WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission reduction techniques

  1. Experimental investigation on emission reduction in neem oil biodiesel using selective catalytic reduction and catalytic converter techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, non-edible seed oil namely raw neem oil was converted into biodiesel using transesterification process. In the experimentation, two biodiesel blends were prepared namely B25 (25% neem oil methyl ester with 75% of diesel) and B50 (50% neem oil methyl ester with 50% diesel). Urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technique with catalytic converter (CC) was fixed in the exhaust tail pipe of the engine for the reduction of engine exhaust emissions. Initially, the engine was operated with diesel as a working fluid and followed by refilling of biodiesel blends B25 and B50 to obtain the baseline readings without SCR and CC. Then, the same procedure was repeated with SCR and CC technique for emission reduction measurement in diesel, B25 and B50 sample. The experimental results revealed that the B25 blend showed higher break thermal efficiency (BTE) and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) with lower break-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than B50 blend at all loads. On comparing with biodiesel blends, diesel experiences increased BTE of 31.9% with reduced BSFC of 0.29 kg/kWh at full load. A notable emission reduction was noticed for all test fuels in SCR and CC setup. At full load, B25 showed lower carbon monoxide (CO) of 0.09% volume, hydrocarbon (HC) of 24 ppm, and smoke of 14 HSU and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) of 735 ppm than diesel and B50 in SCR and CC setup. On the whole, the engine with SCR and CC setup showed better performance and emission characteristics than standard engine operation.

  2. Incentives for subcontractors to adopt CO2 emission reporting and reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, Bert; Kleinsmann, Renske

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the incentives for subcontractors (couriers) of a transport and logistics company to report about their CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reducing technologies. Furthermore, we try to find out whether these incentives differ between British and Dutch couriers. We find that several incentives play a significant role. Subcontractors in the Netherlands predominantly are extrinsically motivated to engage in CO 2 reporting and reduction techniques. This is because they are mainly driven by regulatory compliance, energy costs and implementation costs. In contrast, British subcontractors are much more intrinsically motivated to comply. They are predominantly driven by energy costs, environmental awareness, relationship building and reputation building. The contractor will have to account for these differences in making its policies work. - Research highlights: → We investigate incentives for couriers to report CO 2 emissions and to implement CO 2 reduction techniques. → We compare couriers in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. → Several incentives are significant for the adoption of CO 2 reporting and reduction measures. → There are significant differences in the sensitivity for incentives in the Netherlands and the UK.

  3. Air pollution emission reduction techniques in combustion plants; Technique de reduction des emissions de polluants atmospheriques dans les installations de combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouscaren, R. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Separating techniques offer a large choice between various procedures for air pollution reduction in combustion plants: mechanical, electrical, filtering, hydraulic, chemical, physical, catalytic, thermal and biological processes. Many environment-friendly equipment use such separating techniques, particularly for dust cleaning and fume desulfurizing and more recently for the abatement of volatile organic pollutants or dioxins and furans. These processes are briefly described

  4. Economical benzene emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetz, R.

    1999-01-01

    Benzene has been classified as a toxic compound under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This has prompted the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) to introduce specific reporting and monitoring guidelines for the oil and gas industry regarding excessive benzene emissions. Glycol dehydration units have been determined to be the major single source of benzene emissions causing air and soil pollution. DualTank Corp. has designed a condensation and storage tank unit to enhance emission reduction, odour elimination and liquid recovery from dehydration units. Their newly designed combined tank unit consists of a large, uninsulated surface area for cooling, and an excessive internal volume for increased retention time. The first prototype was installed in December 1998 at an Enerplus Resources Site. The system provides excellent benzene emission reduction and the elimination of odours and visual plumes. Effective January 1, 1999, the petroleum and natural gas industry must either clean up excessive emissions voluntarily or face government imposed regulations, facility shutdowns and/or fines. 1 fig

  5. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  6. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  7. Top-down constraints on global N2O emissions at optimal resolution: application of a new dimension reduction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kelley C.; Millet, Dylan B.; Bousserez, Nicolas; Henze, Daven K.; Griffis, Timothy J.; Chaliyakunnel, Sreelekha; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Saikawa, Eri; Xiang, Gao; Prinn, Ronald G.; O'Doherty, Simon; Young, Dickon; Weiss, Ray F.; Dutton, Geoff S.; Elkins, James W.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray; Steele, L. Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present top-down constraints on global monthly N2O emissions for 2011 from a multi-inversion approach and an ensemble of surface observations. The inversions employ the GEOS-Chem adjoint and an array of aggregation strategies to test how well current observations can constrain the spatial distribution of global N2O emissions. The strategies include (1) a standard 4D-Var inversion at native model resolution (4° × 5°), (2) an inversion for six continental and three ocean regions, and (3) a fast 4D-Var inversion based on a novel dimension reduction technique employing randomized singular value decomposition (SVD). The optimized global flux ranges from 15.9 Tg N yr-1 (SVD-based inversion) to 17.5-17.7 Tg N yr-1 (continental-scale, standard 4D-Var inversions), with the former better capturing the extratropical N2O background measured during the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) airborne campaigns. We find that the tropics provide a greater contribution to the global N2O flux than is predicted by the prior bottom-up inventories, likely due to underestimated agricultural and oceanic emissions. We infer an overestimate of natural soil emissions in the extratropics and find that predicted emissions are seasonally biased in northern midlatitudes. Here, optimized fluxes exhibit a springtime peak consistent with the timing of spring fertilizer and manure application, soil thawing, and elevated soil moisture. Finally, the inversions reveal a major emission underestimate in the US Corn Belt in the bottom-up inventory used here. We extensively test the impact of initial conditions on the analysis and recommend formally optimizing the initial N2O distribution to avoid biasing the inferred fluxes. We find that the SVD-based approach provides a powerful framework for deriving emission information from N2O observations: by defining the optimal resolution of the solution based on the information content of the inversion, it provides spatial information that is lost when

  8. Syncrude emissions reduction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, M.A. [Alstom Power Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Ibbotson, P. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described an emissions reduction project conducted by Syncrude Canada and various other companies currently developing and processing oil sands in Alberta. Syncrude's upgrader expansion program included the installation of an ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurizer (FGD) designed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from a coker train. Syncrude is also installing the FGD technology at its existing plants. It is expected that installation of the FGDs will reduced total site emissions of SO{sub 2} by 60 per cent. The fluid cokers are used to crack the long hydrocarbon chain bitumen molecules into shorter molecules. It is expected that the FGD system will also reduce particulate and SO{sub 3} levels. The FGD system was selected after an evaluation of technologies used by the coal-fired power industry. A dry FGD system was selected to operate above the water saturation temperature of the flue gas. Calcium oxide was used as a reagent. Hot gas was quenched in a spray dryer absorber with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. Rotary atomizers were used to developer uniform droplets of slurry. The system's fabric filter was a low ratio reverse gas-cleaned unit. Particulate matter from the gases was deposited on the interior of the filter bags. Clean hot gas was drawn through reverse gas fans into a reverse gas manifold. A timeline of the FGD technology installation process was included. 3 tabs., 28 figs.

  9. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  10. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  11. Power plant emissions reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  12. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007,......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  13. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  14. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  15. Developing emission reduction credit trading in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Texas Air Control Board has begun to develop a system of emission reduction credit training. The system will be developed incrementally over time. The first step, banking of VOC and NO x Emission Reduction Credits, began March 15, 1993. Additional programs under study and development include NO x RACT trading, emission credits for motor vehicle scrappage and alternative fuel conversion, and establishment of community organizations to generate and acquire emission reduction credits for economic development purposes

  16. Methane emission reduction: an application of FUND

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Heintz, R.J.; Lammers, P.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Methane is, after carbon dioxide, the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Governments plan to abate methane emissions. A crude set of estimates of reduction costs is included in FUND, an integrated assessment model of climate change. In a cost-benefit analysis, methane emission reduction is

  17. Establishing credible emission reduction estimates: GERT's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loseth, H.

    2001-01-01

    To address the challenge of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in Canada, the federal and provincial governments are developing strategies and policies to reach that goal. One of the proposed solutions is the establishment of an emission trading system, which it is believed would encourage investment in lower-cost reductions. The Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading (GERT) pilot was established in 1998 to examine emission trading. It represents the collaborative efforts of government, industry, and non-governmental organizations. It is possible to establish emission reduction trading outside of a regulated environment. Emission reduction is defined as being an action which reduces emissions when compared to what they would have been otherwise. The functioning of GERT was described from the initial application by a buyer/seller to the review process. The assessment of projects is based on mandatory criteria: reductions of emissions must be real, measurable, verifiable and surplus. A section of the presentation was devoted to landfill gas recovery project issues, while another dealt with fuel substitution project issues. Section 5 discussed emission reductions from an off-site source electricity project issues. figs

  18. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  19. Can environmental innovation facilitate carbon emissions reduction? Evidence from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Yu-Lu; Ma, Chao-Qun; Shen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Environmental innovation has been recognized as an efficient way of addressing environmental problems. However, how environmental innovation may affect carbon emissions in China and whether the effect may differ among various environmental innovation variables remain to be investigated. Therefore, based on the panel data of China’s 30 provinces during 2000–2013, we use a system generalized method of moments (SGMM) technique to estimate the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions in China. Also, we evaluate the effect on carbon emission reduction of China’s initial carbon emissions trading (CET) scheme. Empirical results indicate that, most environmental innovation measures in China reduce carbon emissions effectively. Among the various environmental innovation factors, energy efficiency exerts the most evident effect on carbon emissions abatement in China; meanwhile, resources for innovation and knowledge innovation also play prominent roles in this regard. However, the impact of governmental environmental policies on curbing carbon emissions reduction suffers from a lag effect, which mainly occurred during 2006–2013. Finally, despite the short time of operation and incomplete market mechanism, the pilot CET in China has appeared relatively promising with regard to carbon emissions reduction. - Highlights: • The SGMM is used for the effect of environmental innovation on carbon emissions. • Energy efficiency proves the most effective way to reduce China’s carbon emissions. • Innovation resources and knowledge innovation are conducive for carbon reduction. • The governmental environmental policies have lag effect on carbon reduction. • The effect of China’s initial CET on carbon emissions reduction has appeared.

  20. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  1. Quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moltmann, Sara; Hagemann, Markus; Eisbrenner, Katja; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys GmbH, Koeln (Germany); Sterk, Wolfgang; Mersmann, Florian; Ott, Hermann E.; Watanabe, Rie [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Further action is needed that goes far beyond what has been agreed so far under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol to 'prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system', the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC. It is out of question that developed countries (Annex I countries) will have to take a leading role. They will have to commit to substantial emission reductions and financing commitments due to their historical responsibility and their financial capability. However, the stabilisation of the climate system will require global emissions to peak within the next decade and decline well below half of current levels by the middle of the century. It is hence a global issue and, thus, depends on the participation of as many countries as possible. This report provides a comparative analysis of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including their national climate plans, of the major emitting developing countries Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa and South Korea. It includes an overview of emissions and economic development, existing national climate change strategies, uses a consistent methodology for estimating emission reduction potential, costs of mitigation options, provides an estimate of the reductions to be achieved through the national climate plans and finally provides a comparison of the results to the allocation of emission rights according to different global effort-sharing approaches. In addition, the report discusses possible nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) the six countries could take based on the analysis of mitigation options. This report is an output of the project 'Proposals for quantifying emission reduction contributions by emerging economies' by Ecofys and the Wuppertal Institute for the Federal Environment Agency in Dessau. It builds upon earlier joint work ''Proposals for contributions of emerging economies to the climate

  2. Carbon emissions and an equitable emission reduction criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, Dan

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 the world-wide carbon emissions reached 5.8 billion metric tonnes per year (GTC/y). The Kyoto protocol calls for a reduction of carbon emissions from the developed countries (Annex I countries) of 6-8% below 1990 levels on the average, and unspecified commitments for the less developed (non-Annex I) countries. It is doubtful that the Kyoto agreement will be ratified by some parliaments, especially the USA Congress. Furthermore, it is shown that if the non-Annex I countries will not curtail their carbon emissions drastically, the global emissions will soar to huge levels by the middle of the next century. An equitable emission criterion is proposed which may lead to a sustainable rate of growth of carbon emissions, and be acceptable to all countries of the world. The criterion links the rate of growth of carbon emissions to the rate of growth of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). A target criterion is proposed R = 0.15 KgC/SGDP, which is the current average for western European countries and Japan. This allows for both the growth of the GDP and carbon emissions. However, to reach the target in a reasonable time, the countries for which R≤ 0.3 would be allowed a carbon emission growth rate of 1%./y, and countries for which R≥ 0.3, 0.75%/y. It is shown that by 2050 the world-wide carbon emissions would reach about 10 GTC/y, which is about 3 times less than the Kyoto agreement would allow. (Author)

  3. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  4. Possibilities for the reduction of NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, E.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides develop mainly in the combustion of fossil fuels based on three mechanisms: process-dependent thermal NO; prompt NO as well as fuel-dependent NO. The reaction either takes places in the area of the root of the flame or with the combustion gases. A main effect on the amount of developing nitrogen oxides have the fuel, the burner design as well as the heat generator. In the last years considerable emission reductions were attained mainly by design changes of the burner, e.g. gas burners with internal circulation, burners with external exhaust gas recirculation, burners with internal recirculation. (BWI) [de

  5. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  6. Air scrubbing techniques for the reduction of gaseous emissions from livestock farms. Actual knowledge in the Netherlands and possibilities for implementation on Spanish farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Estellés, F.; Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Torres, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, packed-bed biotrickling filters and acid scrubbers for removal of ammonia from exhaust air of animal houses are off-the-shelf techniques for ammonia removal. At the moment a new generation of so-called "multi-pollutant scrubbers" is being developed and tested that also removes odour and particulate matter from the air. Air cleaning systems are unusual in Spanish farms. The study of these techniques and their adaptation to Spanish farms, can be an interesting issue in order...

  7. Air scrubbing techniques for the reduction of gaseous emissions from livestock farms. Actual knowledge in the Netherlands and possibilities for implementation on Spanish farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estellés, F.; Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Torres, A.G.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, packed-bed biotrickling filters and acid scrubbers for removal of ammonia from exhaust air of animal houses are off-the-shelf techniques for ammonia removal. At the moment a new generation of so-called "multi-pollutant scrubbers" is being developed and tested that also removes

  8. CO2 Emission Reduction in Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bole, A.; Sustersic, A.; Voncina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Due to human activities, concentrations of the greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere much quicker than they naturally would. Today it is clear that climate change is the result of human activities. With the purpose of preventing, reducing and mitigating of climate change, the EU, whose member is also Slovenia, set ambitious goals. In order to keep rise of the global atmosphere temperature below 2 degrees of C, the European Council set an objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 - 95 % by 2050 compared to 1990. It is important that every single individual is included in achieving of these goals. Certainly, the most important role is assumed by individual sectors especially Public Electricity and Heat Production sector as one of the greatest emitters of the greenhouse gases. As a possible solution of radical reduction of the greenhouse gases emission from mentioned sector Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology is implemented. In the article the range of CO 2 reduction possibilities, technology demands and environmental side effects of CCS technology are described. Evaluation of CCS implementation possibilities in Slovenia is also included.(author)

  9. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  10. Speckle reduction techniques in digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaghan, David; Kelly, Damien; Hennelly, Bryan [Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Javidi, Bahram, E-mail: bryanh@cs.nuim.i [University of Connecticut Electrical and Computer Engineering Department 371 Fairfield Road, Unit 2157 Storrs, CT 06269-2157 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We have studied several speckle reduction techniques, applicable to digital holography. These include the use of optical diffusers, wavelet filtering, simulating temporal incoherence and filtering in the Fourier domain. The Digital Holograms (DHs) used in this study are captured using a Phase Shift Interferometric (PSI) in-line setup and subsequently reconstructed numerically.

  11. Variance Reduction Techniques in Monte Carlo Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Ridder, A.A.N.; Rubinstein, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are simulation algorithms to estimate a numerical quantity in a statistical model of a real system. These algorithms are executed by computer programs. Variance reduction techniques (VRT) are needed, even though computer speed has been increasing dramatically, ever since the

  12. Lean-burn engines UHC emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karll, B.; Kristensen, P.G.; Nielsen, M.; Iskov, H. [Danish Gas Technology Centre a/s (Denmark); Broe Bendtsen, A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K. [Technical University of Denmark. CHEC, Department of Chemical Engineering (Denmark)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of adding hydrogen to methane as a fuel for spark ignited engines has been extensively investigated. Both the possibility of adding a limited amount of hydrogen as well as equal amounts of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to natural gas has been investigated. A 10 vol% addition of hydrogen to the natural gas caused a reduction in UHC of approximately 40%, and an increase in efficiency of approximately three percentage points at the test engine. It is unknown if the gain is representative for large engines. Similar results for UHC reduction and efficiency were obtained for combined hydrogen and carbon dioxide addition. The carbon dioxide was added by exhaust gas recirculation. However, the price of hydrogen, makes this idea uneconomical even when carbon dioxide is readily available through recirculation of engine exhaust. Adiabatic prereforming may be used to convert natural gas into methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to generate hydrogen and at the same time increase the methane number. The process has been found to be competitive with adding of hydrogen but it is still not economical. The effect of NO/NO{sub 2} on methane oxidation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed kinetic modelling study of the UHC conversion dependency of exhaust gas parameters is reported and the project has contributed to the theoretical understanding of the oxidation chemistry. Both NO and NH{sub 3} addition to the engine inlet was used to increase the NO{sub x} level, and the general trend was a decrease in UHC as the NO{sub x} level increased, both in cylinger, manifold and rector. From the data it is concluded that NO and NH{sub 3} addition have identical effects. The results show a 15-35% decrease in manifold UHC. However, the increased emissions of NO{sub x} and CO associated with this process must be realised. Field tests show a 28% UHC reduction without an increase in CO emission. The UHC oxidation in the exhaust reactor has been tested

  13. Lean-burn engines UHC emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karll, B.; Kristensen, P.G.; Nielsen, M.; Iskov, H.; Broe Bendtsen, A.; Glarborg, P.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of adding hydrogen to methane as a fuel for spark ignited engines has been extensively investigated. Both the possibility of adding a limited amount of hydrogen as well as equal amounts of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to natural gas has been investigated. A 10 vol% addition of hydrogen to the natural gas caused a reduction in UHC of approximately 40%, and an increase in efficiency of approximately three percentage points at the test engine. It is unknown if the gain is representative for large engines. Similar results for UHC reduction and efficiency were obtained for combined hydrogen and carbon dioxide addition. The carbon dioxide was added by exhaust gas recirculation. However, the price of hydrogen, makes this idea uneconomical even when carbon dioxide is readily available through recirculation of engine exhaust. Adiabatic prereforming may be used to convert natural gas into methane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in order to generate hydrogen and at the same time increase the methane number. The process has been found to be competitive with adding of hydrogen but it is still not economical. The effect of NO/NO 2 on methane oxidation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. A detailed kinetic modelling study of the UHC conversion dependency of exhaust gas parameters is reported and the project has contributed to the theoretical understanding of the oxidation chemistry. Both NO and NH 3 addition to the engine inlet was used to increase the NO x level, and the general trend was a decrease in UHC as the NO x level increased, both in cylinger, manifold and rector. From the data it is concluded that NO and NH 3 addition have identical effects. The results show a 15-35% decrease in manifold UHC. However, the increased emissions of NO x and CO associated with this process must be realised. Field tests show a 28% UHC reduction without an increase in CO emission. The UHC oxidation in the exhaust reactor has been tested at increased NO x levels and

  14. Optical crosstalk reduction using Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Fontaine, N.K.; Ryf, R.; Alvarado, J.C.; van Weerdenburg, J.A.A.; Amezcua-Correa, R.; Okonkwo, C.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    We employ spectrally filtered amplified spontaneous emission as the signal carrier and matched local oscillator to mitigate optical crosstalk. We demonstrate polarization crosstalk reduction in single-mode fiber transmission and modal crosstalk reduction over multimode fiber.

  15. Acoustic emission technique and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ichiya; Sasaki, Soji

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic emission technique is described. The characteristics of acoustic emission signal, measurement techniques, and its application are explained. The acoustic signals are grouped into continuous and burst types. The continuous signal is due to plastic deformation, and the burst type is due to the generation and growth of cracks. The latter can be used for the identification of the position of cracks. The frequency of the acoustic emission is in the range from several tens of KHz to two MHz. Piezoelectric ceramics are used as the oscillators of sensors. The dynamic behavior of acoustic emission can be observed with a two-channel acoustic emission measuring apparatus. Multi-channel method was developed at Hitachi, Ltd., and is used for large structures. General computer identification method and simple zone identification method are explained. Noise elimination is important for the measurement, and the methods were studied. Examples of application are the observation of acoustic emission in the plastic deformation of steel, the tensile test of large welded material with natural defects, and others. The method will be used for the diagnosis and observation of large structures, the test and quality control of products. (Kato, T.)

  16. Agriculture and greenhouse gases emissions reduction; Agriculture et reduction des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguet, B.

    2005-09-15

    In France, the agriculture is the third sector of greenhouse gases emitter. Meanwhile since 1990 this sector poorly reduces its greenhouse gases. It is necessary to find mechanisms which allow the valorization of emissions reduction. In this framework the author presents the specificities of the greenhouse gases emissions of the agricultural sector, the possible incentives of emissions reduction, the reduction projects in France and abroad. (A.L.B.)

  17. NOx emission reduction from gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppi, G.; Lietti, L.; Forzatti, P.

    2001-01-01

    NO x emissions from gas turbines are a serious environmental concern. Primary control technologies significantly reduce NO x formation, which however is still too high to match increasingly strict emission laws. Catalytic processes can provide lower NO x emissions both as primary and secondary control methods, but their economics should be carefully addressed [it

  18. Experience with Kicker Beam Coupling Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gaxiola, Enrique; Caspers, Friedhelm; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kroyer, Tom

    2005-01-01

    SPS beam impedance is still one of the worries for operation with nominal LHC beam over longer periods, once the final configuration will be installed in 2006. Several CERN SPS kickers suffer from significant beam induced ferrite heating. In specific cases, for instance beam scrubbing, the temperature of certain ferrite yokes went beyond the Curie point. Several retrofit impedance reduction techniques have been investigated theoretically and with practical tests. We report on experience gained during the 2004 SPS operation with resistively coated ceramic inserts in terms of kicker heating, pulse rise time, operating voltage, and vacuum behaviour. For another technique using interleaved metallic stripes we observed significant improvements in bench measurements. Advantages and drawbacks of both methods and potential combinations of them are discussed and simulation as well as measured data are shown. Prospects for further improvements beyond 2006 are briefly outlined.

  19. Flaw evolution monitoring by acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.; Sala, A.; Lucia, A.

    1986-01-01

    Flaw evolution monitoring during mechanical fatigue test has been performed by acoustic emission (AE) technique. Testing on 1:5 reduced scale vessel containing fabrication defects was carried out in the frame of an European program for pressure component residual life evaluation. Characteristics of AE signals associated to flaw evolution are discussed

  20. Measuring techniques in emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.; Knoop, B.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter reviews the historical development of the emission computed tomography and its basic principles, proceeds to SPECT and PET, special techniques of emission tomography, and concludes with a comprehensive discussion of the mathematical fundamentals of the reconstruction and the quantitative activity determination in vivo, dealing with radon transformation and the projection slice theorem, methods of image reconstruction such as analytical and algebraic methods, limiting conditions in real systems such as limited number of measured data, noise enhancement, absorption, stray radiation, and random coincidence. (orig./HP) With 111 figs., 6 tabs [de

  1. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  2. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  3. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  4. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  5. Technical and Economic Aspects of Low Emission Reduction in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzikuć, M.; Łasiński, K.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the problem of excessive air pollution in Poland caused mainly by low emission. The emission arises in result of heating flats by means of old and energetically inefficient heating installations. In Poland and Bulgaria the inhaled air is of the worst quality out of all EU countries. The paper presents economic and technical problems related to low emission occurring during the combustion of solid fuels in local boiler houses. Furthermore, the most significant economic issues, connected with the reduction of low emission are discussed, as well as technological possibilities of efficient reduction of the amount of pollution in the atmosphere. Conclusions are presented at the end of the article.

  6. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H [comp.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  7. Volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen. Further emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froste, H. [comp.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the current status in relation to achievement of the Swedish Environmental target set by Parliament to reduce emission of volatile organic compounds by 50 per cent between 1988 and 2000. It also instructed the Agency to formulate proposed measures to achieve a 50 per cent reduction of emission of nitrogen oxides between 1985 and 2005. The report presents an overall account of emission trends for volatile organic compounds (from all sectors) and nitrogen oxides (from the industry sector) and steps proposed to achieve further emission reductions. 43 refs

  8. Quantified, localized health benefits of accelerated carbon dioxide emissions reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Seltzer, Karl; Shindell, Cary

    2018-04-01

    Societal risks increase as Earth warms, and increase further for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate, even if they lead to identical warming as trajectories with reduced near-term emissions1. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations2. A major barrier to emissions reductions is the difficulty of reconciling immediate, localized costs with global, long-term benefits3,4. However, 2 °C trajectories not relying on negative emissions or 1.5 °C trajectories require elimination of most fossil-fuel-related emissions. This generally reduces co-emissions that cause ambient air pollution, resulting in near-term, localized health benefits. We therefore examine the human health benefits of increasing 21st-century CO2 reductions by 180 GtC, an amount that would shift a `standard' 2 °C scenario to 1.5 °C or could achieve 2 °C without negative emissions. The decreased air pollution leads to 153 ± 43 million fewer premature deaths worldwide, with 40% occurring during the next 40 years, and minimal climate disbenefits. More than a million premature deaths would be prevented in many metropolitan areas in Asia and Africa, and >200,000 in individual urban areas on every inhabited continent except Australia.

  9. Deep greenhouse gas emission reductions in Europe: Exploring different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetman, Sebastiaan; Hof, Andries F.; Pfluger, Benjamin; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Girod, Bastien; Ruijven, Bas J. van

    2013-01-01

    Most modelling studies that explore emission mitigation scenarios only look into least-cost emission pathways, induced by a carbon tax. This means that European policies targeting specific – sometimes relatively costly – technologies, such as electric cars and advanced insulation measures, are usually not evaluated as part of cost-optimal scenarios. This study explores an emission mitigation scenario for Europe up to 2050, taking as a starting point specific emission reduction options instead of a carbon tax. The purpose is to identify the potential of each of these policies and identify trade-offs between sectoral policies in achieving emission reduction targets. The reduction options evaluated in this paper together lead to a reduction of 65% of 1990 CO 2 -equivalent emissions by 2050. More bottom-up modelling exercises, like the one presented here, provide a promising starting point to evaluate policy options that are currently considered by policy makers. - Highlights: ► We model the effects of 15 climate change mitigation measures in Europe. ► We assess the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential in different sectors. ► The measures could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% below 1990 levels in 2050. ► The approach allows to explore arguably more relevant climate policy scenarios

  10. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  11. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  12. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the energy-related components of the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration's commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment. Several themes addressed in this paper include: (1) the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; (2) consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; (3) the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after 2000; and (4) actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ''Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.'' Papers presented there include the utilization of more efficient fossil energy technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management programs, renewable energy and reforestation, and carbon dioxide capture and disposal

  14. Quantified, Localized Health Benefits of Accelerated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Seltzer, Karl; Shindell, Cary

    2018-01-01

    Societal risks increase as Earth warms, but also for emissions trajectories accepting relatively high levels of near-term emissions while assuming future negative emissions will compensate even if they lead to identical warming [1]. Accelerating carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions reductions, including as a substitute for negative emissions, hence reduces long-term risks but requires dramatic near-term societal transformations [2]. A major barrier to emissions reductions is the difficulty of reconciling immediate, localized costs with global, long-term benefits [3, 4]. However, 2°C trajectories not relying on negative emissions or 1.5°C trajectories require elimination of most fossil fuel related emissions. This generally reduces co-emissions that cause ambient air pollution, resulting in near-term, localized health benefits. We therefore examine the human health benefits of increasing ambition of 21 st century CO 2 reductions by 180 GtC; an amount that would shift a 'standard' 2°C scenario to 1.5°C or could achieve 2°C without negative emissions. The decreased air pollution leads to 153±43 million fewer premature deaths worldwide, with ~40% occurring during the next 40 years, and minimal climate disbenefits. More than a million premature deaths would be prevented in many metropolitan areas in Asia and Africa, and >200,000 in individual urban areas on every inhabited continent except Australia.

