden, and the tradable greenhouse-gas emission permit (TEP) scheme introduced in the EU on January 1, 2005. The objective of this study is to analyse how these two trading schemes impact on the operation of the Swedish DH sector in terms of changes in CHP generation, CO{sub 2} emissions, and operating costs. The analysis was carried out by comparing the most cost-effective operation for the DH utilities, with and without, the two trading schemes applied, using a model that handles the Swedish DH-sector system-by-system. It was found that the volume of renewable power generated in CHP plants only increased slightly owing to the TGC scheme. The TGC and the TEP schemes in force together, however, nearly doubled the renewable power-generation. CO{sub 2} emissions from the DH sector may either increase or decrease depending on the combination of TGC and TEP prices. The overall CO{sub 2} emissions from the European power-generation sector would, however, be reduced for all price combinations assuming that increased Swedish CHP generation replaces coal-condensing power (coal-fired plants with power generation only) in other European countries. The trading schemes also lower the operational costs of the DH sector since the cost increase owing to the use of more expensive fuels and the purchase of TEPs is outweighed by the increased revenues from sales of electricity and TGCs. (author)

  4. Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance and commodities markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Tenenbaum, Joel N; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-01

    In a highly interdependent economic world, the nature of relationships between financial entities is becoming an increasingly important area of study. Recently, many studies have shown the usefulness of minimal spanning trees (MST) in extracting interactions between financial entities. Here, we propose a modified MST network whose metric distance is defined in terms of cross-correlation coefficient absolute values, enabling the connections between anticorrelated entities to manifest properly. We investigate 69 daily time series, comprising three types of financial assets: 28 stock market indicators, 21 currency futures, and 20 commodity futures. We show that though the resulting MST network evolves over time, the financial assets of similar type tend to have connections which are stable over time. In addition, we find a characteristic time lag between the volatility time series of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO(2) emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI). This time lag is given by the peak of the cross-correlation function of the volatility time series EUA (or WTI) with that of the stock market indicators, and is markedly different (>20 days) from 0, showing that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances and of crude oil in the near future.

  5. The EU system for emissions trading after year 2012; EU:s system foer handel med utslaeppsraetter efter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, Mathias; Mjureke, David (eds.)

    2007-01-15

    The Government has instructed the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to put forward a proposal for how the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) should be developed after 2012, subject to the overall objective of continuing to reduce emissions with the aim of achieving the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change. In its Council Conclusions (7619/1/05) the EU has interpreted the long-term objectives of the Convention on Climate Change as aiming to achieve emission reductions of 15-30 % in the industrialised countries by 2020. According to Council Conclusions (13435/05), the EU has also decided that the Emissions Trading Scheme should continue after 2012. The starting point for this report is that, after 2012, the Scheme will be a key instrument in achieving cost-efficient emission reductions, not only within the EU but also globally, and regardless of whether, with effect from 2013, the Scheme has become a part of an international climate regime, or is serving as a transition to some future new international climate regime. The purpose of this report is to provide a proposal for how the Emissions Trading Scheme should be developed after 2012. The aim is to construct a system that helps to reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases (maintaining climate integrity), that assists measures being taken where they are cheapest (cost efficiency), that is accepted by parties concerned and by the general public (confidence inspiring), and which does not adversely affect the competitiveness of business or industry (competition-neutral). The Agencies recommend that Sweden should adopt the following standpoints concerning development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme after 2012. (Recommended changes to the system presuppose a harmonised implementation throughout the EU.): In connection with international negotiations, Sweden should press for the Emissions Trading Scheme to be developed in such a way as to make it possible to

  6. Farm scale greenhouse gas accounting as basis for emissions trading or financial support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    also farm productivity, through adoption of the efficiency measures that increase production per unit emissions, or through changes in land use, farm management or technologies that target reduction in GHG emissions. Different farm types may have very different options for emissions reductions...

  7. Overview of findings from the World Trade Center Disaster Outcome Study: recommendations for future research after exposure to psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Adams, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents following the attacks. Among the major findings of this study were the relatively small increase in mental health service utilization and the fact that only brief worksite interventions seemed to be an effective post-disaster treatment intervention. Specifically, those who received more conventional post-disaster interventions, such as formal psychotherapy sessions and/or psychotropic medicines, seemed to have poorer outcomes. Since this study was designed to assess treatment outcomes, use advanced measurement techniques, and incorporate propensity score matching to control for bias, these treatment findings were unexpected and raised clinical questions. Additional findings were also discussed related to minority group members, alcohol abuse, the onset and course of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster and other findings. Future research is recommended to resolve the issues raised by this important study, especially as this relates to treatment outcomes.

  8. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  9. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Liam; Ross, Ian; Foster, John; Hankamer, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015) reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature ‘well below 2°C’ and to ‘aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C’. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1) is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP), which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN), energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison). Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international ‘pro-growth’ strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve ‘sustainable development’ goals. PMID:26959977

  10. Trading Off Global Fuel Supply, CO2 Emissions and Sustainable Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Wagner

    Full Text Available The United Nations Conference on Climate Change (Paris 2015 reached an international agreement to keep the rise in global average temperature 'well below 2°C' and to 'aim to limit the increase to 1.5°C'. These reductions will have to be made in the face of rising global energy demand. Here a thoroughly validated dynamic econometric model (Eq 1 is used to forecast global energy demand growth (International Energy Agency and BP, which is driven by an increase of the global population (UN, energy use per person and real GDP (World Bank and Maddison. Even relatively conservative assumptions put a severe upward pressure on forecast global energy demand and highlight three areas of concern. First, is the potential for an exponential increase of fossil fuel consumption, if renewable energy systems are not rapidly scaled up. Second, implementation of internationally mandated CO2 emission controls are forecast to place serious constraints on fossil fuel use from ~2030 onward, raising energy security implications. Third is the challenge of maintaining the international 'pro-growth' strategy being used to meet poverty alleviation targets, while reducing CO2 emissions. Our findings place global economists and environmentalists on the same side as they indicate that the scale up of CO2 neutral renewable energy systems is not only important to protect against climate change, but to enhance global energy security by reducing our dependence of fossil fuels and to provide a sustainable basis for economic development and poverty alleviation. Very hard choices will have to be made to achieve 'sustainable development' goals.

  11. Performance Assessment and Outlook of China’s Emission-Trading Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Dabo; Shan, Yuli; Liu, Zhu; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    China overtook the US as the world’s top emitter in 2007, and produced 1.5 times the emissions of the US by 2013 [1]. At present, China’s emissions make up over a quarter of the global total. China is expected to produce three times the emissions of the US by 2030 [2]. Indeed, China’s role and efforts in CO_2 reductions matter greatly for the peaking of global emissions, even without further emission leakages to less-developed regions or countries. China recently announced the launch of a nat...

  12. Integration of CCS, emissions trading and volatilities of fuel prices into sustainable energy planning, and its robust optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Jamin; Han, Kyusang; Yoon, En Sup [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, a new approach has been proposed that allows a robust optimization of sustainable energy planning over a period of years. It is based on the modified energy flow optimization model (EFOM) and minimizes total costs in planning capacities of power plants and CCS to be added, stripped or retrofitted. In the process, it reduces risks due to a high volatility in fuel prices; it also provides robustness against infeasibility with respect to meeting the required emission level by adopting a penalty constant that corresponds to the price level of emission allowances. In this manner, the proposed methodology enables decision makers to determine the optimal capacities of power plants and/or CCS, as well as volumes of emissions trading in the future that will meet the required emission level and satisfy energy demand from various user-sections with minimum costs and maximum robustness. They can also gain valuable insights on the effects that the price of emission allowances has on the competitiveness of RES and CCS technologies; it may be used in, for example, setting appropriate subsidies and tax policies for promoting greater use of these technologies. The proposed methodology is applied to a case based on directions and volumes of energy flows in South Korea during the year 2008. (author)

  13. Companies and the EU emissions trading system in the period of 2013-2020; Unternehmen und der EU-Emissionshandel in der Periode 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Klaus; Pacher, Christian; Geres, Roland [FutureCamp Climate GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    An increasing number of states are adopting national climate objectives whose implementation is based on the introduction of variously designed emissions trading systems. The third period of the European emissions trading scheme is starting against the backdrop of these developments. For companies the renewed framework further intensifies business implications however it also provides them with new opportunities to expand their business segments on an international scale. An integrated management of a company's emissions position represents an adequate solution in which tracking and evaluating developments in climate policy build an analytical superstructure.

  14. The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading through permit sales contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Johan [Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel and Centrum voor Economische Studien of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Naamsestraat 69, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium); Hagem, Cathrine [Statistics Norway (Norway)

    2011-01-15

    Strategic market behavior by permit sellers will harm the European Union (EU) as it is expected to become a large net buyer of permits in a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper, we explore how the EU could benefit from making permit trade agreements with non-EU countries. These trade agreements involve permit sales requirement, complemented by a financial transfer from the EU to the other contract party. Such agreements would enable the EU to act strategically in the permit market on behalf of its member states, although each member state is assumed to behave as a price taker in the permit market. Using a stylized numerical simulation model, we show that an appropriately designed permit trade agreement between the EU and China could significantly cut the EU's total compliance cost. This result is robust for a wide range of parameterizations of the simulation model. (author)

  15. The European Union's potential for strategic emissions trading through minimal permit sale contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyckmans, Johan [Leuven Catholic Univ. (Belgium); Hagem, Cathrine [Statistik Sentralbyra, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    Strategic market behavior by permit sellers will harm the European Union as the EU as a whole is expected to become a large net buyer of permits in a follow-up agreement to the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we explore how the EU could benefit from making permit trade agreements with non-EU countries. These trade agreements involve a minimum permit sales requirement complemented by a financial transfer from the EU to the other contract party. Such agreements enable the EU to act strategically in the permit market on behalf of its member states, although each member state is assumed to behave as a price taker in the permit market. Using a stylized numerical simulation model we show that an appropriately designed permit trade agreement between the EU and China can cut EU's total compliance cost significantly. This result is robust for a wide range of parameterizations of the simulation model. (orig.)

  16. Evaluating Future Land-use Change Scenarios: Trade-offs between Bio-energy Demand, Food Production, and Carbon Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In the construction of consistent future climate scenario, land use scenario has important role through both biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects on climate change. In terms of carbon emissions by the land-use change, relative importance may be high in the lower radiative forcing and lower carbon emission scenarios, which may use large amount of bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). In this study, we first evaluated the CO2 emissions by land-use change in the 21st century using each RCPs scenarios. We use an offline terrestrial biogeochemical model VISIT, with book-keeping consideration of the carbon emission from deforested biomass and the regrowing uptake from abandoned cropland and pasture employing the gridded transition land-use data from RCPs. Effect of CO2 fertilization, land-use transition itself, and climate change are evaluated in the analysis. We found that constructing consistent land-use change carbon emission scenario with the gridded land-use change data requires precise considerations of effects of CO2 fertilization and climate change particularly for the regrowing uptake. Also, our result showed more emission of CO2 by the land-use change than the assumption in the integrated assessment model for RCP2.6 scenario. Then, we estimated the land-use area required to sustain the required biofuel production to match the assumption of BECCS use in RCPs with a global process based crop model. In the evaluation, we also estimated the further changes in carbon emissions by the required land-use change due to differences in crop yield assumptions, which also take into account of climate change. The trade-offs between land-use for crop, biocrop, and natural vegetation low-carbon scenario are discussed using the integrated terrestrial modeling approach.

  17. How to Set the Allowance Benchmarking for Cement Industry in China’s Carbon Market: Marginal Analysis and the Case of the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG benchmarking for allocation serves as rewards for early actions in mitigating GHG emissions by using more advanced technologies. China Hubei launched the carbon emission trading pilot in 2014, with the cement industry represented as a major contributor to the GHG emissions in Hubei. This article is set to establish a general benchmarking framework by describing and calculating the marginal abatement cost curve (MACC and marginal revenue and then comparing the different GHG benchmarking approaches for the cement industry in the Hubei Emission Trading Pilot (Hubei ETS case. Based on the comparison of three GHG benchmarking approaches, the Waxman-Markey standard, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS cement benchmarking, and the benchmarking approach applied in California Cap-and-Trade program, it is found that; (1 the Waxman-Markey benchmark is too loose to apply in Hubei as it provides little incentive for companies to mitigate; (2 the EU ETS benchmark approach fits the current cement industry in Hubei ETS; and (3 the GHG benchmarking standard in the California Cap-and-Trade Program is the most stringent standard and drives the direction of the future development for Hubei ETS.

  18. Buyer Liability and Voluntary Inspections in International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: A Laboratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, Timothy N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary laboratory experiment in which traders make investments to increase the reliability of tradable instruments that represent greenhouse gas emissions allowances. In one half of the sessions these investments are unobservable, while in the other half traders can invite costless and accurate inspections that make reliability investments public. We implement a buyer liability rule, so that if emissions reductions are unreliable (i.e., sellers default), the buyer of...

  19. The UK′s Emissions and Employment Footprints: Exploring the Trade-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, M; Owen, A; Barrett, J

    2017-01-01

    During the last decades, the UK economy has increasingly relied on foreign markets to fulfil its material needs, becoming a net importer of both emissions and employment. While the emissions footprint reflects the pressure that consumption exerts on the planet’s climate, the labour footprint represents the employment that is created across the globe associated with the demand for products and services. This paper has a two-fold objective. First, it focuses on analysing the behaviour over time...

  20. Reporting from industries covered by the emissions trading scheme for emissions trading regulations. Guide to greenhouse gas emission reporting form 2012; Rapportering fra industri omfattet av kvoteplikt etter klimakvoteforskriften. Veileder til kvoterapporteringsskjema 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-01

    Tradable carbon emissions should be reported to the Climate and Pollution Agency (KLIF) by 1 March the following year that the emissions took place. Reporting of tradable carbon emissions will be achieved by the use of Klif reporting service.(eb)

  1. Greatwhite hope for the climate protection. EU emissions trading taking a great leap into the third phase; Hoffnungtraeger fuer den Klimaschutz. EU-Emissionshandel auf dem Sprung in die dritte Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knispel, Tina [Transferstelle Emissionshandel Hessen (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Consistent allocation of certificates, advanced sectors, exacerbated allocation rules - as of 2013 significant amendments belong to plant operators being involved in the European emissions trading. In this way, companies recieve new impetus for an investment in emission-saving technologies.

  2. Integration of marine transport into the European Emissions Trading System. Environmental, economic and legal analysis of different options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuerle, Tim [Rechtsanwaelte Zimmermann - Gretz - Trautmann - Baeuerle, Heidelberg (Germany); Graichen, Jakob; Meyer, Kristin; Seum, Stefan [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Kulessa, Margareta [Mainz Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Oschinski, Matthias

    2010-05-15

    Marine vessels globally contribute to carbon dioxide emissions with approximately 3.3% (IMO 2009). Interna-tional ocean shipping has been growing significantly over recent years. To date international marine emissions are not part of the Kyoto obligations and the member states at IMO have not implemented instruments that would have limited or reduced the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from ships. The European Union has announced that if no international agreement including reduction targets for seaborne emissions has been approved by the UNFCCC by December 31, 2011, the EC is tasked to submit a proposal for including international marine transport in Euro-pean reduction targets and policy measures. An inclusion of international marine transport in the European Emis-sions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is a likely scenario. The study investigates three options for integrating international ocean shipping into the EU ETS based on: a last period; the last distance travelled and the distance the cargo has travelled. Basing the system on a last period is superior to basing it on last trip or cargo in terms of environmental effectiveness. However, the system would cover vessel activities in international waters, even potentially between two non-European ports, and thus the legal feasi-bility of this challenge is discussed. Another element of the study is the analysis of the economic effects of the inte-gration of international seaborne greenhouse gas emissions into the EU ETS. Overall it can be concluded that the integration of international ocean shipping into the EU ETS is a legally and technically feasible option with no significantly negative or even beneficial economic effects. The extension to vessel activity in international waters secures adequate coverage and environmental effectiveness. This extension to vessel activity in international waters is not only a prerequisite for adequate emissions coverage, but is also associated with the least legal obstacles, is

  3. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9; Trading in the rain. Precipitations et emissions du secteur electrique europeen. Note d'etude n.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO{sub 2}, as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO{sub 2} in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO{sub 2}. To make the interaction with the CO{sub 2} market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe.

  4. Emissions trading from 2013 on. Auctioning of emission permits at the European level; Der Emissionshandel ab 2013. Die Versteigerung der Emissionszertifikate auf europaeischer Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greb, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    As explained in the present publication, the European Communities have general competence for the initial payable allocation of CO{sub 2} emission permits, determination of the allocation method to be used and execution of the auction. The member states retain their revenue powers. The level of regulatory density of the amending directive conforms to the requirements of essentiality and determinacy. There is nothing in Art. 295 of the EC Treaty (Art. 345 TFEU) that contravenes the reform of the emissions trading scheme. However, its centralised implementation is not in accord with the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality. It is not beyond the capacity of the member states to each carry out the auction themselves, nor would its centralized execution provide an integration benefit over a decentralised procedure (provided the auctioning rules were defined in sufficient detail). Moreover, there is nothing in the goals pursued with the auction to necessitate its centralised execution. The adequacy of auctioning as an allocation method must be judged on the basis of the participatory rights of the plant operators concerned. These derive primarily from the right of equality, modified by aspects of the right of liberty. The European Court of Justice is examining the commensurability of the procedure against the general principle of equality, giving due consideration also to the scheme's impact on the liberty rights of those discriminated by it.

  5. European emissions trading and the international competitiveness of energy-intensive industries: A legal and political evaluation of possible supporting measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Biermann, F.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading Directive is expected by European energy-intensive industries to harm their competitiveness vis-à-vis non-European competitors. Many additional measures have thus been proposed to 'level the playing field' and to protect the competitiveness of European energy-intensive

  6. Electricity and combined heat and power from municipal solid waste; theoretically optimal investment decision time and emissions trading implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, Athanasios; Rentizelas, Athanasios; Aravossis, Konstantin; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias

    2010-11-01

    Waste management has become a great social concern for modern societies. Landfill emissions have been identified among the major contributors of global warming and climate changes with significant impact in national economies. The energy industry constitutes an additional greenhouse gas emitter, while at the same time it is characterized by significant costs and uncertain fuel prices. The above implications have triggered different policies and measures worldwide to address the management of municipal solid wastes on the one hand and the impacts from energy production on the other. Emerging methods of energy recovery from waste may address both concerns simultaneously. In this work a comparative study of co-generation investments based on municipal solid waste is presented, focusing on the evolution of their economical performance over time. A real-options algorithm has been adopted investigating different options of energy recovery from waste: incineration, gasification and landfill biogas exploitation. The financial contributors are identified and the impact of greenhouse gas trading is analysed in terms of financial yields, considering landfilling as the baseline scenario. The results indicate an advantage of combined heat and power over solely electricity production. Gasification, has failed in some European installations. Incineration on the other hand, proves to be more attractive than the competing alternatives, mainly due to its higher power production efficiency, lower investment costs and lower emission rates. Although these characteristics may not drastically change over time, either immediate or irreversible investment decisions might be reconsidered under the current selling prices of heat, power and CO(2) allowances.

  7. The Economics of Forest Carbon Sequestration: The Challenge for Emissions Offset Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the role that forestry activities can play in mitigating climate change. The price of carbon offset credits is used for incentivizing a reduction in the release of CO2 emissions and an increase in sequestration of atmospheric CO2 through forestry activities. Forestland owners essentially have two options for creating carbon offset credits: (1) avoid or delay harvest of mature timber; or (2) harvest timber and allow natural regeneration or regeneration with `regular' or genetically-enhanced growing stock, storing carbon in post-harvest products, using sawmill and potentially logging residues to generate electricity. In this study, a model representative of the Quesnel Timber Supply Area (TSA) in the BC interior is developed. The objective is to maximize net discounted returns to commercial timber operations (and sale of downstream products) plus the benefits of managing carbon fluxes. The model tracks carbon in living trees, organic matter, and, importantly, post-harvest carbon pools and avoided emissions from substituting wood for non-wood in construction or wood bioenergy for fossil fuels. Model constraints ensure that commercial forest management is sustainable, while carbon prices incentivize sequestration to ensure efficient mitigation of climate change. The results are confirmed more generally by comparing the carbon fluxes derived from the integrated forest management model with those from a Faustmann-Hartman rotation age model that explicitly includes benefits of storing carbon. One other question is addressed: If carbon offsets are created when wood biomass substitutes for fossil fuels in power generation, can one count the saved emissions from steel/cement production when wood substitutes for non-wood materials in construction?