  15. Profile of emissions reduction options in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetken, S.E.; Bertule, M.; Ipsen Hansen, J.; Karavai, M.; Sandbukt, S.; Staun, F.; Wieben, E.

    2013-06-15

    A second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol has just started. International climate negotiations consistently keep new market based approaches on the agenda. Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions are rapidly rising as a new signature concept for a future climate treaty. In response to this momentum, many countries still find themselves in search of concrete emissions reduction options. UNEP Risoe, with the support of the UNFCCC Secretariat and the ACP-MEA Programme, has decided to assess the emissions reduction potential in 15 diverse countries. While most of these countries are not seen as obvious targets for emissions reduction activities, they are nevertheless likely to be involved in some form of future emissions reduction. Consequently, 15 country reports have been developed, from which this synthesis report gathers the main messages. The overall assessments of the potential emissions reduction in the 15 countries are presented. Sector details have been presented throughout the text, allowing an accumulation of overviews of the potentials in the 15 countries distributed across the 7 sectors of the economy around which the country reports have been structured. It is evident that the emissions reduction potential by far exceeds the current emissions reported by the UN, following calculations from the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The reason for this is that these figures do not include the indirect emissions caused by current deforestation levels, as presented in the agro and forestry sections of the country reports. The intention behind including these figures is to illustrate that compared to these indirect emissions, almost any emissions reduction initiative, whether CDM or not - even those that may yield hundreds of thousands of tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents - are dwarfed by the main cause of emissions in these countries: deforestation. This source of emissions should be addressed with

  16. Uncertainty quantification of CO2 emission reduction for maritime shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jun; Ng, Szu Hui; Sou, Weng Sut

    2016-01-01

    The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has recently proposed several operational and technical measures to improve shipping efficiency and reduce the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. The abatement potentials estimated for these measures have been further used by many organizations to project future GHG emission reductions and plot Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACC). However, the abatement potentials estimated for many of these measures can be highly uncertain as many of these measures are new, with limited sea trial information. Furthermore, the abatements obtained are highly dependent on ocean conditions, trading routes and sailing patterns. When the estimated abatement potentials are used for projections, these ‘input’ uncertainties are often not clearly displayed or accounted for, which can lead to overly optimistic or pessimistic outlooks. In this paper, we propose a methodology to systematically quantify and account for these input uncertainties on the overall abatement potential forecasts. We further propose improvements to MACCs to better reflect the uncertainties in marginal abatement costs and total emissions. This approach provides a fuller and more accurate picture of abatement forecasts and potential reductions achievable, and will be useful to policy makers and decision makers in the shipping industry to better assess the cost effective measures for CO 2 emission reduction. - Highlights: • We propose a systematic method to quantify uncertainty in emission reduction. • Marginal abatement cost curves are improved to better reflect the uncertainties. • Percentage reduction probability is given to determine emission reduction target. • The methodology is applied to a case study on maritime shipping.

  17. Greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    2001-01-01

    The chapter begins with an introduction of the main arguments for why global cost-effectiveness in GHG emission reduction policies will suggest that an international collaboration about the policies is established such as initiated by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A general conceptual overview is given on the cost concepts that are relevant to apply to the evaluation of GHG emission reduction policies, and the methodological framework of GHG emission reduction cost studies for developing countries are introduced. The studies have in particular focussed on GHG emission reduction options in the energy sector, and a number of costing results are reported for this sector. Finally, the chapter considers potential local side-impacts on development, the local environment, and social policy objectives of GHG emission reduction projects seen from the perspective of developing countries. It is concluded that there is a potential for combining global cost-effectiveness principles for GHG emission reduction policies, and local policy objectives of developing countries. (LN)

  18. California Air Resources board's mobil source emission reduction credit guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunwoody Lentz, C.; Werner, B.

    1993-01-01

    The California Air Resources Board has developed guidance for the generation and use of mobil source emission reduction credits. Mobil source credits can be used to improve air quality, or to mitigate increases in emissions associated with industrial and non-industrial sources. They are created by programs which reduce mobile source emission beyond the reductions required by federal, state, and local laws or air quality attainment plans. Significant amounts of credit can be generated by some types of programs which reduce mobile source emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) and reactive organic gases (ROG). Mobile source credit programs must be carefully structured to ensure that emission reductions are real, accurately quantified, enforceable, and have a defined life. Three potentially feasible programs for the creation of mobile source credits include accelerated retirement of older vehicles, purchase of low-emission buses, and purchase of zero-emission vehicles. These programs are evaluated for their ability to generate credit and to assess their cost effectiveness. Based on the examples presented, two methods of generating mobile source credits, the accelerated retirement of older vehicles and the purchase of low-emission buses, appear to be cost-effective when compared to other emission control measures

  19. Efficiency of radon reduction techniques and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Monchecourt, D.

    2000-01-01

    Radon is a lung carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organisation and it is present in dwellings. In France, the first actions to measure the exposition of the population were made in 1982, and the first national recommendation was published in 1999. In parallel, information booklets on radon and possible actions to lower its concentration in house were made available to the public. The aim of this study was to test the economic feasibility of different methods to reduce radon level in housing. The first step was to identify the cost and the radon reduction rate of different methods, all based on insulation or ventilation of the buildings. Using the data of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), we selected six measures and combined them to obtain a total of twenty potential solutions. We also used the 'duration' model of the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation committee (BEIR VI) to determine the probability of dying from a cancer associated to a fixed exposure to radon. Knowing this information, it was possible to make cost-efficiency analysis on our data and thus keep six interesting methods. Combining these results with the value of human life of the human capital approach we could find what was the most interesting method to apply for a known level of radon and a specific duration of exposure in a house. In given house, for each level of initial exposure, a cost benefit approach allowed to determine if one, or several techniques, or none, is worthwhile to apply. In favorable cases (i.e : easily remediable houses), and with a figure for the price of human life of about 0,9 MEuro, actions should be undertaken at levels as low as 80 Bq.m -3 . As we know the radon distribution in France, the second step was to see what would be the effects on this distribution if all inhabitants used the optimal approach against their radon exposure defined by our function. Thus, overall costs and overall risks could be computed. However, in public health issues, the

  20. Research on CO2 Emission Reduction Mechanism of China’s Iron and Steel Industry under Various Emission Reduction Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Duan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a two-stage dynamic game model of China’s iron and steel industry is constructed. Carbon tax levy, product subsidy, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS and other factors are included in the emission reduction mechanism. The effects of emissions reduction and the economic impact of China’s overall steel industry (and that of its six main regions are investigated for the first time under different scenarios. As new findings, we report the following: (1 Not all factors declined. The overall social welfare, consumer surplus, output and emissions decrease with a gradual increase in the reduction target, whereas the carbon tax value, unit value of product subsidies and total subsidies show a rising trend; (2 A combination of multiple emissions reduction policies is more effective than a single policy. With the implementation of a combined policy, regional output polarization has eased; (3 Steel output does not exceed 950 million tons, far below the current peak. These results will help the industry to formulate reasonable emissions reduction and output targets. In short, in effort to eliminate industry poverty and to alleviate overcapacity, the industry should not only adopt the various coordinated reduction policies, but also fully consider regional differences and reduction needs.

  1. The economic payoff for global warming emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, Sam V.; Schaefer, Laura A.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet the 1997 Kyoto treaty targets, U.S. carbon emissions must be severely curtailed. While top-down economic models predict that cutting carbon emissions will produce high costs, higher efficiency technology, such as residential electric heat pump water heaters, can cause carbon reduction to become profitable. In a single-family residence, replacing an electric resistance water heater with a heat pump water heater can reduce carbon emissions by 0.6 tons per year and produce savings of $1200 over a twelve-year period., rather than costs. National implementation of this single technology would reduce electric power plant carbon emissions by 5 percent. (Author)

  2. Energy saving and emission reduction of China's urban district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xia; Wang, Li; Tong, Lige; Sun, Shufeng; Yue, Xianfang; Yin, Shaowu; Zheng, Lifang

    2013-01-01

    China's carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission ranks highest in the world. China is committed to reduce its CO 2 emission by 40% to 45% from the 2005 levels by 2020. To fulfill the target, China's CO 2 emission reduction must exceed 6995 million tons. Energy consumption and CO 2 emission of China's urban district heating (UDH) are increasing. The current policy implemented to improve UDH focuses on replacing coal with natural gas to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emission to some extent. This paper proposes that heat pump heating (HPH) could serve as a replacement for UDH to help realize energy-saving and emission-reduction goals to a greater extent. The paper also analyzes the impact of this replacement on the heating and power generation sectors. The results show that replacing coal-based UDH with HPH decreases energy consumption and CO 2 emission by 43% in the heating sector. In the power generation sector, the efficiency of power generation at the valley electricity time increases by 0.512%, and the ratio of peak–valley difference decreases by 16.5%. The decreases in CO 2 emission from the heating and power generation sectors cumulatively account for 5.55% of China's total CO 2 emission reduction target in 2020. - Highlights: ► Replacing urban district heating with heat pump heating. ► Impact of heat pump heating on heating and power generation sectors. ► Potential of energy saving and emission reduction for heat pump heating. ► China should adjust current urban heating strategy

  3. Microblowing Technique for Drag Reduction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA seeks to develop technologies for aircraft drag reduction which contribute to improved aerodynamic efficiency in support of national goals for reducing fuel...

  4. Scenario Study on PM emission Reduction in Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, Xin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Huili; Jin, Ling; Yan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the high pollution industries in China. Evaluation of the primary particulate matter (PM) emission status and the reduction potential is not only important for our understanding of the effectiveness of current pollution control measures but also vital for future policy design. In this study, PM emitted from cement producing process in 2014 was calculated using an emission factor method. Three PM emission control scenarios were set up considering source control, process management and end-of-pipe treatment, and the PM emission reduction by 2020 under the three scenarios was predicted, respectively. In 2014, the primary PM emission from cement industry was 1.95 million tons. By 2020, the productions of cement and clinker were expected to increase by 12% and 7%, respectively, and the PM emission would increase by about 10%. By implementation of GB4915-2013 and comprehensive control of fugitive PM emission, the PM emission would probably be reduced by 34%. Another 7% decrease would be expected from source control. The second scenario can be considered as an assessment of the effectiveness of the revised emission standard, and this research can be used as a technical support to the environmental management authorities to make relevant policies.

  5. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  6. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  7. Canadian options for greenhouse gas emission reduction (COGGER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.; Fraser, M.; Haites, E.; Harvey, D.; Jaccard, M.; Reinsch, A.; Torrie, R.

    1993-09-01

    A panel was formed to assess the feasibility and cost of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in Canada. The panel studies focused on the potential for increased energy efficiency and fuel switching and their effect in reducing CO 2 emissions by reviewing the extensive literature available on those topics and assessing their conclusions. Economically feasible energy savings are estimated mostly in the range of 20-40% savings by the year 2010 relative to a reference-case projection, with a median of 23%. The panel concluded that achieving the identified economic potential for increased energy efficiency by 2010 will depend on development of additional demand-side management or energy efficiency programs that go well beyond current policies and programs. Fuel switching will play a much smaller role in stabilizing energy-related CO 2 emissions than improved energy efficiency. Technology substitution and broader structural change would enable Canada to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions; however, more research is needed on achieving emission reductions that would approach the levels estimated to be required globally for stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Achieving such emissions reductions would likely require a combination of significant improvements in energy efficiency, major changes in energy sources, and substantial changes in economic activity and life styles, relative to that projected in most reference-case forecasts. 5 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  8. Options for utilizing the CDM for global emission reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzengeiger-Geyer, Sonja; Castro, Paula; Harthan, Ralph O.; Hayashi, Daisuke; Healy, Sean; Maribu, Karl Magnus; Michaelowa, Axel; Okubo, Yuri; Schneider, Lambert; Storroe, Ingunn [Zuerich Univ. (Switzerland); Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Perspectives GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Point Carbon A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-11-15

    The study describes and discusses in detail how four CDM reform alternatives, namely discounting of emission reductions, ambitious baselines, purchase and cancellation of CERs and reinvestment of CER levies, could be integrated in a Post-2012 climate regime. The study assesses these alternatives, according to their impacts on GHG emission reductions, contribution to sustainable development, cost-efficiency, technical feasibility, incentives and distributional effects as well as negotiability. The study shows that the introduction of discounting and ambitious baselines is technically feasible but politically a massive challenge. With the help of an economic model the study shows that the introduction of reform alternatives increases the amount of emission reductions but in comparison to the current CDM the impact is rather limited. But a CDM reform can in any case increase the credibility and improve the environmental integrity of the mechanism. (orig.)

  9. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  10. Carbon emissions reduction in China's food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Lei, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the changes in carbon dioxide emissions from energy consumption in China's food industry from 1986 to 2010 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method. The results show that energy intensity (EI) and industrial activity (IA) are the main determinants of the changes in carbon dioxide. Energy intensity (EI) contributes to decrease in emissions within 25 years while industrial activity (IA) acts in a positive way to increase the emissions level. Industry scale (IS) mostly contributes to increase in emissions except for the time interval 1996–2000. However, for both carbon intensity (CI) and energy structure (ES), they have a volatile but not significant influence on emissions in the different time intervals. To further understand the effects, we analyze the cumulative emission during the whole period 1986–2010. The results further testify that energy intensity and industrial activity are the most important factors affecting reduction and growth of carbon emissions. The results indicate that efforts to reduce emission in China's food industry should focus on the enhancement of energy efficiency, the optimization of industrial scale and the restructuring energy use. Finally, recommendations are provided for the reduction of carbon dioxide in China's food industry. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in China's food industry. • LMDI decomposition analysis is conducted for finding out the driving forces. • Industrial activity is the main driving force of CO 2 emissions in this industry. • Energy intensity is the main factor mitigating carbon emissions in this industry. • Main advice: improving energy efficiency, optimizing industrial scale.

  11. Costs, emissions reductions, and vehicle repair: evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; McConnell, V; Harrington, W

    2000-04-01

    The Arizona inspection and maintenance (I/M) program provides one of the first opportunities to examine the costs and effectiveness of vehicle emission repair. This paper examines various aspects of emission reductions, fuel economy improvements, and repair costs, drawing data from over 80,000 vehicles that failed the I/M test in Arizona between 1995 and the first half of 1996. We summarize the wealth of data on repair from the Arizona program and highlight its limitations. Because missing or incomplete cost information has been a serious shortcoming for the evaluation of I/M programs, we develop a method for estimating repair costs when they are not reported. We find surprising evidence that almost one quarter of all vehicles that take the I/M test are never observed to pass the test. Using a statistical analysis, we provide some information about the differences between the vehicles that pass and those that do not. Older, more polluting vehicles are much more likely never to pass the I/M test, and their expected repair costs are much higher than those for newer cars. This paper summarizes the evidence on costs and emission reductions in the Arizona program, comparing costs and emissions reductions between cars and trucks. Finally, we examine the potential for more cost-effective repair, first through an analysis of tightening I/M cut points and then by calculating the cost savings of achieving different emission reduction goals when the most cost-effective repairs are made first.

  12. Achieving CO2 Emissions Reduction Goals with Energy Infrastructure Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.

    2013-01-01

    The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)

  13. Discussion on variance reduction technique for shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    As the task of the engineering design activity of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER), on 316 type stainless steel (SS316) and the compound system of SS316 and water, the shielding experiment using the D-T neutron source of FNS in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been carried out. However, in these analyses, enormous working time and computing time were required for determining the Weight Window parameter. Limitation or complication was felt when the variance reduction by Weight Window method of MCNP code was carried out. For the purpose of avoiding this difficulty, investigation was performed on the effectiveness of the variance reduction by cell importance method. The conditions of calculation in all cases are shown. As the results, the distribution of fractional standard deviation (FSD) related to neutrons and gamma-ray flux in the direction of shield depth is reported. There is the optimal importance change, and when importance was increased at the same rate as that of the attenuation of neutron or gamma-ray flux, the optimal variance reduction can be done. (K.I.)

  14. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  15. A carbon emissions reduction index: Integrating the volume and allocation of regional emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiandong; Cheng, Shulei; Song, Malin; Wu, Yinyin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We build a carbon emissions reduction index (CERI). • The aim is to quantify the pressure on policymakers to reduce emissions. • Scale-related effects and carbon emissions allocations are included in the CERI. • Different standards of carbon emissions allocations are also considered. • We decompose the Gini coefficient to evaluate the effects of three factors. - Abstract: Given the acceleration of global warming and rising greenhouse gas emissions, all countries are facing the harsh reality of the need to reduce carbon emissions. In this study, we propose an index to quantify the pressure faced by policymakers to reduce such emissions, termed the carbon emissions reduction index. This index allows us to observe the effect of carbon emissions volume on the pressure faced by policymakers and study the impact of optimizing interregional carbon emissions on reducing this pressure. In addition, we account for several carbon emissions standards in constructing the index. We conclude that the variation in the index is likely to be attributable to carbon emissions volume, regional ranking, and population (population can also be replaced by GDP, resource endowment, or other factors). In addition, based on empirical data on the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide (China), this study analyzes the evolution of pressure to reduce emissions on a country’s policymakers. The results show that the growing volume and unsuitable allocation of carbon emissions from 1997 to 2012 imposed increasing pressure on the Chinese government in this regard. In addition, reductions in carbon emissions volume and regional ranking are primary factors that impact pressure on policymakers.

  16. Volume reduction techniques for solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report gives an account of some of the techniques in current use in the UK for the treatment of solid radioactive wastes to reduce their volume prior to storage or disposal. Reference is also made to current research and development projects. It is based on a report presented at a recent International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee when this subject was the main theme. An IAEA Technical Series report covering techniques in use in all parts of the world should be published within the next two years. (author)

  17. Impact of trade in emission reduction credits on solar projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the amendment of the Clean Air Act in 1990, the possibility of trading in Emission Reduction Credits has been looked upon as a strategy for improving the economic feasibility of solar projects. This paper discusses developments towards such a market and reviews current and proposed emission trading practices. The paper analyzes how the current characteristics of the market help or hinder the trading of credits generated by solar projects, and suggests possible solutions. Emission credits from four different solar projects and their trading potentials are presented

  18. Biomass District Energy Trigeneration Systems: Emissions Reduction and Financial Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentizelas, A.; Tolis, A.; Tatsiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    Biomass cogeneration is widely used for district heating applications in central and northern Europe. Biomass trigeneration on the other hand, constitutes an innovative renewable energy application. In this work, an approved United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change baseline methodology has been extended to allow the examination of biomass trigeneration applications. The methodology is applied to a case study in Greece to investigate various environmental and financial aspects of this type of applications. The results suggest that trigeneration may lead to significant emissions reduction compared to using fossil fuels or even biomass cogeneration and electricity generation. The emissions reduction achieved may be materialized into a considerable revenue stream for the project, if traded through a trading mechanism such as the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to compensate for the high volatility of the emission allowances' value and the immaturity of the EU Trading Scheme, which prevent a reliable estimation of the related revenue. The work concludes that emission allowances trading may develop into one of the major revenue streams of biomass trigeneration projects, significantly increasing their financial yield and attractiveness. The impact on the yield is significant even for low future values of emission allowances and could become the main income revenue source of such projects, if emission allowances increase their value substantially. The application of trigeneration for district energy proves to lead to increased environmental and financial benefits compared to the cogeneration or electricity generation cases

  19. Post-placement temperature reduction techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    With technology scaled to deep submicron era, temperature and temperature gradient have emerged as important design criteria. We propose two post-placement techniques to reduce peak temperature by intelligently allocating whitespace in the hotspots. Both methods are fully compliant with commercial...

  20. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  1. Estimate of Possible CO2 Emission Reduction in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plavcak, V.-P.; Jevsek, F.; Tirsek, A.

    1998-01-01

    The first estimation of possible CO 2 emission reduction, according to the obligations from Kyoto Protocol, is prepared. The results show that the required 8% reduction of greenhouses gases in Slovenia in the period from 2008 to 2012 with regard to year 1986 will require a through analytical treatment not only in electric power sector but also in transport and industry sectors, which are the main pollutants. (author)

  2. Laboratory technique for quantitative thermal emissivity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emission of radiation from a sample occurs due to thermal vibration of its .... Quantitative thermal emissivity measurements of geological samples. 393. Figure 1. ...... tral mixture modeling: A new analysis of rock and soil types at the Viking ...

  3. National environmental targets and international emission reduction instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing within the European Union the overall EU emission reduction target as agreed by in the Kyoto protocol is converted into national greenhouse gas reduction-targets for each of the member states. In parallel with national emission reduction initiatives common EU policies for emission reductions are considered. Currently discussed is the introduction of a market for tradable permits for CO 2 -emissions to achieve emission reductions within the power industry and other energy intensive industries. In parallel with this markets for green certificates to deploy renewable energy technologies seem to be appearing in a number of countries, among these Denmark, Italy, Sweden, Belgium (Flanders), England and Australia. Although these national initiatives for a green certificate market are fairly different, they could be a starting point for establishing a common EU certificate market. But interactions between national targets for greenhouse gas emissions and these international instruments for emission reduction are not a trivial matter, especially not seen in relation to the possible contributions of these instruments in achieving national GHG-reduction targets. The paper is split into three parts all taking a liberalised power market as starting point: The first part discusses the consequences of a general deployment of renewable energy technologies, using planning initiatives or national promotion schemes (feed-in tariffs). In the second part an international green certificate market is introduced into the liberalised power market context, substituting other national promotion schemes. Finally, in the third part a combination of an international green certificate market (TGC) and an international emission-trading scheme for CO 2 is analysed within the liberalised international power market set-up. The main conclusion is that neither the use of national renewable support schemes nor the introduction of a TGC-market into a liberalised

  4. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and, in case of mechanically ventilated animal houses, the application of end-of-pipe air treatment, viz acid scrubbers and bioscrubbers. Air treatment techniques can achieve very high emission red...

  5. The Positron Emission Tomography. A diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, P.

    2001-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a new imaging modality, which is able to assess non-invasively the biochemical mechanisms, underlying physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo in humans. The technique relies on the administration of radioactive tracers labeled with short-lived positron emitters, which need to be produced on site via a particle accelerator (cyclotron). Radionuclides are produced upon request and formulated into biologically active organic molecules having precise pharmacokinetics and specificity. The radiotracer can be detected by the PET scanner and represented as tomographic sections (images of body sections) showing its regional distribution and concentration. This makes it possible to address clinical questions concerning occurrence and evolution of many diseases as well as their response to therapy. The ability to image (measure) biological processes and not only anatomy enables PET to explore diseases in the very early stage, including those diseases which are not related to modifications of organ structure (e.g. psychiatric diseases, metabolic disorders, biochemical disfunction). PET plays a major role, in conjunction with the other imaging modalities, to improve diagnosis capabilities and disease mechanism understanding [it

  6. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  7. Integrated assessment of climate change with reductions of methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amstel, van A.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have been living in the anthropocene era since about 1950, and evidence of human influence on the natural ecosystems and climate is mounting. Reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are needed to reduce the effects of climate change in the future. In an integrated assessment with the IMAGE model

  8. EMISSIONS REDUCTION DATA FOR GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured the pollutant emission reduction potential of 29 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on residential and commercial building rooftops across the U.S. from 1993 through 1997. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 21 electric power companies sponsor...

  9. Politics for emissions reduction at large combustion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragos, L.; Persu, I.; Predescu, I.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the harmonization process of Romanian national legislation with EU directives for the establishment of measures for the emission reduction of air pollutants from large combustion plants. The quantity of SO 2 , NO x and dust emissions from big combustion installation during the period 1980 - 2003 is given. The characteristics of the native fuels are also presented. Recently a reorganization and restructuring of the electricity production from lignite are accomplished. It is emphasised in the paper that the use of lignite for energy production is necessary even if the additional costs implied by the compliance with Directive 2001/80/EC are high. Clean combustion technologies and equipment promoted by the OVM-ICCPET, Bucharest will be applied for the improvement of the burning process and reduction of the emissions

  10. Pulsating combustion - Combustion characteristics and reduction of emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindholm, Annika

    1999-11-01

    In the search for high efficiency combustion systems pulsating combustion has been identified as one of the technologies that potentially can meet the objectives of clean combustion and good fuel economy. Pulsating combustion offers low emissions of pollutants, high heat transfer and efficient combustion. Although it is an old technology, the interest in pulsating combustion has been renewed in recent years, due to its unique features. Various applications of pulsating combustion can be found, mainly as drying and heating devices, of which the latter also have had commercial success. It is, however, in the design process of a pulse combustor, difficult to predict the operating frequency, the heat release etc., due to the lack of a well founded theory of the phenomenon. Research concerning control over the combustion process is essential for developing high efficiency pulse combustors with low emissions. Natural gas fired Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been the experimental objects of this study. In order to investigate the interaction between the fluid dynamics and the chemistry in pulse combustors, laser based measuring techniques as well as other conventional measuring techniques have been used. The experimental results shows the possibilities to control the combustion characteristics of pulsating combustion. It is shown that the time scales in the large vortices created at the inlet to the combustion chamber are very important for the operation of the pulse combustor. By increasing/decreasing the time scale for the large scale mixing the timing of the heat release is changed and the operating characteristics of the pulse combustor changes. Three different means for NO{sub x} reduction in Helmholtz type pulse combustors have been investigated. These include exhaust gas recirculation, alteration of air/fuel ratio and changed inlet geometry in the combustion chamber. All used methods achieved less than 10 ppm NO{sub x} emitted (referred to stoichiometric

  11. Proceedings of the 1997 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was held July 28--31, 1997 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on diesel engine emissions issues. Diesel engine manufacturers have significantly reduced emission of nitrogen oxides and particulates over the last 12 years. Currently there is concern about the 4% contribution of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels to the atmosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect. The 56 papers in this report are arranged under the following topical headings: Agency diesel engine emissions and concerns; Human health effects -- Diesel exhaust; Aftertreatment -- Non-thermal plasma; Aftertreatment and in-cylinder emissions reduction; Combustion, fuel, and air management; Fuels and associated technology; and Advanced technology. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolás; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO_2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010–2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO_2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO_2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO_2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts an 11.3% reduction. The main reasons for this difference include varying assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO_2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. In terms of technology

  13. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.A.T.; Higgins, Millicent

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions possible in the United States if (1) obese and overweight conditions were eliminated from the adult population through the use of walking or biking for transportation, and (2) individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 adopted previously recommended levels of daily exercise by walking or biking instead of driving. Substantial co-benefits accompany widespread adoption of physical activity. Assuming substitution of cycling for driving, the reduction in gasoline demand is equivalent to 34.9% of current domestic oil consumption. This constitutes considerably more oil than is recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The concomitant reduction in US carbon dioxide emissions would constitute approximately 10.9% relative to 1990 net US emissions and would be a substantial step toward satisfying the Kyoto Protocol

  14. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Higgins, M. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions possible in the United States if (1) obese and overweight conditions were eliminated from the adult population through the use of walking or biking for transportation, and (2) individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 adopted previously recommended levels of daily exercise by walking or biking instead of driving. Substantial co-benefits accompany widespread adoption of physical activity. Assuming substitution of cycling for driving, the reduction in gasoline demand is equivalent to 34.9% of current domestic oil consumption. This constitutes considerably more oil than is recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The concomitant reduction in US carbon dioxide emissions would constitute approximately 10.9% relative to 1990 net US emissions and would be a substantial step toward satisfying the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  15. CO2 emissions and reduction potential in China's chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Bing; Zhou, Wenji; Hu, Shanying; Li, Qiang; Griffy-Brown, Charla; Jin, Yong

    2010-01-01

    GHG (Increasing greenhouse gas) emissions in China imposes enormous pressure on China's government and society. The increasing GHG trend is primarily driven by the fast expansion of high energy-intensive sectors including the chemical industry. This study investigates energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the processes of chemical production in China through calculating the amounts of CO 2 emissions and estimating the reduction potential in the near future. The research is based on a two-level perspective which treats the entire industry as Level one and six key sub-sectors as Level two, including coal-based ammonia, calcium carbide, caustic soda, coal-based methanol, sodium carbonate, and yellow phosphorus. These two levels are used in order to address the complexity caused by the fact that there are more than 40 thousand chemical products in this industry and the performance levels of the technologies employed are extremely uneven. Three scenarios with different technological improvements are defined to estimate the emissions of the six sub-sectors and analyze the implied reduction potential in the near future. The results highlight the pivotal role that regulation and policy administration could play in controlling the CO 2 emissions by promoting average technology performances in this industry.