  8. Emissions trading in the transport sector. Feasible approach for an upstream model. Executive summary; Emissionshandel im Verkehr. Ansaetze fuer einen moeglichen Up-Stream-Handel im Verkehr. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertenrath, Roman; Liebig, Lars [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Betz, Regina; Rogge, Karoline; Schade, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Duennebeil, Frank; Lambrecht, Udo [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Bergmann, Heidi

    2005-11-15

    In July, 2003, FiFo Koeln (Cologne Centre for Public Economics) was mandated by the German Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) with the examination of the UFOPLAN scheme 'Emissions Trading System for the Transport Sector - Development of a possible Trading Approach'. The main task of this study was the development of a concrete emissions trading approach for the transport sector, which triggers off a compulsory holding of emissions certificates at the beginning of the energy supply chain (upstream approach). The main focus was rather put on the practical options of the implementation of an upstream approach in the transport sector and its specific problems. The transaction costs of a trading system in the transport sector had to be kept at a minimum level. The upsteam approach discussed in his study seems to be more adequate to include further carbon dioxide emissions of other sectors than the EU downstream model. This can mainly be attributed to the amount and nature of the respective transaction costs. In Germany allocative failure in fuel taxation between diesel and petrol can be diminished regardless of the prices for CO{sub 2}. Emissions trading therefore leads to structural changes. An upstream approach has only indirect effects on the motorcar industry and refiners. Therefore, technical CO{sub 2} reduction can primarily be realised via an increased consumer demand for ore fuel-efficient vehicles, new propulsion technology or alternative fuels based on renewable energies. In the case of an open trading system the amount of transport emissions was estimated that actually could be reduced to be relatively small. The authors of the contribution under consideration are not convinced that the full potential of existing adaptation options in the transport sector can be tapped by an open emissions trading. The transport sector will cope with additional CO{sub 2} costs without tapping the potential of relatively cheap adaptation options. Also at closed

  9. Network design for quantifying urban CO2 emissions: assessing trade-offs between precision and network density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alexander J.; Shusterman, Alexis A.; McDonald, Brian C.; Teige, Virginia; Harley, Robert A.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2016-11-01

    The majority of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are attributable to urban areas. While the emissions from urban electricity generation often occur in locations remote from consumption, many of the other emissions occur within the city limits. Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for controlling these emissions depends on our ability to observe urban CO2 emissions and attribute them to specific activities. Cost-effective strategies for doing so have yet to be described. Here we characterize the ability of a prototype measurement network, modeled after the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N) in California's Bay Area, in combination with an inverse model based on the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT) to improve our understanding of urban emissions. The pseudo-measurement network includes 34 sites at roughly 2 km spacing covering an area of roughly 400 km2. The model uses an hourly 1 × 1 km2 emission inventory and 1 × 1 km2 meteorological calculations. We perform an ensemble of Bayesian atmospheric inversions to sample the combined effects of uncertainties of the pseudo-measurements and the model. We vary the estimates of the combined uncertainty of the pseudo-observations and model over a range of 20 to 0.005 ppm and vary the number of sites from 1 to 34. We use these inversions to develop statistical models that estimate the efficacy of the combined model-observing system in reducing uncertainty in CO2 emissions. We examine uncertainty in estimated CO2 fluxes on the urban scale, as well as for sources embedded within the city such as a line source (e.g., a highway) or a point source (e.g., emissions from the stacks of small industrial facilities). Using our inversion framework, we find that a dense network with moderate precision is the preferred setup for estimating area, line, and point sources from a combined uncertainty and cost perspective. The dense network considered here

  10. Network design for quantifying urban CO2 emissions: assessing trade-offs between precision and network density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Turner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are attributable to urban areas. While the emissions from urban electricity generation often occur in locations remote from consumption, many of the other emissions occur within the city limits. Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies for controlling these emissions depends on our ability to observe urban CO2 emissions and attribute them to specific activities. Cost-effective strategies for doing so have yet to be described. Here we characterize the ability of a prototype measurement network, modeled after the Berkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N in California's Bay Area, in combination with an inverse model based on the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (WRF-STILT to improve our understanding of urban emissions. The pseudo-measurement network includes 34 sites at roughly 2 km spacing covering an area of roughly 400 km2. The model uses an hourly 1  ×  1 km2 emission inventory and 1  ×  1 km2 meteorological calculations. We perform an ensemble of Bayesian atmospheric inversions to sample the combined effects of uncertainties of the pseudo-measurements and the model. We vary the estimates of the combined uncertainty of the pseudo-observations and model over a range of 20 to 0.005 ppm and vary the number of sites from 1 to 34. We use these inversions to develop statistical models that estimate the efficacy of the combined model–observing system in reducing uncertainty in CO2 emissions. We examine uncertainty in estimated CO2 fluxes on the urban scale, as well as for sources embedded within the city such as a line source (e.g., a highway or a point source (e.g., emissions from the stacks of small industrial facilities. Using our inversion framework, we find that a dense network with moderate precision is the preferred setup for estimating area, line, and point sources from a combined uncertainty and cost

  11. The feasibility of domestic CO2 emissions trading in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauff, J.

    2000-01-01

    future. A comprehensive upstream approach would require permits for the carbon contained in fossil fuels produced or imported in Poland. It is ruled out due to the perceived difficulties of the inclusion ofthe coal sector in such a system. While inclusion of the gas sector, and especially of the oil...... as energy intensive industries. Such an approach wasfound feasible in principle. Currently, however, only the largest emitters could be easily integrated in a reliable system. Drawing the line between those included and those excluded from such a partial system requires careful analysis. Including...... on monitoring requirements already required by law. Gradual inclusion of more relevant sectors and eventual combination with an upstream component to include oil refineries, and with them thegrowing CO2 emissions from transport, seem possible. Such a pilot program would allow firms and the policy maker...

  12. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada, E-mail: hayashi@affrc.go.jp [Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Nagumo, Yoshifumi [Crop Research Center, Niigata Agricultural Research Institute, 857 Nagakura-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-0826 (Japan); Domoto, Akiko [Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute, 530 Kawakita-cho, Ureshino, Matsusaka, Mie 515-2316 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. - Highlights: • Correlated uncertainties were integrated into environment-productivity trade-offs. • Life cycle GHG emissions and crop yields were analyzed using field and survey data. • Three rice production systems using chemical or organic fertilizers were compared. • There were portfolio (insurance) effects in matured technologies. • Analysis of trade-offs and correlated uncertainties will be useful for decisions.

  13. CO{sub 2}-emission trading and green markets for renewable electricity. WILMAR - deliverable 4.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma-Dicke, N.; Weber, C. [Univ. of Stuttgart, IER (Germany); Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Ravn, H.F.; Schmidt, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2004-06-01

    This report is Deliverable 4.1 of the EU project 'Wind Power Inte-gration in Liberalised Electricity Markets' (WILMAR) and de-scribes the application of two policy instruments, Tradable Emis-sions Permits (TEPs) and Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) for electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the European Union and the implications for implementation in the Wilmar model. The introduction of a common emission-trading system in the EU is expected to have an upward effect on the spot prices at the electric-ity market. The variations of the spot price imply that some types of power generation may change the situation from earning money to losing money despite the increasing spot price. Heavy restrictions on emissions penalise the fossil-fuelled technologies significantly, and the associated increase in the spot price need not compensate for this. Therefore, a market of TEPs is expected to have a signifi-cant influence on the electricity spot price. However, the expected price level of TEPs are met with great uncertainty and a study of a number of economical studies shows a price span between zero and 270 USD per ton of CO{sub 2} depending on the participation or non-participation of countries in the scheme. The price-determination at the TGC market is expected to be closely related to the price at the power spot market as the RE-producers of electricity will have expectations to the total price paid for the energy produced, i.e., for the price of electricity at the spot market plus the price per kWh obtained at the green certificate mar-ket. In the Wilmar model, the TGC market can either be handled exogenously, i.e., the increase in renewable capacity and an average annual TGC price are determined outside the model, or a simple TGC module is developed, including the long-term supply functions for the most relevant renewable technologies and an overall TGC quota. Both solutions are rather simple, but to develop a more ad-vanced model for the TGC

  14. How to design a border adjustment for the European Union Emissions Trading System?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjon, Stephanie; Quirion, Philippe [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED), CNRS, Jardin Tropical, 45 bis Avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, F 94736 Nogent-sur-Marne (France)

    2010-09-15

    Border adjustments are currently discussed to limit the possible adverse impact of climate policies on competitiveness and carbon leakage. We discuss the main choices that will have to be made if the European Union implements such a system alongside the EU ETS. Although more analysis is required on some issues, on others some design options seem clearly preferable to others. First, the import adjustment should be a requirement to surrender allowances rather than a tax. Second, the general rule to determine the amount of allowances per ton imported should be the product-specific benchmarks that the European Commission is currently elaborating for a different purpose (i.e. to determine the amount of free allowances). Third, this obligation should apply when the imported product is registered at the EU border, and not after the end of the year as is the case for domestic emitters. Fourth, the export adjustment should take the form of a rebate on the amount of allowances a domestic emitter has to surrender. Five, this rebate should equal the above-mentioned product-specific benchmarks, not the emissions of the particular exporting plant or firm. Finally, the adjustment does not have to apply to consumer products but mostly to basic products. (author)

  15. 75 FR 24606 - Order Finding That the TCO Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... potential importance, the Commission will then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF... threshold of trading activity that ] would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical...

  16. 75 FR 24586 - Order Finding That the San Juan Financial Basis Contract Traded on the IntercontinentalExchange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... potential importance, the Commission will then perform a statistical analysis to measure the effect that the..., fertilizer, insulation, steel, glass, industrial gases, pharmaceutical, aluminum and brewing.'' WGCEF... threshold of trading activity that would render it of potential importance and no additional statistical...

  17. Challenges of a common climate policy. An analysis of the development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufenanger, Vanessa

    2012-07-01

    The emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) adopted by the European Union in 2003 was a new instrument for the EU and its Member States. It is one of the most important strategies of achieving the EU's greenhouse gas reduction target under the Kyoto Protocol. This book analyses the policy cycle of the EU ETS Directive, focusing on the crucial implementation phase. The revised EU ETS Directive of 2009 includes significant changes for greater ecological effectiveness, changes that were unlikely to have been adopted in 2003. It is evident that the experiences of the first phase influenced not only the second implementation phase but also the revision. The intensive learning process that took place on all levels was necessary to overcome institutional constraints so that the EU ETS could be successfully established and further developed. The EU ETS policy-making is a good example to demonstrate that output legitimacy challenges input legitimacy. With the centralisation of the EU ETS in 2013 it is likely to become a more effective system; however, the legislators from the Member States may lose influence. This problem will have to be addressed.

  18. A Joint Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Energy Storage Systems considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Aiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the influence of wind power random on system operation, energy storage systems (ESSs and demand response (DR are introduced to the traditional scheduling model of wind power and thermal power with carbon emission trading (CET. Firstly, a joint optimization scheduling model for wind power, thermal power, and ESSs is constructed. Secondly, DR and CET are integrated into the joint scheduling model. Finally, 10 thermal power units, a wind farm with 2800 MW of installed capacity, and 3×80 MW ESSs are taken as the simulation system for verifying the proposed models. The results show backup service for integrating wind power into the grid is provided by ESSs based on their charge-discharge characteristics. However, system profit reduces due to ESSs’ high cost. Demand responses smooth the load curve, increase profit from power generation, and expand the wind power integration space. After introducing CET, the generation cost of thermal power units and the generation of wind power are both increased; however, the positive effect of DR on the system profit is also weakened. The simulation results reach the optimum when both DR and CET are introduced.

  19. Models of Co2 emission trading system for projections in MSG6. Documentation and guidance; Utviklingen i stroemforbruket, prisfoelsomheten og stroemmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faehn, Taran; Stroem, Birger

    2012-08-15

    Present context of the EU Co2 Emission Trading System (EU ETS) from 2008, involves new measures directed towards a large portion of present emissions sources. Currently there is no basis in statistics figures to offset the consequences of these international obligations in SSB models. In the model projections is nevertheless necessary to model both the current instruments and expected future changes in the rules and forms of association. This paper documents the Ministry of Finance to establish a arrangements for implementing Norway's association with the EU ETS in the model MSG6. It also addresses the EU ETS policy instruments interacting with other objectives and instruments of climate policy, including the Kyoto commitments and various domestic Climate tax systems. The European emissions trading price affect the Norwegian economy through several channels. Firstly, allowances mean that the EU ETS will cover activities that gets an emission rate equal to the permit price, which will influence the players to reduce emissions through various adaptations. Second, the remaining emissions occur subject to quotas, and the proportion who do not receive free allowances will give the state the auction revenue / proceeds. Third, quotas purchased in international markets will affect account surplus. This paper outlines various solutions and concludes by recommending a system that easily can be adapted for studies of any interaction between the EU ETS system and other climate policy objectives. The system can also be easily updated to new data.(eb)

  20. Community system updating and extension concerning greenhouse gas emissions duties trading; Actualizacion y ampliacion del regimen comunitario de comercio de derechos de emision de gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta-Langarika, I.

    2010-07-01

    Approving 29/2009/CE Directive, that amends Directive 2003/87/EC, relating to a trading system for allowances of greenhouse gas emissions in the Community, the European Union wants to improve this system, and, in that way, providing an appropriate tool for achieving the emissions reduction targets, set for 2020: in particular, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in a 20% compared to 1990 levels. Recognizing the virtues of this system as an innovative tool for reducing emissions, it should be harmonized through the use of common standards that ensure equal conditions of the facilities affected and their update, among others, increasing their scope and establishing a system of re-allocation to reduce emissions. At the same time, the regulation adopted by the EU should not address possible competition difficulties, that may arise for the industries affected by this emission trading system, more specifically, the problem of carbon leakage: the phenomenon refers to the risk that European industries must move outside the EU for not being able to cope with competition from other countries with less stringent limitations on this matter. In any case, the regime established by Directive 29/2009/CE is subject to possible changes in function of international countries might conclude. (Author) 8 refs.

  1. Emissions trading and climate strategies. The EU emission trading 2008-2012 and 2013-2020. State of the art and further developments in the project mechanisms as well as in the international climate protection. Carbon footprint, climate neutrality and climate strategies; Emissionshandel und Klimastrategien. Der EU-Emissionshandel 2008-12 und 2013-20. Aktueller Stand und weitere Entwicklungen bei den Projektmechanismen sowie im internationalen Klimaschutz. Carbon Footprint, Klimaneutralitaet und Klimastrategien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    At 1st January, 2008 the second period of the EU emissions trading started which also is the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. This seventh edition under consideration with the theme 'Emission trading and climate change strategies' reports on the developments and innovations made in the past year. The booklet starts with an introduction to the topic of climate change strategies. A brief review on the year 2009 in the EU emissions trading and on the litigation follows. A key chapter of this booklet deals with the inclusion of aviation in the third trading period 2013-2020. Furthermore, it describes the current status and innovations in the project mechanisms JI (Joint Implementation) and CDM (Clean Development Mechanism). The brochure deals with the international climate policy, analyzes the results of the climate conference in Copenhagen and evaluates for further development of emissions trading.

  2. The long, slow birth of a U.S. emissions trading regime. Recent developments in U.S. climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freestone, D.; Frenkil, D.J. [George Washington University Law School, Washington D.C. (United States)

    2010-11-15

    On Friday, 23 April 2010, the leadership of the 11th Congress and the Obama Administration were poised to capitalise on recent, unparalleled progress in furtherance of U.S. climate policy. Over the past year, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the first climate bill in United States history, and the Obama Administration quickly initiated the regulation of greenhouse gas ('GHG') emissions, primarily through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ('EPA') after years of neglect by the Bush Administration. Just two days were left to go until Monday, 26 April 2010, when CEOs from leading energy, financial and manufacturing corporations were scheduled to join senators from both sides of the aisle to introduce the missing link in a federal 'cap-and-trade' scheme: a climate bill that was 'filibusterproof' in the Senate - i.e. capable of gaining the necessary 60 votes out of the 100 members of the U.S. Senate to pass a procedural motion on the bill that effectively cuts off debate and brings the bill to a vote. The bill was the product of nearly a year of deal-making and compromise between leaders from both parties, which seldom occurs these days on Capital Hill. One of the pivotal aspects of that compromise was that Senate democrats were willing to accept the demand of Republicans to include a provision in the bill that would expand offshore oil drilling. However, in the midst of a turbulent political environment (a controversial immigration bill and the Deepwater Horizon drilling disaster), coupled with an economic downturn, climate policy had to take a backseat on the national agenda to issues like unemployment and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in the final months leading up to the November 2, 2010 'mid-term' elections. However slow the momentum of a GHG emission-reducing regime in the United States prior to the 2010 elections, the process came to a crashing halt when American voters handed the U.S. House of

  3. Reducing Carbon Emissions in a Closed-Loop Production Routing Problem with Simultaneous Pickups and Deliveries under Carbon Cap-and-Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanjing Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of reverse logistics into production routing problems can promote and coordinate the implementation of sustainable development for supply chains. This study aims to incorporate reverse logistics into production routing problems and investigate the reduction of carbon emissions under carbon cap-and-trade. Mixed-integer programming models are proposed for the production routing problem with reverse logistics by considering simultaneous pickups and deliveries in vehicle routing subproblems. To solve this problem, we propose a solution method of a branch-and-cut guided search algorithm based on adaptation of known valid inequalities. Computational results highlight the trade-offs among various performance indicators, including emission levels and operational costs of production, inventory holding, fuel consumption, and drivers.

  4. Emissions trading within the international air transport. An empirical analysis on the economic effects on selected air lines; Emissionshandel im internationalen Luftverkehr. Eine empirische Analyse der oekonomischen Effekte auf ausgewaehlte Fluggesellschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheelhaase, J.; Grimme, W. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The European Commission plans to integrate international aviation into the European Emissions Trading System (EUETS). This paper outlines first how international aviation could be included in existing emissions trading schemes in principle. It continues with an empirical, model-based estimation of the impacts on operating costs and transport demand for low cost carriers and full service airlines considering Ryanair and Lufthansa as example under three different design options for an emissions trading scheme. Finally, conclusions on the impacts on airline competition within Europe and with carriers from other continents are drawn. (orig.)

  5. Business, Climate Change and Emissions Trading. Taking Stock and Looking Ahead (Editorial)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A. [Business School, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoffmann, V. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-12-15

    This editorial summarizes the articles presented in a special issue of this journal on the title subject. Taken as a whole, the articles in this special issue clearly show that companies have dramatically transformed their attitudes and reactions towards climate change compared to 1997. At the same time, they seem to struggle finding appropriate responses, with some of them questioning whether the changes under way are sufficient and adequate. The complexities, uncertainties, and fragmentation of current climate policy seem to be major factors that impede more pro-active business responses. While policymakers should work towards unifying and simplifying climate policy in order to improve its impact, managers should expect the need for their companies to adapt to a range of climate-related changes in their business environment, present and future. The theoretical and empirical insights offered in this special issue provide a good insight into the current state of knowledge on business and climate change, and the (potential) implications for research and practice. In view of the topical nature of the issue, there is a wide range of areas that deserve further investigation.

  6. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kiyotada; Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Domoto, Akiko

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation-methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 6. Analisis Implementasi Cyber Security Di Uni Eropa: Studi Kasus Carbon Credits Hacking Dalam European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) Tahun 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Aisya, Naila Sukma; Putranti, Ika Riswanti; Wahyudi, Fendy Eko

    2017-01-01

    Since the last two decades in the 20th century, the European Union (EU) has presented itself as a leader in climate change issues. The leadership manifested in the formation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as an effort to fulfill the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol to reduce emissions in the region. But the existence of the EU ETS has been challenged by the emergence of carbon credits hacking case in some national registration systems in the EU ETS. This study discuss...

  8. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (InJustice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philine Gaffron

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling. We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits.

  9. Distribution effects and allocation effects of energy political instruments. Contradictory in the comparison of EEG and emission trading; Verteilungs- und Allokationswirkungen energiepolitischer Instrumente. Widerspruechliches beim Vergleich von EEG und Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, R. [Flensburg Univ. (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The classical energy-economical target triangle requires an obligation of economics, environmental compatibility and security of supply. Despite of a common reference on certain principles for the realization of these targets, lawyers and economists come to different conclusions with respect to the analysis of environment political and energy political instruments. In accordance with the literature, the emission trading performs badly in the comparison between the environmental political and energy political flagships (renewable energy law (EEG), emission trading) and is finally illegally. For this two arguments are stated: (a) The EEG results into an annual emission reduction of nearly 41 million tons of carbon dioxide in the Federal Republic of Germany and burdens the consumer with only 57 Euro per saved ton of CO{sub 2}; (b) The market power of the great energy companies results into a strong overcharge of the emission trading. In the contribution under consideration the author reports that these to arguments only conditionally can be used for the comparison of emission trading and renewable energy law. Both arguments are based on an inadmissible mixture of efficiency arguments and distribution arguments. Under this aspect the author attributes both instruments to a common theoretical basis of an internationalization of external effects. The variability of the arguments agitates that a different dispatching of the costs of the environmental improvement is made by the emission trading. While the renewable energy law represents an application of the common load principle, the emission trade is to be assigned to the principle of economic cause.

  10. Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topic Print Magazine Subscribe & Order a Free Copy Classroom Poster Order a Free Poster Findings showcases diverse ... Genetics, Evolution, Stem Cells, Model Organisms, Diseases, Sleep Research Pharmacology Biochemical Actions of Drugs in the Body, Pharmacogenomics, Drug Design, ...

  11. Incidental finding of a left over guide wire on a positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Kok Hooi; Lee, Phong Teck; Buch, Mamta; Rammohan, Kandadai Seshadri

    2012-12-15

    The Seldinger technique is commonly used cannulate vessels for radiographical procedures. Loss of a guide wire into the circulation is a rare and preventable complication. It is often noticed by chance during routine radiographs. However, there is a lack of reported cases of incidental fin dings of leftover guide wire on a PET scan. An intravascular foreign body should be retrieved as soon as the diagnosis is made, to prevent complications such as embolisation or vascular damage by fractured wires. Interventional radiology is the method of choice for retrieval. We report a rare case of the coincidental finding of a lost guide wire on a PET scan. A 37 year old man presented with psychotic episodes, thigh weakness, weight gain, increased appetite and leg cramps. He was subsequently diagnosed with cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic secretion from a right lung tumour. He subsequently underwent a staging positron emission tomography (PET) scan. The lung tumour had no uptake on PET bit had increased activity uptake on octreotide scanning. These appearances were suggestive of with carcinoid tumour. The PET scan also revealed an incidental finding of a leftover guide wire used during peripheral inserted central catheter (PICC) recently. The wire extended from right atrium to inferior vena cava. It also showed a high uptake in the adrenal glands, indicating hyperplasia, which was most likely due to adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation. He underwent a percutaneous wire retrieval via the right femoral vein in a cardiac catheterisation laboratory and was transferred to a thoracic surgical unit for lung tumor resection.

  12. Development of a model for the prediction of the fuel consumption and nitrogen oxides emission trade-off for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik; Pierobon, Leonardo; Baldi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The international regulations on fuel efficiency and NOx emissions of commercial ships motivate the investigation of new system layouts, which can comply with the regulations. In combustion engines, measures to reduce the fuel consumption often lead to increased NOx emissions and careful consider......The international regulations on fuel efficiency and NOx emissions of commercial ships motivate the investigation of new system layouts, which can comply with the regulations. In combustion engines, measures to reduce the fuel consumption often lead to increased NOx emissions and careful...... consideration of this trade-off mechanism is required in the design of marine propulsion systems. This study investigates five different configurations of two-stroke diesel-based machinery systems for large ships and their influence on the mentioned trade-off. Numerical models of a low-speed two-stroke diesel...... engine, turbochargers and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle), are used for the optimisation of the NOx and fuel consumption at design and part-load conditions, using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. Moreover, the effects of engine tuning and exhaust gas recirculation are investigated. The results suggest...