  16. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles L.; Hidy, George M.

    2018-06-01

    Ozone (O3) formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions using long-term (1990s-2015) surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p total oxidized nitrogen (NOy) mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry) nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ˜ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3) concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy-NOx) support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and provides important information supporting strategies for reducing O3 mixing ratios.

  17. E.U.: better emission reduction than expected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The 15 countries that formed the European Union at the time of the Kyoto protocol implementation, compelled themselves to reduce by 8%, on average and per year for the 2008-2012 period and with reference to a standard year that was for most European countries 1990, their greenhouse gas emissions. The European Union has recently stated that the reduction will be better than expected and will reach 14.2% on average per year if the member states realize their projects concerning reforestation or the purchase of international carbon emission allowances. (A.C.)

  18. Estimated emission reductions from California's enhanced Smog Check program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C; Wenzel, Thomas P

    2003-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that states evaluate the effectiveness of their vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. This study demonstrates an evaluation approach that estimates mass emission reductions over time and includes the effect of I/M on vehicle deterioration. It includes a quantitative assessment of benefits from pre-inspection maintenance and repairs and accounts for the selection bias effect that occurs when intermittent high emitters are tested. We report estimates of one-cycle emission benefits of California's Enhanced Smog Check program, ca. 1999. Program benefits equivalent to metric tons per day of prevented emissions were calculated with a "bottom-up" approach that combined average per vehicle reductions in mass emission rates (g/gal) with average per vehicle activity, resolved by model year. Accelerated simulation mode test data from the statewide vehicle information database (VID) and from roadside Smog Check testing were used to determine 2-yr emission profiles of vehicles passing through Smog Check and infer emission profiles that would occur without Smog Check. The number of vehicles participating in Smog Check was also determined from the VID. We estimate that in 1999 Smog Check reduced tailpipe emissions of HC, CO, and NO(x) by 97, 1690, and 81 t/d, respectively. These correspond to 26, 34, and 14% of the HC, CO, and NO(x) that would have been emitted by vehicles in the absence of Smog Check. These estimates are highly sensitive to assumptions about vehicle deterioration in the absence of Smog Check. Considering the estimated uncertainty in these assumptions yields a range for calculated benefits: 46-128 t/d of HC, 860-2200 t/d of CO, and 60-91 t/d of NO(x). Repair of vehicles that failed an initial, official Smog Check appears to be the most important mechanism of emission reductions, but pre-inspection maintenance and repair also contributed substantially. Benefits from removal of nonpassing

  19. Emissions control techniques applied to industrial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B.

    2004-12-15

    As emission standards for industrial vehicles become increasingly stringent, many research projects are seeking to develop after-treatment systems. These systems will have to combine efficiency, durability and low operating cost.

  20. Quantifying the emissions reduction effectiveness and costs of oxygenated gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    During the fall, winter, and spring of 1991-1992, a measurement program was conducted in Denver, Colorado to quantify the technical and economic effectiveness of oxygenated gasoline in reducing automobile carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Emissions from 80,000 vehicles under a variety of operating conditions were measured before, during, and after the seasonal introduction of oxygenated gasoline into the region. Gasoline samples were taken from several hundred vehicles to confirm the actual oxygen content of the fuel in use. Vehicle operating conditions, such as cold starts and warm operations, and ambient conditions were characterized. The variations in emissions attributable to fuel type and to operating conditions were then quantified. This paper describes the measurement program and its results. The 1991-1992 Colorado oxygenated gasoline program contributed to a reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from gasoline-powered vehicles. The measurement program demonstrated that most of the reduction is concentrated in a small percentage of the vehicles that use oxygenated gasoline. The remainder experience little or not reduction in emissions. The oxygenated gasoline program outlays are approximately $25 to $30 million per year in Colorado. These are directly measurable costs, incurred through increased government expenditures, higher costs to private industry, and losses in fuel economy. The measurement program determined the total costs of oxygenated gasoline as an air pollution control strategy for the region. Costs measured included government administration and enforcement, industry production and distribution, and consumer and other user costs. This paper describes the ability of the oxygenated gasoline program to reduce pollution; the overall cost of the program to government, industry, and consumers; and the effectiveness of the program in reducing pollution compared to its costs

  1. Climate change and WTO : boundary mediation on certified emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Cheol

    2011-07-01

    This book mentions climate change and WTO with is climate change true? International effort for reduce of greenhouse gas with UNFCCC, Kyoto protocol, Copenhagen Accord and Cancun Agreement, WTO norm, discussion on introduction of boundary mediation on certified emission reductions, analysis on regulation related WTO norm, violation of regulation on border measure of prohibition, violation of principle on GATT, justification, except through Article 20 of GATT, assessment of policy and supplementation on the law.

  2. Study on CO2 emission reduction using ENPEP in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Song, K. D.; Im, C. Y.

    2003-01-01

    ENPEP was used to analyze the role of nuclear power in mitigating carbon emission in power generation sector. In this study, base scenario reflects business as usual case in Korea. Additional two scenarios were established. One stands for fuel switch scenario, where nuclear power plants scheduled to be introduced after 2008 were assumed to be replaced by Coal Power Plant, the other one is established to see the impact of carbon tax. In this scenario carbon tax(50$/ton-C0 2 ) is imposed on coal power plants from 2008. It is resulted that fuel switch from nuclear to coal in power generation sector has a great effect on CO 2 emission, while carbon tax imposition makes a slight contribution to the reduction of CO 2 emission. These findings mean that the role of nuclear power in Korea is important in view of the GHG mitigation

  3. Emission reduction trading - a power marketer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M. (Powerex Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1999-01-01

    The current situation , and the short-term and long-term outlook in emission reduction trading are reviewed from the point of view of a power marketer. The author's view is that while the concept of emission reduction credit (ERC) is easy enough to understand, i.e. a series of measures to reduce carbon dioxide production and enhance carbon sequestration, there is no standard definition, although there are a number of models under consideration. What is being sought is clear ownership and title, a clear understanding of what qualifies as a credit, credit for early action, commodity specifications and the ability to hedge. The author predicts that in the short-tem, industry will experiment with different types of transactions to gain experience and seek partners who are willing to share risk and development cost. In the longer-term, emission reduction credits will be bought and sold as commodities and traded, swapped or exchanged as part of a portfolio in bilateral trade transactions, and used in hedging against future liabilities.

  4. Emission reduction trading - a power marketer`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M. [Powerex Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    The current situation , and the short-term and long-term outlook in emission reduction trading are reviewed from the point of view of a power marketer. The author`s view is that while the concept of emission reduction credit (ERC) is easy enough to understand, i.e. a series of measures to reduce carbon dioxide production and enhance carbon sequestration, there is no standard definition, although there are a number of models under consideration. What is being sought is clear ownership and title, a clear understanding of what qualifies as a credit, credit for early action, commodity specifications and the ability to hedge. The author predicts that in the short-tem, industry will experiment with different types of transactions to gain experience and seek partners who are willing to share risk and development cost. In the longer-term, emission reduction credits will be bought and sold as commodities and traded, swapped or exchanged as part of a portfolio in bilateral trade transactions, and used in hedging against future liabilities.

  5. Electricity production from biogas in Serbia: Assessment of emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Slobodan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas represents a promising source for the production of clean energy. The objective of this paper was to quantify the potential for the reduction of emissions to the environment during the production of electricity from biogas in comparison with environmental effects of the production of the same amount of electricity from fossil resources (coal from Kolubara basin and natural gas. Basis for comparison of environmental impacts in this work was the annual production of electricity in biogas plants of the total capacity of 80 MW. This study has shown that the annual production of electricity from biogas power plants of 80 MW results in: substitution of up to 840 kt of coal from Kolubara basin and 123.2 million m3 of natural gas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in the range of 491.16 kt - 604.97 kt CO2-eq, depending on the energy efficiency of the process of electricity production from biogas; reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases up to 92.37 kt CO2-eq compared to the use of natural gas for electricity generation.

  6. Assesment of Energy Options for CO2 Emission Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, global anthropogenic CO 2 emissions grew by 52% which caused an increase in 10.8% in the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, and it tipped the 400 ppm mark in May 2013. The Fifth Assessment Report on climate impacts from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed earlier warnings that climate change is already stressing human communities, agriculture, and natural ecosystems, and the effects are likely to increase in the future. While European Union has long been committed to lowering carbon emissions, this places additional pressure on current EU goals for energy sector that includes significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. Current EU commitment has been formalized in so-called '20-20-20' plan, reducing carbon emissions, increasing energy efficiency and increasing energy production from renewables by 20% by 2020. Some EU member states are even more ambitious, like United Kingdom, planning to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Bulk of carbon reduction will have to be achived in energy sector. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. In this invited lecture, predicted cost of energy production for newly bulit nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant are compared. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarious. (author)

  7. Ozone response to emission reductions in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Blanchard

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 formation in the southeastern US is studied in relation to nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions using long-term (1990s–2015 surface measurements of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH network, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA O3 measurements, and EPA Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET nitrate deposition data. Annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios at EPA monitoring sites in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi exhibit statistically significant (p  <  0.0001 linear correlations with annual NOx emissions in those states between 1996 and 2015. The annual fourth-highest daily peak 8 h O3 mixing ratios declined toward values of ∼ 45–50 ppbv and monthly O3 maxima decreased at rates averaging ∼ 1–1.5 ppbv yr−1. Mean annual total oxidized nitrogen (NOy mixing ratios at SEARCH sites declined in proportion to NOx emission reductions. CASTNET data show declining wet and dry nitrate deposition since the late 1990s, with total (wet plus dry nitrate deposition fluxes decreasing linearly in proportion to reductions of NOx emissions by ∼ 60 % in Alabama and Georgia. Annual nitrate deposition rates at Georgia and Alabama CASTNET sites correspond to 30 % of Georgia emission rates and 36 % of Alabama emission rates, respectively. The fraction of NOx emissions lost to deposition has not changed. SEARCH and CASTNET sites exhibit downward trends in mean annual nitric acid (HNO3 concentrations. Observed relationships of O3 to NOz (NOy–NOx support past model predictions of increases in cycling of NO and increasing responsiveness of O3 to NOx. The study data provide a long-term record that can be used to examine the accuracy of process relationships embedded in modeling efforts. Quantifying observed O3 trends and relating them to reductions in ambient NOy species concentrations offers key insights into processes of general relevance to air quality management and

  8. Possibilities for the emissions reduction of smoke particles in the flue emissions of diesel motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikarovska Vesna; Stojanovski, Vasko

    2000-01-01

    Taking into consideration the fact that the traffic needs have been increased, the international committee through its associations make efforts in order to find more effective measures for the environmental protection. In this contest the international regulations are very rigorous towards the quality and quantity of the exhaust gases emission from the engines with internal combustion. In this paper the normative and limitations of the exhaust emission of compression ignition engines are presented. Also, the results from experimental investigations of transport vehicles with different time of exploitation and passed kilometers are given, as well as the factors that influent to the smoke component reduction in exhaust emission. (Authors)

  9. Transient particle emission measurement with optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Luján, José M.; Serrano, José R.; Pla, Benjamín

    2008-06-01

    Particulate matter is responsible for some respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, it is one of the most important pollutants of high-speed direct injection (HSDI) passenger car engines. Current legislation requires particulate dilution tunnels for particulate matter measuring. However for development work, dilution tunnels are expensive and sometimes not useful since they are not able to quantify real-time particulate emissions during transient operation. In this study, the use of a continuous measurement opacimeter and a fast response HFID is proven to be a good alternative to obtain instantaneous particle mass emissions during transient operation (due to particulate matter consisting mainly of soot and SOF). Some methods and correlations available from literature, but developed for steady conditions, are evaluated during transient operation by comparing with mini-tunnel measurements during the entire MVEG-A transient cycle. A new correlation was also derived from this evaluation. Results for soot and SOF (obtained from the new correlation proposed) are compared with soot and SOF captured with particulate filters, which have been separated by means of an SOF extraction method. Finally, as an example of ECU design strategies using these sort of correlations, the EGR valve opening is optimized during transient operation. The optimization is performed while simultaneously taking into account instantaneous fuel consumption, particulate emissions (calculated with the proposed correlation) and other regulated engine pollutants.

  10. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions: Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Michael R.; Lewis, Geoffrey McD.; Cepela, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO 2 and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices.

  11. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions. Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael R.; Cepela, Daniel J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Lewis, Geoffrey McD. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO{sub 2} and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices. (author)

  12. Markets for renewable energy and pollution emissions: Environmental claims, emission-reduction accounting, and product decoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael R., E-mail: micmoore@umich.ed [University of Michigan, MI (United States); Lewis, Geoffrey McD. [University of Waterloo, ON (Canada); Cepela, Daniel J. [University of Michigan, MI (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Green electricity generation can provide an indirect route to cleaner air: by displacing generation from fossil fuels, green electricity can reduce emissions of CO{sub 2} and conventional air pollutants. Several types of voluntary markets have emerged in the United States to take advantage of this relationship, including green electricity programs, carbon offsets, and renewable energy certificates. At the same time, regulators are favoring cap-and-trade mechanisms for regulating emissions. This paper describes the appropriate framing of environmental claims for green electricity products. We apply an accounting framework for evaluating claims made for capped pollutants, with entries for emissions, avoided emissions due to green electricity, and unused emission permits. This framework is applied in case studies of two major electric utilities that operate with green electricity programs and capped pollutants. The cases demonstrate that the relative magnitude of 'unused permits' and 'emissions avoided' is a key relationship for evaluating an emissions reduction claim. Lastly, we consider the evolution of the green electricity marketplace given the reliance on cap-and-trade. In this setting, pollution-emission products could be decoupled from one another and from the various green electricity products. Several positive consequences could transpire, including better transparency of products, lower certification costs, and more product choices.

  13. Mobil emission reduction credits for natural gas vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, there has been increasing interest among regulators and business interests alike in innovative, market-based strategies to air quality control. In particular, larger metropolitan areas have begun to examine marketable emission reduction credit (ERC) programs. These programs limit the total allowable emissions in a non-attainment area, allocate these emission open-quotes creditsclose quotes among sources in the region, and allow the sources to redistribute their allowances through trading. This approach provides for the most cost-effective distribution of control burdens among affected sources, taking advantage of the differences in marginal control costs. Some control measures applied to mobile sources may be significantly less expensive than those applied to stationary sources, making mobile sources an excellent candidate for inclusion in an ERC program. However, there are several potential problems involving quantification, enforcement, and credit trading issues that hinder the development of mobile source ERC programs. This paper will evaluate those obstacles and discuss how they are being addressed in a Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) program currently under development for the Houston ozone non-attainment area. Specifically, the study will outline the credit validation (i.e., quantification) procedure, including baseline emission determination and emission testing for each NGV in the program. In addition, the study will describe the vehicle/fuel consumption tracking system, and discuss issues related to credit trading with stationary sources. Finally, observations are made concerning the applicability of mobile ERC programs for other emission control measures such as old vehicle scrappage and vehicle Inspection and Maintenance programs

  14. Cycle update : advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, G. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided a summary of key achievements of the Program of Energy Research and Development advanced fuels and technologies for emissions reduction (AFTER) program over the funding cycle from fiscal year 2005/2006 to 2008/2009. The purpose of the paper was to inform interested parties of recent advances in knowledge and in science and technology capacities in a concise manner. The paper discussed the high level research and development themes of the AFTER program through the following 4 overarching questions: how could advanced fuels and internal combustion engine designs influence emissions; how could emissions be reduced through the use of engine hardware including aftertreatment devices; how do real-world duty cycles and advanced technology vehicles operating on Canadian fuels compare with existing technologies, models and estimates; and what are the health risks associated with transportation-related emissions. It was concluded that the main issues regarding the use of biodiesel blends in current technology diesel engines are the lack of consistency in product quality; shorter shelf life of biodiesel due to poorer oxidative stability; and a need to develop characterization methods for the final oxygenated product because most standard methods are developed for hydrocarbons and are therefore inadequate. 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  15. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Amann, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carmichael, G.; Chadwick, M.; Cinderby, S.; Haugland, T.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Hordijk, L.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Shah, J.; Shrestha, R.; Streets, D.; Zhao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Europe and North America, air pollution in Asia is increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air quality problems and higher acidic depositions. In 1989, an east-west group of scientists initiated a multi-institutional research project on Acid Rain and Emissions Reduction in Asia, funded for the past two years by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Phase I, covering 23 countries of Asia, focused on the development of PC-based software called the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation Model (RAINS-ASIA). A 94-region Regional Energy Scenario Generator was developed to create alternative energy/emission scenarios through the year 2020. A long-range atmospheric transport model was developed to calculate dispersion and deposition of sulfur, based upon emissions from area and large point sources, on a one-degree grid of Asia. The resulting impacts of acidic deposition on a variety of vegetation types were analyzed using the critical loads approach to test different emissions management strategies, including both energy conservation measures and sulfur abatement technologies. 14 refs., 7 figs

  16. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  17. Reduction of CO2 emissions by influencing fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Zbinden, R.; Haan, P.; Gruetter, J.; Ott, W.

    2002-01-01

    The CO 2 law stipulates quantitative targets for CO 2 emissions (reductions of 10% by 2010 compared with 1990, 15% for heating fuels, 8% for motor fuels). For motor fuels, it is currently estimated that the target will be missed by about 15%, or 2 to 2.5 million tonnes of CO 2 . In order to reach the targets, therefore, all measures that can be taken to reduce emissions are to be checked out and, where sensible and possible, implemented too. The subject of this study is the preferential treatment of diesel, natural gas, liquefied gas and bio-fuels as far as taxation is concerned, with compensation of tax losses on the petrol side. Also, the possibilities for promoting energy-efficient cars are looked at. The reduction of the price for diesel (at least 25 Swiss cents when compensated for via the petrol price) is considered to be unsuitable for reaching the targets because, in the final analysis, fuel sales - the determining factor for the CO 2 emissions that are charged to Switzerland - will increase instead of decreasing. Also, reservations are expressed from the environmental point of view (increased NO x emissions and, in particular, emissions of particulate matter). The modified measure proposed (fixed difference between the prices for petrol and diesel of 25 Swiss cents, for example) is looked at less critically, because it does actually lead to a reduction of CO 2 , even if only a modest one (approx. 10% of the gap to be bridged). On the environmental side, the same reservations apply. Bonus-malus systems, on the other hand, permit a selective choice of the objects of promotion (efficient and, possibly, low-emission vehicles), avoid the unjust preferential treatment of goods traffic and can be implemented without disturbing international price structures (fuel tourism). A bonus-malus system applied at purchase (e.g. different levels of car taxation) is considered to be more efficient than a differentiation in vehicle (road) tax. The promotion of gas is a

  18. Energy market reform and greenhouse gas emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The report reviews micro-economic reform in the energy market and measures the impact that energy market reform is expected to have on greenhouse gas outcomes. It indicates that reform in the electricity and gas industries is delivering what was promised, an efficient market with lower energy prices and, over the longer term, will deliver a gradually reducing rate of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. It also recognises that energy market reform has removed some barriers to the entry of less greenhouse gas intense fuels. These trends will result in reduced greenhouse gas intensity in the supply of energy and significant reductions in the growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to what may have been expected without the reforms

  19. Reduction of NOx emissions when burning low heating value gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, R.; Oskarsson, J.; Waldheim, L.

    1993-09-01

    On the gasification of nitrogen-rich fuel the nitrogen from the fuel goes into the gas phase in the form of ammonia and hydrogen cyanide and also nitrogen containing tars. When the gas is combusted the nitrogen compounds are oxidized to a great extent to NO x and, therefore, high NO x emissions can be found on the combustion of low heating value gas produced from energy forest wood chips as is also the case with direct combustion of nitrogen rich fuels. An experimental study has been carried out where the important parameters for designing a combustion chamber for low heating value gases have been studied in order to obtain maximum reduction of NO x emissions. The effect of tar cracking using dolomite on these emissions and the effect of parameters such as the addition of steam has also been tested. The tests were carried out with energy forest wood chips with 0.3% nitrogen. The gasification was carried out in a pyrolysis reactor, operated to yield a low heating value gas, and which was coupled to a simplified gas turbine combustion chamber at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the main part of the nitrogen in the fuel is found as ammonia in the low heating value gas. With this type of gasification the conversion of fuel nitrogen to ammonia in the gas is equivalent to 500-600 mg/MJ, calculated as NO 2 . Only very low amounts of hydrogen cyanide have been noted and no nitrogen containing tar components have been found. No apparent effect of steam additions has been noted. On the other hand the distribution of air in the combustion chamber and residence time during the under stoichiometric conditions are of great importance for the NO x reduction. Depending on the air distribution the emissions of NO 2 varied between 100 and 250 mg/MJ, calculated as NO 2 . 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The ranking of negative-cost emissions reduction measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A flaw has been identified in the calculation of the cost-effectiveness in marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs). The problem affects “negative-cost” emissions reduction measures—those that produce a return on investment. The resulting ranking sometimes favours measures that produce low emissions savings and is therefore unreliable. The issue is important because incorrect ranking means a potential failure to achieve the best-value outcome. A simple mathematical analysis shows that not only is the standard cost-effectiveness calculation inadequate for ranking negative-cost measures, but there is no possible replacement that satisfies reasonable requirements. Furthermore, the concept of negative cost-effectiveness is found to be unsound and its use should be avoided. Among other things, this means that MACCs are unsuitable for ranking negative-cost measures. As a result, MACCs produced by a range of organizations including UK government departments may need to be revised. An alternative partial ranking method has been devised by making use of Pareto optimization. The outcome can be presented as a stacked bar chart that indicates both the preferred ordering and the total emissions saving available for each measure without specifying a cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: ► Marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) are used to rank emission reduction measures. ► There is a flaw in the standard ranking method for negative-cost measures. ► Negative values of cost-effectiveness (in £/tC or equivalent) are invalid. ► There may be errors in published MACCs. ► A method based on Pareto principles provides an alternative ranking method.

  1. Linked Analysis of East Asia Emission Reduction Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Bu, C.; Lee, Y.; Kim, J.; Jang, Y.; Park, M.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution and its impacts over the Northeast Asia are very severe because of the massive pollutant emissions and high population. Korea has been trying to improve air quality with the enhanced environmental legislation. The air quality over Korea, however, does not entirely dependent on its local emissions. Transboundary air pollution from China highly affects Korean atmosphere. The purpose of this research is to understand role of local and transbounday efforts to improve air quality changes over Korea. In this research, we have tried to set up the multiple emission scenario pathways for Korea and China using IIASA's GAINS (Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions aNd Synergies) modeling framework. More up-to-date growth factors and control policy packets were made using regional socio-economic data and control policy information from local governments and international statistics. Four major scenario pathways, 1) Base (Baseline: current legislation), 2) OTB/OTB(On the book/On the way : existing control measure/planed control measure), 3) BOTW_GHG(Beyond on the way : OTW with GHG reduction plan), 4) BOTW_NH3 (OTW with additional NH3 reduction measure) were developed to represent air quality improvement pathways in consideration of both Korean and Chinese efforts. Strict ambient PM2.5 standards from Seoul metropolitan Air quality Improvement Plan(SAIP) seems too enthusiastic without linking air quality control efforts of China. Step-by-step emission controls and following air quality, control cost, health impact from each scenario will be presented at the conference. This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change Correspondence Program". And This work was supported under the framework of national strategy project on fine particulate matters by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning.

  2. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  3. Is the Clean Development Mechanism Effective for Emission Reductions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Huang, Yongfu; He, Jingjing

    2014-01-01

    with great challenges, given the wide divide between developed and developing nations. Against this background, comprehensive evaluations of the effectiveness of Kyoto market‐based mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in terms of mitigating human‐induced climate change are urgently needed...... reductions for 60 CDM host countries over the period 2005–2010, using a newly developed econometric method for dynamic panel data models associated with the X‐differencing procedure. Our results provide evidence in support of a decline in CO 2 emissions in CDM host countries. We conclude...

  4. Suppression of nitrogen oxides emission by carbonaceous reductants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present status of NO x emission from power stations and automobiles is first summarized, and the controlling regulations in respective areas are reviewed. In spite of much progress, we have to further reduce the NO x emission in all the areas. In order to develop more effective technology, the fundamental understanding of the relevant reactions is essential. The heterogeneous reactions, like NO x and N 2 O formation from coal char, NO x and N 2 O reduction with carbon, and NO x reduction with hydrocarbon gases over heterogeneous catalysts are not well understood yet. This paper briefly summarizes our recent studies on the heterogeneous reactions of NO x formation and destruction. The importance of surface nitrogen species is emphasized in all the reaction systems. The presence of such surface species plays a very important role, not only in NO x destruction on carbon surfaces, but also in the NO x release during coal char combustion. Finally, future research areas are identified, where we need to understand what actually happens under high-temperature reaction conditions

  5. Constructing carbon offsets: The obstacles to quantifying emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard-Ball, Adam; Ortolano, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    The existing literature generally ascribes the virtual absence of the transport sector from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to the inherent complexity of quantifying emission reductions from mobile sources. We use archival analysis and interviews with CDM decision-makers and experts to identify two additional groups of explanations. First, we show the significance of aspects of the CDM's historical evolution, such as the order in which methodologies were considered and the assignment of expert desk reviewers. Second, we highlight inconsistencies in the treatment of uncertainty across sectors. In contrast to transport methodologies, other sectors are characterized by a narrow focus on sources of measurement uncertainty and a neglect of economic effects ('market leakages'). We do not argue that the rejection of transport methodologies was unjustified, but rather than many of the same problems are inherent in other sectors. Thus, the case of transport sheds light on fundamental problems in quantifying emission reductions under the CDM. We argue that a key theoretical attraction of the CDM-equalization of marginal abatement costs across all sectors-has been difficult to achieve in practice.

  6. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    Historically, the bulk production of electricity has been achieved by burning fossil fuels, with unavoidable gaseous emissions, including large quantities of carbon dioxide: an average-sized modern coal-burning power station is responsible for more than 10 Mt of CO(2) each year. This paper details typical emissions from present-day power stations and discusses the options for their reduction. Acknowledging that the cuts achieved in the past decade in the UK CO(2) emissions have been achieved largely by fuel switching, the remaining possibilities offered by this method are discussed. Switching to less-polluting fossil fuels will achieve some measure of reduction, but the basic problem of CO(2) emissions continues. Of the alternatives to fossil fuels, only nuclear power represents a zero-carbon large-scale energy source. Unfortunately, public concerns over safety and radioactive waste have still to be assuaged. Other approaches include the application of improved combustion technology, the removal of harmful gases from power-station flues and the use of waste heat to improve overall power-station efficiency. These all have a part to play, but many consider our best hope for emissions reduction to be the use of renewable energy. The main renewable energy contenders are assessed in this paper and realistic estimates of the contribution that each could provide are indicated. It appears that, in the time-scale envisaged by planners for reduction in CO(2) emission, in many countries renewable energy will be unlikely to deliver. At the same time, it is worth commenting that, again in many countries, the level of penetration of renewable energy will fall short of the present somewhat optimistic targets. Of renewable options, wind energy could be used in the short to medium term to cover for thermal plant closures, but for wind energy to be successful, the network will have to be modified to cope with wind's intermittent nature. Globally, hydroelectricity is currently the

  7. First principle leakage current reduction technique for CMOS devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsague, HD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive study of leakage reduction techniques applicable to CMOS based devices. In the process, mathematical equations that model the power-performance trade-offs in CMOS logic circuits are presented. From those equations...

  8. Catalytic reduction of emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Magnus; Gustavsson, Patrik; Berge, Niklas

    1998-01-01

    This report covers a study on the prospect of using catalytic techniques for the abatement of emissions from small-scale combustion of biomass. The results show that there is a great potential for catalytic techniques and that the emissions of primarily CO and unburned hydrocarbons can be reduced but also that indirectly the emissions of NO x can be reduced. The aim of the project was to methodically indicate the requirement that both the catalyst and the stove must meet to enable the development of low emission stoves utilising this technique. The project should also aim at the development of catalysts that meet these requirements and apply the technique on small-scale stoves. By experimental work these appliances have been evaluated and conclusions drawn on the optimisation of the technique. The project has been performed in close collaboration between TPS Termiska Processer AB, Department of Chemical Technology at KTH, Perstorp AB and CTC-PARCA AB. The development of new catalysts have been conduc ted by KTH in collaboration with Perstorp while the work performed by TPS have been directed towards the integration of the monolithic catalysts in two different stoves that have been supplied by CTC. In one of these stoves a net based catalyst developed by KATATOR have also been tested. Within the project it has been verified experimentally that in a wood fired stove a reduction of the CO-emissions of 60% can be achieved for the monolithic catalysts. This reduction could be achieved even without any optimisation of the design. Experiments in a smaller scale and under well controlled conditions have shown that almost 100% reduction of CO can be achieved. The parameters that limits the conversion over the catalyst, and thereby prevents that the targeted low emissions can be reached, have been identified as: * Short residence time, * Mass transport limitations caused by the large channel width, * Uneven temperature profile over the catalyst, and * Insufficient mixing

  9. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ABSORPTION, LOCAL SUPPRESSION, AND EMISSIVITY REDUCTION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN MAGNETIC REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Liang Zhichao; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-01-01

    Observed acoustic power in magnetic regions is lower than the quiet Sun because of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions. In the previous studies, we have developed a method to measure the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of sunspots. In this study, we go one step further to measure the spatial distributions of three coefficients in two active regions, NOAA 9055 and 9057. The maps of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression coefficients correlate with the magnetic map, including plage regions, except the emissivity reduction coefficient of NOAA 9055 where the emissivity reduction coefficient is too weak and lost among the noise.

  10. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  11. Technologies for the Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulica Arsenie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to gas turbines, their main problem concerning pollutant emissions is represented by nitric oxides. Among other emissions, sulphur oxides being much reduced due to the use of liquid distilled and gas fuels with a low content of sulphur. Using water or steam injection became the favourite method during the '80s and especially the '90s since "dry" methods and catalytic reduction were both at the beginning of the development phase. Catalytic convertors have been used since the '80s and they are still used although the costs of renewing the catalyst are very high. In the last twenty years a gradual decrease has been registered on the limits of nitric oxides from 75 ppm to 25 ppm, and now the target is oriented towards the 9 ppm level. The evolution of burning technologies of combustion makes it possible to control the level of production of nitric oxides even from the source without being necessary to use "humid" methods. This, of course, opened the market for gas turbines because they can function even in areas with limited quality water reserves, such as maritime platforms and in the desert. In this paper, we are going to show that, although water injection is still used, "dry" control technologies of burning became favourite methods for the majority of users on the industrial power generators market. The great dependency between the creation of nitric oxides and the temperature reveals the effect of direct water or steam injection on reducing nitric oxides. Recent research showed that a reduction up to 85% of nitric oxides may be obtained by using the water or steam injection all together with the improvement of aerodynamic character of the burning room.

  12. Global Emissions of Nitrous Oxide: Key Source Sectors, their Future Activities and Technical Opportunities for Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiwarter, W.; Höglund-Isaksson, L.; Klimont, Z.; Schöpp, W.; Amann, M.

    2017-12-01

    Nitrous oxide originates primarily from natural biogeochemical processes, but its atmospheric concentrations have been strongly affected by human activities. According to IPCC, it is the third largest contributor to the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (after carbon dioxide and methane). Deep decarbonization scenarios, which are able to constrain global temperature increase within 1.5°C, require strategies to cut methane and nitrous oxide emissions on top of phasing out carbon dioxide emissions. Employing the Greenhouse gas and Air pollution INteractions and Synergies (GAINS) model, we have estimated global emissions of nitrous oxide until 2050. Using explicitly defined emission reduction technologies we demonstrate that, by 2030, about 26% ± 9% of the emissions can be avoided assuming full implementation of currently existing reduction technologies. Nearly a quarter of this mitigation can be achieved at marginal costs lower than 10 Euro/t CO2-eq with the chemical industry sector offering important reductions. Overall, the largest emitter of nitrous oxide, agriculture, also provides the largest emission abatement potentials. Emission reduction may be achieved by precision farming methods (variable rate technology) as well as by agrochemistry (nitrification inhibitors). Regionally, the largest emission reductions are achievable where intensive agriculture and industry are prevalent (production and application of mineral fertilizers): Centrally Planned Asia including China, North and Latin America, and South Asia including India. Further deep cuts in nitrous oxide emissions will require extending reduction efforts beyond strictly technological solutions, i.e., considering behavioral changes, including widespread adoption of "healthy diets" minimizing excess protein consumption.

  13. Energy-related CO_2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO_2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO_2) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO_2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO_2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO_2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO_2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO_2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  14. Slot technique - an alternative method of scatter reduction in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, W.; Widenmann, L.

    1983-01-01

    The most common method of scatter reduction in radiography is the use of an antiscatter grid. Its disadvantage is the absorption of a certain percentage of primary radiation in the lead strips of the grid and the fact that due to the limited thickness of the lead strips their scatter absorption is also limited. A possibility for avoiding this disadvantage is offered by the so-called slot technique, ie, the successive exposure of the subject with a narrow fan beam provided by slots in rather thick lead plates. The results of a comparison between grid and slot technique regarding dose to the patient, scatter reduction, image quality and the effect of automatic exposure control are reported. (author)

  15. Combining Breast Reduction Techniques to Treat Gigantomastia in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody F. Scheefer, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. In this presentation of 2 consecutive cases of symptomatic juvenile breast hypertrophy in Ghana, we review the patient presentation, workup, and discuss outcomes following a combined technique of inferior pedicle stump with free nipple graft reduction mammoplasty. Surgical goals for treatment of gigantomastia were 2-fold: to resect adequate tissue to obtain symptomatic relief with improved quality of life, while avoiding a flat, boxy-appearing breast shape.

  16. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  17. Error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, J.H.W.

    1981-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods have been widely applied to problems in nuclear physics, mathematical reliability, communication theory, and other areas. The work in this thesis is developed mainly with neutron transport applications in mind. For nuclear reactor and many other applications, random walk processes have been used to estimate multi-dimensional integrals and obtain information about the solution of integral equations. When the analysis is statistically based such calculations are often costly, and the development of efficient estimation techniques plays a critical role in these applications. All of the error reduction techniques developed in this work are applied to model problems. It is found that the nearly optimal parameters selected by the analytic method for use with GWAN estimator are nearly identical to parameters selected by the multistage method. Modified path length estimation (based on the path length importance measure) leads to excellent error reduction in all model problems examined. Finally, it should be pointed out that techniques used for neutron transport problems may be transferred easily to other application areas which are based on random walk processes. The transport problems studied in this dissertation provide exceptionally severe tests of the error reduction potential of any sampling procedure. It is therefore expected that the methods of this dissertation will prove useful in many other application areas

  18. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang, E-mail: wwj@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • An electron emitter based on porous silicon having the strong application potential was prepared in the studying. • A new simple and convenient post-treat technique was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the PS emitter. • It demonstrated that the improving of the PS morphology and the oxygen distribution is very important to the PS emitter. - Abstract: A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm{sup 2} and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H{sup +} but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  19. Improvement of electron emission characteristics of porous silicon emitter by using cathode reduction and electrochemical oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, He; Wenjiang, Wang; Xiaoning, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electron emitter based on porous silicon having the strong application potential was prepared in the studying. • A new simple and convenient post-treat technique was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the PS emitter. • It demonstrated that the improving of the PS morphology and the oxygen distribution is very important to the PS emitter. - Abstract: A new simple and convenient post-treat technique combined the cathode reduction (CR) and electrochemical oxidation (ECO) was proposed to improve the electron emission properties of the surface-emitting cold cathodes based on the porous silicon (PS). It is demonstrated here that by introducing this new technique combined CR and ECO, the emission properties of the diode have been significantly improved than those as-prepared samples. The experimental results showed that the emission current densities and efficiencies of sample treated by CR were 62 μA/cm"2 and 12.10‰, respectively, nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of as-prepared sample. Furthermore, the CR-treated PS emitter shows higher repeatability and stability compared with the as-prepared PS emitter. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), furier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results indicated that the improved mechanism is mainly due to the passivation of the PS, which not only improve the PS morphology by the passivation of the H"+ but also improve the uniformity of the oxygen content distribution in the whole PS layer. Therefore, the method combined the CR treatment and ECO is expected to be a valuable technique to enhance the electron emission characteristics of the PS emitter.

  20. Nipple Reduction With the Chullo-Hat Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Hyung-Bo; Sun, Sang-Hoon

    2015-08-01

    Although various techniques of nipple reduction have been described in the literature, many are difficult to design or have unreliable outcomes. For men, as well as women who do not plan to breastfeed, it is not necessary to apply a complicated technique that protects the lactiferous ducts. The authors introduce a simple technique for nipple reduction that has achieved consistent, reproducible results. The desired nipple length is marked, and a chullo-hat excision pattern is drawn. After infiltration of a local anesthetic solution around the nipple, excision of the excess nipple tissue is performed, comprising 2 triangular flaps. The remaining 2 pillars are approximated with 5-0 Nylon simple interrupted sutures. However, the wound is not completely closed in the central area of the nipple, which promotes the drainage of discharge. Fifty-three women (106 nipples) underwent this surgery between December 2009 and December 2013. The follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years (mean, 10 months). No major complications occurred, and the scars were very inconspicuous. The postoperative appearance of nipples was consistently similar in size and shape. This simple technique was safe and effective in nipples of different sizes. The results were reliable and consistent with expectations. Although this study included only women, the authors believe that outcomes would be successful in men as well. 4 Therapeutic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. [Emissions trading potential : achieving emission reductions in a cost-effective manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, K.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of emissions trading as a viable tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by developed countries was discussed. The essence of this author's argument was that emissions trading alone will not solve the climate change problem and that the details of the program are hazy at best. In order to have any hope of meeting the emission reductions, it is essential to begin working out the details now, and to coordinate them with the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) plan since all three of these flexibility mechanisms will be working in and among themselves, therefore they need to be consistent. Work on a general set of draft principles by the International Climate Change Partnership (ICCP), a coalition headquartered in Washington, DC, was summarized. Essentially, ICCP favors voluntary programs, incentives for participation, no quantitative limits on trading, no limits on sources and sinks. ICCP believes that trading should be allowed at the company level, and liability should not devolve on the buyer alone, rather, it should be negotiated between buyers and sellers. Credits for early action should also be tradable and most of all, the trading program should be simple to allow active participation by industry, and be free of bureaucratic impediments

  2. Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irick, S.

    1998-07-01

    Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP

  3. Global warming and its implication to emission reduction strategies for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Dong; Ren, Zhengen [CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship and CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. Box 56, Graham Road, Highett, Victoria 3190 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Carbon emission reduction schemes by improving residential building energy performance are often developed and assessed upon the assumption of current or stationary climates. This study investigated the heating and cooling (H-C) energy requirements and corresponding carbon emissions of residential houses in different climatic conditions in relation to global warming. This included assessing and quantifying the efficacy of emission reduction schemes based on emission reduction capacity (ERC). ERC represents the percentage of projected carbon emission reduction under changing climate in a specific year compared to the expected reduction by a scheme at current or stationary climates. It is shown that in a heating-dominated region with a cold climate or temperate climate with cold winter, ERC is projected to increase (or the projected emission reduction is higher than the expected reduction under the emission reduction scheme) in the presence of global warming. In contrast, in a cooling-dominated region with a hot dry or hot humid climate or an H-C balanced temperate climate, ERC is projected to decline. This implies that emission reductions will be lower than those initially targeted by the emission reduction scheme without consideration of global warming. Additionally, to reflect the changing carbon emission over years due to climate change, the average emission reduction capacity (AERC) was also proposed for the assessment of reduction schemes. It was concluded that the design and assessment of carbon emission reduction schemes for residential buildings need to move beyond its assumptions of a current or stationary climate to take into account climate change impacts. (author)

  4. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the rape cultivation with special consideration of nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, Hubert; Riemer, Doerte

    2017-01-01

    Involved into the research project ''Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in oilseed rape cropping with special consideration of nitrogen fertilizing'' regional specific GHG cropping emissions according to benchmark and regional experts are calculated by using a calculation method developed in cooperation with IFEU and according to IPCC (2006). The following results are achieved for 35 German NUTS2-regions: - nitrogen fertilization is the main influence for GHG emission reduction; - the use of low-emission nitrogen fertilizers is worth for GHG emission reduction; - without increasing the nutrient efficiency of organic fertilizers, GHG emission reductions are difficult to achieve in many regions; - GHG emission reduction/climate protection and realization of the WRRL or N-Saldo reduction come up to the same aim; - economic consequences of restrictive carbon mitigation can be compensated by slight price surcharges for certified raw material.

  5. Carbon emissions from Southeast Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, Lahiru S; Sloan, Sean; Page, Susan E; Clements, Gopalasamy R; Lupascu, Massimo; Evans, Theodore A

    2018-06-01

    Carbon emissions from drained peatlands converted to agriculture in Southeast Asia (i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo) are globally significant and increasing. Here, we map the growth of Southeast Asian peatland agriculture and estimate CO 2 emissions due to peat drainage in relation to official land-use plans with a focus on the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) related Indonesian moratorium on granting new concession licenses for industrial agriculture and logging. We find that, prior to 2010, 35% of Southeast Asian peatlands had been converted to agriculture, principally by smallholder farmers (15% of original peat extent) and industrial oil palm plantations (14%). These conversions resulted in 1.46-6.43 GtCO 2 of emissions between 1990 and 2010. This legacy of historical clearances on deep peat areas will contribute 51% (4.43-11.45 GtCO 2 ) of projected peatland CO 2 emissions over the period 2010-2130. In Indonesia, which hosts most of the region's peatland and where concession maps are publicly available, 70% of peatland conversion to agriculture occurred outside of known concessions for industrial plantation development, with smallholders accounting for 60% and industrial oil palm accounting for 34%. Of the remaining Indonesian peatswamp forest (PSF), 45% is not protected, and its conversion would amount to CO 2 emissions equivalent to 0.7-2.3% (5.14-14.93 Gt) of global fossil fuel and cement emissions released between 1990-2010. Of the peatland extent included in the moratorium, 48% was no longer forested, and of the PSF included 40-48% is likely to be affected by drainage impacts from agricultural areas and will emit CO 2 over time. We suggest that recent legislation and policy in Indonesia could provide a means of meaningful emission reductions if focused on revised land-use planning, PSF conservation both inside and outside agricultural concessions, and the development of agricultural practices based on

  6. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables

  8. Technique for Reduction of Environmental Pollution from Construction Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaeva, N. V.; Klimenko, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the research on the negative impact construction wastes have on the urban environment and construction ecological safety are described. The research results are based on the statistical data and indicators calculated with the use of environmental pollution assessment in the restoration system of urban buildings technical conditions. The technique for the reduction of environmental pollution from construction wastes is scientifically based on the analytic summary of scientific and practical results for ecological safety ensuring at major overhaul and current repairs (reconstruction) of the buildings and structures. It is also based on the practical application of the probability theory method, system analysis and disperse system theory. It is necessary to execute some stages implementing the developed technique to reduce environmental pollution from construction wastes. The stages include various steps starting from information collection to the system formation with optimum performance characteristics which are more resource saving and energy efficient for the accumulation of construction wastes from urban construction units. The following tasks are solved under certain studies: basic data collection about construction wastes accumulation; definition and comparison of technological combinations at each system functional stage intended for the reduction of construction wastes discharge into the environment; assessment criteria calculation of resource saving and energy efficiency; optimum working parameters of each implementation stage are created. The urban construction technique implementation shows that the resource saving criteria are from 55.22% to 88.84%; potential of construction wastes recycling is 450 million tons of construction damaged elements (parts).

  9. Reduction of CO2 emissions by reduction of paper use for publication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Reek, J.A.

    1999-10-01

    The main research question of this study is as follows: What is the technical potential for reducing paper use in the field of publication applications in Western Europe within a time frame of 10-20 years, and what will the consequences for CO2 emissions be? To answer this central question we have defined the next four subquestions, all related to Western Europe: (1) How were the historical trends for the consumption figures of publication papers?; (2) What will be the expected publication paper consumption the next 10-20 years based on the historical trends, and what will be the influence on the related CO2 emissions?; (3) What technical opportunities do we see to reduce the future paper consumption trend for publication applications and what will be the individual and cumulative technical potential of these innovations?; (4) Does implementation of the technical opportunities lead to a significant dematerialization effect? Chapter 2 describes the chosen research method. In Chapter 3 we will introduce and define the paper types studied. Furthermore, Chapter 3 describes the detailed division of publication papers we have used in this study and the relationship with pulp and papermaking. After reading this chapter it has to be clear which paper production methods and paper types are (per ton) responsible for how much CO2 emissions. To get an overall-impression of the relevance of certain papers for CO2 emission numbers it is important to have insight into the historical consumption patterns of publication papers. Chapter 4 pays attention to these consumption patterns. Chapter 5 describes the most important trend factors that may influence future paper consumption patterns and in Chapter 6 this is translated into three possible consumption growth scenarios. The first and second growth scenarios are only based on extrapolations from historical figures, the third scenario is based on some of the most significant potential reduction measures. Furthermore, Chapter 6 gives

  10. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2014 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  11. Projects to Improve Air Quality at Ports – 2013 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) Funding Opportunity - Closed Announcement FY 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTAQ is soliciting proposals that achieve reductions in diesel emissions produced by diesel engines and diesel emissions exposure, from fleets operating at marine and inland water ports under the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA).

  12. Volume reduction of ion exchange resin by a pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, M.; Funabashi, K.; Uchida, S.; Kikuchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Volume reduction techniques, such as incineration and acid digestion, of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants are being developed with a view toward reducing radioactive waste volume and also making the final waste form more stable. The authors chose pyrolysis as a technique that can be done at low operating temperatures and low gas flow rates in a reactor vessel. Fundamental experiments were performed to clarify the resin pyrolysis characteristics, and the optimum pyrolysis temperature was determined. Consequently, a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of approx. 50 kg/batch was constructed based on the results. Using the pilot plant, the authors are now performing pyrolysis of the resins and solidification of their residues. This report will give the results of fundamental experiments and pilot plant tests

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Emission measurement techniques for advanced powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masayuki

    2000-10-01

    Recent developments in high-efficiency low-emission powertrains require the emission measurement technologies to be able to detect regulated and unregulated compounds with very high sensitivity and a fast response. For example, levels of a variety of nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds should be analysed in real time in order to develop aftertreatment systems to decrease emission of NOx for the lean burning powertrains. Also, real-time information on the emission of particulate matter for the transient operation of diesel engines and direct injection gasoline engines is invaluable. The present paper reviews newly introduced instrumentation for such emission measurement that is demanded for the developments in advanced powertrain systems. They include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fast response flame ionization detection. In addition, demands and applications of the fuel reformer developments for fuel cell electric vehicles are discussed. Besides the detection methodologies, sample handling techniques for the measurement of concentrations emitted from low emission vehicles for which the concentrations of the pollutants are significantly lower than the concentrations present in ambient air, are also described.

  14. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL FOR DETERMINATION OF EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTIONS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR HIGHWAY, NONROAD, AND STATIONARY USE DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies. The basis of the ETV will be comparison of the emissions and perf...

  15. Cogging Torque Reduction Techniques for Spoke-type IPMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrim, F. S.; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.; Jusoh, L. I.

    2017-08-01

    A spoke-type interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) is extending its tentacles in industrial arena due to good flux-weakening capability and high power density. In many of the application, high strength of permanent magnet causes the undesirable effects of high cogging torque that can aggravate performance of the motor. High cogging torque is significantly produced by IPMSM due to the similar length and the effectiveness of the magnetic air-gap. The address of this study is to analyze and compare the cogging torque effect and performance of four common techniques for cogging torque reduction such as skewing, notching, pole pairing and rotor pole pairing. With the aid of 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) by JMAG software, a 6S-4P Spoke-type IPMSM with various rotor-PM configurations has been designed. As a result, the cogging torque effect reduced up to 69.5% for skewing technique, followed by 31.96%, 29.6%, and 17.53% by pole pairing, axial pole pairing and notching techniques respectively.

  16. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction : Case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, N.; Zondervan, E.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Grievink, J.; Claus, T.; Herrmann, F.; Manitz, M.; Rose, O.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate

  17. Papers of the Canadian Institute conference: Reduction, management and trading of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for experts from various fields to discuss and exchange views and the latest information on a wide range of topics related to the reduction, management and trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The papers dealt with pertinent issues such as: (1) short and long term impacts of the Kyoto Protocol ratification for industries operating in Quebec, necessary changes and required investment, (2) calculation mechanisms for the allocation of permits, audit systems for the reduction and registration of emissions, (3) Canadian and international emission trading market, opportunities and associated risks, (4) preparation of an emission trading contract, (5) the establishment of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction and management system within companies, and (6) measures implemented by governments to assist industry in meeting emission reduction targets. Of the sixteen papers presented at the conference, 4 have been processed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Computerized data reduction techniques for nadir viewing remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

    1985-01-01

    Computer resources have been developed for the analysis and reduction of MAPS experimental data from the OSTA-1 payload. The MAPS Research Project is concerned with the measurement of the global distribution of mid-tropospheric carbon monoxide. The measurement technique for the MAPS instrument is based on non-dispersive gas filter radiometer operating in the nadir viewing mode. The MAPS experiment has two passive remote sensing instruments, the prototype instrument which is used to measure tropospheric air pollution from aircraft platforms and the third generation (OSTA) instrument which is used to measure carbon monoxide in the mid and upper troposphere from space platforms. Extensive effort was also expended in support of the MAPS/OSTA-3 shuttle flight. Specific capabilities and resources developed are discussed.

  19. Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET Using Recoil Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Sahu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANET, power conservation and utilization is an acute problem and has received significant attention from academics and industry in recent years. Nodes in MANET function on battery power, which is a rare and limited energy resource. Hence, its conservation and utilization should be done judiciously for the effective functioning of the network. In this paper, a novel protocol namely Energy Reduction Multipath Routing Protocol for MANET using Recoil Technique (AOMDV-ER is proposed, which conserves the energy along with optimal network lifetime, routing overhead, packet delivery ratio and throughput. It performs better than any other AODV based algorithms, as in AOMDV-ER the nodes transmit packets to their destination smartly by using a varying recoil off time technique based on their geographical location. This concept reduces the number of transmissions, which results in the improvement of network lifetime. In addition, the local level route maintenance reduces the additional routing overhead. Lastly, the prediction based link lifetime of each node is estimated which helps in reducing the packet loss in the network. This protocol has three subparts: an optimal route discovery algorithm amalgamation with the residual energy and distance mechanism; a coordinated recoiled nodes algorithm which eliminates the number of transmissions in order to reduces the data redundancy, traffic redundant, routing overhead, end to end delay and enhance the network lifetime; and a last link reckoning and route maintenance algorithm to improve the packet delivery ratio and link stability in the network. The experimental results show that the AOMDV-ER protocol save at least 16% energy consumption, 12% reduction in routing overhead, significant achievement in network lifetime and packet delivery ratio than Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol (AOMDV, Ad hoc on demand multipath distance vector routing protocol life

  20. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  1. an evaluation of china's carbon emission reduction policies on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emission sector, the transport sector, especially the urban traffic system, is facing much ..... and emission. The actual fuel efficiency data of every country or region .... forward “developing big traffic fast bus system” and “safeguards the road using priority ..... 2010, the total operation mileage of Beijing's rail transit network will.

  2. The challenges of the greenhouse gases emissions reduction in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, E.

    2005-09-01

    The building sector is responsible of 18% of the greenhouse gases emissions in France. This document aims to evaluate the greenhouse gases emissions of the sector and then defines technical and financial avenues worth exploring to reduce them. (A.L.B.)