  13. Lobbying in climate protection. The national arrangement of the European emission trading system; Lobbyismus im Klimaschutz. Die nationale Ausgestaltung des europaeischen Emissionshandelssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendinger, Wolfgang

    2012-07-01

    The national implementation of the European Union's Emission Trading Scheme in the member states shows a wide variation in regard to the ambition of reduction targets and allocation rules. While Germany, Europe's biggest emitter, flooded the market with emission permits and provided an abundance of generous privileges to powerful coal companies, Great Britain as Europe's second biggest emitter was stingy and put significant reduction burdens on its domestic economy. In a comparative assessment of the National Allocation Plans of the EU Emission Trading Directive in Germany, the UK and the Netherlands, our study assesses explanatory factors for these differences, based on the conceptual frame of the neo-institutionalistic approach. The study reveals that the institutional opportunity structures of the respective political system and the structure of state-associations-relations represent the crucial factors for interest groups' influence rather than adaptation and/or problem pressure, and thus account for the differences in the environmental ambitiousness of National Allocation Plans. In particular, the German Bundesrat as a veto point and the antagonism between the Ministries for the Environment and for the Economy can be observed as important opportunities for interest groups to push forward their interests. The implementation of the EU Emission Trading Scheme was neither a mere administrative performance of European requirements, nor the elegant transfer of a policy instrument from the academic textbooks into reality, but rather a complex national decision-making process faced with severe distributional conflicts. Only the interaction of interests, institutions and logics of political competition can deliver an explanation for the variance of national policy implementation observed.

  14. The effects of energy and climate policy actions on the Finnish energy sector and on the Finnish economy. Focus on EU emissions trading scheme after 2013; Energia- ja ilmastopoliittisen toimenpidekokonaisuuden vaikutukset energiajaerjestelmaeaen ja kansantalouteen vuoden 2013 jaelkeisessae paeaestoekauppajaerjestelmaessae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J. (VATT Government Institute for Economic Research, Helsinki (Finland)); Forsstroem, J.; Pursiheimo, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2011-08-15

    This report evaluates the effects of the EU emission trade Finnish energy sector and on the Finnish economy. The study uses the TIMES energy sector model to study effects in the energy sector, and the VATTAGE model of the Finnish economy to study the effects on the economy. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the effects of emission trading, we take into account not only emission trade, but also the targets on renewable energy and energy efficiency. Thus the model simulations use the proposed measures on curbing emissions, increasing the share of renewables, and energy saving to produce estimates on effects compared to a business-as-usual scenario. The results indicate that the energy package would reduce Finnish GDP by at least 1,1 percentage points by the year 2020. Emission trading has a significant effect on the emission trading sectors, but measures to increase the share of renewable energy also account for large impacts in these sectors. Significantly, after 2013, the revenue generated by the auctioning of emission permits may alleviate the fiscal burden caused by revenue- losing measures to promote renewable energy. (orig.)

  15. Speech disorders in olivopontocerebellar atrophy correlate with positron emission tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluin, K.J.; Gilman, S.; Markel, D.S.; Koeppe, R.A.; Rosenthal, G.; Junck, L.

    1988-06-01

    We compared the severity of ataxic and spastic dysarthria with local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (lCMRGlc) in 30 patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA). Perceptual analysis was used to examine the speech disorders, and rating scales were devised to quantitate the degree of ataxia and spasticity in the speech of each patient. lCMRGlc was measured with /sup 18/F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET). PET studies revealed marked hypometabolism in the cerebellar hemispheres, cerebellar vermis, and brainstem of OPCA patients compared with 30 control subjects. With data normalized to the cerebral cortex, a significant inverse correlation was found between the severity of ataxia in speech and the lCMRGlc within the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemispheres, and brainstem, but not within the thalamus. No significant correlation was found between the severity of spasticity in speech and lCMRGlc in any of these structures. The findings support the view that the severity of ataxia in speech in OPCA is related to the functional activity of the cerebellum and its connections in the brainstem.

  16. Urban Form and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Findings, Strategies, and Design Decision Support Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael West Mehaffy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this dissertation contains three complementary and overlapping parts:One, “findings”: It assesses the factors of urban morphology that contribute to increased rates of greenhouse gas emissions per capita, and the ways they interact. It finds a significant but underrepresented set of factors, distinct from but relating the factors at the individual building scale and the scale of regional transportation systems.Two, “strategies”: It assesses the methodologies by which such findings might be put to use in identifying and achieving reductions through changes in urban design, and proposes new strategies to do so using innovative forms of design decision support tools.Three, “design decision support tools”: It then proposes a specific new technology, namely a new class of open-source scenario-modelling tool, embodied in new prototype software. The tool utilizes a new kind of “federated” web-based wiki technology incorporating design pattern languages, which was developed in collaboration with the software engineer and wiki inventor Ward Cunningham.As part of this research, it has been necessary to examine fundamental methodological questions, and to account for limitations of current data as well as current significant gaps in research. In the process, this research has made a modest contribution to the state of knowledge about additional research needed.For me, this work has also highlighted the need for urgent and effective reforms to current “business as usual” practices. The need is all the more urgent given unprecedented rates of urbanisation – much of it sprawling and resource-inefficient – taking place in many parts of the world today.

  17. First experiences with implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme in Slovakia. A comparative analysis of Slovak and Dutch experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halacova, T. [CAP SD Energy and Climate Consultants, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-06-15

    Slovakia as a new member state of the European Union (EU) is obliged to transpose the Aquis Communitaire into national legislation. The European Directive on Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) was adopted in October 2003 with the aim to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions in a cost effective way. The scheme will commence on 1 January 2005. The scheme will cover all large industrial emitters of CO2, including all power plants with a capacity of over 20MW thermal input. This report reviews the first practical experiences with the implementation of the EU ETS in Slovakia and identifies the main barriers and problems in the process of establishment of the scheme. It compares the experiences in and main elements of the emissions trading in Slovakia and the Netherlands and formulates the conclusions and lessons learned. The report focuses on description of the activities of two main actors of the implementation process - the government and future participants of the ETS, which involves the companies that fall within the scheme and are obliged to fulfil all the requirements under it.

  18. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  19. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S F; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions.

  20. Define a course for the France in the european system of emissions quotas exchange in agreement with the European Emission Trading Scheme directive; Definir un cap pour la France dans le systeme europeen d'echange de quotas d'emissions en accord avec la directive 'ETS'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    The project aims to define an independent evaluation of a course in France for the application of the European Emissions Trading Scheme, in the part I and II, taking into account the objective of the emission trading directive, using public data available in march 2006. In a first part the author presents the five key criteria which should be used to define the National Allocation Plan. The next part is the definition of the course and the last part the implications of the course. (A.L.B.)

  1. Multifocal sparganosis mimicking lymphoma involvement: Multimodal imaging findings of ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and position emission tomography-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Kim, Tae Jung [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Dev. of Hematology-Omcology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Hyun Jung [Dev. of Hematology-Omcology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by the migrating plerocercoid larva of Spirometra species tapeworms. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a subcutaneous nodule resembling a neoplasm. In this study, we presented multimodal findings of ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and follow-up imagings on multifocal sparganosis, mimicking lymphoma involvement in a patient with lymphoma.

  2. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  3. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  4. Trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality of activated sludge processes under seasonal variations of wastewater temperature and mean cell retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingbo; Fu, Xin; Andrés Baquero, G; Sobhani, Reza; Nolasco, Daniel A; Rosso, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Over the seasonal cycles, the mean cell retention time (MCRT) of the activated sludge process is varied to compensate the wastewater temperature variations. The effects of these variations on the carbon footprint (CFP) and effluent quality index (EQI) of a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process and a nitrification/denitrification (NDN) process were quantified. The carbon emission included both biogenic and non-biogenic carbon. Carbon emissions of wasted biosolids management were also addressed. Our results confirmed that the effluent quality indicated by EQI was not necessarily improved by increasing MCRT. Higher MCRT increased the carbon emission and reduced excess sludge production, which decreased the potential for biogas energy recovery. The NDN process was preferable to the CAS process from the perspective of effluent quality. This consideration extended to the whole plant CFP if the N2O emitted during NDN was limited ([N2O]intensity (γ) derived from CFP and EQI, our work provides a quantitative tool for decision makers evaluating process alternatives when there is a trade-off between carbon emission and effluent quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Australia’s Consumption-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to the increase in Australia’s consumption emissions. China was the largest exporter of emissions to Australia and accounted for almost half of emissions embodied in Australian imports since 2002. The growth of trade with China coincides with the increase in imported emissions as well as the increase in aggregate......We use data from the World Input-Output Database in a multiregional input–output model to analyse Australian consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1995 to 2009. We find that the emission content of Australian macroeconomic activity has changed over the 15-year period. Consumption......-based emissions have been growing faster than production-based emissions since 2001. We show that emissions embodied in Australian imports are increasingly becoming a significant source of emissions. We investigate emissions in Australian imports and find that increased trade with China contributed substantially...

  6. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  7. Emissions trading. Current legal problems attending the third allocation period; Emissionshandel. Aktuelle rechtliche Probleme in der dritten Zuteilungsperiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Markus [Scholtka und Partner Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The rules for emission permit allocation will undergo radical change as of 2013. From this time on permits will be allocated on the basis of rules applicable to the whole of Europe. The power economy will lose its entitlement to free emission permits and will be obliged to acquire its permits by auction without exemption. The industry, by contrast, will receive emission permits on the basis of pan-European benchmarks, which however will be applied with great rigor. The allocation process, which must be completed by autumn 2011, places higher requirements on operators than used to be the case and it also puts them under time pressure.

  8. Trading Schemes for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from European Agriculture - A Comparative Analysis based on different Implementation Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Dominguez, I.; Britz, W.; Holm-Muller, K.

    2009-01-01

    A rational negotiation strategy for coming multilateral negotiations regarding climate change requires knowledge about possible social, economic and environmental effects of policy instruments for the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. With this purpose, an agricultural sector model is expanded

  9. The Outlook of Carbon Prices. Price Range Forecast for European Union Allowances in European Union Emission Trading Scheme Phase III

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yunyi Chen, Connie

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Climate change mitigation policy has evolved rapidly both internationally and domestically, especially since the introduction of Kyoto Protocol flexible mechanisms - Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and Emission Tradin

  10. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global

  11. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  12. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In

  13. Evoked acoustic emissions from the human ear. III. Findings in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, N J; Bagi, P; Elberling, C

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in a consecutive series of 20 full-term and otherwise normal neonates with the equipment and method previously used in adults. One ear randomly chosen was tested in each baby, and otoscopy and tympanometry were normal in all ears. A 2 kHz click stimulus...... input-output curves exhibited a clear non-linearity. The relationship between latency and frequency was just as ambiguous as in the adults. Also, in the neonates, the cross correlation analysis proved to be an efficient method to indicate whether or not a true response was present. The results from...

  14. Investigating trade-offs between the operating cost and green house gas emissions from water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Ruben; Kadehjian, K; Abraham, E.; Stoianov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    For electricity grids with an increasing share of intermittent renewables, the power generation mix can have significant daily variations. This leads to time-dependent emission intensities and volatile electricity prices in the day-ahead and spot market tariffs that can be better utilised by energy

  15. The European Union's Emissions Trading System. Written testimony for US Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbeke, J. [Directorate-General for Climate Action, European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-07-15

    Both Europe and the USA have clearly stated in the 2010 ICAO Assembly that they support global goals to limit global international aviation emissions at or below 2005 levels by 2020. Part of the the conclusion of this testimony is as follows: The EU wants to see a comprehensive and non-discriminatory multilateral agreement in ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) on aviation emissions as soon as possible, and the US, EU and other players now need to work together to develop renewed momentum for substantive talks in ICAO at global level. The European Union and the United States have a key role to play in crafting such an international consensus. Working together also requires respecting each others' rules and regulations.

  16. Preparing enterprises in Baden-Wuerttemberg for emission trading: determining their need for information, consulting services and training.; Vorbereitung baden-wuerttembergischer Unternehmen auf den Emissionsrechtehandel: Ermittlung von Informations-, Beratungs- und Schulungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Betz, R.; Kaeser, S.

    2004-03-19

    In order to achieve the climate-related objectives of the Kyoto Protocol in the most profitable way, the EU Parliament and the Ministers' Council have decided on a regulation which obligates the operators of certain CO2-intensive systems to participate in the emission trading (Published in the Union's official gazette of 25 October 2003: Regulation 2003/87/EG OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL dt. 13 October 2003 on a system for the trade with greenhouse emission certificates in the Union and for the amendment of the regulation 96/61/EG of the Council). Starting in 2005, this includes the operators of certain systems like larger power and heat generation plants, refineries and coking plants, production plants of the iron and steel industry, cement, glass and ceramics industries and the cellulose and paper industry. To the German environmental politics, the European system of emission trading means a change in the paradigms, bringing new strategical and organisatory challenges for the enterprises involved. In order to complete lacking information regarding the approaching trading with emission rights, the first thing to do is to identify Baden-Wuerttemberg's enterprises' needs for information, consulting services and training. This should be the basis for the development of a draft concept for the need for information, consulting services and training.

  17. Benign thyroid and neck lesions mimicking malignancy with false positive findings on positron emission tomography-computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ye Ri; Kim, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Mi [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Deuk Young [Dept. of Surgery, Younsei Angelot Women' s Clinic, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The increasing use of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) has led to the frequent detection of incidental thyroid and neck lesions with increased 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Although lesions with increased FDG uptake are commonly assumed to be malignant, benign lesions may also exhibit increased uptake. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to demonstrate that benign thyroid and neck lesions can produce false-positive findings on PET/CT, and to identify various difficulties in interpretation. It is crucial to be aware that differentiating between benign and malignant lesions is difficult in a considerable proportion of cases, when relying only on PET/CT findings. Correlation of PET/CT findings with additional imaging modalities is essential to avoid misdiagnosis.

  18. Generation of electricity from industrial waste heat in the context of European emissions trading. A missed opportunity; Stromgewinnung aus industrieller Abwaerme im europaeischen Zertifikatehandel. Eine vertane Chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Dirk [Landgericht Muenster (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) poses a major financial burden for many branches of industry in Europe. While its role as a model for the world and its great significance in the struggle against global warming are undisputed, at least in the short term it is in the immediate interest of the industry to keep this burden as small as possible. The decision of the European Commission on the free allocation of emission permits (referred to as the benchmarking decision) in the scheme's third phase starting in 2013 offers a number of options to this end. Not all of these are explicitly named in the official ETS legislation, some having only been later accepted by the Commission's Directorate General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA), upon pressure from the industry, as a permissible interpretation of the existing rules. One especially complicated and unhappy example of European management policy under the ETS regime is the promotion of electricity generation from industrial waste heat from the production of ferrosilicon.

  19. Single-photon emission computed tomographic findings and motor neuron signs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terao, Shin-ichi; Sobue, Gen; Higashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Suga, Hidemichi; Mitsuma, Terunori [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    {sup 123}I-amphetamine-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed on 16 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to investigate the correlation between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and upper motor neuron signs. Significant decreased blood flow less than 2 SDs below the mean of controls was observed in the frontal lobe in 4 patients (25%) and in the frontoparietal lobe including the cortical motor area in 4 patients, respectively. The severity of extermity muscular weakness was significantly correlate with decrease in blood flow through the frontal lobe (p<0.05) and through the frontoparietal lobe (p<0.001). A significant correlation was also noted to exist between the severity of bulbar paralysis and decrease in blood flow through the frontoparietal lobe. No correlation, however, was observed between rCBF and severity of spasticity, presence or absence of Babinski`s sign and the duration of illness. Although muscular weakness in the limbs and bulbar paralysis are not pure upper motor neuron signs, the observed reduction in blood flow through the frontal or frontoparietal lobes appears to reflect extensive progression of functional or organic lesions of cortical neurons including the motor area. (author).

  20. How to design greenhouse gas trading in the EU?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2001-07-01

    A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision-makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation concerning the future design of GHG permit trading in the EU. (au)

  1. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Findings in Malignant Otitis Externa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Dağlıöz Görür

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant otitis externa (MOE is an infrequent but severe invasive infection of the external auditory canal generally caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which mostly affects elderly diabetic patients. Progression of the disease may lead to osteomyelitis of the skull base resulting in potentially fatal intracranial complications. Herein, we describe PET/CT findings of a patient who was referred to PET/CT department for evaluation of skull base osteomyelitis.

  2. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits for...

  3. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits banked...

  4. Histological findings in adipocytes when cellulite is treated with a variable-emission radiofrequency system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A; van der Lugt, Claudia; Mordon, Serge; Ribé, Adriana; Al-Zarouni, Marwan

    2010-03-01

    Cellulite is a disorder of the subcutaneous fat layer and the overlying superficial skin. Recently, radiofrequency (RF) has been proposed as an effective treatment of cellulite; however, the mechanism through which the absorbed electrical energy acts on the tissue is still not fully clear. This study reports on the histological findings from biopsies taken immediately after a single RF treatment session, on cellulite located in the buttocks, with a novel technology called automatic multi-frequency and low impedance (AMFLI) RF. Tissue samples were stained with either haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), so that we could study the morphological findings, or with oil red O, to enable us to identify lipid deposits. The histological findings observed in biopsies taken after a single RF treatment showed changes in shape, size, and lipid content, as well as in cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology. After RF treatment adipocytes were more polyhedric, with irregular, degenerated membranes, with less or no lipid content and apoptotic changes. We postulate that RF treatment on cellulite produces a decrease in lipid content of cells as well as changes in the adipocyte membrane which will lead to cell rupture and the death and extrusion of lipid content out of the cell. Further studies are needed to characterise the nature of the extra-cellular lipid material that we have demonstrated with the oil red O stain in our biopsies.

  5. A synthesis of carbon in international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Peters

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the transfer of carbon between regions, either physically or embodied in production, represents a substantial fraction of global carbon emissions. The resulting emission transfers are important for balancing regional carbon budgets and for understanding the drivers of emissions. In this paper we synthesise current understanding in two parts: (1 CO2 emissions embodied in goods and services that are produced in one country but consumed in others, and (2 carbon physically present in fossil fuels, petroleum-derived products, harvested wood products, crops, and livestock products. We describe the key differences between studies and provide a consistent set of estimates using the same definitions, modelling framework, and consistent data. We find the largest trade flows of carbon in international trade in 2004 were fossil fuels (2673 MtC, 37 % of global emissions, CO2 embodied in traded goods and services (1661 MtC, 22 % of global emissions, crops (522 MtC, 31 % of total harvested crop carbon, petroleum-based products (183 MtC, 50 % of their total production, harvested wood products (149 MtC, 40 % of total roundwood extraction, and livestock products (28 MtC, 22 % of total livestock carbon. We find that for embodied CO2 emissions, estimates from independent studies are robust, and that differences between individual studies are not a reflection of the uncertainty in consumption-based estimates, but rather these differences result from the use of different production-based emissions input data and different definitions for allocating emissions to international trade. After adjusting for these issues, results across independent studies converge to give less uncertainty than previously assumed. For physical carbon flows there are relatively few studies to be synthesised, but differences between existing studies are due to the method of allocating to international trade, with some studies using

  6. Do Trade Agreements Stimulate International Trade Differently? Evidence from 296 Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Tristan; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper, Rose (2004) found that the assumed positive impact of the WTO on international trade was questionable. This finding has been scrutinized and modified in subsequent research, using different datasets, econometric methods and separating the WTO from other forms of trade agreements. A key characteristic of this literature is the rather simplistic way in which trade agreements are treated whereby all trade agreements are lumped together. Trade agreements come, however, in many...

  7. Review of Quantitative Monitoring Methodologies for Emissions Verification and Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage for California’s Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade and Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division

    2014-12-23

    The Cap-and-Trade and Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) programs being administered by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) include Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) as a potential means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, there is currently no universal standard approach that quantifies GHG emissions reductions for CCS and that is suitable for the quantitative needs of the Cap-and-Trade and LCFS programs. CCS involves emissions related to the capture (e.g., arising from increased energy needed to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from a flue gas and compress it for transport), transport (e.g., by pipeline), and storage of CO2 (e.g., due to leakage to the atmosphere from geologic CO2 storage sites). In this project, we reviewed and compared monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) protocols for CCS from around the world by focusing on protocols specific to the geologic storage part of CCS. In addition to presenting the review of these protocols, we highlight in this report those storage-related MVA protocols that we believe are particularly appropriate for CCS in California. We find that none of the existing protocols is completely appropriate for California, but various elements of all of them could be adopted and/or augmented to develop a rigorous, defensible, and practical surface leakage MVA protocol for California. The key features of a suitable surface leakage MVA plan for California are that it: (1) informs and validates the leakage risk assessment, (2) specifies use of the most effective monitoring strategies while still being flexible enough to accommodate special or site-specific conditions, (3) quantifies stored CO2, and (4) offers defensible estimates of uncertainty in monitored properties. California’s surface leakage MVA protocol needs to be applicable to the main CO2 storage opportunities (in California and in other states with entities participating in California

  8. To mitigate or not to mitigate: Regulatory treatment of emissions trading and its effect on marketplace incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (hereafter CAAA) have created a market-based mechanism that is designed to employ a profit-oriented incentive to enable electric utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions at the least cost. One of the most important challenges facing state regulatory utility commissions in the next decade is the integration of this marker-based profit-incentive process into the traditional rate-base, rate-of-return, profit-control approach to regulation. How the struggle to meld two potentially contradictory control and incentive programs will be resolved remains to be seen. As of now, it is an open question. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify some of the issues that need to be addressed and to offer some policy recommendations that will allow regulators to employ the effectiveness of market forces while they still retain overall control of the evolution of the regulated electric supply market.