  3. Model studies of limitation of carbon dioxide emissions reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report consists of two papers concerning mitigation of CO 2 emissions in Sweden, ''Limitation of carbon dioxide emissions. Socio-economic effects and the importance of international coordination'', and ''Model calculations for Sweden's energy system with carbon dioxide limitations''. Separate abstracts were prepared for both of the papers

  4. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Estimates: Potential Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Where PEy = Project emissions in year y (tCO2e), TCPJ, x, y = Total consumption of fuel type x in ... for fuel type x (gCO2 per liter), EFCH4, x = CH4 emission factor for fuel type x ..... Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy.

  5. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions reduction strategy and effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenox, Carol; Kaplan, P. Ozge

    2016-01-01

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in the availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At higher leakage levels, the additional methane emissions could offset the carbon dioxide emissions reduction benefit of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is required to meet a specific carbon dioxide reduction target across a number of scenarios in which the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with carbon dioxide emissions and a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production along with upstream methane and carbon dioxide emissions associated with production of coal and oil. While the system carbon dioxide emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show an increase in scenarios in which natural gas prices remain low and, simultaneously, methane emissions from natural gas production are higher. - Highlights: • MARKAL analysis of energy system GHG emissions reduction scenarios. • High methane leakage can eliminate the benefit that natural gas brings over coal. • A robust GHG reduction strategy takes into account upstream emissions for all fuels.

  6. The international research progress of Ammonia(NH3) emissions and emissions reduction technology in farmland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Z.; Jiao, Y.

    2017-03-01

    NH3 is the important factor leading to the grey haze, and one of the main causes of environmental problems of serious ecological imbalance, such as acid rain and air quality deterioration. The fertilizer excessive application of the current farmland results NH3 emissions intensity greatly. In order to clear the farmland NH3 emissions research status and achievements, the literature of farmland NH3 emission related were retrievaled by the SCI journals and Chinese science citation database. Some factors of NH3 emission were analyzed such as soil factors, climate factors and farmland management measures. The research progress was inductived on farmland NH3 emission reduction technology. The results will help to clarify farmland NH3 emissions research progress. The theoretical guidance was provided on the future of farmland NH3 emissions research.

  7. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  9. CO_2 emissions reduction of Chinese light manufacturing industries: A novel RAM-based global Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrouznejad, Ali; Yang, Guo-liang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has become one of the most challenging issues facing the world. Chinese government has realized the importance of energy conservation and prevention of the climate changes for sustainable development of China's economy and set targets for CO_2 emissions reduction in China. In China industry contributes 84.2% of the total CO_2 emissions, especially manufacturing industries. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity (MP) index are the widely used mathematical techniques to address the relative efficiency and productivity of a group of homogenous decision making units, e.g. industries or countries. However, in many real applications, especially those related to energy efficiency, there are often undesirable outputs, e.g. the pollutions, waste and CO_2 emissions, which are produced inevitably with desirable outputs in the production. This paper introduces a novel Malmquist–Luenberger productivity (MLP) index based on directional distance function (DDF) to address the issue of productivity evolution of DMUs in the presence of undesirable outputs. The new RAM (Range-adjusted measure)-based global MLP index has been applied to evaluate CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries. Recommendations for policy makers have been discussed. - Highlights: •CO_2 emissions reduction in Chinese light manufacturing industries are measured. •A novel RAM based Malmquist–Luenberger productivity index has been developed. •Recommendation to policy makers for reducing CO_2 reduction in China are given.

  10. Supersonic impinging jet noise reduction using a hybrid control technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Alex; Kumar, Rajan

    2015-07-01

    Control of the highly resonant flowfield associated with supersonic impinging jet has been experimentally investigated. Measurements were made in the supersonic impinging jet facility at the Florida State University for a Mach 1.5 ideally expanded jet. Measurements included unsteady pressures on a surface plate near the nozzle exit, acoustics in the nearfield and beneath the impingement plane, and velocity field using particle image velocimetry. Both passive control using porous surface and active control with high momentum microjet injection are effective in reducing nearfield noise and flow unsteadiness over a range of geometrical parameters; however, the type of noise reduction achieved by the two techniques is different. The passive control reduces broadband noise whereas microjet injection attenuates high amplitude impinging tones. The hybrid control, a combination of two control methods, reduces both broadband and high amplitude impinging tones and surprisingly its effectiveness is more that the additive effect of the two control techniques. The flow field measurements show that with hybrid control the impinging jet is stabilized and the turbulence quantities such as streamwise turbulence intensity, transverse turbulence intensity and turbulent shear stress are significantly reduced.

  11. Behavior change techniques in popular alcohol reduction apps: content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, David; Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-05-14

    Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms "alcohol" and "drink", and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were "facilitate self-recording" (54%, 33/61), "provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation" (43%, 26/61), "provide feedback on performance" (41%, 25/61), "give options for additional and later support" (25%, 15/61) and "offer/direct towards appropriate written materials" (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change interventions (mean 2.46, SD 2.06). Evidence was mentioned by 16

  12. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces; determination of emissions and emission reducing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 382.000 t of wood waste from production processes are fired in Baden-Wuerttemberg per year in 4345 furnaces with capacities of less than 1 MW (field of application of the ''1 BImSchV''). This corresponds to an energy consumption of 5600 TJ. The firings with a totally installed capacity of 594 MW are operated mainly by joiners, carpenters, in sawmills and furniture factories. Certainly there are typical differences between the diverse branches concerning the characteristics of the firings such as capacity, kind of firing, of fuel supply and heat generation. Because of lacking established emission factors, at present time the emissions of these furnaces cannot be calculated. Therefore field measurements are carried out at a representative selection of the registered installations. The emissions are measured in consideration of the usual ways of operation and the commonly used fuels. Supplementarily the compound of the emitted hydrocarbons and their dependence on completeness of the combustion as well as the compound and the grain size distribution of the particle emissions are investigated. (orig.) [de

  13. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Agricultural emissions. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus; Hahne, Jochen; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Grimm, Ewald; Doehler, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The German agricultural emission inventory is designed as an instrument of policy advice. The essential aim is to describe the emitting processes so that options for reducing emissions can be quantified. The German agricultural emission model GAS-EM uses in the field of NH 3 emissions from soils and plants in the EMEP / CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP / CORINAIR, 2002) proposed methods. These differ in emission factors between several types of fertilizers and their application to acre or grassland in function of the average spring temperature. In the field of emissions from animal husbandry GAS-EM follows a material flow approach, where initially the energy and nutrient requirements for a given power (here are weight, weight gain, milk yield, number of piglets, etc. involved) the excretion of metabolizable carbon compounds and the N excretion can be calculated with feces and urine. Subsequently, for all animal species emissions of nitrogen species NH 3 , NO, N 2 O and N 2 from the grazing, indoor housing, storage and distribution of farm fertilizers calculated. [de

  14. Analysis of CO2 emissions reduction in the Malaysian transportation sector: An optimisation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapa, Siti Indati; Bekhet, Hussain Ali

    2016-01-01

    The demand for transport services is expected to rise, causing the CO 2 emissions level to increase as well. In Malaysia, the transportation sector accounts for 28% of total CO 2 emissions, of which 85% comes from road transport. By 2020, Malaysia is targeting a reduction in CO 2 emissions intensity by up to 40% and in this effort the role of road transport is paramount. This paper attempts to investigate effective policy options that can assist Malaysia in reducing the CO 2 emissions level. An Optimisation model is developed to estimate the potential CO 2 emissions mitigation strategies for road transport by minimising the CO 2 emissions under the constraint of fuel cost and demand travel. Several mitigation strategies have been applied to analyse the effect of CO 2 emissions reduction potential. The results demonstrate that removal of fuel price subsidies can result in reductions of up to 652 ktonnes of fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions can be decreased by 6.55%, which would enable Malaysia to hit its target by 2020. CO 2 emissions can be reduced significantly, up to 20%, by employing a combination of mitigation policies in Malaysia. This suggests that appropriate mitigation policies can assist the country in its quest to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target. - Highlights: • An optimisation model for CO 2 emissions reduction in Malaysia's road transport is formulated. • Sensible policy options to achieve the CO 2 emissions reduction target are provided. • Increase in fuel price has induced shift towards fuel efficient vehicles. • The CO 2 emissions can be reduced up to 5.7 MtCO 2 with combination of mitigation policies.

  15. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Traffic emission modelling. Model comparision and alternative scenarios. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, Ulrike; Theloke, Jochen; Joerss, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    The modeling of the reference scenario and the various reduction scenarios in PAREST was based on the Central System of Emissions (CSE) (CSE, 2007). Emissions from road traffic were calculated by using the traffic emission model TREMOD (Knoerr et al., 2005) and fed into the CSE. The version TREMOD 4.17 has been used. The resulting emission levels in PAREST reference scenario were supplemented by the emission-reducing effect of the implementation of the future Euro 5 and 6 emission standards for cars and light commercial vehicles and Euro VI for heavy commercial vehicles in combination with the truck toll extension. [de

  16. Unilateral emission reductions of the EU and multilateral emission reductions of the developed countries. Assessing the impact on Finland with TIMES model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, T.; Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.

    2008-03-01

    This report assesses the impact of the unilateral greenhouse gas emission reductions proposed by the EU on the structure of European and Finnish energy systems with TIMES models. The two models used are techno-economical energy system models including an extensive description of technologies on energy production and consumption. The models derive the sectoral energy demand from given economic projections and calculate the optimal way of satisfying the energy demand through market equilibrium. The basis for EU wide calculations was the Common POLES-IMAGE economic scenarios which project a GDP growth of 2.4 % p.a. until 2020. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with a lower economic growth projection. The results indicated that a reduction of 20 % compared to 1990 emission levels by 2020 would lead to most reductions being conducted at the electricity sector. The consumption of coal in electricity generation would decrease considerably. In the long term some of the natural gas based production would incorporate carbon capture and storage (CCS), and the use of wind power would grow substantially. The value of carbon would lie at levels around 20 to 30 euro/t CO 2 by 2020 were the reductions carried out without flexibility mechanisms. With a reduction target of -30 % by 2050, the value of carbon would rise to 40 . 50 euro/t CO 2 by 2050, and nearly to 100 euro/t CO 2 with a target of -60 % in 2050. The calculations on Finland were based on economic projections by the Ministry of Finance and the Government Institute of Economic Research. The scenarios asses the optimal way of reducing Finnish emissions with a range of prices for emission rights between 20 and 50 euro/t CO 2 . The sectors not included in the emission trading scheme were assumed to conduct reductions with costs up to the value of emission rights. The use of coal was reduced after 2010, accompanied by an increase in the use of natural gas. The utilization of bioenergy increases considerable in the total

  17. Reduction emissions from transport sector - EU action against climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores and discusses the initiation and development of the EU's policies and strategies against climate change and the share experiences in the EU transport sector to reduce CO2 emission.

  18. Assessment of biodiesel scenarios for Midwest freight transport emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    There are trade-offs when attempting to reduce both greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutants for freight transport, as the control : strategies are not necessarily complimentary. While emission controls can remove ozone precursors and particulate f...

  19. Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions from Optimizing Urban Transit Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Public transit systems with efficient designs and operating plans can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to low-occupancy transportation modes, but many current transit systems have not been designed to reduce environmental impacts. This ...

  20. Reduction of NOx emission from stationary combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The environmental impacts of NO x emission from stationary combustion sources are briefly described. These include the formation of both acid rain and photochemical smog, major environmental problems. The three mechanisms which have been identified for the formation of NO x in combustion (thermal, prompt and fuel) are also briefly outlined. Recently stringent standards have been introduced to control emissions of NO x and the review describes the major primary and secondary measures. 10 refs. 2 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  2. Achieving Realistic Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in U.S. Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, Michael F.

    2011-12-01

    In recognizing that energy markets and greenhouse gas emissions are significantly influences by local factors, this research examines opportunities for achieving realistic energy greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. cities through provisions of more sustainable infrastructure. Greenhouse gas reduction opportunities are examined through the lens of a public program administrator charged with reducing emissions given realistic financial constraints and authority over emissions reductions and energy use. Opportunities are evaluated with respect to traditional public policy metrics, such as benefit-cost analysis, net benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness. Section 2 summarizes current practices used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from communities. I identify improved and alternative emissions inventory techniques such as disaggregating the sectors reported, reporting inventory uncertainty, and aligning inventories with local organizations that could facilitate emissions mitigation. The potential advantages and challenges of supplementing inventories with comparative benchmarks are also discussed. Finally, I highlight the need to integrate growth (population and economic) and business as usual implications (such as changes to electricity supply grids) into climate action planning. I demonstrate how these techniques could improve decision making when planning reductions, help communities set meaningful emission reduction targets, and facilitate CAP implementation and progress monitoring. Section 3 evaluates the costs and benefits of building energy efficiency are estimated as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Pittsburgh, PA and Austin, TX. Two policy objectives were evaluated: maximize GHG reductions given initial budget constraints or maximize social savings given target GHG reductions. This approach explicitly evaluates the trade-offs between three primary and often conflicting program design parameters: initial capital constraints, social savings

  3. A Summary of Research on Energy Saving and Emission Reduction of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dongxiang; Wu, Lufen

    2017-12-01

    Road transport is an important part of transportation, and road in the field of energy-saving emission reduction is a very important industry. According to the existing problems of road energy saving and emission reduction, this paper elaborates the domestic and international research on energy saving and emission reduction from three aspects: road network optimization, pavement material and pavement maintenance. Road network optimization may be overlooked, and the research content is still relatively preliminary; pavement materials mainly from the asphalt pavement temperature mixed asphalt technology research; pavement maintenance technology development is relatively comprehensive.

  4. Fumigant emission reductions with TIF warrant regulatory changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Ajwa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With methyl bromide's phase-out, most growers have turned to alternative fumigants, particularly 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D and chloropicrin. These alternatives are tightly regulated because they are classified as toxic air contaminants and volatile organic compounds; the latter combine with other substances to produce ground-level ozone (smog. Two ambient air monitoring studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of totally impermeable film (TIF to reduce emissions from shank applications of chloropicrin and 1,3-D. In 2009, a study demonstrated that TIF reduced chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 45% and 38%, respectively, but TIF did not reduce total emissions when it was cut after 6 days. In 2011, increasing the tarp period from 5 to 10 days decreased chloropicrin and 1,3-D peak emissions by 88% and 78%, and their total emissions by 64% and 43%, respectively. Concurrent dynamic flux chamber results corroborated the ambient air monitoring data. These studies provide regulatory agencies with mitigation measures that should allow continued fumigant use at efficacious application rates.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission reduction by means of fuel switching in electricity generation: Addressing the potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2008-01-01

    Many countries committed themselves in the Kyoto protocol to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some of these targeted emission reductions could result from a switch from coal-fired to gas-fired electricity generation. The focus in this work lies on Western Europe, with the presence of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). For the switching to occur, several conditions have to be fulfilled. First, an economical incentive must be present, i.e. a sufficiently high European Union Allowance (EUA) price together with a sufficiently low natural gas price. Second, the physical potential for switching must exist, i.e. at a given load, there must remain enough power plants not running to make switching possible. This paper investigates what possibilities exist for switching coal-fired plants for gas-fired plants, dependent on the load level (the latter condition above). A fixed allowance cost and a variable natural gas price are assumed. The method to address GHG emission reduction potentials is first illustrated in a methodological case. Next, the GHG emission reduction potentials are addressed for several Western European countries together with a relative positioning of their electricity generation. GHG emission reduction potentials are also compared with simulation results. GHG emission reduction potentials tend to be significant. The Netherlands have a very widespread switching zone, so GHG emission reduction is practically independent of electricity generation. Other counties, like Germany, Spain and Italy could reduce GHG emissions significantly by switching. With an allowance cost following the switch level of a 50% efficient gas-fired plant and a 40% efficient coal-fired plant in the summer season (like in 2005), the global GHG emission reduction (in the electricity generating sector) for the eight modeled zones could amount to 19%

  6. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the

  7. Probe beam deflection technique as acoustic emission directionality sensor with photoacoustic emission source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ronald A; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph; Shadaram, Mehdi

    2014-01-20

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the unique capability of measuring the vector or angular information of propagating acoustic waves using an optical sensor. Acoustic waves were generated using photoacoustic interaction and detected by the probe beam deflection technique. Experiments and simulations were performed to study the interaction of acoustic emissions with an optical sensor in a coupling medium. The simulated results predict the probe beam and wavefront interaction and produced simulated signals that are verified by experiment.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Estimates: Potential Use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , substituting a fraction of the currently used petroleum fuels ... Out of the 1,249,170 tCO2e emitted in 2007, the emissions of CO2 from gasoline and diesel were 25 % and 39 %, respectively. 151,950 vehicles using gasoline were circulating on ...

  9. 10 CFR 300.7 - Net emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the likely direct and indirect effects of the actions taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (d... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.7... gases listed in the definition of “greenhouse gases” in § 300.2 are eligible for registration. (b...

  10. Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and cost by shipping at lower speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjornslett, Bjorn E.; Stromman, Anders H.

    2011-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from maritime transport represent a significant part of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. According to the International Maritime Organization (), maritime transport emitted 1046 million tons (all tons are metric) of CO 2 in 2007, representing 3.3% of the world's total CO 2 emissions. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating both technical and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper presents investigations on the effects of speed reductions on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport, for which the selection of ship classes was made to facilitate an aggregated representation of the world fleet. The results show that there is a substantial potential for reducing CO 2 emissions in shipping. Emissions can be reduced by 19% with a negative abatement cost (cost minimization) and by 28% at a zero abatement cost. Since these emission reductions are based purely on lower speeds, they can in part be performed now. - Highlights: → We investigates the effects of speed reductions for maritime transport. → The selection of ship classes represent the words fleet. → The transport volumes are kept constant. → The model includes both cost and emissions as a function of speed. → The results show that there is a substantial potential for reducing CO 2 emissions from shipping.

  11. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  12. Differences in regional emissions in China's transport sector: Determinants and reduction strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bin; Lin, Boqiang

    2016-01-01

    With recent surge in the number of vehicles, particularly private vehicles, the transport sector has significantly contributed to the increase in energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in China. Most of the existing researches utilized time series data to investigate the factors influencing transport sector's carbon dioxide emission at the national level while neglecting the level of regional differences. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2000 to 2012 and panel data models to examine the key driving forces of carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector at the regional level in China. The estimation results show that the impacts of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector vary across regions and decline continuously from the western region to the eastern and central regions. Private vehicles are more important than cargo turnover in emission reduction because of its relatively inefficient and excessive growth. The role of energy efficiency improvement in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions in the three regions varies due to significant differences in research and development investment and management efficiency. Hence, in order to effectively achieve emission reduction, local governments should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate mitigation policies. - Highlights: • The factors of carbon dioxide emissions in China's transport sector were explored. • The impact of urbanization on carbon dioxide emissions varies across regions. • Private vehicles are more critical than cargo turnover in emission reduction. • The role of energy efficiency in the three regions is exactly the opposite.

  13. Primary Aluminum Reduction Industry - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emission standards for each new or existing potline, paste production operation, and anode bake furnace associated with a primary aluminum reduction plant. Includes rule history, implementation information and additional resources.

  14. Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction for the Public in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wujun Wen; Xiaowen Liu; Geng Xu (Research Center for Sustainable Development of Shandong Province, Shandong Normal Univ., Jinan Shandong 250014 (China)). e-mail: wenwj@sdnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-15

    The Ministry of Science and Technology of China organized experts to develop the Internet-based software Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction to directly measure energy conservation and emission reduction potentials in people's daily lives. Research and testing of the software have been completed, and the software is available to the public on the Internet. The Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction software is being promoted with the aim of stimulating the public's enthusiasm for energy conservation and emission reduction. The software is of great significance in energy conservation and emission reduction education oriented to elementary and middle school students and community residents, thus changing the lagged public participation of Chinese citizens in energy conservation and emission reduction. The counter can calculate people's energy conservation and emission reduction potential in six aspects of daily life. The user can know his or her value of energy conservation and emission reduction in each aspect by clicking the options in keeping with his or her true daily routines. The user can also know the amounts of energy conservation and emission reduction as well as the potential energy conservation and emission reduction of the whole nation by clicking the Effect Calculation Button. Family life areas mainly include the methods and habits of water use, the use of energy conservation cookers, methods of saving paper, the use of environmental protection products, the habit of home appliance use, and the methods of washing clothing, especially the use of the washing machine with the function of energy conservation. Housing includes the building materials, the heating and cooling systems, the temperature control measures, and the lighting, etc. Heating and cooling times for the house by air conditioner should be reduced. Architects can do a great deal by using energy-efficient building materials and designing houses

  15. Achieving carbon emission reduction through industrial and urban symbiosis: A case of Kawasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Huijuan; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Fujii, Minoru; Dong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Industry and fossil fuel combustion are the main sources for urban carbon emissions. Most studies focus on energy consumption emission reduction and energy efficiency improvement. Material saving is also important for carbon emission reduction from a lifecycle perspective. IS (Industrial symbiosis) and U r S (urban symbiosis) have been effective since both of them encourage byproduct exchange. However, quantitative carbon emission reduction evaluation on applying them is still lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to fill such a gap through a case study in Kawasaki Eco-town, Japan. A hybrid LCA model was employed to evaluate to the lifecycle carbon footprint. The results show that lifecycle carbon footprints with and without IS and U r S were 26.66 Mt CO 2 e and 30.92 Mt CO 2 e, respectively. The carbon emission efficiency was improved by 13.77% with the implementation of IS and U r S. The carbon emission reduction was mainly from “iron and steel” industry, cement industry and “paper making” industry, with figures of 2.76 Mt CO 2 e, 1.16 Mt CO 2 e and 0.34 Mt CO 2 e, respectively. Reuse of scrape steel, blast furnace slag and waste paper are all effective measures for promoting carbon emission reductions. Finally, policy implications on how to further promote IS and U r S are presented. - Highlights: • We evaluate carbon emission reduction of industrial and urban symbiosis (IS/U r S). • Hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate lifecycle carbon footprint. • Carbon emission efficiency was improved by 13.77% after applying IS/U r S. • The importance of U r S in responding carbon reduction was addressed in the paper

  16. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas M; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO{sub 2} emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 75-88 kg and oil use by 0.99-1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO{sub 2} emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO{sub 2} emission or oil use reduction is prioritised. (author)

  17. Emission Reduction Potential with the Renewal of the Vehicle Fleet in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidov, B.; Brlek, G.; Brajkovic, J.; Karan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The European Union has identified the typical areas of application of measures to tackle the problem of pollutants emissions into the air. Road transport is recognized as the largest polluter of the environment and an increase in CO2 emissions is most difficult to suppress in this type of transport. Looking at the projected trend of emission reductions in Croatia, it is clear that for achieving the minimum targets by 2050, as proposed by the European Union, implementation of the very strong measures in the coming period will be inevitable. The main aim of the paper refers to the analysis of potential emission reduction of pollutants generated by passenger vehicles registered in Croatia, assuming the implementation of measures that will result in technological renewal of the fleet at the national level. Generally considering, passenger cars before the Euro 1 standard, Euro 1 and Euro 2 standards together emit nearly 40 percent of all CO2 emissions generated by passenger cars registered in Croatia. Assuming replacement of all cars up to and including Euro 2, with Euro 6 vehicles, and taking into account certain assumptions, the potential reductions in emissions of NOx, CO, CH4 and particles were quantified. The potential reduction in NOx emissions is approximately 3,061 tons, in CO emissions approximately 14482 tons, in CH4 approximately 114 tons and in particulate matter approximately 257 tons. Depending on the engine size, with the replacement of the typical gasoline 20 years old passenger vehicle with the new one, without changing the driving mode, annual savings of up to 209 liters of gasoline fuel and reduction of CO2 emissions by 475 kg could be achieved (according to the assumptions described in the paper). With the replacement of diesel vehicles under the same conditions, the savings of up to 311 liters of diesel fuel annually and reduction of CO2 emissions by 815 kg could be achieved. (author).

  18. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction: Case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, N.; Zondervan, E.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Fransoo, J.C.; Grievink, J.; Claus, T.; Herrmann, F.; Manitz, M.; Rose, O.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate sources, capture process, transportation network and CO2 storage sites and optimize for a minimum overall cost. Initially, we screen the sources and storage options available in the Netherlands at diffe...

  19. NOx reduction and NO2 emission characteristics in rich-lean combustion of hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Toshio; Omori, Kento; Hiyama, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is a clean alternative to conventional hydrocarbon fuels, but it is very important to reduce the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions generated by hydrogen combustion. The rich-lean combustion or staged combustion is known to reduce NOx emissions from continuous combustion burners such as gas turbines and boilers, and NOx reduction effects have been demonstrated for hydrocarbon fuels. The authors applied rich-lean combustion to a hydrogen gas turbine and showed its NOx reduction effect in...

  20. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane is a gas cows naturally produce in the rumen. However, it is also a potential greenhouse gas. Therefore, there is a certain interest from an environmental point of view to reduce methane emissions from dairy cows. Estimates from earlier studies indicate that there is a potential to reduce...... methane production by 10 to 25% by changing the feeding strategies. Several feedstuffs influence methane production, such as additional fat. The increase of the concentrate proportion can potentially decrease methane by decreasing the rumen degradability of the diet or by changing the rumen fermentation......, while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  1. India’s GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    India has made voluntary commitment for reducing the emission intensity of GDP in the year 2020 by 20–25 % below that in the year 2005. The Indian approach is based on delineating and implementing cost-effective mitigation actions which can contribute to national sustainable development goals while...... an optimal roadmap of actions in India which can maximize net total benefits of carbon emissions mitigation and national sustainable development. A key contribution of the paper is the estimation of the net social value of carbon in India which is an important input for provisioning carbon finance...... model ANSWER-MARKAL, which is embedded within a soft-linked integrated model system (SLIMS). The central themes of the three scenario storylines and assumptions are as follows: first, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that assumes the socioeconomic development to happen along the conventional path...

  2. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vinasse through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Petersen, Søren O.; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Vinasse is a residue from bioethanol production that is produced in large quantities in Brazil and Europe and is applied to fields as a source of plant nutrients (fertirrigation). A side effect of this use is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during storage and transport in open channels to fields...... with digestate, ranging from 0.173 to 0.193 kg CO2eq m−2 in the former and from 0.045 to 0.100 kg CO2eq m−2 in the latter. Extrapolation of the results to a Brazilian case indicated that AD treatment prior to storage/transport and field application could reduce GHG emissions from the vinasse management chain...

  3. Predator-induced reduction of freshwater carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Trisha B.; Hammill, Edd; Greig, Hamish S.; Kratina, Pavel; Shurin, Jonathan B.; Srivastava, Diane S.; Richardson, John S.

    2013-03-01

    Predators can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between ecosystems and the atmosphere by altering ecosystem processes such as decomposition and primary production, according to food web theory. Empirical knowledge of such an effect in freshwater systems is limited, but it has been suggested that predators in odd-numbered food chains suppress freshwater carbon dioxide emissions, and predators in even-numbered food chains enhance emissions. Here, we report experiments in three-tier food chains in experimental ponds, streams and bromeliads in Canada and Costa Rica in the presence or absence of fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and invertebrate (Hesperoperla pacifica and Mecistogaster modesta) predators. We monitored carbon dioxide fluxes along with prey and primary producer biomass. We found substantially reduced carbon dioxide emissions in the presence of predators in all systems, despite differences in predator type, hydrology, climatic region, ecological zone and level of in situ primary production. We also observed lower amounts of prey biomass and higher amounts of algal and detrital biomass in the presence of predators. We conclude that predators have the potential to markedly influence carbon dioxide dynamics in freshwater systems.

  4. Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    (1) We estimate CO 2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find −15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ► Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ► Net carbon exports: industrialized region −15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ► CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ► The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ► They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

  5. Transition paths towards CO2 emission reduction in the steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, Berend Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    Radiative forcing, better known as the Greenhouse Effect, is probably the major 21st century environmental problem. Its probable cause is the anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, especially CO2. The Kyoto agreement enforces considerable reductions of the GHG emissions in 2010, with 6 to 8% of

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Emission Reduction for the Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Kamia; Krozer, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of research on the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction in the selected coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Indonesia. The background of this research is the trend of more stringent environmental regulation regarding air emission from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs)

  7. Carbon emission reduction targeting through process integration and fuel switching with mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiew, B.J.; Shuhaimi, M.; Hashim, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions reduction targeting for existing plant were categorized into three groups. ► Model for CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via combination approach was developed. ► Effect of combination approach onto HEN area efficiency was discussed. ► Proposed execution strategy can avoid HEN area efficiency deterioration. -- Abstract: Carbon emission reduction targeting is an important and effective effort for industry to contribute in controlling greenhouse gases concentration in atmosphere. Graphical approach has been proposed for CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via HEN retrofit and fuel switching. However, it involves potentially time consuming manual procedures and the quality of solutions produced greatly depends on designer’s experience and judgment. Besides, graphical approach hardly account for the cost factor during the design phase, thus potentially generate complex design. This paper introduces an MINLP model for simultaneous CO 2 emissions reduction targeting via fuel switching and HEN retrofit. A sequential model execution was proposed along with the proposed model. The application of the model on a crude preheat train case study has demonstrated its workability to generate optimal solution for targeted CO 2 emissions reduction at minimum payback period.

  8. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  9. Optimal production resource reallocation for CO2 emissions reduction in manufacturing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    To mitigate the effects of climate change, countries worldwide are advancing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper proposes and measures optimal production resource reallocation using data envelopment analysis. This research attempts to clarify the effect of optimal production resource reallocation on CO2 emissions reduction, focusing on regional and industrial characteristics. We use finance, energy, and CO2 emissions data from 13 industrial sectors in 39 countries from...

  10. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  11. Impact of Agricultural Emission Reductions on Fine Particulate Matter and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Tsimpidi, A.; Karydis, V.; De Meij, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2017-12-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, South and East Asia. Hypothetical reduction of agricultural emission of 50%, 66% and 100% have been simulated and compared with the reference simulation. The simulations results reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, and this effect can almost be exclusively explain by the reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions, released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases, although the relative reduction is very low (below 13% for a full removal of agricultural emissions) . Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically and an ammonia limited regions of aerosol growth is reached. Further, our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. It is calculated that ammonia emission controls could reduce the particle pH up to 1.5 pH-units in East Asia during winter, and more than 1.7 pH-units in South Asia, theoretically assuming complete agricultural emission removal, which could have repercussions for the reactive uptake of gases from the gas phase and the outgassing of relative weak acids. It is finally shown that a 50% reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30%, 19% , 8% and 3% over North America, Europe and South Asia and East Asia, respectively

  12. Condition monitoring of a check valve for nuclear power plants by means of acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. R.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. T.; Kim, J. S.; Luk, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    This work performed in support of the International Nuclear Energy Research Institute (INERI) program, which was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensor and computational technology for on-line monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). This primary object of this work is to investigate advanced condition monitoring systems based on acoustic emission detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degeneration and service aging so that maintenance/replacement could be preformed prior to loss safety function. The research is focused on the capability of AE technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation check valve failure and undesirable operating modes. This work also includes the investigation and adaptation of several advanced sensor technologies such as accelerometer and advanced ultrasonic technique. In addition, this work will develop advanced sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms from check valve degradation.

  13. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5, with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3 released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  14. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Andrea; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; de Meij, Alexander; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-10-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ˜ 250 000 people yr-1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  15. COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING: ALTERNATIVE COUNSELING TECHNIQUES TO REDUCTION ACADEMIC PROCRASTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Sofiana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procrastination is often experienced by almost everyone, including students who often delay to resolve any responsibility in the academic process that would decrease the individual academic achievement. cognitive restructuring is one of the cognitive techniques used in counseling in addition to cognitive behavioral techniques (behavioral and didaktif techniques. This technique has several procedures by focusing on identifying an effort and changing dysfunctional thoughts or negative self-statements into a new belief that is more rational and adaptive, which will affect more rational behavior anyway. Cognitive restructuring techniques assessed to be an alternative counseling techniques in reducing academic procrastination.

  16. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  17. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the leve...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  18. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  19. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  20. Mechanical seal monitoring technique by acoustic emission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Tadashi; Fujita, Yoshihiro; Kawaguchi, Kazunori; Saito, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Setsuo; Hisada, Yasuhide; Masahiro, Komatsu

    1987-09-20

    This report describes a technique for mechanical seal monitoring through acoustic emission (AE) measurement. The equipment consists of an AE sensor, preamplifier, multiplexer, main amplifier, effective value transducer and computer system. When the sealed liquid pressure undergoes a large change, the seal surface configuration is monitored and evaluated accurately through AE measurement. If the mechanical seal surface id damaged or worn, the AE level is kept high or continues to fluctuate largely for a rather long period. When leak occurs, the AE value shows great fluctuations either at extremely low levels or at high levels. The former trend is considered to result from a decrease in solid contact due to an excessive amount of liquid film being formed at the seal surface during leak. In the latter case, the leak is attributed to severe damage to the seal surface. (18 figs, 1 tab, 5 photos, 3 refs)

  1. Households Willingness to Pay for the Emissions Reduction Policy, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Williams

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines households’ willingness to support the emissions reduction policy and their perceptions of climate change using an Internet survey of more than 1,000 households in Queensland, Australia. Respondents were asked for their willingness to pay (WTP to support the emissions reduction target proposed by the Australian Government by paying extra on their electricity bills. The results can be summarized in four key findings. First, respondents’ WTP to support the emissions reduction target is higher if they perceive that climate change will result in high loss of biodiversity. Second, respondents were willing to support a higher emissions target than proposed by the Australian Government. Third, there is a correlation between respondents WTP to support the emissions reduction and their beliefs about climate change, its effect on standards of living, the environment, and future generations. Fourth, as the data show a high rate of zero responses, common for the contingent valuation method (CVM used in the survey, the zero bids were further investigated using the non-parametric Turnbull model and the more recent spike model. The results showed that although there is some support for the emissions reduction policy, it is not sufficient for the policy to be successful.

  2. Fundamental research on sintering technology with super deep bed achieving energy saving and reduction of emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongliang Han; Shengli Wu; Gensheng Feng; Luowen Ma; Weizhong Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In the general frame of energy saving, environment protection and the concept of circular economy, the fundamental research on the sintering technology with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and emission reduction, was carried out. At first, the characteristics of the process and exhaust emission in the sintering with super deep bed was mastered through the study of the influence of different bed depths on the sintering process. Then, considering the bed permeability and the fuel combustion, their influence on the sinter yield and quality, their potential for energy saving and emission reduction was studied. The results show that the improvement of the bed permeability and of the fuel combustibility respectively and simultaneously, leads to an improvement of the sintering technical indices, to energy saving and emission reduction in the condition of super deep bed. At 1000 mm bed depth, and taking the appropriate countermeasure, it is possible to decrease the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 10.08%, 11.20%, 22.62% and 25.86% respectively; and at 700 mm bed depth, it is possible to reduce the solid fuel consumption and the emission of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x by 20.71%, 22.01%, 58.86% and 13.13% respectively. This research provides the theoretical and technical basis for the new technology of sintering with super deep bed, achieving energy saving and reduction of emission. (authors)

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  4. Oceanic emissions of sulfur: Application of new techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodwalis, Clara Mary

    Sulfur gases and aerosols are important in the atmosphere because they play major roles in acid rain, arctic haze, air pollution, and climate. Globally, man-made and natural sulfur emissions are comparable in magnitude. The major natural source is dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the oceans, where it originates from the degradation of dimethysulfonioproprionate (DMSP), a compound produced by marine phytoplankton. Global budgets of natural sulfur emissions are uncertain because of (1) the uncertainty in the traditional method used to estimate DMS sea-to-air flux, and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of DMS sea-to-air flux. We have worked to lessen the uncertainty on both fronts. The commonly used method for estimating DMS sea-to-air flux is certain to a factor of two, at best. We used a novel instrumental technique to measure, for the first time, sulfur gas concentration fluctuations in the marine boundary layer. The measured concentration fluctuations were then used with two established micrometeorological techniques to estimate sea-to-air flux of sulfur. Both methods appear to be more accurate than the commonly used one. The analytical instrument we used in our studies shows potential as a direct flux measurement device. High primary productivity in high-latitude oceans suggests a potentially large DMS source from northern oceans. To begin to investigate this hypothesis, we have measured DMS in the air over northern oceans around Alaska. For integrating and extrapolating field measurements over larger areas and longer time periods, we have developed a model of DMS ocean mixing, biological production, and sea-to-air flux of DMS. The model's main utility is in gaining intuition on which parameters are most important to DMS sea-to-air flux. This information, along with a direct flux measurement capability, are crucial steps toward the long-term goal of remotely sensing DMS flux. A remote sensing approach will mitigate the problems of spatial and temporal

  5. Calculation and reduction of the sound emissions of overhead power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straumann, U.

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, Ulrich Straumann of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland, discusses the reduction of sound emissions from overhead power lines. Corona-discharges occur during wet weather or when foggy or icing conditions prevail. Apart from these wide-band crackling noises, low-frequency, tonal emissions also occur. The CONOR (Corona Noise Reduction) project examined these emissions at a frequency of twice the mains frequency and looked for economically feasible solutions to the problems caused by them. The source of these emissions and the mechanisms causing them are discussed. Also, ways of calculating their strength are presented. The effects of varying cable geometry and construction are discussed, as are hydrophilic coatings that could be used to reduce sound emissions.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction from fossil fuels: options and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    If levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are to be stabilized over the next 50 years, net emissions from the use of fossil fuels have to be reduced. One concept worth exploring is the removal of carbon dioxide from plant flue gases and disposing of it in a manner that sequesters it from the atmosphere. A number of technologies, which are either commercially available or under development, promise to make this concept viable. The question of where to dispose of the carbon dioxide removed is not the limiting factor, given the potential for use in enhanced hydrocarbon production as well as other geological disposal options. In the longer term, fossil fuel use will significantly decline, but these extraction and sequestration technologies can provide the time for the transition to take place in a manner which causes least impact to the economies of the world. (author)

  7. Climate change : enhanced : recent reductions in China's greenhouse gas emissions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streets, D. G.; Jiang, K.; Hu, X.; Sinton, J. E.; Zhang, X.-Q.; Xu, D.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Hansen, J. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Energy Research Inst.; LBNL; Chinese Academy of Forestry; Stanford Univ.; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    2001-11-30

    Using the most recent energy and other statistical data, we have estimated the annual trends in China's greenhouse gas emissions for the period 1990 to 2000. The authors of this Policy Forum calculate that CO2 emissions declined by 7.3% between 1996 and 2000, while CH4 emissions declined by 2.2% between 1997 and 2000. These reductions were due to a combination of energy reforms, economic restructuring, forestry policies, and economic slowdown. The effects of these emission changes on global mean temperatures are estimated and compared with the effects of concurrent changes in two aerosol species, sulfate and black carbon.

  8. Emission reduction by means of low temperature plasma. Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Fateev, Alexander; Kusano, Yukihiro

    2006-01-01

    ammonia (NH3) and nitrogen atoms (N) generated in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs). Hydrazine (N2H4) as a reducing agent and direct plasma treatment of the entire exhaust gas was investigated as well. Weperformed laboratory experiments on synthetic exhaust gases, modelling of the mechanisms......The work performed during the project is summarised. In the project we focused on removal of nitrogen oxides NOx (NO, NO2) and, in particular, on removal of nitrogen monoxide (NO) by injection of plasma-produced reactive agents. As reactive agents wetested ozone (O3), NH and NH2 radicals from...... and a demonstration of the technique on a test engine, a 30 kW combustion engine fuelled with natural gas. We achieved the best results with ozone injection into theexhaust gas. This technique is based on oxidation of NO to N2O5 that is subsequently removed from the exhaust gas by a scrubber. In the laboratory...

  9. Detection and reduction of diffuse liquid and gas emissions in chemical and petrochemical industries; Ermittlung und Verminderung diffuser fluessiger und gasfoermiger Emissionen in der chemischen und petrochemischen Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeppke, K.E. [Witten-Herdecke Univ. gGmbH, Witten (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik und Management; Cuhls, C. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelttechnik

    2002-09-01

    In order to improve environmental protection, VOC emissions from diffuse sources are of growing importance. For the first time in Germany the present research report gives a detailed presentation of: constructive measures for the avoidance and reduction of diffuse emissions, adequate assembling procedures for equipments and installations, technical possibilities of leak detection and, different methods for the estimation of total emissions from chemical and petrochemical production plants. On the basis of own investigations and monitoring measures taken at various plants of chemical and petrochemical industries different measuring techniques for leak detection as well as methods for the estimation of total emissions from diffuse sources are analysed and their limits are described. (orig.)

  10. Reduction of PM emissions from specific sources reflected on key components concentrations of ambient PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillon, M. C.; Querol, X.; Monfort, E.; Alastuey, A.; Escrig, A.; Celades, I.; Miro, J. V.

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM10 components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits (middle product for the manufacture of ceramic glaze) are produced. The PM10 emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000 to 2007 taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems (mainly bag filters) were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/CE, leading to a marked decrease in PM10 emissions. On the other hand, ambient PM10 sampling was carried out from April 2002 to July 2008 at three urban sites and one suburban site of the area and a complete chemical analysis was made for about 35 % of the collected samples, by means of different techniques (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, Ion Chromatography, selective electrode and elemental analyser). The series of chemical composition of PM10 allowed us to apply a source contribution model (Principal Component Analysis), followed by a multilinear regression analysis, so that PM10 sources were identified and their contribution to bulk ambient PM10 was quantified on a daily basis, as well as the contribution to bulk ambient concentrations of the identified key components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl). The contribution of the sources identified as the manufacture and use of ceramic glaze components, including the manufacture of ceramic frits, accounted for more than 65, 75, 58, 53, and 53% of ambient Zn, As, Pb, Cs and Tl levels, respectively (with the exception of Tl contribution at one of the sites). The important emission reductions of these sources during the study period had an impact on ambient key components levels, such that there was a high

  11. Carbon flow analysis and Carbon emission reduction of FCC in Chinese oil refineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fengrui; Wei, Na; Ma, Danzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The major problem of the energy production in oil refineries is the high emission of CO2 in China. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCC) is the key source of carbon emission in the oil refineries. According to the statistical data, the carbon emission of FCC unit accounts for more than 31% for the typical oil refineries. The carbon flow of FCC in the typical Chinese oil refineries were evaluated and analysed, which aimed at the solution of CO2 emission reduction. The method of substances flow analysis (SFA) and the mathematical programming were used to evaluate the carbon metabolism and optimize the carbon emission. The results indicated that the combustion emission of the reaction-regeneration subsystem (RRS) was the major source of FCC. The quantity of CO2 emission of RSS was more than 90%. The combustion efficiency and the amount of residual oil affected the carbon emission of RRS most according to the optimized analysis of carbon emission reduction. Moreover, the fractionation subsystem (TFS) had the highest environmental efficiency and the absorption-stabilization subsystem (ASS) had the highest resource efficiency (approximately to 1) of carbon.

  12. Process industry energy retrofits: the importance of emission baselines for greenhouse gas reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadahl, Anders; Harvey, Simon; Berntsson, Thore

    2004-01-01

    Fuel combustion for heat and/or electric power production is often the largest contributor of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an industrial process plant. Economically feasible options to reduce these emissions include fuel switching and retrofitting the plant's energy system. Process integration methods and tools can be used to evaluate potential retrofit measures. For assessing the GHG emissions reduction potential for the measures considered, it is also necessary to define appropriate GHG emission baselines. This paper presents a systematic GHG emission calculation method for retrofit situations including improved heat exchange, integration of combined heat and power (CHP) units, and combinations of both. The proposed method is applied to five different industrial processes in order to compare the impact of process specific parameters and energy market specific parameters. For potential GHG emission reductions the results from the applied study reveal that electricity grid emissions are significantly more important than differences between individual processes. Based on the results of the study, it is suggested that for sustainable investment decision considerations a conservative emission baseline is most appropriate. Even so, new industrial CHP in the Northern European energy market could play a significant role in the common effort to decrease GHG emissions

  13. Choosing greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demerse, C.; Bramley, M.; Craig, L.

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing consensus in Canada that climate change needs to be addressed through concrete actions. The implementation of specific policies have been impeded by concerns over economic costs. However, uncertainty over the course of policy creates a cost since businesses have little idea how to factor future environmental policies into their planning. This report examined the policy tools that federal and provincial governments have at their disposal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon pricing (through cap-and-trade systems or carbon taxes), regulated standards, subsidies, infrastructure spending, research and development, and voluntary initiatives. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of these policy options, the study assessed them against a set of criteria that included environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, fairness and cost-effectiveness. The report also reviewed the real-world experience with the implementation of these policy options in Canada and internationally. In particular, the report examined carbon pricing mechanisms in detail and explored the best ways to use revenues raised through carbon pricing, and the best options to mitigate any reduced international competitiveness that Canadian industries may encounter. The report concluded with a discussion of areas for further research. It was concluded that climate policy in Canada raises a host of jurisdictional questions that would benefit from further research. 7 tabs., 2 appendices

  14. Particulate emission reduction in small-scale biomass combustion plants by a condensing heat exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, de C.J.J.M.; Kemenade, van H.P.; Brunner, T.; Obernberger, I.

    2008-01-01

    Use of biomass fuels for energy purposes has gained increasing importance as a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In comparison to gaseous and liquid fossil fuels, the emissions of particulate matter are higher, leading to concerns about the availability of cost-effective techniques to

  15. Potential energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of China's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Jing; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes current energy and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission trends in China's cement industry as the basis for modeling different levels of cement production and rates of efficiency improvement and carbon reduction in 2011–2030. Three cement output projections are developed based on analyses of historical production and physical and macroeconomic drivers. For each of these three production projections, energy savings and CO 2 emission reduction potentials are estimated in a best practice scenario and two continuous improvement scenarios relative to a frozen scenario. The results reveal the potential for cumulative final energy savings of 27.1 to 37.5 exajoules and energy-related direct emission reductions of 3.2 to 4.4 gigatonnes in 2011–2030 under the best practice scenarios. The continuous improvement scenarios produce cumulative final energy savings of 6.0 to 18.9 exajoules and reduce CO 2 emissions by 1.0 to 2.4 gigatonnes. This analysis highlights that increasing energy efficiency is the most important policy measure for reducing the cement industry's energy and emissions intensity, given the current state of the industry and the unlikelihood of significant carbon capture and storage before 2030. In addition, policies to reduce total cement production offer the most direct way of reducing total energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. - Highlights: ► This study models output and efficiency improvements in Chinese cement industry from 2011–2030. ► Energy savings and CO 2 emission reductions estimated for 3 scenarios relative to frozen scenario. ► Results reveal cumulative final energy savings potential of 27.1–37.5 EJ and 3.2–4.4 Gt CO 2 reductions. ► Increasing efficiency is the most important policy for reducing cement energy and emissions intensity.

  16. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  17. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: emissions, costs and employment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO 2 emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: (1) accurately models random outages of generating units, 'must-run' constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and (2) runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emission trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable

  18. Strategies for emission reduction from thermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisyazhniuk, Vitaly A

    2006-07-01

    Major polluters of man's environment are thermal power stations (TPS) and power plants, which discharge into the atmosphere the basic product of carbon fuel combustion, CO2, which results in a build-up of the greenhouse effect and global warm-up of our planet's climate. This paper is intended to show that the way to attain environmental safety of the TPS and to abide by the decisions of the Kyoto Protocol lies in raising the efficiency of the heat power stations and reducing their fuel consumption by using nonconventional thermal cycles. Certain equations have been derived to define the quantitative interrelationship between the growth of efficiency of the TPS, decrease in fuel consumption and reduction of discharge of dust, fuel combustion gases, and heat into the environment. New ideas and new technological approaches that result in raising the efficiency of the TPS are briefly covered: magneto-hydrodynamic resonance, the Kalina cycle, and utilizing the ambient heat by using, as the working medium, low-boiling substances.

  19. Liposuction-assisted four pedicle-based breast reduction (LAFPBR): A new safer technique of breast reduction for elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Padula, Simone; Hersant, Barbara; Noel, Warren; Meningaud, Jean Paul

    2018-05-01

    As older people increasingly care for their body image and remain active longer, the demand for reduction mammaplasty is increasing in this population. Only a few studies of reduction mammaplasty have specifically focussed on the outcomes in elderly women. We developed a new breast reduction technique: the Liposuction-Assisted Four Pedicle-Based Breast Reduction (LAFPBR) that is especially indicated for elderly patients. The aim of this paper was to describe the LAFPBR technique and to determine whether it could be considered a safer option for elderly patients compared to the superomedial pedicle (SMP) technique. A retrospective study included sixty-two women aged 60 years and over who underwent bilateral breast reduction mammaplasty. Thirty-one patients underwent LAFPBR and 31 patients were operated using the SMP technique. Complications and patient satisfaction in both groups were analysed. Patient satisfaction was measured using a validated questionnaire: the client satisfaction questionnaire 8 (CSQ-8). The LAFPBR technique required less operating time, and avoided significant blood loss. Six minor complications were observed in SMP patients. No LAFPBR women developed a procedure-related complication. Patient satisfaction was high with a mean score of 29.65 in LAFPBR patients and 28.68 in SMP patients. The LAFPBR is an easy procedure that appears safer than SMP and results in a high satisfaction rate in elderly women. Copyright © 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Options for the reduction of gases emissions of greenhouse effect (GEI), Colombia 1998 -2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez M, Humberto; Gonzalez B, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    Taking into account the greenhouse gas emissions for Colombia in year 2010, different options for reduction of GHG emissions were considered. Twenty-four options were evaluated from economical and technical points of view, with a total reduction potential of 31.7 M ton/ year of CO 2 equivalent. About 75% of this potential could be developed in the forestry sector and 25% in energy projects. If the proposed measures can to be implemented, the country's emissions will be 143.5 M ton/year of co2 by 2010: this means that Colombia will have lowered its emissions not only to the 1990 level but down to 14% below this level

  1. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    gas emissions per person and year was found to be 78 kg in an optimistic scenario and 25 kg in a pessimistic scenario. Extrapolated to the German metropolitan population, behaviour-related measures alone could result in a 1.8 million ton (optimistic scenario) or 0.6 million ton (pessimistic scenario......This study evaluates potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the passenger transport sector achievable through the use of mobility services. Beside car-sharing and -pooling, six services targeted at improving and encouraging the use of urban public transportation were considered......) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. In order to exploit this potential fully, however, target group specific information should be obtained and communication strategies developed, as addressed in this paper. This study further presents the limitation of reduction potential quantification...

  2. Trends in grazing emission x-ray analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieken, R. van; Tsuji, K.; Injuk, J.

    2000-01-01

    then, the detection limits imposed by the semiconductor industry roadmap can probably not be obtained by tube-excited GEXRF. Th perspectives for tube-excited GE-XRF are thus rather poor. Future developments imply the combination of GEXRF with synchrotron radiation excitation. Grazing-emission particle-induced X-ray emission (GE-PIXE) suffers of similar quantification Problems for material deposited on a carrier, but it makes PIXE a surface-sensitive technique, while normally the protons penetrate some tens of μm in the sample. Similarly, grazing-emission electron probe micro-analysis (GE-EPNIA) allows to selectively analyze particles on a flat carrier, allows surface sensitivities in the nm rather than μ range, and yields, in principle, a spatial resolution for chemical analysis similar to the size of the impinging electron beam, rather than of the electron-excited volume. Both GE-PIXE and GE-EPMA need to be explored more fully in the near future. (author)

  3. Acoustic Emission Technique Applied in Textiles Mechanical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rios-Soberanis Carlos Rolando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The common textile architecture/geometry are woven, braided, knitted, stitch boded, and Z-pinned. Fibres in textile form exhibit good out-of-plane properties and good fatigue and impact resistance, additionally, they have better dimensional stability and conformability. Besides the nature of the textile, the architecture has a great role in the mechanical behaviour and mechanisms of damage in textiles, therefore damage mechanisms and mechanical performance in structural applications textiles have been a major concern. Mechanical damage occurs to a large extent during the service lifetime consequently it is vital to understand the material mechanical behaviour by identifying its mechanisms of failure such as onset of damage, crack generation and propagation. In this work, textiles of different architecture were used to manufacture epoxy based composites in order to study failure events under tensile load by using acoustic emission technique which is a powerful characterization tool due to its link between AE data and fracture mechanics, which makes this relation a very useful from the engineering point of view.

  4. EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MARINE DIESEL ENGINES: A SYSTEM DYNAMICS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Pamık, Murat; Nuran, Mustafa; Cerit, A.Güldem

    2015-01-01

    International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopts international marine safety regulations. The regulations incorporated under Annex VI of IMO's International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) entered into force in May 2005. These regulations define the limits for sulphur oxides (SOx) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from ship exhausts.In this context, emission reduction technologies needed for enviroment protection and satisfy to sustainabletransportation. ...

  5. The importance of economies of scale for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstad, Haakon; Asbjørnslett, Bjørn E.; Strømman, Anders H.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 emissions from maritime transport represent 3.3% of the world's total CO 2 emissions and are forecast to increase by 150%–250% by 2050, due to increased freight volumes (). Fulfilling anticipated climate requirements () could require the sector to reduce emissions per freight unit by a factor of five or six. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is currently debating technical, operational and market-based measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from shipping. This paper also investigates the effects of economies of scale on the direct emissions and costs of maritime transport. We compared emissions from the current fleet (2007), with what can be achieved by increasing average vessel size. The comparison is based on the 2007 levels of trade and predictions for 2050. The results show that emissions can be reduced by up to 30% at a negative abatement cost per ton of CO 2 by replacing the existing fleet with larger vessels. Replacing the whole fleet might take as long as 25 years, so the reduction in emissions will be achieved gradually as the current fleet is renewed. - Highlights: ► We investigate the effects of economy of scale for reduction of GHG emissions from shipping. ► Model includes both cost and emission as function of vessel size and type. ► Model is based on operational patterns as of today for the different vessel types and sizes. ► Comparison is based on actual 2007 tonnages and foreseen 2050 levels of trading. ► Results shows that emissions can be reduced by 25%–30% at a negative abatement cost.