  9. To mitigate or not to mitigate: Regulatory treatment of emissions trading and its effect on marketplace incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Center for Regulatory Studies); South, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (hereafter CAAA) have created a market-based mechanism that is designed to employ a profit-oriented incentive to enable electric utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions at the least cost. One of the most important challenges facing state regulatory utility commissions in the next decade is the integration of this marker-based profit-incentive process into the traditional rate-base, rate-of-return, profit-control approach to regulation. How the struggle to meld two potentially contradictory control and incentive programs will be resolved remains to be seen. As of now, it is an open question. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify some of the issues that need to be addressed and to offer some policy recommendations that will allow regulators to employ the effectiveness of market forces while they still retain overall control of the evolution of the regulated electric supply market.

  10. Justification of sector-specific regulatory interventions in the emissions trading markets of the energy sector from 2013; Rechtfertigung sektorspezifisch-regulatorischer Eingriffe auf den Emissionshandelsmaerkten in der Energiewirtschaft ab 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Lukas [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Europaeische Integrationsforschung (ZEI); Landgericht Koeln (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The author discusses the sector-specific regulations for European emissions trading from 2013, with particular regard to the structures prevailing in the power generation markets. The third trading period is to start soon. The regulatory structure has been revised in consideration of the experience gained since 2005, when the legal structure was revised. One central element is the transition from free allocation of certificates to allocation by auctioning, which will be introduced in the power industry without a transition phase. This raises a number of questions concerning competition. In particular, it appears that the new legal framework of emissions trading is not advanced far enough for consequent pursuing of the goals that were set by deregulation of the power industry. It is now necessary to build on the competition efforts observed so far and to stabilize market integration - which is slow to start but is starting nevertheless - by developing an appropriate structure of emission trading so as not to jeopardize the deregulation success achieved so far.

  11. Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: Findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E.; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B.; Cone, James E.; Farfel, Mark R.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Stellman, Steven D.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Methods Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003–2004) and Wave 2 (2006–2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0–1), medium (2–3), high (4–5) and very high (6+). Results Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. PMID:24831753

  12. Frequent binge drinking five to six years after exposure to 9/11: findings from the World Trade Center Health Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Alice E; Caramanica, Kimberly; Maslow, Carey B; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Keyes, Katherine M; Stellman, Steven D; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to 9/11 may have considerable long-term impact on health behaviors, including increased alcohol consumption. We examined the association between frequent binge drinking, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and number of 9/11-specific experiences among World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) enrollees five-to-six years after 9/11. Participants included 41,284 lower Manhattan residents, workers, passers-by, and rescue/recovery workers aged 18 or older without a pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis who completed Wave 1 (2003-2004) and Wave 2 (2006-2007) interviews. Frequent binge drinking was defined as consuming five or more drinks on five or more occasions in the prior 30 days at Wave 2. Probable PTSD was defined as scoring 44 or greater on the PTSD Checklist. 9/11 exposure was measured as the sum of 12 experiences and grouped as none/low (0-1), medium (2-3), high (4-5) and very high (6+). Frequent binge drinking was significantly associated with increasing 9/11 exposure and PTSD. Those with very high and high exposures had a higher prevalence of frequent binge drinking (13.7% and 9.8%, respectively) than those with medium and low exposures (7.5% and 4.4%, respectively). Upon stratification, very high and high exposures were associated with frequent binge drinking in both the PTSD and no PTSD subgroups. Our findings suggest that 9/11 exposure had an impact on frequent binge drinking five-to-six years later among Registry enrollees. Understanding the effects of traumatic exposure on alcohol use is important to identify risk factors for post-disaster alcohol misuse, inform policy, and improve post-disaster psychological and alcohol screening and counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Global climate change, technology transfer and trade with complete specialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, V. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Economics; Ruebbelke, D.T.G. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2007-07-01

    The paper develops a model in which a country with better technology for abatement of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (the North) commits to an international protocol to keep the global GHG emission with a specified limit while it helps the mitigation effort in the other country (the South) with unconditional transfer of abatement technology. It finds out in the autarkic ('no trade') equilibrium that the technology transfer offer from the North is always accepted by the South. The North may offer either a partial or a complete technology transfer. If partial technology transfer is offered it finds out the determinants of the extent of technology transfer. Then it compares the autarkic equilibrium with the equilibrium where tradw with complete specialization occurs and finds out that trade limits the scope of technology transfer as an instrument for mitigation of global GHG emission.

  14. The cost of inaction. Auctioning revenues under different climate ambition scenarios for the EU emissions trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Graichen, Verena

    2012-11-06

    Compared to the reference scenario auctioning revenues increase for all coun-tries in all action scenarios, even in the backloading scenario. If the EU continues with its current 20% emission reduction target until 2020, the revenue losses for European Member States will be in the range of Euro{sub 2012} 62 billion (compared to revenues in the 25% domestic scenario) and Euro{sub 2012} 78 billion (compared to revenues in the 30% domestic scenario). Overall the impact of reduced auctioning quantities and higher climate targets on industrial competitiveness is very limited and will be compensated. The sectors concerned have enjoyed over allocation in the past. From 2013 onwards they will receive 100% free allocation (based on benchmarks). A compensation mechanism for higher electricity prices has also been established. The proposal by the Commission which includes the back-loading measure is a first step forward; however, the respective amount of allowances should be back-loaded for a period of a decade or more. It would be best to retire the back-loaded allowances at the earliest point in time. This first move should be complemented by the adoption of higher reduction targets since previous re-search has clearly shown that a stand-alone back-loading approach will not be sufficient to solve the surplus problem and restore a robust CO{sub 2} price signal. Considering that the EU ETS Directive includes special provisions on redistribu-tion designed to support Central and Eastern European countries, these Member States would benefit more (compared to other Member States) from an in-crease in auctioning revenues even without introducing additional redistribution mechanisms under the ETS.

  15. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  16. Games of climate change with international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemfert, C.; Lise, W.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse games of greenhouse gas emission reduction in which the emissions and the emission reduction costs of one country depend on other countries' emission abatement. In an analytically tractable model, we show that international trade effects on costs and emissions can either increase or

  17. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  18. The clinical significance of incidental intra-abdominal findings on positron emission tomography performed to investigate pulmonary nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Richdeep S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is a common cause of cancer-related death. Staging typically includes positron emission tomography (PET scanning, in which18F-fluoro-2-dexoy-D-glucose (FDG is taken up by cells proportional to metabolic activity, thus aiding in differentiating benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. Uptake of FDG can also occur in the abdomen. The clinical significance of incidental intraabdominal FDG uptake in the setting of pulmonary nodules is not well established. Our objective was to report on the clinical significance of incidental intra-abdominal FDG activity in the setting of lung cancer. Methods Fifteen hundred FDG-PET reports for studies performed for lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of incidental FDG-positive intraabdominal findings. Patient charts with positive findings were then reviewed and information extracted. Results Twenty-five patients (25/1500 demonstrated incidental intraabdominal FDG uptake thought to be significant (1.7% with a mean patient age of 71 years. Colonic uptake was most common (n = 17 with 9 (52% being investigated further. Of these 9 cases, a diagnosis of malignancy was made in 3 patients, pre-malignant adenomas in 2 patients, a benign lipoma in 1 patient and no abnormal findings in the remaining patients. 8 patients were not investigated further (3 diagnosed with metastatic lung cancer and 2 were of advanced age secondary to poor prognosis. Conclusion Incidental abdominal findings in the colon on FDG-PET scan for work-up of pulmonary nodules need to be further investigated by colonoscopy.

  19. Decomposing the trade-environment nexus for Malaysia: what do the technique, scale, composition, and comparative advantage effect indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chong Hui; Ahmed, Khalid; Binti Muhamad, Rusnah; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the impact of trade openness on CO2 emissions using time series data over the period of 1970QI-2011QIV for Malaysia. We disintegrate the trade effect into scale, technique, composition, and comparative advantage effects to check the environmental consequence of trade at four different transition points. To achieve the purpose, we have employed augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root tests in order to examine the stationary properties of the variables. Later, the long-run association among the variables is examined by applying autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. Our results confirm the presence of cointegration. Further, we find that scale effect has positive and technique effect has negative impact on CO2 emissions after threshold income level and form inverted U-shaped relationship-hence validates the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy consumption adds in CO2 emissions. Trade openness and composite effect improve environmental quality by lowering CO2 emissions. The comparative advantage effect increases CO2 emissions and impairs environmental quality. The results provide the innovative approach to see the impact of trade openness in four sub-dimensions of trade liberalization. Hence, this study attributes more comprehensive policy tool for trade economists to better design environmentally sustainable trade rules and agreements.

  20. Correlation between fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in 5 dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byeong-Teck; Kim, Seung-Gon; Lim, Chae-Young; Gu, Su-Hyun; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Young-Bo; Kim, Dae-Young; Woo, Eung-Je; Cho, Zang-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study characterized the [18F]2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) findings of encephalitis in dogs and assessed the role of FDG-PET in the diagnosis of meningoencephalitis. The medical records, magnetic resonance (MR), and FDG-PET images of 3 dogs with necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME), 1 dog with granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME), and 1 dog with meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology (MUE) were reviewed. On the FDG-PET, glucose hypometabolism was identified in the dog with NME, whereas hypermetabolism was noted in the dog with GME. The T2-weighted images (WI) and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were characterized by hyperintensity, whereas the signal intensity of the lesions on the T1-WI images was variable. The metabolic changes on the brain FDG-PET corresponded well to the hyper- and hypointense lesions seen on the MR imaging. This type of tomography (FDG-PET) aided in the differentiation of different types of inflammatory meningoencephalitis when the metabolic data was combined with clinical and MR findings. PMID:21119865

  1. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  2. How to Design Greenhouse Gas Trading in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    -makers and stimulate academic debates concerning the actual design of a simple and workable GHG market model for the EU. This model must take both economic, administrative and political concerns into account so that it is feasible in practice. Based on our findings, we therefore develop a policy recommendation......A new and remarkable Green Paper about how to trade Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the EU has recently been published by the Commission of the European Union. This to achieve the stated 8% reduction target level. The Green Paper raises ten questions about how greenhouse gas permit trading should...... be designed in the EU before year 2005. These ten questions can be compressed into four main issues, namely target group, allocation of emission allowances, how to mix emission trading with other instruments and fourth enforcement. In the literature, there is a strong need to guide decision...

  3. Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, V; Azar, D; Faulkner, A; Coomber, K; Durkin, S; Livingston, M; Chikritzhs, T; Room, R; Wakefield, M

    2018-01-22

    To determine i) whether strength of Australian alcohol control policy in three domains (youth access, trading hours and drink driving) changed during the 2000s; and ii) estimate associations between these policies and adolescent drinking after adjusting for television alcohol advertising exposures, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price changes, exposure to negative articles about alcohol in daily newspapers and adult drinking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted triennially from 2002 to 2011. Multilevel modelling examined the association between alcohol control policies and drinking prevalence after adjusting for covariates. Four Australian capital cities between 2002 and 2011 PARTICIPANTS: Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial national representative school-based survey (sample size range/survey: 9805 to 13119). Outcome measures were: past month drinking and risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day) in the past seven days. Policy strength in each of three domains (youth access, trading hours, drink-driving) were the key predictor variables. Covariates included: past 3-month television alcohol and alcohol-control advertising, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price change, negatively-framed newspaper alcohol articles, adult drinking prevalence and student demographic characteristics. Over the study period, strength of youth access policies increased by 10%, trading hours policies by 14% and drink-driving policies by 58%. Past-month and risky drinking prevalence decreased (eg, past-month: 2002: 47% to 2011: 26%). Multivariable analyses that included all policy variables and adjusted for year, student and other covariates showed past-month drinking to be inversely associated with stronger trading hours policies (odds ratio [OR]=0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.69,0.94), but not youth access (OR=0.92 95%CI: 0.81,1.04) or drink-driving (OR=1.00, 95%CI:0.93,1.09). Risky drinking was inversely associated with stronger youth access policies

  4. Global trade and climate policy scenarios. Impact on Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkatukia, J.; Kaitila, V.; Kotilainen, M.; Niemi, J.

    2012-09-15

    In this study we use the dynamic version of the GTAP model to analyse the effects of global trade policy changes and their interaction with different global climate policy regimes from Finland's point of view, and in particular, implications for Finnish export sectors. Scenarios explore further trade liberalisation as well as effects of higher-than-current tariffs on world markets. As a complementary dimension we analyse the impact of a global climate agreement that will lead to an additional improvement in energy efficiency and impose limitations to GHG emissions. We find a general trend towards a greater weight of services sector in Finland's total exports volume, whilst the share of traditionally important heavy industry and electronics industries declines. These trends are amplified by further trade liberalisation and slowed down by new barriers for trade. The global coverage of climate policy is particularly significant for energy-intensive industries. (orig.)

  5. Emissions Trading Policy -- Technical Clarifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Trade Liberalization, Economic Growth, Energy Consumption and the Environment: Time Series Evidence from G-20 Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Baek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic interrelationships between trade, income growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for G-20 economies in a framework of cointegrated vector autoregression (CVAR. Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure is used to estimate the coefficients of the cointegrated VAR. The results show that trade and income growth have a favorable effect on environmental quality for the developed G-20 member countries, while they have an adverse effect on the environment for the developing member countries. We also find that energy con- sumption tends to worsen environmental quality for both the developed and developing countries. Finally, it is found that trade and income to emission and energy causality holds for the developed countries; changes in degree of trade openness and income growth lead to corresponding changes in the rates of growth in emission and energy consumption. Emission and energy to trade and income causality, on the other hand, is found to hold for the developing countries; any shocks in emission and energy consumption cause corresponding fluctuations in income growth and trade openness.

  7. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A nonroad...

  8. Roles of production, consumption and trade in global and regional aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Tong, D.; Davis, S. J.; Ni, R.; Tan, X.; Pan, D.; Zhao, H.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Feng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Yan, Y.; Hu, Y.; Li, J.; Liu, Z.; Jiang, X.; Geng, G.; He, K.; Huang, Y.; Guan, D.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols exert strong radiative forcing on the climate system. Prevailing view regards aerosol radiative forcing as a result of emissions from regions' economic production, with China and other developing regions having the largest contributions to radiative forcing at present. However, economic production is driven by global demand for computation, and international trade allows for separation of regions consuming goods and services from regions where goods and related aerosol pollution are produced. It has recently been recognized that regions' consumption and trade have profoundly altered the spatial distribution of aerosol emissions and pollution. Building upon our previous work, this study quantifies for the first time the roles of trade and consumption in aerosol climate forcing attributed to different regions. We contrast the direct radiative forcing of aerosols related to regions' consumption of goods and services against the forcing due to emissions produced in each region. Aerosols assessed include black carbon, primary organic aerosol, and secondary inorganic aerosols including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium. We find that global aerosol radiative forcing due to emissions produced in East Asia is much stronger than the forcing related to goods and services ultimately consumed in that region because of its large net export of emissions-intensive goods. The opposite is true for net importers like Western Europe and North America: global radiative forcing related to consumption is much greater than the forcing due to emissions produced in these regions. Overall, trade is associated with a shift of radiative forcing from net importing to net exporting regions. Compared to greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, the short atmospheric lifetimes of aerosols cause large localized differences in radiative forcing. International efforts to reduce emissions in the exporting countries will help alleviate trade-related climate and health impacts of

  9. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  10. EU emission trading. Requirement of adaptation of the Cap as a consequence of external shocks and unexpected developments?; EU-Emissionshandel. Anpassungsbedarf des Caps als Reaktion auf externe Schocks und unerwartete Entwicklungen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diekmann, Jochen [DIW, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The effectivity of the European emission trading system (EU-ETS) with respect to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions based essentially on the quantity of the emission caps. The regional, sectorial and temporal boundaries of this system as well as the regulations covering international flexible mechanisms and banking have to be considered in the evaluation of the effectivity of the EU-ETS. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different variants of adjustment. First of all, the criteria for an identification of a possible justified needs of adaptation are investigated. Furthermore, the authors discuss the question about suitable points in time for an intervention.

  11. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1...

  12. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  13. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  14. Drivers of the growth in global greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arto, Iñaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-05-20

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions. For each of five factors (one of which is trade changes) in 40 countries we quantify its contribution to the growth in global emissions. We find that the changes in the levels of consumption per capita have led to an enormous growth in emissions (+14.0 Gt). This effect was partly offset by the changes in technology (-8.4 Gt). Smaller effects are found for population growth (+4.2 Gt) and changes in the composition of the consumption (-1.5 Gt). Changes in the trade structure had a very moderate effect on global emissions (+0.6 Gt). Looking at the geographical distribution, changes in the emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia and China) have caused 44% of emission growth whereas the increase in their national emissions accounted for 59% of emission growth. This means that 15% (1.4 Gt) of all extra GHG emissions between 1995 and 2008 have been emitted in emerging countries but were caused by changes in other countries.

  15. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG and power-to-liquids (PtL facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC, renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L, respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L, respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost.

  16. Air transport in the EU emissions trading system. Consequences for the air transportation sector, consumers and the environment; De luchtvaart in het EU-emissiehandelssysteem. Gevolgen voor de luchtvaartsector, consumenten en het milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkman, J.; Moorman, S.; De Wit, J.

    2012-03-15

    Research has been conducted on the effects of aviation in the EU ETS (European Emission Trading system). In this study, a model and various scenarios were used to explore a bandwidth of possible effects and their magnitude. Moreover, the effects of possible retaliatory measures of parties outside the EU have been examined [Dutch] Er is onderzoek gedaan naar de effecten van de luchtvaart in het EU-ETS (Europese emissiehandelssysteem). In het onderzoek is met behulp van een model en diverse scenario's een bandbreedte van mogelijke effecten en hun orde van grootte verkend. Tevens is gekeken naar de effecten van mogelijke vergeldingsmaatregelen van partijen buiten de EU.

  17. The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030. Reviving the EU emissions trading system and bringing EU greenhouse gas emissions on a 2C track. Policy brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Gilbert, A.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H.; Lam, Long; De Vos, R. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    This paper explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). This paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. The European Commission estimates that by 2020, the companies participating in the ETS will have accumulated a surplus of 1.5 to 2.3 billion allowances, which may be banked and used beyond 2020. This is about the same size as the annual emissions budget of ETS companies (just below 2 billion tonnes). Applying equity principles to the global distribution of efforts in reaching the 2C goal, an indicative 'fair' EU contribution would be a reduction of EU greenhouse gas emissions by around 49% (median of a full range from 39 to 79%) by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The 2030 targets can be set in a way to also accommodate the surplus expected until 2020. If the entire surplus of allowances from the ETS were to be used after 2020, the 2030 target has to become around 7 percentage points more stringent to compensate for that. Alternatively, the trajectory of the target from 2021 to 2030 could be set to compensate for the surplus. In addition, a more ambitious trajectory towards 2030 would cast its shadow on the mitigation in the period 2013-2020. It would strengthen the ETS, in conjunction with any other ETS recalibration options such as shifting the auctioning ('backloading') or cancelling allowances before 2020.

  18. The central importance of the EU emission trading scheme for achievement of the German climate protection target of 40% until 2020; Die zentrale Bedeutung des EU-Emissionshandels zur Erreichung des deutschen Klimaziels in Hoehe von 40 % bis 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Cludius, Johanna

    2014-02-15

    Both Germany and the European Union have set themselves targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The EU was the forerunner in 2008 when it adopted the Climate and Energy package and set a target of reducing GHG emissions by 20 % by 2020 compared to 1990. Two years later, Germany adopted a range of national GHG targets in the context of the German government's Energy Concept. This includes a 40% emissions reduction target to be met by 2020. One of the main instruments for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets is the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), which covers all large industrial and combustion installations in Europe. According to the agreement made in 2008 (Climate and Energy Package), the effort to achieve the EU's 20 % reduction target by 2020 was split between the ETS sector (2/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 21 % reduction in GHG emissions for installations covered under the ETS compared to 2005) and the non-ETS sector (1/3 of the reduction effort, representing a 10 % reduction compared to 2005). Logically, GHG emissions reductions occurring in German ETS installations count both towards the EU and the national target. This research project has been commissioned to analyse whether the ETS in its cur-rent design can contribute its fair share in efforts to meet the national emissions reduc-tion target. This question is particularly relevant in light of the following considerations: - The new German Coalition Agreement, signed in December 2013, reiterated the national target of a 40 % reduction of GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. - At the same time, the new Coalition Agreement stated that changes to the ETS are only to be considered if the EU GHG emissions reduction target will not be met. - There is a surplus of CO2 allowances on the ETS market, which undermines the credibility of the instrument as well as the integrity of the emissions reduction tar-gets (both European and national). At the same

  19. Use of technical analysis in FOREX trading

    OpenAIRE

    Vítovec, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The paper reacts to tremendous increase in popularity of FX trading among retail investors in recent years, caused mainly by easy accessibility through numerous online trading platforms and dramatic fall in trading costs. One of the accompanying trends along with increasing trading speed is a departure from fundamental analysis and shift towards more technical approach. In reaction to that, the paper aims to review the most popular technical trading rules and puts the findings in contrast wit...

  20. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  1. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  2. A paler shade of green? The toxicology of biodiesel emissions: recent findings from studies with this alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Biodiesel produced primarily from plants and algal feedstocks is believed to have advantages for production and use compared to petroleum and to some other fuel sources. There is some speculation that exposure to biodiesel combustion emissions may not induce biologic...