  6. Application of chaotic noise reduction techniques to chaotic data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    Deco & Schurmann (1994) have considered recurrent networks that were able to capture the dynamic and metric invariants ... The two techniques we consider are Hammel's method and the local projective method. We compare the ..... where C is the mXm covariance matrix of the vectors zn within the neighbourhood Un,.

  7. Scenarios of high greenhouse gas emission reduction in transports and buildings by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, O.; Meunier, L.

    2008-01-01

    The authors report simulations of different environmental policy measures concerning transports and buildings in France. First, they review measures which may entail a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and comment their emission reduction potential and their implementation costs. These measures are then ranked, and only those presenting a significant potential and an economically and technologically feasibility are finally considered. Their impact is then simulated by using different models which are adapted to the both sectors and to time ranges. The obtained results are compared to those obtained with a calibrated trend scenario and with a 'factor 4' scenario

  8. Analysis on energy saving and emission reduction of clean energy technology in ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Qin, Cuihong; Peng, Chuansheng

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the application of clean energy technology in ports. Using Ningbo port Co. Ltd. Beilun second container terminal branch as an example, we analyze the effect of energy saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2 by clean energy alternative to fuel oil, and conclude that the application of clean energy technology in the container terminal is mature, and can achieve effect of energy-saving and emission reduction of CO2 and SO2. This paper can provide as a reference for the promotion and application of clean energy in ports.

  9. A Retrofit Technique for Kicker Beam-Coupling Impedance Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Kroyer, T; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Kurennoy, S

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of the impedance of operational ferrite kicker structures may be desirable in order to avoid rebuilding such a device. Often resistively coated ceramic plates or tubes are installed for this purpose but at the expense of available aperture. Ceramic U-shaped profiles with a resistive coating fitting between the ellipse of the beam and the rectangular kicker aperture have been used to significantly reduce the impedance of the magnet, while having a limited effect on the available physical aperture. Details of this method, constraints, measurements and simulation results as well as practical aspects are presented and discussed.

  10. Economic analysis of the reduction of dehydrator emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalifoux, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act benzene has been designated as toxic, and after gasoline combustion, the natural gas extraction industry is the largest source of benzene emissions to the environment. The study's objective is to present a profile of the natural gas industry and to analyze the costs to the private sector of complying with the various benzene reduction targets. Also outlined is a profile of the natural gas extraction industry. A description is included of the method used to extrapolate the results obtained from the sample of 370 sites to the industry as a whole. Two scenarios studied are described in section four including: (1) scenario one in which the environmental requirements would have to be applied across-the-board to all emitting sites, which would have to comply with maximum benzene reductions, and (2) scenario two in which the environmental requirements would only be applied to high-emission sites, which would have to comply with specific requirements. A compilation is made in the fifth section for each scenario of the cost to the industry and the benzene emission reductions for each scenario for the sample of 370 sites to the industry as a whole. The aim of developing the two scenarios used to analyze various benzene emissions reduction levels at the sample of 370 sites was to determine: capital costs required, additional annual costs as additional annual operating costs plus annualized capital costs, number of sites affected, and total benzene reductions expressed in tonnes per year. 10 tabs

  11. Reviews on current carbon emission reduction technologies and projects and their feasibilities on ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Zhou, Peilin; Wang, Zhongcheng

    2017-06-01

    Concern about global climate change is growing, and many projects and researchers are committed to reducing greenhouse gases from all possible sources. International Maritime (IMO) has set a target of 20% CO2 reduction from shipping by 2020 and also presented a series of carbon emission reduction methods, which are known as Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) and Energy Efficiency Operation Indicator (EEOI). Reviews on carbon emission reduction from all industries indicate that, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is an excellent solution to global warming. In this paper, a comprehensive literature review of EEDI and EEOI and CCS is conducted and involves reviewing current policies, introducing common technologies, and considering their feasibilities for marine activities, mainly shipping. Current projects are also presented in this paper, thereby illustrating that carbon emission reduction has been the subject of attention from all over the world. Two case ship studies indicate the economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction and provide a guide for CCS system application and practical installation on ships.

  12. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  13. Allocation of CO2 emission permits-Economic incentives for emission reductions in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.; Azar, Christian; Lindgren, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    The economic impacts on developing regions following a global cap and trade system for carbon dioxide are assessed through the use of an energy-economy systems model. Both an equal per capita allocation and a contraction and convergence allocation with convergence of the per capita emissions by 2050 are shown to offer economic incentive for Africa, India and probably also Latin America to accept binding emissions commitments under a 450 ppm carbon dioxide stabilization scenario. The gain for Latin America is mainly a result of increased export revenues from sales of bio-fuels as a result of the climate policy. It is, on the other hand, unlikely that these allocation approaches would offer an economic incentive for China to join the regime because of its high economic growth, present higher per capita emissions than India and Africa, and more costly mitigation options than Latin America. A more stringent allocation for developing countries such as contraction with convergence of the per capita emissions by the end of this century is estimated to generate reduced net gains or increased net losses for the developing regions (though Africa is still expected to gain)

  14. Reduction of EMC Emissions in Mixed Signal Integrated Circuits with Embedded LIN Driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hartl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several methods for reduction of electromagnetic emissions (EME of mixed signal integrated circuits (IC. The focus is on the impact that a LIN bus communication block has on a complex IC which contains analog blocks, noisy digital block, micro-core (µC and several types of memories. It is used in an automotive environment, where EMC emission reduction is one of the key success factors. Several proposed methods for EME reduction are described and implemented on three test chips. These methods include current consumption reduction, internal on-chip decoupling, ground separation and different linear voltage regulator topologies. Measurement results of several fabricated test chips are shown and discussed.

  15. Securing safe and informative thoracic CT examinations—Progress of radiation dose reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Takeshi, E-mail: tkubo@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of); Yamashiro, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishinara, Okinawa 903-0215 (Japan); Kalender, Willi A. [Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestr. 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Lee, Chang Hyun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 28 Yeongeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lynch, David A. [Department of Radiology, National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson St, A330 Denver, Colorado 80206 (United States); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hatabu, Hiroto, E-mail: hhatabu@partners.org [Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Various techniques have led to substantial radiation dose reduction of chest CT. • Automatic modulation of tube current has been shown to reduce radiation dose. • Iterative reconstruction makes significant radiation dose reduction possible. • Processing time is a limitation for full iterative reconstruction, currently. • Validation of diagnostic accuracy is desirable for routine use of low dose protocols. - Abstract: The increase in the radiation exposure from CT examinations prompted the investigation on the various dose-reduction techniques. Significant dose reduction has been achieved and the level of radiation exposure of thoracic CT is expected to reach the level equivalent to several chest X-ray examinations. With more scanners with advanced dose reduction capability deployed, knowledge on the radiation dose reduction methods has become essential to clinical practice as well as academic research. This article reviews the history of dose reduction techniques, ongoing changes brought by newer technologies and areas of further investigation.

  16. Reduction of greenhouse gas in power industry by emission trading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Myung; Lee, Kee Hoon [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The rules governing their implementation and operation for implementing the Kyoto Protocol including emissions permit trading, project-based credit trading and the Clean Development Mechanism are to be decided at future talks. How these policies are eventually designed will determine the effectiveness of the Protocol. However, it has been passive and insufficient to deal with the Kyoto Protocol since there is no obligation on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the issues on emissions permit trading are analyzed and the strategies for utilizing the Kyoto mechanism effectively are presented through reviewing the existing negotiation strategies. Moreover, how to use emissions permit trading in the power industry, the largest greenhouse gas emissions industry, is examined by dividing into two sections, domestic and abroad. (author). 62 refs., 2 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Estimation and reduction of CO2 emissions from crude oil distillation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, M.; Olujic, Z.; Jobson, M.; Smith, R.

    2006-01-01

    Distillation systems are energy-intensive processes, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). A simple model for the estimation of CO 2 emissions associated with operation of heat-integrated distillation systems as encountered in refineries is introduced. In conjunction with a shortcut distillation model, this model has been used to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower unit aiming at minimization of CO 2 emissions. Simulation results indicate that the total CO 2 emissions of the existing crude oil unit can be cut down by 22%, just by changing the process conditions accordingly, and that the gain in this respect can be doubled by integrating a gas turbine. In addition, emissions reduction is accompanied by substantial profit increase due to utility saving and/or export

  18. International markets for greenhouse gas emission reduction policies - possibilities for integrating developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, K.; Olhoff, A.

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit princ...... principles that can be applied to the assessment of global markets for GHG emission reduction options and evaluates the scope for and the potential economic gains of such markets.......Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are affecting a global common: the climate, and as a global environmental problem with a public good character it provides attractive opportunities for minimising control costs through the use of emission trading markets. This paper introduces cost and benefit...

  19. Simulation scenarios for rapid reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in the western electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a computer simulation analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the electric power system in the western United States. Legislation at both the state and federal level would impose a price on emissions via cap-and-trade in allowances for carbon dioxide emissions. The simulation scenarios for the western system indicate that dramatic reductions in emissions are possible with generating technologies that exist today. Wind and biomass generators play a key role even with conservative assumptions about their future costs. In contrast, generation from advanced technologies provide only a minor contribution by the year 2025. These scenarios provide support to those who argue that the US should move expeditiously to put a price on carbon dixoide emissions

  20. Emissions from coal-fired electric stations : environmental health effects and reduction options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.; Lourie, B.; Pengelly, D.; Labatt, S.; Ogilvie, K.; Kelly, B.

    1998-01-01

    Findings of a study on the environmental effects of current emissions from coal-fired electric stations were summarized. Current and projected emissions from coal-fired electric stations for five emission reduction scenarios were estimated for Ontario, Eastern Canada, Ohio Valley/Great Lakes, and the U.S. northeast regions. Coal-fired electric stations generate a wide range of environmentally significant air emissions. The five pollutants selected - sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (less than 10 micrometres in size), mercury, and carbon dioxide - are considered to impact most on environmental health. This report focused on 312 coal-fired electric stations in the regions named above. They were selected based on the likelihood that long-range transport of the emissions from these coal-fired utilities would have an impact on human health and the environment. 55 refs., 10 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Positron emission tomography, physical bases and comparaison with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guermazi, Fadhel; Hamza, F; Amouri, W.; Charfeddine, S.; Kallel, S.; Jardak, I.

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a medical imaging technique that measures the three-dimensional distribution of molecules marked by a positron-emitting particle. PET has grown significantly in clinical fields, particularly in oncology for diagnosis and therapeutic follow purposes. The technical evolutions of this technique are fast. Among the technical improvements, is the coupling of the PET scan with computed tomography (CT). PET is obtained by intravenous injection of a radioactive tracer. The marker is usually fluorine ( 18 F) embedded in a glucose molecule forming the 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-18). This tracer, similar to glucose, binds to tissues that consume large quantities of the sugar such cancerous tissue, cardiac muscle or brain. Detection using scintillation crystals (BGO, LSO, LYSO) suitable for high energy (511keV) recognizes the lines of the gamma photons originating from the annihilation of a positron with an electron. The electronics of detection or coincidence circuit is based on two criteria: a time window, of about 6 to 15 ns, and an energy window. This system measures the true coincidences that correspond to the detection of two photons of 511 kV from the same annihilation. Most PET devices are constituted by a series of elementary detectors distributed annularly around the patient. Each detector comprises a scintillation crystal matrix coupled to a finite number (4 or 6) of photomultipliers. The electronic circuit, or the coincidence circuit, determines the projection point of annihilation by means of two elementary detectors. The processing of such information must be extremely fast, considering the count rates encountered in practice. The information measured by the coincidence circuit is then positioned in a matrix or sinogram, which contains a set of elements of a projection section of the object. Images are obtained by tomographic reconstruction by powerful computer stations equipped with a software tools allowing the analysis and

  2. Impact of International Oil Price on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of “new normal” economy and frequent “haze”, the strategy of energy conservation and emission reduction aiming to lower costs and reduce pollution is currently still a major strategic direction in China and the world, and will remain so for some time in the future. This paper uses the annual data of West Texas Intermediate (WTI crude oil price in 1987–2014 as samples. We firstly present the direction and mechanism of the influence of oil price change on total consumption of every kind of energy by path analysis, and then consider establishing a Structural Vector Autoregression model of energy conservation and emission reduction in three statuses. Research shows that if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.092% and 0.053% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of high energy consumption and high emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.043% and 0.065% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of low energy consumption and low emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP per unit increases by 0.067% and carbon dioxide emission decreases by 0.085% in the corresponding period.

  3. Evolution of surgical techniques for a progressive risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Bruno; Santoro, Mario; Izzo, Raffaele; Servillo, Giuseppe; Compagna, Rita; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Di Nardo, Veronica; Giugliano, Giuseppe

    2017-07-18

    Advanced age is a strong predictor of high perioperative mortality in surgical patients and patients aged 75 years and older have an elevated surgical risk, much higher than that of younger patients. Progressive advances in surgical techniques now make it possible to treat high-risk surgical patients with minimally invasive procedures. Endovascular techniques have revolutionized the treatment of several vascular diseases, in particular carotid stenosis, aortic pathologies, and severely incapacitating intermittent claudication or critical limb ischemia. The main advantages of the endovascular approach are the low complication rate, high rate of technical success and a good clinical outcome. Biliary stenting has improved the clinical status of severely ill patients with bile duct stricture before major surgery, and represents a good palliative therapy in the case of malignant biliary obstruction.

  4. Validation of variance reduction techniques in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Marrero, J. P.; Diaz Garcia, A.; Gomez Facenda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of nuclear medical imaging systems is a widely used method for reproducing their operation in a real clinical environment, There are several Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) systems in Cuba. For this reason it is clearly necessary to introduce a reliable and fast simulation platform in order to obtain consistent image data. This data will reproduce the original measurements conditions. In order to fulfill these requirements Monte Carlo platform GAMOS (Geant4 Medicine Oriented Architecture for Applications) have been used. Due to the very size and complex configuration of parallel hole collimators in real clinical SPECT systems, Monte Carlo simulation usually consumes excessively high time and computing resources. main goal of the present work is to optimize the efficiency of calculation by means of new GAMOS functionality. There were developed and validated two GAMOS variance reduction techniques to speed up calculations. These procedures focus and limit transport of gamma quanta inside the collimator. The obtained results were asses experimentally in Mediso (SPIRIT DH-V) SPECT system. Main quality control parameters, such as sensitivity and spatial resolution were determined. Differences of 4.6% sensitivity and 8.7% spatial resolution were reported against manufacturer values. Simulation time was decreased up to 650 times. Using these techniques it was possible to perform several studies in almost 8 hours each. (Author)

  5. Application of nonliner reduction techniques in chemical process modeling: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhaimin, Z; Aziz, N.; Abd Shukor, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Model reduction techniques have been used widely in engineering fields for electrical, mechanical as well as chemical engineering. The basic idea of reduction technique is to replace the original system by an approximating system with much smaller state-space dimension. A reduced order model is more beneficial to process and industrial field in terms of control purposes. This paper is to provide a review on application of nonlinear reduction techniques in chemical processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique reviewed are also highlighted

  6. Collaborative Emission Reduction Model Based on Multi-Objective Optimization for Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-chun; Rong, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Yi-min; Wan, Xiao-le; Liu, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Yu-zhi

    2016-01-01

    CO2 emission influences not only global climate change but also international economic and political situations. Thus, reducing the emission of CO2, a major greenhouse gas, has become a major issue in China and around the world as regards preserving the environmental ecology. Energy consumption from coal, oil, and natural gas is primarily responsible for the production of greenhouse gases and air pollutants such as SO2 and NOX, which are the main air pollutants in China. In this study, a mathematical multi-objective optimization method was adopted to analyze the collaborative emission reduction of three kinds of gases on the basis of their common restraints in different ways of energy consumption to develop an economic, clean, and efficient scheme for energy distribution. The first part introduces the background research, the collaborative emission reduction for three kinds of gases, the multi-objective optimization, the main mathematical modeling, and the optimization method. The second part discusses the four mathematical tools utilized in this study, which include the Granger causality test to analyze the causality between air quality and pollutant emission, a function analysis to determine the quantitative relation between energy consumption and pollutant emission, a multi-objective optimization to set up the collaborative optimization model that considers energy consumption, and an optimality condition analysis for the multi-objective optimization model to design the optimal-pole algorithm and obtain an efficient collaborative reduction scheme. In the empirical analysis, the data of pollutant emission and final consumption of energies of Tianjin in 1996-2012 was employed to verify the effectiveness of the model and analyze the efficient solution and the corresponding dominant set. In the last part, several suggestions for collaborative reduction are recommended and the drawn conclusions are stated.

  7. Photochemical modelling of photo-oxidant levels over the Swiss plateau and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselet, C.M.; Kerr, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    During summertime high pressure conditions, high photo-oxidant (O 3 , H 2 O 2 , PAN and others) levels are frequently observed in the planetary boundary layer in central Europe. It is well known that close to the earth's surface ozone is formed by complex reactions involving VOC, NO x , and sunlight. Substantial reductions of both precursors are needed to reduce photo-oxidant levels. In this context the reductions of the abundance of the precursors and the variation of their ratios is of great importance. Here we report model calculations from the Harwell Photochemical Trajectory Model of the levels of O 3 , H 2 O 2 and PAN along a trajectory over the Swiss Plateau from Lake Constance to Lake Geneva. These calculations are in satisfactory agreement with measurements made during the intensive observation period of the research program POLLUMET (Pollution and Meteorology in Switzerland). Sensitivity calculations of emission reduction scenarios indicate that on the Swiss Plateau the ozone production may be mainly NO x -limited; under conditions where the CO levels are closer to the upper limit within the range (120-600 ppbv). The calculated peak ozone level reduction caused by an exclusive NO x -emission reduction is about three times larger than that caused by an exclusive VOC reduction. The combined reduction of all precursor compounds is the most efficient strategy, although it is only marginally more efficient than the NO x -reduction scenario alone. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  8. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...

  9. Reduce NOx Emissions by Adsorber-Reduction Catalyst on Lean Burn Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongpeng Yue

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a new catalyst system composed of traditional three way catalyst converter and adsorber-reduction catalysis converter on the emission characteristics and BSFC (Breake Specific Fuel Consumption- BSFCof a lean burn gasoline engine operated were investigated in this paper under different schemes of catalyst converter arrangement and different speeds and loads. The results show that the position of Three Way Catalyst is before the NOx adsorber Catalyst was the best scheme of catalyst converter arrangement. Which has the highest converter efficiency of reduction NOx emission in lean burn gasoline engine. The effects of speed on the exhaust emission and BSFC were also related to the ratio of lean burn time to rich burn time and the absolute value of both time of the adsorber-reduction catalyst converter. The load of the engine was the main influential factor to the exhaust emission characteristics and BSFC of lean burn gasoline engine, and the more load of the engine was, the more NOx emission , the less NOx conversion rate (CNOx and the better BSFC were.

  10. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  11. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jisong; Zhang Yongjie

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO 2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO 2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  12. Grooved floor system for cattle housing: ammonia emission reduction and good slip resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierstra, D.; Braam, C.R.; Smits, M.C.J.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the slip resistance of solid floors in dairy cow houses and to achieve the ammonia emission reduction prescribed by the Dutch government, precast concrete floors with grooves and a dung scraper were investigated. The grooves parallel to the alley had 160 mm center-to-center spacing and

  13. A sensitivity analysis of timing and costs of greenhouse gas emission reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal timing and macro-economic costs of carbon emission reductions that mitigate the global average atmospheric temperature increase. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy sources, fossil-fuelled and non-fossil-fuelled. Technological change

  14. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  15. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  16. Options for greenhouse emission reduction by using a module for combined heat and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankov, Nikola; Ivanov, Bozhidar

    2009-01-01

    This report contains example of CO 2 emission reduction assessment when using module for combined heat and power generation that is fueled by natural gas. Environmental benefits are related to the type of fuel that is used and the increased efficiency of the combined production process. Choosing of the CHP unit and the assessment scheme are also presented

  17. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  18. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  19. Strategic research on CO2 emission reduction for China. Application of MARKAL to China energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongping

    1995-09-01

    MARKAL was applied to the energy system for analyzing the CO 2 emission reduction in China over the time period from 1990 to 2050. First the Chinese Reference Energy System (CRES) was established based on the framework of MARKAL model. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. When shifting from scenario LH (low useful energy demand and high import fuel prices) to HL (high demand and low prices), another 33 EJ of primary energy will be consumed and another 2.31 billion tons of CO 2 will be emitted in 2050. Detailed analyses on the disaggregation of CO 2 emissions by Kaya Formula show. The energy intensity (primary energy/GDP) decreases much faster in scenario HL, but the higher growth rate of GDP per capita is the overwhelming factor that results in higher CO 2 emission per capita in the baseline case of scenario HL in comparison with LH. When the carbon taxes are imposed on CO 2 emissions, the residential sector will make the biggest contribution to CO 2 emission abatement from a long-term point of view. However, it's difficult to stabilize CO 2 emission per capita before 2030 in both scenarios even with heavy carbon taxes. When nuclear moratorium occurs, more 560 million tons of CO 2 will be emitted to the atmosphere in 2050 under the same CO 2 tax regime. From the analysis of value flow, CO 2 emission reduction depends largely on new or advanced technologies particularly in the field of electricity generation. The competent technologies switch to those CO 2 less-emitting technologies when surcharging CO 2 emissions. Nuclear power shows significant potential in saving fossil energy resources and reducing CO 2 emissions. (J.P.N.)

  20. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  1. Possibilities for Carbon Dioxide Emission Reduction Resulting from Nuclear Power Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic, M.; Tomsic, Z.; Kovacevic, T.

    1998-01-01

    Each energy resource is connected to certain environmental impacts and risks which must be taken into account. In recent years attention has been focused on the climate change effects of the burning fossil fuels, especially coal, due to the carbon dioxide which this releases into the atmosphere. If the electric energy produced in nuclear power plants were produced in coal-fired plants, global CO 2 emissions would rise for more than 2000 million tons, a significant value in comparison with 4000 million tons which is recommended as a target for emission reduction by the year 2005 at the Toronto Conference on the Changing Atmosphere. Possibilities for carbon dioxide emission reduction which would be the result of the nuclear option acceptance are discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO 2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO 2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO 2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  3. Reduction of emissions from Brazilian cattle raising and the generation of energy: Intensification and confinement potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palermo, Giuseppe Cernicchiaro; D'Avignon, Alexandre Louis de Almeida; Freitas, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the main sources of anthropic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with the mitigation and removal of these emissions has become an important instrument in the attenuation of the climatic changes predicted by the IPCC. The largest emission source in Brazil is forest conversion. This land use change has always had a strong relationship with the expansion of agriculture, an activity of great importance in the country, which has the largest commercial cattle herd in the planet. Following the considerable reduction in emissions from deforestation, agriculture has been since 2010 the most important source (MCTI (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação), 2013. Brasília: Ministério daCiência, Tecnologia e Inovação, Brasil). Seeking to discover the possibilities of altering the emissions profile in the agricultural sector, four scenarios were developed related to how this is dealt with in the beef cattle sector, calculating the potential removal of carbon from the atmosphere through natural regeneration of biomes. The results suggest that picketing and rotation scenario has the greatest potential, with a carbon reduction of 17.7 Gt CO 2 eq, while the shared raising with grain legumes scenario has the lowest calculated reduction potential of 7.1 Gt CO 2 eq was calculated. The animal confinement scenario had an intermediary reduction potential of 8.3 Gt CO 2 eq. The mosaic of methods scenario, in which it is attempted to simulate the parallel adoption of the measures proposed in all other scenarios, had a reduction potential of 13.1 Gt CO 2 eq. In the scenarios where animal confinement occurs, the treatment of waste with biodigestion allows the generation of biogas and biofertilizers, contributing to an increase in the potential carbon reduction. - Highlights: • We identify one main source of anthropic GHG in Brazil after forest conversion (deforestation), the beef cattle raising. • Four scenarios to mitigate emissions from cattle

  4. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  5. Achieving deep reductions in US transport greenhouse gas emissions: Scenario analysis and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, David; Yang, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential for making deep cuts in US transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the long-term (50-80% below 1990 levels by 2050). Scenarios are used to envision how such a significant decarbonization might be achieved through the application of advanced vehicle technologies and fuels, and various options for behavioral change. A Kaya framework that decomposes GHG emissions into the product of four major drivers is used to analyze emissions and mitigation options. In contrast to most previous studies, a relatively simple, easily adaptable modeling methodology is used which can incorporate insights from other modeling studies and organize them in a way that is easy for policymakers to understand. Also, a wider range of transportation subsectors is considered here-light- and heavy-duty vehicles, aviation, rail, marine, agriculture, off-road, and construction. This analysis investigates scenarios with multiple options (increased efficiency, lower-carbon fuels, and travel demand management) across the various subsectors and confirms the notion that there are no 'silver bullet' strategies for making deep cuts in transport GHGs. If substantial emission reductions are to be made, considerable action is needed on all fronts, and no subsectors can be ignored. Light-duty vehicles offer the greatest potential for emission reductions; however, while deep reductions in other subsectors are also possible, there are more limitations in the types of fuels and propulsion systems that can be used. In all cases travel demand management strategies are critical; deep emission cuts will not likely be possible without slowing growth in travel demand across all modes. Even though these scenarios represent only a small subset of the potential futures in which deep reductions might be achieved, they provide a sense of the magnitude of changes required in our transportation system and the need for early and aggressive action if long-term targets are to be met.

  6. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  7. Climate and Health Impacts of US Emissions Reductions Consistent with 2 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew T.; Lee, Yunha; Faluvegi, Greg

    2016-01-01

    An emissions trajectory for the US consistent with 2 C warming would require marked societal changes, making it crucial to understand the associated benefits. Previous studies have examined technological potentials and implementation costs and public health benefits have been quantified for less-aggressive potential emissions-reduction policies, but researchers have not yet fully explored the multiple benefits of reductions consistent with 2 C. We examine the impacts of such highly ambitious scenarios for clean energy and vehicles. US transportation emissions reductions avoid approx.0.03 C global warming in 2030 (0.15 C in 2100), whereas energy emissions reductions avoid approx.0.05-0.07 C 2030 warming (approx.0.25 C in 2100). Nationally, however, clean energy policies produce climate disbenefits including warmer summers (although these would be eliminated by the remote effects of similar policies if they were undertaken elsewhere). The policies also greatly reduce damaging ambient particulate matter and ozone. By 2030, clean energy policies could prevent approx.175,000 premature deaths, with approx.22,000 (11,000-96,000; 95% confidence) fewer annually thereafter, whereas clean transportation could prevent approx.120,000 premature deaths and approx.14,000 (9,000-52,000) annually thereafter. Near-term national benefits are valued at approx.US$250 billion (140 billion to 1,050billion) per year, which is likely to exceed implementation costs. Including longer-term, worldwide climate impacts, benefits roughly quintuple, becoming approx.5-10 times larger than estimated implementation costs. Achieving the benefits, however, would require both larger and broader emissions reductions than those in current legislation or regulations.