  3. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdan, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.perdan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: > The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. > Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. > The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. > Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. > A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  4. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  6. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  7. Dual Effort to Correlate the Electron Field Emission Performance of Carbon Nanotubes with Synthesis As Well As Annealing Temperature: Theoretical Support of the Experimental Finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Supratim; Banerjee, Diptonil; Das, Nirmalya Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Here a dual approach has been adopted to study the effect of both synthesis as well as annealing temperature on the electron field emission property of differently synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that include solid state chemical reaction as well as chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Experimental findings were supported by theoretical simulation. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD as well as TEM study confirms the amorphous nature (aCNTs) of the samples for both the synthesis techniques which is attributed to lower synthesis temperature. Prominent morphological differences of these two types of aCNTs are clearly observed from both FESEM and TEM images. It is found that electron field emission characteristics of aCNTs synthesized by CVD shows better field emission properties as compared to aCNTs synthesized by solid state reaction. Finite element based simulation shows that temperature has prominent effect on morphology, screening effect or degree of graphitization that leads to improved field emission characteristics for the CVD synthesized aCNTs.

  8. Aid for trade and the political economy of trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Georg; Hoekstra, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Aid for Trade (AfT) initiative has gained much popularity since its launch at the World Trade Organization's Ministerial Conference in 2005, and there are ongoing discussions on its effectiveness and potential to improve the integration of developing countries into the world economy. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing AfT in a political economy context. We find that the delivery of AfT is a precondition for trade reform in developing countries, as well as for trade liberali...

  9. Fear Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Ardia, David

    2003-01-01

    Our trading strategy is inspired from the paper "implied volatility indices as leading indicators of stock index returns?", Giot (2002,[3]). It uses stylized facts observed in stock markets: the so called "leverage effect", the clustering and the mean-reverting behaviour of the implied volatility. Based on S&P100 and VIX data, we show that abnormally high levels of volatility can be used as a trading signals for long traders. A bootstrap procedure confirms the significant returns for the 1986...

  10. Allocation regulations in emission trading and their conditions of origin. A functional comparative analysis of legal regulations in Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom; Die Zuteilungsregeln im Emissionshandel und ihre Entstehungsbedingungen. Ein funktionaler Rechtsvergleich zwischen Deutschland, Italien und dem Vereinigten Koenigreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horrichs, Judith

    2011-07-01

    According to the Kyoto protocol, emission trading will be one of the key instruments in the fight against global climate change and global warming. The European Union decided at an early stage to implement the limitation of carbon dioxide emissions in European law. Emission trading therefore has become a synonym of European climate protection policy. The main element is the allocation of emission certificates; this is the factor that will decide acceptance, efficiency and functioning of the concept. The publication compares the legal situation in Germany, the United Kingdom, and Italy. The allocation strategies of the three countries are discussed on the basis of two questions, i.e. the enhancement of new investments and emission reduction and the protection of investments once made. The comparison will show what regulations will be useful beyond 2012, i.e. after the end of the second allocation period, and what regulations have only national character and cannot be applied globally. (orig./RHM)

  11. Histological and submicroscopical findings on the seminiferous parenchyma in rams after copper oxide intoxication from industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzgulová, M

    1993-01-01

    In this work the author examined the histological and submicroscopical picture of the seminiferous parenchyma in 5 breeding rams from a herd in which intoxication with copper oxide from industrial emissions of a copper producing plant had been diagnosed. The toxic effect irreversibly damages all developmental stages of the germ cells. It injures the cell membranes of both germ cells and Sertoli cells. Similar changes were observed on the interstitial cells. The degree of injury to the germinative epithelium confirms its significant role in the decreased reproduction rate of the herd under examination.

  12. Emissions trading for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in the EU law. A contribution to the transferability of the system of the Directive 2003/87 on (other) air pollutants; Emissionshandel fuer NO{sub x} und SO{sub 2} im EU-Recht. Ein Beitrag zur Uebertragbarkeit des Systems der RL 2003/87 auf (andere) Luftschadstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, Astrid [Freiburg i.Ue. Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Europarecht

    2011-03-15

    Currently, it is discussed, whether emissions trading for NO{sub x} (nitrogen oxides) and SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) is introduced at EU level following the example of the Directive 2003/87 in accordance with the existing emissions trading for greenhouse gases. The contribution under consideration reports on the possible design of such a system and shows the problems involving an integration of such an emissions trading system in the Clean Air Act. There is a particular emphasis on the question whether under such a system an effective air pollution control (at local and regional level) can be ensured. Other questions are: (a) To what extent arise frictions with selected European Union legislative acts?; (b) How can these frictions be adapted?.

  13. U.S. trade remedy law and agriculture: trade diversion and investigation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Carter; Caroline Gunning-Trant

    2010-01-01

    We study U.S. agricultural antidumping and countervailing duty cases from 1980 to 2005, and gauge the effectiveness of trade remedy law as a form of protection. The purpose is to measure the resulting investigation and trade diversion effects. Previous research on trade in manufactured products has shown that the domestic protection offered by AD and CV duties is largely offset by trade diversion. In contrast, we find that for agriculture, trade diversion is relatively unimportant. So AD and ...

  14. Early diagnosis of hearing loss: otoacoustic emissions evoked by distortion products and pure-tone audiometry: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzella, A; Loreti, B; Sacco, C; Casale, T; Pimpinella, B; Andreozzi, G; Bernardini, A; Nieto, H A; Scala, B; Schifano, M P; Bonomi, S; Altissimi, G; De Sio, S; Cianfrone, G; Tomei, F; Rosati, M V; Sancini, A

    Literary studies underline the effectiveness of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), which are not affected by the collaboration of the subject examined, in the early diagnosis of hearing loss. Aim of the study is to compare the objective technique of DPOAEs with respect to the pure-tone audiometry in early diagnosis of hearing loss. The clinical research was carried out on 852 workers. All subjects underwent pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry and distortion products. The results show: a) a prevalence of subjects with impaired DPOAEs higher than the prevalence of subjects with impaired audiometries in the studied samples; and, after division by gender: b) a prevalence of subjects with impaired DPOAEs higher than the prevalence of subjects with impaired audiometries only in men; c) a prevalence of impaired DPOAEs and of impaired audiometries in men higher than in women. The results suggest the higher effectiveness of DPOAEs compared to pure-tone audiometry in making an early diagnosis of hearing loss.

  15. Emission Trading System in the SER Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth. Macro-economic calculation by means of WorldScan; ETS in het SER Energieakkoord. Macro-economische doorrekening met WorldScan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, C. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    The Dutch National Energy Agreement for Sustainable Growth aims at strengthening the European system for emissions trading by a more strict emission ceiling. Also, the agreement aims at guarantee the competitiveness of global energy intensive businesses by adjusting the allocation method for emission rights. In the calculations for the energy agreement this is reflected in the adjustment of the ETS pricing path. In this memo the calculations with the equilibrium model WordlScan are described and presented [Dutch] Het Nationaal Energieakkoord voor Duurzame Groei zet in op een versterking van het Europees systeem voor emissiehandel (ETS) door aanscherpen van het emissieplafond. Verder wil het akkoord de concurrentiepositie van het mondiaal opererende energie-intensieve bedrijfsleven borgen door aanpassing van de allocatiemethode voor emissierechten. In de doorrekening van het Energieakkoord is deze inzet tot uitdrukking gebracht in een aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad. Deze notitie beschrijft de berekeningen met het algemeen evenwichtsmodel WorldScan waar deze aanpassing van het ETS-prijspad op is gebaseerd.

  16. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira KURMANALIEVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

  17. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  18. The effect of a consumption-based accounting method in national GHG inventories: a trilateral trade system application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eBastianoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact of countries in the climate change and their responsibility in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we apply a new theoretical framework that allocates the emissions embodied in international trade and computes the consequent carbon transferred across countries, according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a average national emissions coefficient.. We analyze a trilateral trade system composed by Sweden, Italy and Poland during the period 2000-2008. We find that, with respect to the conventional greenhouse gas national inventory schemes, consumption-based accounting implies an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4% and 11.8%, respectively, and a decrease of Polish one by 2.81%. We also assess the relevance of this framework at the sectoral level by hypothesizing a shift of Italian imports of Machinery and Transport Equipment from Poland to Sweden. We deduce that, through appropriate policies, importer nations could be encouraged to find producers with the best environmental performances while exporter nations could be induced to reduce their carbon intensity to stimulate the international demand for their goods. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.

  19. Prognostic impact of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in patients with major extracardiac findings by computed tomography for attenuation correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadro, Charline; Roussel, Noé; Cassol, Emmanuelle; Pascal, Pierre; Petermann, Antoine; Meyrignac, Olivier; Jaffro, Marion; Fournier, Pauline; Cournot, Maxime; Galinier, Michel; Carrié, Didier; Rousseau, Hervé; Berry, Isabelle; Lairez, Olivier

    2017-03-09

    Attenuation correction computed tomography (CT) contributes to an improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) by single photon emission tomography (SPECT). The aim of this study was to explore the prognosis of patients with major findings by CT according to the results of MPI. 1506 patients who underwent MPI by SPECT were retrospectively included. Attenuation correction CT images were systematically analyzed for major and minor abnormalities. 830 (55.1%) and 212 (14.1%) patients had minor and major extracardiac findings, respectively. Among patients with major extracardiac findings, the abnormality was previously unknown in 113 (53.3%) patients. 90 (41.9%) had abnormal MPI, 73 (34.4%) had a myocardial infarction scar, 55 (25.9%) had myocardial ischemia, and 38 (17.7%) patients had both myocardial infarction scar and myocardial ischemia. Among the 201 patients available for survival analysis, there were 67 (31.2%) deaths over a follow-up period of 3.2±1.3 years. There was no significant impact on survival arising from MPI, whatever the result. The results were the same among the 103 patients with previously unknown major extracardiac findings. Extracardiac findings by CT during MPI are frequent. Patients with major extracardiac findings have a poor mid-term outcome, whatever the results of the myocardial perfusion imaging. Extracardiac findings should be systematically checked when attenuation correction CT is performed.

  20. Allowance trading: Market operations and regulatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the SO[sub 2] allowance system as defined by Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments offers utilities greater compliance flexibility than EPA technology standards, State Implementation Plan (SEP) performance standards, or EPA bubble/offset strategies. Traditional methods at best offered the utility the ability to trade emissions between different units at a particular plant. The SO[sub 2] emissions trading system advocated under Title IV will allow a utility to trade emissions across its utility system, and/or trade emissions between utilities to take advantage of interfirm control cost differences. The use of transferable emission allowances offers utilities greater flexibility in the choice of how to control emissions: the choices include fuel switching, flue gas scrubbing, environmental dispatch, repowering, and even the choice not to control emissions [as long as the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements are met]. The added flexibility allows utilities to choose the least cost manner of compliance with Title IV requirements. It is hoped (intended) that pollution control cost-minimization by individual utilities will in turn reduce the cost of controlling SO[sub 2] for the electric utility industry in aggregate. In addition, through the use of NO[sub x] emission averaging, the utility would average NO[sub x] emissions from different point sources in order to comply with the prescribed emission standard.

  1. Patterns of FDG uptake in stomach on F-18 FDG positron emission tomography: correlation with endoscopic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Min Jeong; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lee, Sang Woo; Byun, Byung Hyun; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yu Chul; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    We often find variable degrees of FDG uptake and patterns in stomach, which can make difficult to distinguish physiologic uptake from pathologic uptake on FDG PET. The purpose of this study was to find out the significant findings of stomach on FDG PET. Thirty-eight patients who underwent both FDG PET and endoscopy within one week from Jun. 2003, to Aug. 2004 were included in this study. We reviewed 38 patients (18 for medical check up, 15 for work up of other malignancies, and 5 for the evaluation of stomach lesion). Their mean age was 56 years old (range:32 {approx} 79), men and women were 28 and 10, respectively. Two nuclear physicians evaluated five parameters on FDG PET findings of stomach with a consensus: 1) visual grades 2) maximum SUV (max.SUV) 3) focal 4) diffuse and 5) asymmetric patterns. We correlated the lesions of FDG PET findings of stomach with those of endoscopy. We considered more than equivocal findings on FDG PET as positive. The six of 38 patients were proven as malignant lesions by endoscopic biopsy and others were inflammatory lesions (ulcer in 3, chronic atrophic gastritis in 12, uncommon forms of gastritis in 5), non-inflammatory lesions (n=3), and normal stomach (n=9). By the visual analysis, malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake than the others. The max.SUV of malignant lesions was 7.95 {+-} 4.83 which was significantly higher than the other benign lesions (2.9 {+-} 0.69 in ulcer, 3.08 {+-} 1.2 in chronic atrophic gastritis, 3.2 {+-} 1.49 in uncommon forms of gastritis ( {rho} =0.044). In the appearance of stomach on FDG PET, malignant lesions were shown focal (5 of 6) and benign inflammatory lesions were shown diffuse (9 of 20) and asymmetric (14 of 20). Benign lesions and normal stomach were shown variable degrees of uptake and patterns. Some cases of benign inflammatory lesions such as ulcer and gastritis were shown focal and mimicked cancerous lesions (4 of 15). Gastric malignant lesions had higher FDG uptake and focal pattern

  2. Emission Certificate Trade and Costs under Regional Burden-Sharing Regimes for a 2˚C Climate Change Control Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kober, T.; van der Zwaan, B.C.C.; Rösler, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore regional burden-sharing regimes for the allocation of greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations needed to reach a 2°C long-term global climate change control target by performing an integrated energy-economy-climate assessment with the bottom-up TIAM-ECN model. Our

  3. Volatile organic compound emissions during hot-pressing of southern pine particleboard : panel size effects and trade-off between press time and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenlong Wang; Douglas J. Gardner; Melissa G.D. Baumann

    2002-01-01

    In previous research, it was shown that decreasing either press temperature or press time generally resulted in decreased volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during the hot-pressing of southern pine particleboard. However, because it is impossible to reduce both pressing time and temperature while maintaining panel physical and mechanical properties, this study...

  4. Image findings of monomorphic non-hogdkin lymphoproliferative disorder in a post renal transplant patient diagnosed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajasekar, Thirugnanam; Shibu, Deepu; Radhakrishnan, Edathurthy Kalarikal; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2014-07-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations caused by immunosuppression after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. PTLD is categorized by early lesion, polymorphic PTLD and monomorphic PTLD. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) scans have clinical significance in the evaluation of PTLD following renal transplantation. We report imaging findings of a monomorphic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, post renal transplant seen on FDG PET/CT in a 32-year-old lactating woman. Whole body FDG- ET/CT demonstrated uptake in right external iliac and inguinal lymph nodes.

  5. Emission trading north - benefits for the economy and the environment. A pilot project of the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein in co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzantny, Katja [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Hahn, Michael [ERM Lahmeyer Int. GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Kruska, Martin [EUtech Energie plus Umwelt, Technik plus Management, Aachen (Germany); Klein, Michael [500 PPM Gesellschaft fuer Emissionshandel und Beratung mbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein is carrying out the pilot project Emission Trading North. Its primary target is the regional application of the flexible mechanisms (ET, JI, CDM) together with the industry of Schleswig-Holstein. In detail, it focuses on capacity building on behalf of the different parties involved, a smooth transition to real ET and the positioning of the Energy Foundation in a future ET system. The project cycle consists of 3 phases (Phase 0: preparatory work; Phase 1: development of emission inventories, identification and evaluation of emission reduction measures; Phase 2: simulation of ET). Participating companies located in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, representing the power sector, cement production, paper and pulp production, non-ferrous metals as well as the renewable energy sector, dealt with the central question of allocation of emission allowances. During in-depth energy analyses emission reduction measures were identified and evaluated with respect to their volume of emission reductions and related costs. Participating companies developed mid and long-term trading strategies taking into account investment cycles, project risks and market prices. The strategy was tested during a multi-period trading simulation. With respect to the national allocation plan, a central element of the future European emission trading system, the pilot project proposes consistent solutions relating to CHP, capacity limits, process emissions, fuel substitutes, new entrants and shut-down of installations.

  6. Consumption-based emission accounting for Chinese cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    mi, zhifu; Zhang, Yunkun; Guan, Dabo

    2016-01-01

    Most of China’s CO2 emissions are related to energy consumption in its cities. Thus, cities are critical for implementing China’s carbon emissions mitigation policies. In this study, we employ an input-output model to calculate consumption-based CO2 emissions for thirteen Chinese cities and find...... substantial differences between production- and consumption-based accounting in terms of both overall and per capita carbon emissions. Urban consumption not only leads to carbon emissions within a city’s own boundaries but also induces emissions in other regions via interregional trade. In megacities...... such as Shanghai, Beijing and Tianjin, approximately 70% of consumption-based emissions are imported from other regions. Annual per capita consumption-based emissions in the three megacities are 14, 12 and 10 tonnes of CO2 per person, respectively. Some medium-sized cities, such as Shenyang, Dalian and Ningbo...

  7. Nord Pool wants to be the leader in CO{sub 2}[Refers to trade with emission permits]; Nord Pool vill bli soerst paa CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellander, Dag

    2004-07-01

    In the beginning of 2005 Nord Pool introduces standard contracts for European emission rights for carbon dioxide. It is currently too early to speak of a global market for emission rights for greenhouse gases. The problem is not the attitude of the U.S.A., as is often said, but what road is taken by the so-called third world. The acceptance of the Kyoto Protocol by the Russians means that the agreement will come into force in 2005. It is much more important, however, what is going to happen after the first implementation period 2008 - 2012. In that process those countries that strive for one car per household must also be engaged. In particular the giant nations China and India must join the agreement if it is to be a notable climatic agreement of global scope.

  8. Weak gas treatment and landfill aeration. Possibilities of integration into the emissions trading; Schwachgasbehandlung und Deponiebelueftung. Moeglichkeiten zur Integration in den Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohn, Jan; Stegmann, Rainer; Heyer, K.U.; Hupe, K. [IFAS - Ingenieurbuero fuer Abfallwirtschaft, Prof. R. Stegmann und Partner, Hamburg (Germany); Ritzkowski, M. [TU Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik; Blank, D.; Schnurr, J. [GFA Envest GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Rosenkranz, G.; Unger, C. [DUH - Deutsche Umwelthilfe e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the next few decades, landfill gas still will be emitted from municipal solid waste landfills. Upon completion of an energetic gas use a long-term residual landfill gas treatment would be required in order to ensure a consistent avoidance of methane emissions into the atmosphere. Landfill operators want to perform a landfill aeration both as a climate protection measure and to improve the landfill behavior.

  9. Image Findings of Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia Mimicking Metastasis in F-18 FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Joseph, Jephy; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2017-01-01

    Fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the bone is characterized by the medullary cavity of bones becoming filled with fibrous tissue, and its etiology remains unknown. It is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies that are performed for other purposes. FD may closely mimic the appearance of bony metastatic disease on radiological examinations. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient, which appeared to have multiple bone lesions on initial workup images. Subsequently, the bone lesions that showed increased FDG uptake on PET/CT in right femur and tibia were identified as FD. The present case is a useful addition to the current body of literature of false positive F-18 FDG PET/CT due to a benign skeletal pathology and underscores the importance of high index of suspicion and careful correlation, whenever one comes across such an unusual PET/CT finding.

  10. Technology, trade and growth: some empirical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle P. Connolly

    1997-01-01

    International patent data for 39 countries from 1970 to 1985 are used to create proxies for imitation and innovation. Domestic imitation and innovation both appear to depend positively on high technology imports from developed countries, intellectual property rights, and the size of the economy. Additionally, transportation and communication infrastructure and quality adjusted research effort are found to contribute positively to domestic innovation. Finally, growth in real per capita GDP is ...

  11. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  12. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  13. The Social Cost of Trading: Measuring the Increased Damages from Sulfur Dioxide Trading in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David D., III; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Mendelsohn, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur dioxide (SO[subscript 2]) cap and trade program established in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments is celebrated for reducing abatement costs ($0.7 to $2.1 billion per year) by allowing emissions allowances to be traded. Unfortunately, places with high marginal costs also tend to have high marginal damages. Ton-for-ton trading reduces…

  14. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Graham A. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  15. Quantifying immediate price impact of trades based on the k-shell decomposition of stock trading networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Xu, Hai-Chuan; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    Traders in a stock market exchange stock shares and form a stock trading network. Trades at different positions of the stock trading network may contain different information. We construct stock trading networks based on the limit order book data and classify traders into k classes using the k-shell decomposition method. We investigate the influences of trading behaviors on the price impact by comparing a closed national market (A-shares) with an international market (B-shares), individuals and institutions, partially filled and filled trades, buyer-initiated and seller-initiated trades, and trades at different positions of a trading network. Institutional traders professionally use some trading strategies to reduce the price impact and individuals at the same positions in the trading network have a higher price impact than institutions. We also find that trades in the core have higher price impacts than those in the peripheral shell.

  16. Does mood affect trading behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustia, Markku; Rantapuska, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We test whether investor mood affects trading with data on all stock market transactions in Finland, utilizing variation in daylight and local weather. We find some evidence that environmental mood variables (local weather, length of day, daylight saving and lunar phase) affect investors’ direction of trade and volume. The effect magnitudes are roughly comparable to those of classical seasonals, such as the Monday effect. The statistical significance of the mood variables is weak in many case...

  17. Trade Policy and Risk Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeffer, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the influence of trade policy on the investment decisions of a rep- resentative individual. In particular, the increased uncertainty of future income is con- sidered in the investment behaviour of individuals. The optimal portfolio-decision of a representative working individual is analysed in comparison to a non-working shareholder. The paper finds an important influence from trade policy on the saving and investment behaviour of a working individual. Yet the optimal deman...

  18. Analysis of NOx Budget Trading Program Units Brought into the CAIR NOx Ozone Season Trading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA analyzed the effect of having the large non-EGU units in the NBP and the CAIR NOX ozone season trading program and evaluated whether or not emissions from this group of units were reduced as a result of their inclusion in those trading programs.

  19. A Health Impact Assessment of California’s Proposed Cap-and-Trade Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Paul; Rudolph, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To identify unintended health effects of California’s controversial cap-and-trade regulations and establish health-promoting policy recommendations, we performed a health impact assessment. Methods. We used literature reviews, public data, and local health surveys to qualitatively assess potential health risks and benefits related to changes in employment and income, energy costs, effects of emission offset projects, and cobenefits from the allocation of program revenue. We examined case studies from various communities to find existing social, economic, and environmental health conditions. Results. We found that policy implementation will minimally impact job creation (strategies and cap-and-trade policy at the federal level. PMID:22742062

  20. 78 FR 69995 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Restriction of Emission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Emission of Sulfur Compounds and Emissions Banking and Trading AGENCY: Environmental Protection... the Missouri rule ``Emissions Banking and Trading'' removes all definitions, as they are now included...

  1. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... are to regain power. Third, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, unions are building external coalitions with other social movements, including across borders, to compensate for the loss of power resources that were tied to national collective bargaining and policy-making. Research has shown that unions, even...

  2. Trade in Health Services and Globalization: The Role of Infinitesimal Changes of Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Tonmoy; Gupta, Kausik

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate the issues related to health care, consumption efficiency hypothesis and international trade in the context of a developing economy. In this article we have framed a hybrid type of three sector general equilibrium trade model in the presence of a nutritional efficiency factor of health consumption, where first two sectors form a Heckscher-Ohlin nugget and the third one is a non-traded health service producing sector. Overall, we find little harm from trade, an...

  3. Dynamic Interaction between Cap & Trade and Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeev, Kumar

    Greenhouse Gases (GHG), such as Carbon-Dioxide (CO2), which is released in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities like power production, are now accepted as the main culprits for global warming. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), an initiative of the North East and Mid-Atlantic States of the United States (US) for limiting the emission of GHG, has developed a regional cap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions for power plants. Existing cap-and-trade programs in US and Europe for Greenhouse Gases have recently been plagued by over-allocation. Carbon prices recently collapsed in all these markets during the global recession. Since then, there have been significant policy changes, which have resulted in the adoption of aggressive emission cap targets by most major carbon emission markets. This is expected to make carbon emissions availability more restrictive, raising the prices of these credits. These emissions markets are expected to have a major impact on the wholesale electricity markets. Two models to study the interaction of these two markets are presented. These models assess the impact of the emissions market on wholesale electricity prices. The first model characterizes the competition between two types of power plants (coal and gas) in both the electricity and emissions markets as a dynamic game using the Cournot approximation. Under this approximation, we find that in the Nash equilibrium the plants increase their permit allocation to high-demand periods and the marginal value of each credit for a plant is identical in all periods under their optimal equilibrium strategy. The second numerical model allows us to explicitly evaluate the closed loop equilibrium of the dynamic interaction of two competitors in these markets. We find that plants often try to corner the market and push prices all the way to the price cap. Power plants derive most of their profits from these extreme price regimes. In the experiments where trading is allowed

  4. Bilateral trade agreements and the rise of global supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the rise global supply chains on bilateral trade agreements. Given that a few multinational firms are responsible for a major share of world trade, our findings suggest that these firms may support regulatory harmonization across different Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs to lower trade costs or resist harmonization – and encourage certain non-tariff measures – to prevent new competitors from entering markets. The finding partly explains the persistence of regulatory divergence.  Building on institutional and comparative trade hypothesis, the findings of the paper present new tendencies in the foreign trade policy: the impact of the rise global supply chains on the political economy of trade, motivations for countries in cooperating on trade policies, and the increasing importance of bilateral agreements in the foreign trade policy. Additionally, the findings suggest that the political economy of regulatory convergence may be more complex than is sometimes suggested in the prior literature.

  5. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  6. Global agriculture and carbon trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Justin Andrew; Runge, Carlisle Ford; Senauer, Benjamin; Foley, Jonathan; Polasky, Stephen

    2014-08-26

    Feeding a growing and increasingly affluent world will require expanded agricultural production, which may require converting grasslands and forests into cropland. Such conversions can reduce carbon storage, habitat provision, and other ecosystem services, presenting difficult societal trade-offs. In this paper, we use spatially explicit data on agricultural productivity and carbon storage in a global analysis to find where agricultural extensification should occur to meet growing demand while minimizing carbon emissions from land use change. Selective extensification saves ∼ 6 billion metric tons of carbon compared with a business-as-usual approach, with a value of approximately $1 trillion (2012 US dollars) using recent estimates of the social cost of carbon. This type of spatially explicit geospatial analysis can be expanded to include other ecosystem services and other industries to analyze how to minimize conflicts between economic development and environmental sustainability.

  7. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  8. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    and weaknesses of the two schemes are compared in a public choice setting which focuses on group size, selective incentives, entrepreneurship and lobbyism from industry. The result is threefold. First, the big countries (due to small group advantages) dominated the Kyoto negotiations. Second...... because governments will seek to favour them and gain competitive advantages, e.g. a country may buy permits for taxpayers' money and then redistribute permits to its industry. In this way redistribution takes place from non-organized to organized groups. So, taking political acceptability into account...

  9. Further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme in Germany and the European Union under consideration of experiences in other EU Member States; Weiterentwicklung des Emissionshandels - national und auf EU-Ebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wartmann, S.; Klaus, S.; Scharte, M.; Harnisch, J. [Ecofys GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany); Heilmann, S.; Bertenrath, R. [FiFo Koeln (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    The study analyses options for further development of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) after 2012. The first analysis focuses on the effects of the EU-ETS on companies, power prices, competitiveness and employment. It is followed by an analysis of overlaps or lacking coverage regarding the climate policies EU-ETS, Eco-Tax (Oekosteuer) resp. Energy Tax, the Renewable Energy Sources Act and the Combined Heat and Powert Act. These instruments are analysed with regards to their coherence. As a next step, the national allocation plans of France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Poland are evaluated and recommendations are developed. Best practice recommendations for further developing the EU-ETS after 2012 both at the European and the national level are developed from the comparison of these European national allocation plans. Finally, design features of certificate systems relevant for international linking of such systems are addressed. In the analysis such design features are identified and approaches for problems potentially arising when certificate systems are linked, are developed. (orig.)

  10. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Hidemichi (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients, and 16 healthy volunteers were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP). The basal ganglia region was in particular examined not only in transverse sections, but in coronal sections. Schizophrenics showed significantly decreased uptake rates in the bilateral frontal regions and increased uptakes in the bilateral basal ganglia. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had a reduced uptake rate only in the right thalamic region, compared to the controls. The increased uptake rates in the basal ganglia were associated with auditory hallucination, but gender difference, duration of illness and dose of neuroleptics had no influence on these SPECT findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal area of the brain, whereas atypical psychotics might have no lesion in the frontal region but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Subsequently, using only SPECT findings, all the cases were divided by cluster analysis into 4 groups and a residue group. Schizophrenics distributed mainly in the 2 groups that have lesion in the frontal regions. Atypical psychotics distributed principally in the other 2 groups that have alterations in the bilateral thalamic region. The present study suggests that schizophrenia and atypical psychosis might have different etiologies. (author).

  11. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  12. Export response to trade liberalisation in the presence of high trade costs: Evidence for a landlocked African economy

    OpenAIRE

    Milner, Chris; Zgovu, Evious

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the relative importance of trade policy and 'natural' sources of export taxation in Malawi, a landlocked African economy. These sources of export taxation are in turn used to explore how export supply would respond to trade liberalisation as opposed to measures which lower other international trade costs. The findings indicate that trade policy barriers are now only a limited source of 'true' export taxation and that trade policy reform needs to be complemented with ref...

  13. The project-related mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol. Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation. Integration in the European emission trading system and national implementation; Die projektbezogenen Mechanismen des Kyoto-Protokolls. Clean Development Mechanism und Joint Implementation. Einbeziehung in das europaeische Emissionshandelssystem und nationale Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, Anne

    2011-07-01

    The publication discusses the legal effects of the project-related mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. the Clean Development Mechanism and the Joint Implementation, on the international and European emission trading systems. The first part describes the foundations of the mechanisms in international law and then proceeds to outline some critical aspects. The second part discusses the integration of the project-related mechanisms of the Kyoto protocol in the European emission trading system. After a general outline, the weak points resulting from the combination of the different systems are presented. The third part contains an analysis of implementation in national (German) law, in particular the Projekt-Mechanismen-Gesetz (ProMechG, Project Mechanism Act).

  14. Trading in Target Stocks Before Takeover Announcements: An Analysis of Stock and Option Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Clements; Harminder Singh; Antonie Van Eekelen

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine both informed trading and contraire trading preceding takeover announcements on US target firms. Our findings suggest that both informed trading and contraire trading exists within the period preceding takeover announcements on both the stock and option markets as evident through abnormal returns and trading volumes. In regard to contraire trading, this study investigates possible explanations for its existence including liquidity clustering, falsely informed trading ...

  15. Epidemic Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerner, Lars; Severgnini, Battista

    ) of transmission of the disease between the transmitting and the receiving cities. We find that the speed depends on distance, political borders, and on the political importance of a city. Furthermore, variables related to the means of transportation like rivers and the sea, religious seasons such as Advent...

  16. Free trade or just trade? The World Trade Organisation, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author assesses these claims from a human rights perspective and explores the relationship between trade, human rights and development. The article sketches the history and functions of the WTO, discusses the linkages between trade liberalisation, human rights and development, and assesses the human rights ...

  17. The NOx Budget Trading Program: A Collaborative, Innovative Approach to Solving a Regional Air Pollution Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article examines the development and implementation of the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP) and the lessons the Environmental Protection Agency has learned from this seasonal emissions cap-and-trade program.

  18. Perfusion impairments in infantile autism on technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single-photon emission tomography: comparison with findings on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y.H.; Lee, J.D.; Yoon, P.H.; Kim, D.I. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.B.; Shin, Y.J. [Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrate of autism has been the subject of detailed investigation. Because previous studies have not demonstrated consistent and specific neuro-imaging findings in autism and most such studies have been performed in adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in young children in search of common functional and anatomical abnormalities with brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) and correlative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient population was composed of 23 children aged 28-92 months (mean: 54 months) who met the diagnostic criteria of autism as defined in the DSM-IV and CARS. Brain SPET was performed after intravenous injection of 185-370 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD using a brain-dedicated annular crystal gamma camera. MRI was performed in all patients, including T1, T2 axial and T1 sagittal sequences. SPET data were assessed visually. Twenty patients had abnormal SPET scans revealing focal areas of decreased perfusion. Decreased perfusion of the cerebellar hemisphere (20/23), thalami (19/23), basal ganglia (5/23) and posterior parietal (10/23) and temporal (7/23) areas were noted on brain SPET. By contrast all patients had normal MRI findings without evidence of abnormalities of the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, thalami, basal ganglia or parietotemporal cortex. In conclusion, extensive perfusion impairments involving the cerebellum, thalami and parietal cortex were found in this study. SPET may be more sensitive in reflecting the pathophysiology of autism than MRI. However, further studies are necessary to determine the significance of thalamic and parietal perfusion impairment in autism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 33 refs.

  19. Sunshine Trading: Flashes of Trading Intent at the NASDAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe use the introduction and the subsequent removal of the flash order facility (an actionable indication of interest, IOI) from the NASDAQ as a natural experiment to investigate the impact of voluntary disclosure of trading intent on market quality. We find that flash orders

  20. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... findings reveal that the global trade configuration is imbalanced favouring nations of the North to the detriment of ... Mercantilist theory, the theory of Absolute advantage, Comparative. Advantage theory, Factor ... This has changed the culture of international businesses and serves as a medium for other ...

  1. Additional profits of selected German companies and economic sectors within the EU emission trading system. Analysis for the period from 2005 to 2012; Zusatzertraege von ausgewaehlten deutschen Unternehmen und Branchen im Rahmen des EU-Emissionshandelssystems. Analyse fuer den Zeitraum 2005-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Gores, Sabine; Hermann, Hauke

    2011-05-15

    The first two trading periods of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) included extensive free allocation of emission allowances. Since in electricity production the carbon price is passed on - in an economically rational way - to the electricity price, the utility companies were able to reap substantial additional revenue, a significant amount of which result from the free allocation of emission allowances. Taking into account the nuclear fuel tax (introduced in Germany since 2011) which also aims to absorb additional revenue from the EU ETS, the additional revenue for utility companies from the first and second trading periods of the EU ETS considered in this paper are estimated to amount to Euro 38 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or approx. Euro 35.6 billion (with nuclear fuel tax). The following results arise for the utilities under consideration in the period from 2005 to 2012: - For E.ON the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 13.4 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 12.3 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For RWE the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 10.3 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 9.6 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For Vattenfall Europe the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 5.7 billion, the consideration of the nuclear fuel tax causes only marginal changes because of the non-operational nuclear power plants Krummel and Brunsbuttel; - For EnBW the additional revenue amounts to approx. Euro 6.4 billion (without nuclear fuel tax) or Euro 5.9 billion (with nuclear fuel tax); - For Evonik the additional revenue remains unchanged by the introduction of the nuclear fuel tax and amounts to approx. Euro 2.1 billion for the period from 2005 to 2012. In the first two trading periods the free allocation of emission allowances to plants of energy-intensive industry which are outside of the electricity production sector and covered by the EU ETS sometimes substantially exceeded the emission levels of these plants

  2. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  3. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  4. Expanding Trade within Africa: The Impact of Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Njinkeu, Dominique; S. Wilson, John; Powo Fosso, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade d...

  5. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  6. Short Term Electric Production Technology Switching Under Carbon Cap and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines fuel switching in electricity production following the introduction of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS for greenhouse gas emissions. A short-run restricted cost equation is estimated with carbon permits, high-carbon fuels, and low carbon fuels as variable inputs. Shadow values and substitution elasticities for carbon-free energy resources from nuclear, hydroelectric and renewable sources are imputed from the cost equation. The empirical analysis examines 12 European countries using monthly data on fuel use, prices, and electricity generation during the first phase of the European Emissions Trading System. Despite low emission permit prices, this study finds statistically significant substitution between fossil fuels and carbon free sources of energy for electric power production. Significant substitution between fossil fuels and nuclear energy also was found. Still, while 18 of the 20 substitution elasticities are statistically significant, they are all less than unity, consistent with limited substitution. Overall, these results suggest that prices for carbon emission permits relative to prices for carbon and carbon free sources of energy do matter but that electric power producers have limited operational flexibility in the short-run to satisfy greenhouse gas emission limits.

  7. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based...... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  8. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  9. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  10. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  11. Recent Trends in World Trade and International Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bellmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available World trade in 2009 was dominated by the worst financial and economic crisis in decades. Global output shrank. So did the volume of international trade. Despite bearing no responsibility for the crisis, the poorer developing countries have fared the worst. China, Brazil and India saw exports drop by between a fifth and a third in the second half of 2008, but countries not belonging to the top 20 developing country exporters were hit even harder. Trade and GDP growth have started to pick up again, but some economists fear a “double-dip” recession. If unemployment continues to grow, it may become harder for governments to resist protectionist pressures. In terms of the WTO negotiations, the crisis cuts both ways. Governments are preoccupied with more immediate concerns. But the crisis has shattered the sense that protectionism was unthinkable, making a trade deal seem more valuable. The G-20 major economies have called for concluding the Doha Round in 2010, but it remains to be seen whether this pledge will amount to anything. The number of bilateral trade deals continues to grow, with Switzerland an enthusiastic participant. Some of these deals have been criticised for “WTO-plus” obligations, particularly regarding intellectual property. Meanwhile, there are real grounds for arguing that the Doha Round agenda does not reflect many current problems, especially climate change. With the US and the EU threatening to impose tariffs on exports from emerging economies with no hard emissions caps, it is clear that governments need to find some way of discussing the new challenges confronting the global economy.

  12. Ictal technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission tomographic findings and propagation of epileptic seizure activity in patients with extratemporal epilepsies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noachtar, S.; Arnold, S.; Werhahn, K.J. [Department Neurologie, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Yousry, T.A. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Bartenstein, P. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich (Germany); Tatsch, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    We investigated the influence of the propagation of extratemporal epileptic seizure activity on the regional increase in cerebral blood flow, which is usually associated with epileptic seizure activity. Forty-two consecutive patients with extratemporal epilepsies were prospectively evaluated. All patients underwent ictal SPET studies with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and video recordings of habitual seizures and imaging studies including cranial magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography with 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2 deoxy-d-glucose. Propagation of epilptic seizure activity (PESA) was defined as the absence of hyperperfusion on ictal ECD SPET in the lobe of seizure onset, but its presence in another ipsilateral or contralateral lobe. Observers analysing the SPET images were not informed of the other results. PESA was observed in 8 of the 42 patients (19%) and was ipsilateral to the seizure onset in five (63%) of these eight patients. The time between clinical seizure onset and injection of the ECD tracer ranged from 14 to 61 s (mean 34 s). Seven patients (88%) with PESA had parieto-occipital epilepsy and one patient had a frontal epilepsy. PESA was statistically more frequent in patients with parieto-occipital lobe epilepsies (58%) than in the remaining extratemporal epilepsy syndromes (3%) (P<0.0002). These findings indicate that ictal SPET studies require simultaneous EEG-video recordings in patients with extratemporal epilepsies. PESA should be considered when interpreting ictal SPET studies in these patients. Patients with PESA are more likely to have parieto-occipital lobe epilepsy than seizure onset in other extratemporal regions. (orig./MG) (orig.) With 1 fig., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  13. Stage migration and pilot studies of reduced chemotherapy supported by positron-emission tomography findings suggest new combined strategies for stage 2 nonseminoma germ cell tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yasser; Williams, Michael V; Neal, David E; Ong, Josephine Y; Ostrowski, M Joe; Ell, Peter J; Nargund, Vinod; Shamash, Jonathan; Oliver, R Tim D

    2008-03-01

    To examine the nodal (N+) vs extranodal (M+) staging in each of the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification Group (IGCCCG) subgroups in an audit of 437 patients treated in The Anglian Germ Cell Cancer Group, where chemotherapy was the primary management, as there is an increasingly earlier presentation of patients with less advanced disease who thus face potentially unnecessary treatment. Clinicians from seven centres prospectively registered patients in a central database, and the follow-up was coordinated by one of the authors. Between 1982 and 2002, 436 patients (median follow-up 60 months) were registered; 63% of IGCCCG good risk (298), 42% of intermediate (62) and 8% poor risk (77) were stage II; 79% of N+M0 intermediate and poor risk cases (29) were alive, vs only 60% of M+ stage IV cases (92, P < 0.05). The trend was similar in IGCCCG good risk patients, with 92% of N+ stage II (156) alive vs only 85% (94) of stage IV M+ (not significant). The frequency of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after chemotherapy increased from 26% (1983-1993) to 34% (1994-2002), and survival from 89% to 94%. There were no relapses in eight patients who elected to stop treatment after two courses. Four of six patients with positive findings on positron emission tomography had a durable complete response, assessed by standard uptake values, when tested at 72-96 h. Extra-lymphatic spread, although prognostically important within the IGCCCG subgroups, is only statistically significant for intermediate and poor risk combined. The observation that there might be N+ patients cured by two chemotherapy courses alone suggests that there might be opportunities to reduce the morbidity of treatment.

  14. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...

  15. Trading biomass or GHG emission credits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurijssen, J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304840629; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2009-01-01

    Global biomass potentials are considerable but unequally distributed over the world. Countries with Kyoto targets could import biomass to substitute for fossil fuels or invest in bio-energy projects in the country of biomass origin and buy the credits (Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint

  16. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    Italy. LL.M (Business Law) Addis Ababa .... section identifies the main trade facilitation challenges in Ethiopia that are mostly within customs law. ... Various international and regional organizations define trade facilitation according to their mandate ...

  17. Trade and insecure resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garfinkel, Michelle R; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    .... Depending on world prices, free trade can intensify arming to such an extent that the additional security costs it brings swamp the traditional gains from trade and thus render autarky more desirable...

  18. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  19. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  20. Climate policy and dependence on traded carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Robbie M.; Davis, Steven J.; Peters, Glen P.

    2013-09-01

    A growing number of countries regulate carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions occurring within their borders, but due to rapid growth in international trade, the products consumed in many of the same countries increasingly rely on coal, oil and gas extracted and burned in other countries where CO2 is not regulated. As a consequence, existing national and regional climate policies may be growing less effective every year. Furthermore, countries that are dependent on imported products or fossil fuels are more exposed to energy and climate policies in other countries. We show that the combined international trade in carbon (as fossil fuels and also embodied in products) increased from 12.3 GtCO2 (55% of global emissions) in 1997 to 17.6 GtCO2 (60%) in 2007 (growing at 3.7% yr-1). Within this, trade in fossil fuels was larger (10.8 GtCO2 in 2007) than trade in embodied carbon (6.9 GtCO2), but the latter grew faster (4.6% yr-1 compared with 3.1% yr-1 for fuels). Most major economies demonstrate increased dependence on traded carbon, either as exports or as imports. Because energy is increasingly embodied in internationally traded products, both as fossil fuels and as products, energy and climate policies in other countries may weaken domestic climate policy via carbon leakage and mask energy security issues.

  1. Stochastic Trade Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Riccaboni; Stefano Schiavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a simple network model to describe the dynamic of the intensive and extensive margin of international trade flows. The result is achieved by means of the combination of two mechanisms of proportional growth: the first (discrete) determines the formation of trade links, the second (continuous) governs trade intensity. We show that our setup is able to simultaneously match a large number of empirical regularities, such as the fraction of zero trade flows across pairs of coun...

  2. HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL INTRA-INDUSTRY TRADE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEVZAT ŞİMŞEK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Crucial improvement have taken place in intra-industry trade literature since intra-industry trade phenomenon was empirically determined. Nowadays economists discuss on the necessity of distinguishing between horizontal and vertical intra-industry trade especially relating to product differentiation in each industry. As standard Grubel-Lloyd index does not determine the time when two way trade is taken into consideration, in this paper first of all Two-Way Trade index is used and then horizontal intra-industry trade and low-high quality vertical intra-industry trade are distinguished from each other regarding unit value differential. As a result of the analysis the findings show that low quality vertical intra-industry trade dominate in Turkey's intra-industry trade.

  3. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  4. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  5. Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpaitoon, Tanachai

    This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium

  6. India's trade with USA and her trade balance: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Aviral; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the affect of India's exchange rate with US on Indian trade balance over the period of 1965-2008. We use ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration and for dynamic analysis IRFs and VDs. For dynamic analysis impulse response functions and variance decompositions are used. We find cointegrating relationship among the tested variable, positive impact of depreciation in Indian rupee against US dollar and trade policies in previous period on Indian trade balance while an ne...

  7. Optimizing the scale of markets for water quality trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Patterson, Lauren A.; Chen, Yanyou; Schnier, Kurt E.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Applying market approaches to environmental regulations requires establishing a spatial scale for trading. Spatially large markets usually increase opportunities for abatement cost savings but increase the potential for pollution damages (hot spots), vice versa for spatially small markets. We develop a coupled hydrologic-economic modeling approach for application to point source emissions trading by a large number of sources and apply this approach to the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the watershed of the second largest estuary in the U.S. We consider two different administrative structures that govern the trade of emission permits: one-for-one trading (the number of permits required for each unit of emission is the same for every WWTP) and trading ratios (the number of permits required for each unit of emissions varies across WWTP). Results show that water quality regulators should allow trading to occur at the river basin scale as an appropriate first-step policy, as is being done in a limited number of cases via compliance associations. Larger spatial scales may be needed under conditions of increased abatement costs. The optimal scale of the market is generally the same regardless of whether one-for-one trading or trading ratios are employed.

  8. Tainted Food, Low-Quality Products and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); L. Zhao (Ling)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines international trade in tainted food and other low-quality products. We first find that for a large class of environments, free trade is the trading system that conveys the highest incentives to produce non-tainted high-quality goods by foreign exporters. However, free

  9. International carbon trade with constrained allowance choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.; Weikard, H.P.; Zhu, X.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2017-01-01

    International carbon markets are advocated in order to involve more countries in an agreement for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce the costs of mitigation. In this paper we develop a model where allowances are endogenously determined by each member of a carbon trade

  10. Federal NOx Budget Trading Program and CAIR NOx and SO2 Trading Programs (40 CFR Part 97)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This part establishes general provisions and the applicability, permitting, allowance, excess emissions, monitoring, and opt-in provisions for the federal NOx Budget Trading Program as a means of mitigating interstate transport of ozone and nitrogen oxides

  11. Image Guided Planning for Prostate Carcinomas With Incorporation of Anti-3-[18F]FACBC (Fluciclovine) Positron Emission Tomography: Workflow and Initial Findings From a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreibmann, Eduard, E-mail: eschre2@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Schuster, David M. [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Rossi, Peter J.; Shelton, Joseph; Cooper, Sherrie; Jani, Ashesh B. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: {sup 18}F-Fluciclovine (anti-1-amino-3-[{sup 18}F]fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid) is a novel positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) radiotracer that has demonstrated utility for detection of prostate cancer. Our goal is to report the initial results from a randomized controlled trial of the integration of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine PET-CT into treatment planning for defining prostate bed and lymph node target volumes. Methods and Materials: We report our initial findings from a cohort of 41 patients, of the first enrolled on a randomized controlled trial, who were randomized to the {sup 18}F-fluciclovine arm. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluciclovine PET-CT for the detection of metabolic abnormalities and high-resolution CT for treatment planning. The 2 datasets were registered first by use of a rigid registration. If soft tissue displacement was observable, the rigid registration was improved with a deformable registration. Each {sup 18}F-fluciclovine abnormality was segmented as a percentage of the maximum standard uptake value (SUV) within a small region of interest around the lesion. The percentage best describing the SUV falloff was integrated in planning by expanding standard target volumes with the PET abnormality. Results: In 21 of 55 abnormalities, a deformable registration was needed to map the {sup 18}F-fluciclovine activity into the simulation CT. The most selected percentage was 50% of maximum SUV, although values ranging from 15% to 70% were used for specific patients, illustrating the need for a per-patient selection of a threshold SUV value. The inclusion of {sup 18}F-fluciclovine changed the planning volumes for 46 abnormalities (83%) of the total 55, with 28 (51%) located in the lymph nodes, 11 (20%) in the prostate bed, 10 (18%) in the prostate, and 6 (11%) in the seminal vesicles. Only 9 PET abnormalities were fully contained in the standard target volumes based on the CT-based segmentations and did not

  12. 40 CFR 1054.715 - How do I bank emission credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1054.715 How do I bank emission credits? (a) Banking is... future model years for averaging or trading. You may use banked emission credits only within the...

  13. External trade development in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Český statistický úřad

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the external trade development of the CR in total (turnover, export, import, trade balance). Main factors, which influence the external trade development. Territorial structure (by main blocks and selected countries) and commodity structure (by SITC, rev. 4) of the external trade. Comparisons of the CR external trade development with the external trade development of the other member states of the EU.

  14. Trade Finance and Trade Collapse during the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the role of trade finance in the trade collapse of 2008-09 from the perspective of the Korean economy. We use two approaches. Firstly, as background to a more formal analysis, we make a casual observation on the behavior of aggregate data on trade finance, on which Korea has relatively abundant data. Aggregate data do not convincingly support the view that trade finance played an active role in causing the trade collapse. The measures of trade finance and the value of trade both dropped sharply, but the ratio of trade finance over trade was stable and in some cases increased during the crisis period. Secondly, using quarterly data on listed firms in Korea, we conduct panel estimations to test whether firms that are more dependent on external finance experienced greater export contraction during the crisis. Our regression analysis suggests that the financial vulnerability of firms, measured by various financial ratios, did not contribute to export contraction during the financial crisis. This observation largely applies even to smaller firms, who are usually thought of as being more vulnerable financially. However, we find that small exporters that relied heavily on cross-border trade payables or receivables suffered larger drops in export growth during the crisis.

  15. GMM Estimator: An Application to Intraindustry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of intraindustry trade (IIT, horizontal IIT (HIIT, and Vertical IIT (VIIT in the automobile industry in Portugal. The trade in this sector between Portugal and the European Union (EU-27 was examined, between 1995 and 2008, using a dynamic panel data. We apply the GMM system to solve the problems of serial correlation and the endogeneity of some explanatory variables. The findings are consistent with the literature. The difference between per capita incomes and factor endowments present a positive sign. These results are according to Heckscher-Ohlin predictions. The economic dimension has a positive impact on trade. A negative effect of the distance on bilateral trade was expected and the results confirm this, underlining the importance of neighbour partnerships for all trade.

  16. Sustainable Trade Credit and Replenishment Policies under the Cap-And-Trade and Carbon Tax Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Qin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the sustainable trade credit and inventory policies with demand related to credit period and the environmental sensitivity of consumers under the carbon cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. First, the decision models are constructed under three cases: without regulation, carbon cap-and-trade regulation, and carbon tax regulation. The optimal solutions of the retailer in the three cases are then discussed under the exogenous and endogenous credit periods. Finally, numerical analysis is conducted to obtain conclusions. The retailer shortens the trade credit period as the environmental sensitivity of the consumer is enhanced. The cap has no effects on the credit period decisions under the carbon cap-and-trade regulation. Carbon trade price and carbon tax have negative effects on the credit period. The retailer under carbon cap-and-trade regulation is more motivated to obey regulations than that under carbon tax regulation when carbon trade price equals carbon tax. Carbon regulations have better effects on carbon emission reduction than with exogenous credit term when the retailer has the power to decide with regards credit policies.

  17. Historical trade-offs of livestock’s environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel Davis, Kyle; Yu, Kailiang; Herrero, Mario; Havlik, Petr; Carr, Joel A.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Human demand for animal products has risen markedly over the past 50 years with important environmental impacts. Dairy and cattle production have disproportionately contributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and land use, while crop demands of more intensive systems have increased fertilizer use and competition for available crop calories. At the same time, chicken and pig production has grown more rapidly than for ruminants, indicating a change in the environmental burden per animal calorie (EBC) with time. How EBCs have changed and to what extent resource use efficiency (RUE), the composition of animal production and the trade of feed have played a role in these changes have not been examined to date. We employ a calorie-based perspective, distinguishing animal calorie production between calories produced from feedcrop sources—directly competing with humans for available calories—and those from non-feed sources—plant biomass unavailable for direct human consumption. Combining this information with data on agricultural resource use, we calculate EBCs in terms of land, GHG emissions and nitrogen. We find that EBCs have changed substantially for land (-62%), GHGs (-46%) and nitrogen (+188%). Changes in RUE (e.g., selective breeding, increased grain-feeding) have been the primary contributor to these EBC trends, but shifts in the composition of livestock production were responsible for 12%-41% of the total EBC changes. In addition, the virtual trade of land for feed has more than tripled in the past 25 years with 77% of countries currently relying on virtual land imports to support domestic livestock production. Our findings indicate that important tradeoffs have occurred as a result of livestock intensification, with more efficient land use and emission rates exchanged for greater nitrogen use and increased competition between feed and food. This study provides an integrated evaluation of livestock’s impact on food security and the environment.

  18. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  19. Trade Credit Insurance and Asymmetric Information Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovska Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.

  20. Stochastic Differential Equation Models for the Price of European CO2 Emissions Allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wugan Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the stochastic nature of emissions allowances is crucial for risk management in emissions trading markets. In this study, we discuss the emissions allowances spot price within the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme: Powernext and European Climate Exchange. To compare the fitness of five stochastic differential equations (SDEs to the European Union allowances spot price, we apply regression theory to obtain the point and interval estimations for the parameters of the SDEs. An empirical evaluation demonstrates that the mean reverting square root process (MRSRP has the best fitness of five SDEs to forecast the spot price. To reduce the degree of smog, we develop a new trading scheme in which firms have to hand many more allowances to the government when they emit one unit of air pollution on heavy pollution days, versus one allowance on clean days. Thus, we set up the SDE MRSRP model with Markovian switching to analyse the evolution of the spot price in such a scheme. The analysis shows that the allowances spot price will not jump too much in the new scheme. The findings of this study could contribute to developing a new type of emissions trading.

  1. Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-07-01

    Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

  2. Focal points 2010. Mobility with future - correct investment today. Environmental protection - investment restraint for agriculture? Engine for the climate policy: emission trading; Schwerpunkte 2010. Mobilitaet mit Zukunft - heute richtig investieren. Umweltschutz - Investitionshemmnis fuer die Landwirtschaft? Motor fuer die Klimapolitik: Der Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittershagen, Martin; Mavromati, Fotini (comps.)

    2010-04-14

    The publication of the German Federal environmental agency on the focal points 2010 covers the following topics: impetus for an ecological-economic policy; mobility with future -best investment for today: more environmentally compatible investments in traffic infrastructure, better technology - more efficiency, missing charging of environmental cost induces wrong stimuli; environmental protection - investment restraints for agriculture? Engine for climate policy: emission trading; the Federal environmental agency: bridge between science and politics, the Federal environmental agency for mankind and environment; data and facts; publications of the employees.

  3. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua

    2015-01-01

    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...

  4. Trade Liberalization and the Degree of Competition in International Duopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashournia, Damoun; Hansen, Per Svejstrup; Hansen, Jonas Worm

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... high, but anti-competitive if trade costs initially are low. Hence, trade policy is not necessarily a substitute for competition policy......This paper analyzes how a reduction in trade costs influences the possibility for firms to engage in international cartels, and hence how trade liberalization affects the degree of competition. We consider a particular intra-industry trade model amended to allow for firms producing differentiated...... products. Our main finding is that trade liberalization may have an anti-competitive effect. We find that there is no unique relation between a reduction in trade costs and the degree of competition. When products are differentiated, a lowering of trade costs is pro-competitive if trade costs are initially...

  5. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  6. Should the rules of allocating emissions permits be harmonised?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.X.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. Its Article 17 authorizes emissions trading among Annex B countries. If properly designed, emissions trading can effectively reduce

  7. Drivers of the Growth in Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arto, Inaki; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 8.9 Gigatons CO2 equivalent (Gt) in the period 1995-2008. A phenomenon that has received due attention is the upsurge of emission transfers via international trade. A question that has remained unanswered is whether trade changes have affected global emissions.

  8. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two......-country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  9. Economic Growth and Climate Change: A Cross-National Analysis of Territorial and Consumption-Based Carbon Emissions in High-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle W. Knight

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An important question in the literature on climate change and sustainability is the relation between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. While the “green growth” paradigm dominates in the policy arena, a growing number of scholars in wealthy countries are questioning the feasibility of achieving required emissions reductions with continued economic growth. This paper explores the relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions over the period 1991–2008 with a balanced data set of 29 high-income countries. We present a variety of models, with particular attention to the difference between territorial emissions and consumption-based (or carbon footprint emissions, which include the impact of international trade. The effect of economic growth is greater for consumption-based emissions than territorial emissions. We also find that over this period there is some evidence of decoupling between economic growth and territorial emissions, but no evidence of decoupling for consumption-based emissions.

  10. Virtual water trade and bilateral conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Metulini, Rodolfo; Bove, Vincenzo; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    In light of growing water scarcity, virtual water, or the water embedded in key water-intensive commodities, has been an active area of debate among practitioners and academics alike. As of yet, however, there is no consensus on whether water scarcity affects conflict behavior and we still lack empirical research intending to account for the role of virtual water in affecting the odds of militarized disputes between states. Using quantitative methods and data on virtual water trade, we find that bilateral and multilateral trade openness reduce the probability of war between any given pair of countries, which is consistent with the strategic role of this important commodity and the opportunity cost associated with the loss of trade gains. We also find that the substantive effect of virtual water trade is comparable to that of oil and gas, the archetypal natural resources, in determining interstate conflicts' probability.

  11. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  12. Pattern changes in determinants of Chinese emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Guan, Dabo; Shan, Yuli; Liu, Zhu; Wang, Yutao; Feng, Kuishuang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese economy has been recovering slowly from the global financial crisis, but it cannot achieve the same rapid development of the pre-recession period. Instead, the country has entered a new phase of economic development—a ‘new normal’. We use a structural decomposition analysis and environmental input-output analysis to estimate the determinants of China’s carbon emission changes during 2005-2012. China’s imports are linked to a global multi-regional input-output model based on the Global Trade and Analysis Project database to calculate the embodied CO2 emissions in imports. We find that the global financial crisis has affected the drivers of China’s carbon emission growth. From 2007 to 2010, the CO2 emissions induced by China’s exports dropped, whereas emissions induced by capital formation grew rapidly. In the ‘new normal’, the strongest factors that offset CO2 emissions have shifted from efficiency gains to structural upgrading. Efficiency was the strongest factor offsetting China’s CO2 emissions before 2010 but drove a 1.4% increase in emissions in the period 2010-2012. By contrast, production structure and consumption patterns caused a 2.6% and 1.3% decrease, respectively, in China’s carbon emissions from 2010 to 2012. In addition, China tends to shift gradually from an investment to a consumption-driven economy. The proportion of CO2 emissions induced by consumption had a declining trend before 2010 but grew from 28.6%-29.1% during 2010-2012.

  13. The trade, migration, and development nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Philip L. Martin

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with migrants' role in stimulating development in their countries of origin, outlining the three major channels through which migration can affect development: recruitment, remittances, and returns. It next turns to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), assessing the relevance of the Mexico-United States migration hump for migration, trade, and development elsewhere. The paper concludes that migrants can accelerate development in their countries of origin but finds...

  14. Infectious diseases and the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrés; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2008-12-01

    We provide a compilation of pathogens directly associated with illegally traded wildlife. We find that these pathogens span the gamut of taxonomic origins, affect most vertebrate taxa, and can have negative consequences for human and animal health and the global economy. Significantly, published health assessments of illegally traded wild animals are extremely scarce, making the results of this survey an underestimation of the true extent of the problem. Concerted action aimed at preventing further negative health effects is warranted.

  15. Reassessing the Trade-off Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Guillermo; Manzetti, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Do economic conditions drive voters to punish politicians that tolerate corruption? Previous scholarly work contends that citizens in young democracies support corrupt governments that are capable of promoting good economic outcomes, the so-called trade-off hypothesis. We test this hypothesis based...... by good economic performance. However, we find some evidence for a weaker form of the trade-off hypothesis: presidential disapproval among corruption victims might be more pronounced in contexts of high inflation and high unemployment....

  16. Explaining the Slowdown in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Jarkko Jaaskela; Thomas Mathews

    2015-01-01

    Following the global financial crisis, global trade contracted sharply and, after an initial recovery, grew at an unusually slow pace relative to global GDP. This article reviews cyclical and structural explanations for this phenomenon, and finds econometric evidence that cyclical factors – namely shifts in the composition of aggregate demand toward less import-intensive components and heightened economic uncertainty – can explain most of the slowdown in trade in a panel of advanced economies...

  17. Complementarity between Bilateral Trade and Financial Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kwanho; Yang, Doo Yong

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the complementarities between bilateral trade in goods and financial assets. By utilizing a gravity model specification with an extended dataset in terms of time span and asset classification as well as alternative instrumental variables, we confirm the existence of positive evidence for complementarities. We find that common factors such as bilateral distance and other economic size variables that determine both cross-border trade and financial flows contribute to complem...

  18. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  19. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  20. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  1. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  2. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  3. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  4. Essays on asset trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieler, T.

    2014-01-01

    The overreaching methodology of my Ph.D. thesis is to substitute noise traders with rational traders. I do so by considering liquidity asymmetry between informed trader and uninformed traders. Liquidity asymmetry creates a motive for trade. Under this new setup, I study the impact of asset trade on

  5. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  6. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  7. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  8. Trade and investment rules for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Rules that govern energy trade is an issue that has generated increasing concern everywhere, from the standpoint of both the security of supply for consumers and security of demand for suppliers. This concern reflects the importance of rules that comprehensively address the needs from supply and demand point of view and integrate the international fabric of energy trade. The GATT and the WTO Agreement define trans-border movement of energy but leave many aspects unclear, particularly as efforts accelerate to control carbon emissions. This timely report by a WEC Task Force of experts with legal standing in the energy business identifies the most pressing issues relating to energy trade and suggests actions and measures which, if implemented, would provide clarity and answer many questions. More importantly, these measures would strengthen the WTO and coming rounds of negotiations.

  9. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to

  10. Efficiency of European emissions markets: Lessons and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurti, Chandrasekhar [University of Southern Queensland (Australia); Hoque, Ariful, E-mail: Ariful.Hoque@unisa.edu.au [School of Commerce, University of South Australia, 37-44 North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    While prior studies have shown that emission rights and futures contracts on emission rights are efficiently priced, there are no studies on the efficiency of the options market. Therefore, this study fills the gap. We examine empirical evidence regarding the efficiency of the options market for emissions rights in Europe. We employ the put-call parity approach to test the efficiency of options on emission rights traded in the European market. This implies that firms can trade options on emission rights in addition to other existing strategies in order to manage their greenhouse gas emissions. - Highlights: > Efficiency of the European options market for emissions. > Design implications for the development of emissions trading schemes in other countries. > Governance issues pertaining to emissions trading.

  11. Revenue, welfare and trade effects of European Union Free Trade Agreement on South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kore M.A. Guei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using the partial equilibrium WITS-SMART Simulation model to assess the impact of liberalisation under the Trade Development and Cooperation Agreement (TDCA of a free trade area between the European Union and South Africa. The identification of the impact of such agreement allows for trade policy negotiation adjustment that can be beneficial for South Africa. Aim: The aim of the study is to estimate and discuss the impact of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA with the European Union and South Africa. More specifically, the study intends to estimate the impact of revenue, welfare, imports, exports, trade creation and to come up with policies options for South Africa that can be used in negotiations and policy formulations. Setting: The study used international trade data (2012 available in the WITS-SMART model to assess bilateral trade agreement between the European Union and South Africa. Methods: To identify the impact on revenue, welfare, imports, exports and trade creation, the study simulated an FTA (0% tariff rate for all goods exchanged between the European Union and South Africa. Also, the elasticity of substitution used for the simulation model was 99%. Results: The findings of the study reveal that total trade effects in South Africa are likely to surge by US$ 1.036 billion with a total welfare valued at US$ 134 million. Dismantling tariffs on all European Union (EU goods would be beneficial to consumers through net trade creation. Total trade creation would be US$ 782 million. However, South African producers are likely to contribute a trade diversion of US$ 254 million which has a negative impact on consumer welfare. The country might also experience a revenue loss amounting to US$ 562 million because of the removal of tariffs. In trade, the country’s exports and imports to the EU are expected to increase by US$ 12.419 million and US$ 1.266 million, respectively. Conclusion: The European Union–South Africa FTA would

  12. Correlação entre os achados do teste de emissão de ar nasal e da nasofaringoscopia em pacientes com fissura labiopalatina operada Correlation between the findings on the nasal air emission test and nasopharyngoscopy in patients with operated cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Penido

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se as informações colhidas no teste de emissão de ar nasal apresentam compatibilidade com os achados da nasofaringoscopia, podendo auxiliar no julgamento da funcionalidade do mecanismo velofaríngeo. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os achados do teste de emissão de ar nasal e nasofaringoscopia em 21 indivíduos operados de fissura pós-forame e transforame incisivo, de ambos os gêneros, com idade superior a oito anos. A correlação foi feita observando se, diante de um gap velofaríngeo (espaço entre as estruturas da região velofaríngea visualizado na nasofaringoscopia, notava-se embaçamento do espelho de Glatzel no teste de emissão de ar nasal. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo índice de Kappa. RESULTADOS: Notou-se concordância entre os testes (pOBJECTIVE: To verify whether the information collected in the nasal air emission test are compatible to the nasopharyngoscopy findings, helping the assessment of the velopharyngeal mechanism functionality. METHODS: The findings of nasal air emission test and nasopharyngoscopy were analyzed in 21 individuals of both genders, over the age of 8 years, operated for post-foramen and transincisive foramen fissure. The correlation was carried out observing whether or not, in the face of a velopharyngeal gap visualized in the nasopharyngoscopy, misting of the Glatzel mirror was noted in the nasal air emission test. Data were statistically analyzed using the Kappa index. RESULTS: An agreement was observed between the tests (p<0,05, and it was considered higher during blowing, emission of isolated stops and fricatives in words and phrases (Kappa: 0,897; 0,887; 0,774 and 0,774, respectively, than for emission of stops in words, isolated fricatives and stops in phrases (Kappa: 0,691; 0,640 and 0,488, respectively. Incompatibility occurred in a few cases, in the presence of a small gap, complete closing and complete closing with bubbling. Regarding the tendency of

  13. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM 2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM 2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM 2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  14. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  15. An Economic Framework of Microbial Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Tasoff

    Full Text Available A large fraction of microbial life on earth exists in complex communities where metabolic exchange is vital. Microbes trade essential resources to promote their own growth in an analogous way to countries that exchange goods in modern economic markets. Inspired by these similarities, we developed a framework based on general equilibrium theory (GET from economics to predict the population dynamics of trading microbial communities. Our biotic GET (BGET model provides an a priori theory of the growth benefits of microbial trade, yielding several novel insights relevant to understanding microbial ecology and engineering synthetic communities. We find that the economic concept of comparative advantage is a necessary condition for mutualistic trade. Our model suggests that microbial communities can grow faster when species are unable to produce essential resources that are obtained through trade, thereby promoting metabolic specialization and increased intercellular exchange. Furthermore, we find that species engaged in trade exhibit a fundamental tradeoff between growth rate and relative population abundance, and that different environments that put greater pressure on group selection versus individual selection will promote varying strategies along this growth-abundance spectrum. We experimentally tested this tradeoff using a synthetic consortium of Escherichia coli cells and found the results match the predictions of the model. This framework provides a foundation to study natural and engineered microbial communities through a new lens based on economic theories developed over the past century.

  16. An Economic Framework of Microbial Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoff, Joshua; Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

    2015-01-01

    A large fraction of microbial life on earth exists in complex communities where metabolic exchange is vital. Microbes trade essential resources to promote their own growth in an analogous way to countries that exchange goods in modern economic markets. Inspired by these similarities, we developed a framework based on general equilibrium theory (GET) from economics to predict the population dynamics of trading microbial communities. Our biotic GET (BGET) model provides an a priori theory of the growth benefits of microbial trade, yielding several novel insights relevant to understanding microbial ecology and engineering synthetic communities. We find that the economic concept of comparative advantage is a necessary condition for mutualistic trade. Our model suggests that microbial communities can grow faster when species are unable to produce essential resources that are obtained through trade, thereby promoting metabolic specialization and increased intercellular exchange. Furthermore, we find that species engaged in trade exhibit a fundamental tradeoff between growth rate and relative population abundance, and that different environments that put greater pressure on group selection versus individual selection will promote varying strategies along this growth-abundance spectrum. We experimentally tested this tradeoff using a synthetic consortium of Escherichia coli cells and found the results match the predictions of the model. This framework provides a foundation to study natural and engineered microbial communities through a new lens based on economic theories developed over the past century.

  17. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  18. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  19. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  20. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yu; Nacher, Jose C; Ochiai, Tomoshiro; Martino, Mauro; Altshuler, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  1. Prospect theory for online financial trading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Prospect theory is widely viewed as the best available descriptive model of how people evaluate risk in experimental settings. According to prospect theory, people are typically risk-averse with respect to gains and risk-seeking with respect to losses, known as the "reflection effect". People are much more sensitive to losses than to gains of the same magnitude, a phenomenon called "loss aversion". Despite of the fact that prospect theory has been well developed in behavioral economics at the theoretical level, there exist very few large-scale empirical studies and most of the previous studies have been undertaken with micro-panel data. Here we analyze over 28.5 million trades made by 81.3 thousand traders of an online financial trading community over 28 months, aiming to explore the large-scale empirical aspect of prospect theory. By analyzing and comparing the behavior of winning and losing trades and traders, we find clear evidence of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon, which are essential in prospect theory. This work hence demonstrates an unprecedented large-scale empirical evidence of prospect theory, which has immediate implication in financial trading, e.g., developing new trading strategies by minimizing the impact of the reflection effect and the loss aversion phenomenon. Moreover, we introduce three novel behavioral metrics to differentiate winning and losing traders based on their historical trading behavior. This offers us potential opportunities to augment online social trading where traders are allowed to watch and follow the trading activities of others, by predicting potential winners based on their historical trading behavior.

  2. 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan findings in Rosai-Dorfman disease with IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration mimicking breast malignancy: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Liping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rosai-Dorfman disease, also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy, is a rare benign disorder characterized histologically by lymphatic sinus dilatation due to histiocyte proliferation. Rosai-Dorfman disease accompanied by IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration is an even rarer situation. To the best of our knowledge, no imaging report of fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings of Rosai-Dorfman disease with IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration has been published, although a series of pathological research has focused on this phenomenon. Case presentation We reviewed the 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan of a 78-year-old Chinese woman with a solid mass that was found in her right breast during a health checkup. 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed a hypermetabolic nodule in her right breast and slightly heterogeneous increased fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake of the pulmonary nodules, which were histologically proven to be mammary Rosai-Dorfman disease with IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration and pulmonary amyloidosis, respectively. A literature review was performed to gather information on this rare disease process. Conclusions Although distinguishing benign lymphoplasmacytic proliferation from malignancy may be difficult with 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in light of the pattern and intensity of fluoro-deoxyglucose uptake, our case highlights that whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging not only can display the extent of the disease to help complete staging but also can provide functional information about disease activity to guide biopsy.

  3. The Stable Equilibrium of Preferential Trade Agreements under Technology Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Han Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimal policy for trade negotiation in the current multilateral and preferential trade regime. Using a four country oligopoly model with asymmetric technology, we examine the implication of preferential trade agreement on tariff and welfare. We find any preferential trade agreement has a tariff complementarity effect. Social welfare of the more efficient country is also higher with more cooperative trade negotiation regime. However, for technically inefficient country, the cooperative trade policy does not always guarantee to improve the social welfare when the technology difference is large or the global free trade is not feasible. Under large technology difference, we show that South-South FTAs is an optimal alternative policy for the inefficient countries and is more sustainable.

  4. Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew O.; Nei, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of networks of alliances in preventing (multilateral) interstate wars. We first show that, in the absence of international trade, no network of alliances is peaceful and stable. We then show that international trade induces peaceful and stable networks: Trade increases the density of alliances so that countries are less vulnerable to attack and also reduces countries’ incentives to attack an ally. We present historical data on wars and trade showing that the dramatic drop in interstate wars since 1950 is paralleled by a densification and stabilization of trading relationships and alliances. Based on the model we also examine some specific relationships, finding that countries with high levels of trade with their allies are less likely to be involved in wars with any other countries (including allies and nonallies), and that an increase in trade between two countries correlates with a lower chance that they will go to war with each other. PMID:26668370

  5. Cultural similarity and international trade in a panel of nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E-G Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a gravity model and the data of a panel of eight nations, we present evidence that supports the views that geographical influence on trade had increased from 1985 to 1997. In both years, linguistic influence on trade is found to exist in export but not in import. The estimated results show a positive relation between religious similarity and international trade for the year 1985 but not for the year 1997. However, there is an indication that, for 1997, the religious dissimilarity tends to discourage international trade with low-income countries and regions and to encourage international trade with high-income countries. We also find that, for low-income trade partners, religious dissimilarity retards imports more than exports; by contrast, for high-income trade partners, it encourages exports more than imports.

  6. Targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Davis, Steven J.; Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Liang, Sai; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chen, Bin; Liu, Jingru; Yan, Jinyue; Guan, Dabo

    2016-02-01

    International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is economically efficient and desirable. However, if carbon-intensive manufacturing in emerging countries such as China entails drastically more CO2 emissions than making the same product elsewhere, then trade increases global CO2 emissions. Here we show that the emissions embodied in Chinese exports, which are larger than the annual emissions of Japan or Germany, are primarily the result of China’s coal-based energy mix and the very high emissions intensity (emission per unit of economic value) in a few provinces and industry sectors. Exports from these provinces and sectors therefore represent targeted opportunities to address the climate-trade dilemma by either improving production technologies and decarbonizing the underlying energy systems or else reducing trade volumes.

  7. Contribution of Online Trading of Used Goods to Resource Efficiency: An Empirical Study of eBay Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Clausen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the sustainability impact (contribution to sustainability, reduction of adverse environmental impacts of online second-hand trading. A survey of eBay users shows that a relationship between the trading of used goods and the protection of natural resources is hardly realized. Secondly, the environmental motivation and the willingness to act in a sustainable manner differ widely between groups of consumers. Given these results from a user perspective, the paper tries to find some objective hints of online second-hand trading’s environmental impact. The greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the energy used for the trading transactions seem to be considerably lower than the emissions due to the (avoided production of new goods. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations for second-hand trade and consumer policy. Information about the sustainability benefits of purchasing second-hand goods should be included in general consumer information, and arguments for changes in behavior should be targeted to different groups of consumers.

  8. Is trade openness good for environment in South Korea? The role of non-fossil electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun

    2018-01-21

    The paper investigates the linkage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, per capita real output, share of non-fossil electricity consumption, and trade openness in South Korea from 1971 to 2013. The empirical results indicate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is supported by autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test. Both short- and long-run estimates indicate that increasing non-fossil electricity consumption can mitigate environmental degradation, and increasing trade aggravates carbon dioxide emissions. By Granger causality, long-run causalities are found in both equations of CO 2 emissions and trade openness, as well as exports and imports. In the short-run, evidence indicates feedback linkage between output and trade, unidirectional linkages from trade to emissions, from emissions to output, and from output to non-fossil electricity use. Therefore, South Korea should strengthen the sustainable economy, consume clean energy, and develop green trade.

  9. Information report on greenhouse gas emission trading systems, in the name of the Sustainable Development and Land Management Commission; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la mission d'information sur les marches de quotas de gaz a effet de serre au nom de la commission du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In its first part, this report explains the choice of trading systems due to the impossibility to define taxes on carbon emissions and to the influence of international negotiations. It also describes the operation of the European system with its three allocation phases (an experimental framework between 2005 and 2007, an actually constraining framework between 2008 and 2012, and a sustainable frame from 2013), and outlines the realistic character of emission reduction objective by 2020. It identifies and discusses the weaknesses of the European system, notably due to an insufficiently regulated market and to a partial taking into account of emission. The second part identifies ways to improve the system by extending it (including new sectors, taking some particular emissions into account, and valuing carbon sequestration), by preserving the competitiveness of European industries, and by aiming at the construction of a de-carbonated Europe

  10. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  11. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  12. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes....... By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...... argues that case outcomes should be expected to be largely the product of domestic political institutions and policy processes, and how these intersect with developments in the WTO dispute settlement system. Brief studies of the Australian government's dispute settlement strategy and two high-profile WTO...

  13. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  14. Let's Talk Trade Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas; Olson, Mary W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes strategies that use trade books to teach science to primary students. Strategies include (1) developing concepts and vocabulary; (2) using concrete manipulatives to reinforce learning; (3) encouraging retelling; (4) developing class summaries; and (5) developing visual imagery. (MDH)

  15. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Hussein, Zekarias; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as `virtual water trade'. We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  16. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as "virtual water trade". We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  17. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  18. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  19. Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Xu, Tengfang; Taha, Haider; Wray, Craig; Sathaye, Jayant; Garg, Vishal; Tetali, Surekha; Babu, M. Hari; Reddy, K. Niranjan

    2011-05-25

    Cool roofs, cool pavements, and urban vegetation reduce energy use in buildings, lower local air pollutant concentrations, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions from urban areas. This report summarizes the results of a detailed monitoring project in India and related simulations of meteorology and air quality in three developing countries. The field results quantified direct energy savings from installation of cool roofs on individual commercial buildings. The measured annual energy savings potential from roof-whitening of previously black roofs ranged from 20-22 kWh/m2 of roof area, corresponding to an air-conditioning energy use reduction of 14-26% in commercial buildings. The study estimated that typical annual savings of 13-14 kWh/m2 of roof area could be achieved by applying white coating to uncoated concrete roofs on commercial buildings in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, corresponding to cooling energy savings of 10-19%. With the assumption of an annual increase of 100,000 square meters of new roof construction for the next 10 years in the Metropolitan Hyderabad region, the annual cooling energy savings due to whitening concrete roof would be 13-14 GWh of electricity in year ten alone, with cumulative 10-year cooling energy savings of 73-79 GWh for the region. The estimated savings for the entire country would be at least 10 times the savings in Hyderabad, i.e., more than 730-790 GWh. We estimated that annual direct CO2 reduction associated with reduced energy use would be 11-12 kg CO2/m2 of flat concrete roof area whitened, and the cumulative 10-year CO2 reduction would be approximately 0.60-0.65 million tons in India. With the price of electricity estimated at seven Rupees per kWh, the annual electricity savings on air-conditioning would be approximately 93-101 Rupees per m2 of roof. This would translate into annual national savings of approximately one billion Rupees in year ten, and cumulative 10-year savings of over five billion Rupees for cooling

  20. Who Uses Free Trade Agreements?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Hiratsuka, Daisuke; Shiino, Kohei; Sukegawa, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    It is noted that utilization of ASEAN Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) is low by international standards. In order to clarify the reasons for such low utilization, this paper investigates what kinds of Japanese affiliates in ASEAN are more likely to use FTAs in their exporting, by employing unique affiliate-level data. Our findings are as follows. First, the larger the affiliate is, or the more diversified the origins of its procurements, the more likely it is to utilize an FTA scheme in its expo...

  1. Confluence of climate change policies and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, R.E. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes market information on energy conservation and renewable energy industries in the U.S., and highlights activities of the International Trade Administration. International treaties agreements on environmental issues are examined with respect to their influence on U.S. trade promotion and job creation. A sectoral analysis of the economic impact of greenhouse gas emissions reductions on industries is very briefly summarized. Finally, the need for a climate change treaty in spite of possible adverse impacts is discussed. 1 tab.

  2. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; hide

    2010-01-01

    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  3. Impact of Devaluation on Trade Balance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif RASHID

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find the impact of devaluation on trade balance in Pakistan in both long and short run using bound testing approach to Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism (ECM. The result shows that devaluation is effective in improving trade balance and there is a cointegrated relationship between the real effective exchange rate and trade balance in the long run.

  4. The Political Economy of Trade Regimes in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Csaba, László

    1994-01-01

    This paper evaluates the robustness of trade liberalization in Central Europe and the role of the Europe Agreements (EAs) in institutionalizing this process. It finds a) that institutions are still fragile in Central Europe; b) that the EAs are not a great force for liberalism (on either side); and c) that there is a danger that trade policy will become submerged by other, apparently more important, issues. In this context abolition of governmental agencies with a stake in free trade is seen ...

  5. EEI contests N.Y. concerns with allowance trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-07-07

    A utility industry analyst has challenged charges that sulfur dioxide emissions allowance trading may be environmentally damaging, citing studies showing no harmful increases in acid deposition due to simulated interstate allowance transactions. Contrary to allegations by New York state officials, John Kinsman of the Edison Electric Institute said existing studies indicate the Adirondacks and other sensitive Northeast ecosystems actually may benefit from SO{sub 2} emissions allowance trading. In particular, studies done by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program suggest allowance trading could marginally reduce acid deposition in the Adirondacks below levels already expected under the federal SO{sub 2} emissions reduction program for utilities, said Kinsman, an environmental scientists at EEI.

  6. How fair is fair trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost based and economies of scale models. It is found that whether or not fair trade is superior to free trade or protectionism is highly dependent on a number of characteristics of the products to which fa...

  7. 40 CFR 1039.715 - How do I bank emission credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1039.715 How do I bank emission credits? (a) Banking is the retention of emission credits by the manufacturer generating the emission credits for use in future model...

  8. 40 CFR 1045.715 - How do I bank emission credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1045.715 How do I bank emission credits? (a) Banking is the retention of emission credits by the manufacturer generating the emission credits for use in future model...

  9. Infrastructure and Trade: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guney Celbis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of infrastructure quality and quantity can create trade impediments through increased transport costs. Since the late 1990s an increasing number of trade studies have taken infrastructure into account. The purpose of the present paper is to quantify the importance of infrastructure for trade by means of meta-analysis and meta-regression techniques that synthesize various studies. The type of infrastructure that we focus on is mainly public infrastructure in transportation and communication. We examine the impact of infrastructure on trade by means of estimates obtained from 36 primary studies that yielded 542 infrastructure elasticities of trade. We explicitly take into account that infrastructure can be measured in various ways and that its impact depends on the location of the infrastructure. We estimate several meta-regression models that control for observed heterogeneity in terms of variation across different methodologies, infrastructure types, geographical areas and their economic features, model specifications, and publication characteristics. Additionally, random effects account for between-study unspecified heterogeneity, while publication bias is explicitly addressed by means of the Hedges model.  After controlling for all these issues we find that a 1 percent increase in own infrastructure increases exports by about 0.6 percent and imports by about 0.3 percent. Such elasticities are generally larger for developing countries, land infrastructure, IV or panel data estimation, and macro-level analyses. They also depend on the inclusion or exclusion of various common covariates in trade regressions.

  10. SO{sub 2} trading program as a metaphor for a competitive electric industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.R. [Coopers & Lybrand, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This very brief presentation focuses on the competitive market impacts of sulfur dioxide SO{sub 2} emissions trading. Key points of the presentation are highlighted in four tables. The main principles and results of the emissions trading program are outlined, and the implications of SO{sub 2} trading for the electric industry are listed. Parallels between SO{sub 2} trading and electric utility restructing identified include no market distortion by avoiding serious disadvantages to competitors, and avoidance of stranded costs through compliance flexibility. 4 tabs.

  11. Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano-Bakalinov Viktorija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of trade on Macedonian economic growth. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model is applied on yearly data over the period of 1993-2014. Empirical investigation reveals that an increase of population and openness demonstrate a positive and significant effect on Macedonian economic growth. Given other diverging findings, this suggests that the relationship between trade reforms and growth through the productivity function may vary across transition economies. Nevertheless, the findings of this paper indicate that policies focusing on market liberalisation and opening the economy to trade have a positive effect on Macedonian economic growth, both in the short run and the long run.

  12. Accrual components and stock trading costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qianhua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between accrual components and stock trading costs in China and finds that both abnormal and normal accruals are associated with these costs. Moreover, negative accruals, both abnormal and normal, have a greater influence on stock trading costs than positive accruals because of short-selling constraints in the Chinese stock market. Further analysis reveals that investors who are fixated on accruals are unable to separate positive or negative abnormal accruals from earnings in general. Additionally, investors overestimate the persistence of both positive and negative normal accruals. These findings constitute further evidence of the low degree of market efficiency in China. Chinese investors seem to overestimate firm value when abnormal and normal accruals are positive and underestimate it when they are negative, thus leading to an asymmetric effect on trading costs between positive and negative accruals in the face of short-selling constraints in the Chinese stock market.

  13. Internal control over financial reporting and managerial rent extraction: Evidence from the profitability of insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Skaife (Hollis); D. Veenman (David); D. Wangerin (Daniel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses

  14. A patient with Cotard syndrome who showed an improvement in single photon emission computed tomography findings after successful treatment with antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashioka, Sadayuki; Monji, Akira; Sasaki, Masayuki; Yoshida, Ichiro; Baba, Kanji; Tashiro, Nobutada

    2002-01-01

    We report the case of a presenile woman with Cotard syndrome, in the context of major depression, who showed an improvement in bilateral frontal hypoperfusion in a SPECT study using 99mTc-HMPAO after undergoing successful treatment with antidepressant therapy. We also retrospectively evaluated her clinical course based on the clinical stages. The symptoms of Cotard syndrome have been reported to change dramatically according to the stages. This peculiarity made it difficult for us to rapidly diagnose Cotard syndrome in the context of major depression, and not dementia, and thereby adequately treat the patient in our case. Differences in the reduced blood flow regions and a time lag from psychiatric remission were observed before the improvement in the SPECT findings when comparing our case with a previously reported case of Cotard syndrome. These differences suggest that the mechanism of Cotard syndrome is still not well understood at the present time.

  15. Image Findings of Rare Case of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis from Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Response to Erlotinib in F-18 FDG Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Joseph, Jephy; Kalarikal, Radha Krishnan; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies in the world. Metastatic disease is observed in ~ 40% of patients with lung cancer, with the most common sites of metastasis being the bone, liver, brain and adrenal glands. Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is defined as the progression of the primary cancer to the peritoneum. PC is a rare clinical event in lung cancer. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as erlotinib are used for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). F-18 FDG PET/CT has proven capable of predicting response to therapy with erlotinib. We present a rare F-18 FDG PET/CT image findings of a 45 year old male with NSCLC with PC treated with erlotinib showing response to the treatment.

  16. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  17. Measuring Gravity in International Trade Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Young Song

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of income levels of countries, and in trade of most manThe purpose of this paper is two-fold. One is to clarify the concept of gravity in international trade flows. The other is to measure the strength of gravity in international trade flows in a way that is consistent with a well-defined concept of gravity. This paper shows that the widely accepted belief that specialization is the source of gravity is not well grounded on theory. We propose to define gravity in international trade as the force that makes the market shares of an exporting country constant in all importing countries, regardless of their sizes. In a stochastic context, we should interpret it as implying that the strength of gravity increases i as the correlation between market shares and market sizes gets weaker and ii as the variance of market shares gets smaller. We estimate an empirical gravity equation thoroughly based on this definition of gravity. We find that a strong degree of gravity exists in most bilateral trade, regardless of

  18. Demand on information and information instruments of the operational emission management. An analysis in line with the European trading of greenhouse gas emission certificates; Informationsbedarf und Informationsinstrumente des betrieblichen Emissionsmanagements. Eine Analyse im Rahmen des europaeischen Handels mit Treibhausgas-Emissionszertifikaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Christiane

    2012-07-01

    The handling of the new restriction of CO{sub 2} emissions modifies the previous decision processes. This requires the construction of an enterprise specific operational emission management. The author of the contribution under consideration systematizes the emission management specific demand on information and analyses detailed the possible traditional information instruments from the company accounting as well as from the acquisition and evaluation of environmental data regarding to their usability in the operational emission management. Furthermore, the design possibilities and perspectives of development of the operational emission management are described.

  19. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Clausing, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  20. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... to tourism are demonstrated: the general price competitiveness of the destination, tourism infrastructure and the provision of safety. The econometric models also confirm the relevance of other conventional explanatory factors of trade in services such as GDP per capita and internet usage. The last part...