  8. Reduction of radioactive waste volumes by using supercompaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, John Wagner A.; Lima, Sandro Leonardo N. de

    2007-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Program from ELETRONUCLEAR comprises the use of techniques and technologies to reduce the volumes of processed radwaste, which aims to improve the storage capacity and also assure the protection for the environment, as part of ELETRONUCLEAR's business strategy. The Angra site stores radwaste in temporary storage facilities, named Store number 1 and Store number 2, which are routinely managed and surveyed periodically by the ELETRONUCLEAR's Radiological Protection Division and submitted to frequent CNEN inspections. Medium level and low level radwastes are stored on those storage facilities. In January 2005, ELETRONUCLEAR decided to realize the Supercompaction of drums with compacted radwaste, mostly from Angra 1 and a little from Angra 2. By that time, the Store 1 was near to achieve its nominal capacity; this situation demanded a prompt response, and the chosen option was to proceed the supercompaction by using a mobile supercompactor unit. In April, 2006, two thousand and twenty seven drums of 200 liters were supercompacted at the plant site, and as a result, the initial storage area became sufficient to store drums for about five more years of operation. The supercompaction process is achieved by using a hydraulic press with extra high force. The pellets (crashed drums) were placed inside a special metallic box with 2500 liters of capacity (the overpack). This operation produced 128 full boxes, varying from 12 to 19 pellets inside each box, and the boxes were stored inside the Store 1. (author)

  9. An efficient technique to solve combined economic and emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 38; Issue 4 ... Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED); optimization algorithms; power demand; Ant ... and at the same time the necessary equality and inequality constraints should also be fulfilled.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  11. Emission reductions through precombustion chamber design in a natural gas, lean burn engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.E.; King, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various precombustion chamber design, operating and control parameters on the exhaust emissions of a natural gas engine. Analysis of the results showed that engine-out total hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) can be reduced, relative to conventional methods, through prechamber design. More specifically, a novel staged prechamber yielded significant reductions in NO x and total hydrocarbon emissions by promoting stable prechamber and main chamber ignition under fuel-lean conditions. Precise fuel control was also critical when balancing low emissions and engine efficiency (i.e., fuel economy). The purpose of this paper is to identify and explain positive and deleterious effects of natural gas prechamber design on exhaust emissions

  12. Estimating the benefits of greenhouse gas emission reduction from agricultural policy reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adger, W.N.; Moran, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Land use and agricultural activities contribute directly to the increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Economic support in industrialized countries generally increases agriculture's contribution to global greenhouse gas concentrations through fluxes associated with land use change and other sources. Changes in economic support offers opportunities to reduce net emissions, through this so far has gone unaccounted. Estimates are presented here of emissions of methane from livestock in the UK and show that, in monetary terms, when compared to the costs of reducing support, greenhouse gases are a significant factor. As signatory parties to the Climate Change Convection are required to stabilize emissions of all greenhouse gases, options for reduction of emissions of methane and other trace gases from the agricultural sector should form part of these strategies

  13. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Gregory [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ehlen, Ali [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States); Caldwell, James H. [Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    The California 2030 Low Carbon Grid Study (LCGS) analyzes the grid impacts of a variety of scenarios that achieve 50% carbon emission reductions from California's electric power sector. Impacts are characterized based on several key operational and economic metrics, including production costs, emissions, curtailment, and impacts on the operation of gas generation and imports. The modeling results indicate that achieving a low-carbon grid (with emissions 50% below 2012 levels) is possible by 2030 with relatively limited curtailment (less than 1%) if institutional frameworks are flexible. Less flexible institutional frameworks and a less diverse generation portfolio could lead to higher curtailment (up to 10%), operational costs (up to $800 million higher), and carbon emissions (up to 14% higher).

  14. Assessing Multiple Pathways for Achieving China’s National Emissions Reduction Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve China’s target of carbon intensity emissions reduction in 2030, there is a need to identify a scientific pathway and feasible strategies. In this study, we used stochastic frontier analysis method of energy efficiency, incorporating energy structure, economic structure, human capital, capital stock and potential energy efficiency to identify an efficient pathway for achieving emissions reduction target. We set up 96 scenarios including single factor scenarios and multi-factors combination scenarios for the simulation. The effects of each scenario on achieving the carbon intensity reduction target are then evaluated. It is found that: (1 Potential energy efficiency has the greatest contribution to the carbon intensity emissions reduction target; (2 they are unlikely to reach the 2030 carbon intensity reduction target of 60% by only optimizing a single factor; (3 in order to achieve the 2030 target, several aspects have to be adjusted: the fossil fuel ratio must be lower than 80%, and its average growth rate must be decreased by 2.2%; the service sector ratio in GDP must be higher than 58.3%, while the growth rate of non-service sectors must be lowered by 2.4%; and both human capital and capital stock must achieve and maintain a stable growth rate and a 1% increase annually in energy efficiency. Finally, the specific recommendations of this research were discussed, including constantly improved energy efficiency; the upgrading of China’s industrial structure must be accelerated; emissions reduction must be done at the root of energy sources; multi-level input mechanisms in overall levels of education and training to cultivate the human capital stock must be established; investment in emerging equipment and accelerate the closure of backward production capacity to accumulate capital stock.

  15. The improvement of CO2 emission reduction policies based on system dynamics method in traditional industrial region with large CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fujia; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Zehong; Li, Yu; Li, Shantong; Wan, Yongkun

    2012-01-01

    Some traditional industrial regions are characterized by high industrial proportion and large CO 2 emission. They are facing dual pressures of maintaining economic growth and largely reducing CO 2 emission. From the perspective of study of typological region, taking the typical traditional industrial region—Liaoning Province of China as a case, this study establishes a system dynamics model named EECP and dynamically simulates CO 2 emission trends under different conditions. Simulation results indicate, compared to the condition without CO 2 emission reduction policies, CO 2 emission intensity under the condition of implementing CO 2 emission reduction policies of “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” is decreased by 11% from 2009 to 2030, but the economic cost is high, making the policies implementation faces resistance. Then some improved policies are offered and proved by EECP model that they can reduce CO 2 emission intensity after 2021 and decrease the negative influence to GDP, realizing the improvement objects of reducing CO 2 emission and simultaneously keeping a higher economy growth speed. The improved policies can provide reference for making and improving CO 2 emission reduction policies in other traditional industrial regions with large CO 2 emission. Simultaneously, EECP model can provide decision-makers with reference and help for similar study of energy policy. - Highlights: ► We build EECP model for CO 2 emission reduction study in traditional industry region. ► By the model, we simulate CO 2 emission trend and improve emission reduction policy. ► By improvement, both CO 2 emission intensity and economic cost can be largely reduced. ► Besides CO 2 emission is reduced effectively, higher GDP increment speed is kept. ► EECP model can be widely used for making and improving regional energy policies.

  16. Modeling analysis of urea direct injection on the NOx emission reduction of biodiesel fueled diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Li, J.; Zhou, D.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of urea direct injection on NO x emissions reduction was investigated. • Aqueous urea solution was proposed to be injected after the fuel injection process. • The optimized injection strategy achieved a reduction efficiency of 58%. • There were no severe impacts on the CO emissions and BSFC. - Abstract: In this paper, a numerical simulation study was conducted to explore the possibility of an alternative approach: direct aqueous urea solution injection on the reduction of NO x emissions of a biodiesel fueled diesel engine. Simulation studies were performed using the 3D CFD simulation software KIVA4 coupled with CHEMKIN II code for pure biodiesel combustion under realistic engine operating conditions of 2400 rpm and 100% load. The chemical behaviors of the NO x formation and urea/NO x interaction processes were modeled by a modified extended Zeldovich mechanism and urea/NO interaction sub-mechanism. To ensure an efficient NO x reduction process, various aqueous urea injection strategies in terms of post injection timing, injection angle, and injection rate and urea mass fraction were carefully examined. The simulation results revealed that among all the four post injection timings (10 °ATDC, 15 °ATDC, 20 °ATDC and 25 °ATDC) that were evaluated, 15 °ATDC post injection timing consistently demonstrated a lower NO emission level. The orientation of the aqueous urea injection was also shown to play a critical role in determining the NO x removal efficiency, and 50 degrees injection angle was determined to be the optimal injection orientation which gave the most NO x reduction. In addition, both the urea/water ratio and aqueous urea injection rate demonstrated important roles which affected the thermal decomposition of urea into ammonia and the subsequent NO x removal process, and it was suggested that 50% urea mass fraction and 40% injection rate presented the lowest NO emission levels. At last, with the optimized injection

  17. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Tan Zhongfu; Wang Jianhui; Xu Jun; Cai Chengkai; Hou Yong

    2011-01-01

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  18. Mixed Carbon Policies Based on Cooperation of Carbon Emission Reduction in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper established cooperation decision model for a mixed carbon policy of carbon trading-carbon tax (environmental tax in a two-stage S-M supply chain. For three different cooperative abatement situations, we considered the supplier driven model, the manufacturer driven model, and the equilibrium game model. We investigated the influence of mixed carbon policy with constraint of reduction targets on supply chain price, productivity, profits, carbon emissions reduction rate, and so on. The results showed that (1 high-strength carbon policies do not necessarily encourage enterprises to effectively reduce emissions, and increasing market acceptance of low carbon products or raising the price of carbon quota can promote the benign reduction; (2 perfect competitive carbon market has a higher carbon reduction efficiency than oligarch carbon market, but their optimal level of cooperation is the same and the realized reduction rate is in line with the intensity of carbon policy; (3 the policy sensitivity of the carbon trading mechanism is stronger than the carbon tax; “paid quota mechanism” can subsidize the cost of abatement and improve reduction initiative. Finally, we use a numerical example to solve the optimal decisions under different market situations, validating the effectiveness of model and the conclusions.

  19. Uncertain Emission Reductions from Forest Conservation: REDD in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene Watson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The environmental integrity of a mechanism rewarding Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD depends on appropriate accounting for emission reductions. Largely stemming from a lack of forest data in developing countries, emission reductions accounting contains substantial uncertainty as a result of forest carbon stock estimates, where the application of biome-averaged data over large forest areas is commonplace. Using a case study in the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia, we exemplify the implications of primary and secondary forest carbon stock estimates on predicted REDD project emission reductions and revenues. Primary data estimate area-weighted mean forest carbon stock of 195 tC/ha ± 81, and biome-averaged data reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change underestimate forest carbon stock in the Bale Mountains by as much as 63% in moist forest and 58% in dry forest. Combining forest carbon stock estimates and uncertainty in voluntary carbon market prices demonstrates the financial impact of uncertainty: potential revenues over the 20-year project ranged between US$9 million and US$185 million. Estimated revenues will influence decisions to implement a project or not and may have profound implications for the level of benefit sharing that can be supported. Strong financial incentives exist to improve forest carbon stock estimates in tropical forests, as well as the environmental integrity of REDD projects.

  20. Using mobile source emission reductions to offset stationary surce rule requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazemi, M.A.; Beruldsen, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of mobile source strategies have been evaluated that could potentially be used as an alternative means of compliance with existing stationary source regulations, at a lower cost. The evaluation was spurred by both public and private sector interest in identifying the lowest cost air pollution reduction strategies, and the realization that mobile sources are the predominate contributor to the air pollution problem in the South Coast Air Quality Basin. Strategies evaluated included removing older vehicles from the in-use population, use of alternative fuels, inspection and maintenance measures, application of remote sensing technology, exceeding AVR requirements, as well as a number of other strategies. Key implementation issues have been identified, so that the viability of each mobile source strategies could be assessed. These issues include: (1) quantification of emissions benefits, (2) determining whether the mobile source strategy would generate emission reductions surplus to existing and planned mobile source regulations, and (3) assessing the potential for enforceability. The results of evaluation indicate that there are a number of promising mobile source emission strategies that could provide quantifiable, surplus, and enforceable emission reductions

  1. Air Treatment Techniques for Abatement of Emissions from Intensive Livestock Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction include feed management, adaptation of housing design,

  2. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Everett B.; Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    A multi-region, multi-sector dynamic computable general equilibrium model is applied to explore the economic and welfare effects of the pledges submitted by developed countries (Annex I countries) and major developing (non-Annex I) countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord. In addition to analyzing scenarios reflecting the upper and lower bounds of the Copenhagen Pledges, one additional policy scenario where Annex I countries as a group reduce CO 2 -emissions by 30% in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, and where major non-Annex I countries reduce CO 2 emissions 15% below baseline, is also analyzed. Economic effects are measured as changes in GDP compared to baseline and welfare effects are measured via the equivalent variation. Assuming that countries with emission targets may trade certificates, average reductions in GDP for countries with targets range between 0.1% and 0.7% in 2020 for the policy scenarios. While the GDP losses are larger for major non-Annex I countries with emission targets compared to Annex I countries, this is not the case for the changes in welfare. With the exception of Mexico, the welfare losses for the major non-Annex I regions, as a percentage of projected GDP in 2020, are lower than for the large Annex I countries. - Highlights: → Copenhagen pledges are not ambitious in terms of global CO 2 -emission reductions. → Copenhagen pledges are not costly in terms of global GDP or welfare losses. → Reductions in GDP and welfare in 2020 are not evenly distributed across regions.→ Major non-Annex I countries face relatively larger reductions in GDP compared with Annex I countries.→ Copenhagen pledges do not result in large amounts of carbon leakage.

  3. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ emissions through fuel economy standards for diesel cars in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, L.A.; Mehlia, T.M.I.; Hassan, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In Pakistan, like many developing countries, the increasing prosperity and population growth are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. This causes air pollution due to huge CO/sub 2/ emissions. Automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one of the most effective tools to control oil demand thereby reducing the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions like CO/sub 2/, This study presents the investigation to apply fuel economy standards in Pakistan, in order to predict the potential reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions and saving in fuel demand. The study is focused on only diesel cars and the data of diesel car owners for previous fifteen years is obtained from the related sources in Pakistan. A growth trend of diesel car owners was analyzed and the number of diesel car owners in future was predicted by applying database computer software. Calculations were made to study the effect of fuel economy standards in terms of saving in fuel demand and the reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions. The results reveal the potential application of fuel economy standards and it was found that a cumulative amount of fuel 39266775 liters can be saved and CO/sub 2/ emissions can be reduced by 106021 tons at the end of 2011-2012, if fuel economy standards are implemented in 2008-2009. (author)

  4. Optimization of Power Generation Rights Under the Requirements of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu-ping, YANY; Chong-wei, ZHONG; Fei-fei, YAN; Cheng-yi, TANG

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, the energy crisis and greenhouse effect problem have caused wide public concern, if these issues cannot be resolved quickly, they will bring troubles to people’s lives.In response, many countries around the world have implemented policies to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In our country, the electric power industry has made great contribution to the daily life of people and the development of industry, but it is also an industry of high consumption and high emission.In order to realize the sustainable development of society, it is necessary to make energy conservation and emission reduction in the power industry as an important part of the realization of this goal.In this context, power generation trade has become a hot topic in energy conservation and emission reduction.Through the electricity consumption of the units with different power efficiency and coal consumption rate,it can achieve the target of reducing coal consumption, reducing network loss, reducing greenhouse gas emission, and increasing social benefit,and so on. This article put forward a optimal energy model on the basis of guaranteeing safety and environmental protection.In this paper, they used the IEEE30, IEEE39, IEEE57 and IEEE118 node system as an example, and set up the control groups to prove the practicality of the presented model.The solving method of this model was interior-point method.

  5. Analysis and interpretation of dynamic FDG PET oncological studies using data reduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Andres

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic positron emission tomography studies produce a large amount of image data, from which clinically useful parametric information can be extracted using tracer kinetic methods. Data reduction methods can facilitate the initial interpretation and visual analysis of these large image sequences and at the same time can preserve important information and allow for basic feature characterization. Methods We have applied principal component analysis to provide high-contrast parametric image sets of lower dimensions than the original data set separating structures based on their kinetic characteristics. Our method has the potential to constitute an alternative quantification method, independent of any kinetic model, and is particularly useful when the retrieval of the arterial input function is complicated. In independent component analysis images, structures that have different kinetic characteristics are assigned opposite values, and are readily discriminated. Furthermore, novel similarity mapping techniques are proposed, which can summarize in a single image the temporal properties of the entire image sequence according to a reference region. Results Using our new cubed sum coefficient similarity measure, we have shown that structures with similar time activity curves can be identified, thus facilitating the detection of lesions that are not easily discriminated using the conventional method employing standardized uptake values.

  6. MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORPTION, EMISSIVITY REDUCTION, AND LOCAL SUPPRESSION OF SOLAR ACOUSTIC WAVES IN SUNSPOTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, D.-Y.; Liang, Z.-C.; Yang, M.-H.; Zhao Hui; Sun, M.-T.

    2009-01-01

    The power of solar acoustic waves in magnetic regions is lower relative to the quiet Sun. Absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of acoustic waves contribute to the observed power reduction in magnetic regions. We propose a model for the energy budget of acoustic waves propagating through a sunspot in terms of the coefficients of absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression of the sunspot. Using the property that the waves emitted along the wave path between two points have no correlation with the signal at the starting point, we can separate the effects of these three mechanisms. Applying this method to helioseismic data filtered with direction and phase-velocity filters, we measure the fraction of the contribution of each mechanism to the power deficit in the umbra of the leading sunspot of NOAA 9057. The contribution from absorption is 23.3 ± 1.3%, emissivity reduction 8.2 ± 1.4%, and local suppression 68.5 ± 1.5%, for a wave packet corresponding to a phase velocity of 6.98 x 10 -5 rad s -1 .

  7. Cost-effective reduction of fine primary particulate matter emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Policies to reduce adverse health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) require information on costs of abatement and associated costs. This paper explores the potential for cost-efficient control of anthropogenic primary PM 2.5 emissions in Finland. Based on a Kyoto-compliant energy projection, two emission control scenarios for 2020 were developed. 'Baseline' assumes implementation of PM controls in compliance with existing legislation. 'Reduction' assumes ambitious further reductions. Emissions for 2020 were estimated at 26 and 18.6 Gg a -1 for 'Baseline' and 'Reduction', respectively. The largest abatement potential, 3.0 Gg a -1 , was calculated for power plants and industrial combustion. The largest potential with marginal costs below 5000 Euro MG(PM 2.5 ) -1 was for domestic wood combustion, 1.7 Gg a -1 . For traffic the potential was estimated at 1.0 Gg a -1 , but was associated with high costs. The results from this paper are used in the policy-driven national integrated assessment modeling that explores cost-efficient reductions of the health impacts of PM

  8. Climate and mortality changes due to reductions in household cooking emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Tommi; Mielonen, Tero; Arola, Antti; Kokkola, Harri

    2016-04-01

    Household cooking is a significant cause for health and environmental problems in the developing countries. There are more than 3 billion people who use biomass for fuel in cooking stoves in their daily life. These cooking stoves use inadequate ventilation and expose especially women and children to indoor smoke. To reduce problems of the biomass burning, India launched an initiative to provide affordable and clean energy solutions for the poorest households by providing clean next-generation cooking stoves. The improved cooking stoves are expected to improve outdoor air quality and to reduce the climate-active pollutants, thus simultaneously slowing the climate change. Previous research has shown that the emissions of black carbon can be decreased substantially, as much as 90 % by applying better technology in cooking stoves. We have implemented reasonable (50% decrease) and best case (90% decrease) scenarios of the reductions in black and organic carbon due to improved cooking stoves in India into ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model. The global simulations of the scenarios will be used to study how the reductions of emissions in India affect the pollutant concentrations and radiation. The simulated reductions in particulate concentrations will also be used to estimate the decrease in mortality rates. Furthermore, we will study how the emission reductions would affect the global climate and mortality if a similar initiative would be applied in other developing countries.

  9. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  10. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements

  11. Device with Complex System for Heat Utilization and Reduction of Hazardous Air Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kascheeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concern heat utilization and reduction of hazardous emissions occurring in residential buildings and accompanying operation of a great number of industrial enterprises in particular heat and power objects, and firstly, heat-generating units of small power located in densely populated residential areas without centralized heat supply.The investigation target is to reduce cost of heat produced by independent system of building heat supply, reduction of air pollution  due to hazardous gas emissions and reduction of heat pollution of the environment as a result of building ventilation system operation, ventilation of their internal and external sewerage network and higher reliability of their operation.The target is achieved because the device with complex system for heat utilization and reduction of hazardous air emissions has additionally an assembly tank for mixing flue gases, ventilation emissions and atmospheric air, heat pump. Evaporation zone of the pump is a condensator of the gas mixture and its condensate zone contains a heat supply line for a heat consumer. The line is equipped with assembling  and distributing collectors, pipeline connecting the heat supply line with the system of direct and return delivery water from a boiler house, a separator for division of liquid and gaseous mixture phases, neutralizing devices for separate reduction of concentrations of hazardous and odorous substances being released in gaseous and liquid portions of the mixture, a pipeline for periodic supply of air with higher concentration of hazardous and odorous substances in the boiler furnace. The supplied air is obtained as a result of its passing through gas filters at their regeneration when their exchange capacity is exhausted.

  12. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO2. Innovation an industrial stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B.

    2005-01-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO 2 was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO 2 emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO 2 and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO 2 emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO 2 emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO 2 emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO 2 emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO 2 capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO 2 emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO 2 emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO 2 emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO 2 emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable transport systems by P. Wiederkehr (EST International), The prospects for reducing

  13. Environmental and economic effects of the Copenhagen pledges and more ambitious emission reduction targets. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim; Duscha, Vicki; Peterson, Everett B. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Applied Economics

    2010-06-15

    Global carbon dioxide emissions need to be reduced by at least 50 to 85 % in 2050 compared to 2000 levels to limit global surface temperature increase to 2 C compared to preindustrial levels (IPCC 2007). As an intermediate greenhouse gas emission reduction target for industrialized countries in 2020 the IPCC (2007) confirmed a range of 25 % to 40 % compared to 1990, together with a substantial deviation from baseline in some developing regions, which was quantified as reductions in the range of 15 % to 30 % below baseline (den Elzen and Hoehne 2008). This report explores the environmental and economic effects of the pledges submitted by industrialized and major developing countries for 2020 under the Copenhagen Accord as quantifiable emission reductions or as NAMAs. Two scenarios reflect the lower (''weak'') and upper (''ambitious'') bounds of the Copenhagen pledges leading to emission reductions of 17 % below 1990 levels for Annex I countries and 13 % below reference levels for Non-Annex I countries. Both scenarios do not reach the level of ambition indicated as necessary by science to keep temperature increase below 2 C. In addition, two scenarios in accordance with the IPCC range for reaching a 2 C target are analyzed with industrialized countries in aggregate reducing their CO{sub 2}-emissions by 30 % and by 40 % in 2020 compared to 1990 levels, respectively. For all four policy scenarios the effects of emission paths leading to a global reduction target of 50 % below 1990 levels in 2050 are also simulated for 2030. In the scenarios for 2030 all but the least developed countries are assumed to take on emission targets, but emission caps are considerably less stringent for developing countries than for developed countries. In addition, a separate scenario is carried out which estimates the costs of an unconditioned EU 30 % emission reduction target. The analyses are carried out with the dynamic Computable General

  14. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  15. Effects of Eco-Drive Education on the Reduction of Fuel Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Barić, Danijela; Zovak, Goran; Periša, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable mobility is the basic and long-term goal of the traffic policy. Eco-driving represents one of 40 measures that should by 2050 contribute to 60% of traffic-generated emission reduction. The paper presents the significance of educating the drivers about eco-driving as well as eco-drive training with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emission. During research the drivers were tested in three cycles, prior to education, immediately following the education and eco-training a...

  16. Realizing CO2 emission reduction through industrial symbiosis: A cement production case study for Kawasaki

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Shizuka; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Nagasawa, Emiri

    2010-01-01

    This article is one effort to examine the present and potential performances of CO2 emission reduction though industrial symbiosis by employing a case study approach and life cycle CO2 analysis for alternative industrial symbiosis scenarios. As one of the first and the best-known eco-town projects, Kawasaki Eco-town was chosen as a case study area. First, the current industrial symbiosis practices in this area are introduced. To evaluate the potential of reducing the total CO2 emission throug...

  17. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01

    The study focused on the emission reduction and fuel economy benefits of the application of hybrid/electric powertrain technology to tight-duty vehicles (mid-size and compact passenger cars). The approach taken was to calculate the exhaust emissions (gm/mi) energy use (Wh/mi and mpg) for a wide range of vehicle designs (steel and light-weight materials), engines, energy storage devices, control strategies, and driving cycles using two vehicle simulation programs (SIMPLEV and AVTE). The full f...

  18. Condition monitoring of a check valve for nuclear power plants by means of acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Rae; Leee, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jung Tack; Kim, Jung Soo; Luk, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    This work performed in support of the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative(INERI) program, which was to develop and demonstrate advanced sensor and computational technology for on-line monitoring of the condition of components, structures, and systems in advanced and next-generation nuclear power plants (NPPs). The primary object of this work is to investigate advanced condition monitoring systems based on acoustic emission detection that can provide timely detection of check valve degradation and service aging so that maintenance/replacement could be preformed prior to loss of safety function. The research is focused on the capability of AE technique to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and degradation, check valve failures and undesirable operating modes. This work also includes the investigation and adaptation of several advanced sensor technologies such as accelerometer and advanced ultrasonic technique. In addition, this work will develop advanced sophisticated signal processing, noise reduction, and pattern recognition techniques and algorithms from check valve degradation.

  19. The Analysis of Dimensionality Reduction Techniques in Cryptographic Object Code Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright; Milos Manic

    2010-05-01

    This paper compares the application of three different dimension reduction techniques to the problem of locating cryptography in compiled object code. A simple classi?er is used to compare dimension reduction via sorted covariance, principal component analysis, and correlation-based feature subset selection. The analysis concentrates on the classi?cation accuracy as the number of dimensions is increased.

  20. Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

    2002-09-01

    Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs

  1. Severe measures for the reduction of the SO2 emissions, applicable to the thermal power plants in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, Ovidiu

    2006-01-01

    The accession of Romania to EU imposes the observance of the environment community regulations and the international conventions to which Romania is a party, as well. The legislative framework was adapted to the of the community regulations by conditioning the operation of the Large Burning Units, LBU, (of thermal power larger than 50 MW) that belong to the thermal power plants. The control of the LBU operation is not limited to the technological problems but goes further to issues related to the protection of the environment where the severity of the measures adopted imposes equally the control of the Emission Limit Values, ELV. To reduce the pollutant emissions, Romania must observe the ELVs for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and aerosols for each of the existing LBU, and also to prepare a National Plant for the Reduction of the Pollutant Emissions within a transition period, thus ensuring a strict compliance with the EU regulations by January 1, 2008. The power plants for which the transition period was awarded are requested to prevent the pollution especially through the application of the best available techniques what assumes the implementation of some important investment programs. In order to have a clear image on what the observance of the community regulations mean in the domain of the sulfur dioxide emission from the LBU, a few self-evident figures are shown. The paper tackles the following issues: EU Accession Requirements; The efforts of the conforming; The best available techniques (BAT); Severe Measures for the Reduction of the Sulfur Emissions; Wet Desulfurization Procedures; Desulfurization dry/semidry procedures. Since the fuels used by the LBUs in Romania have much sulfur one concludes that they cannot be fired without the desulfurization of the flue gases. Even the mandatory utilization of the fuel oil with sulfur contents less than 1% starting by January 1, 2007 cannot solve the problem; it reduces to a certain extent the SO 2 emissions but

  2. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from decreased losses in the conductors of an electrical installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobão, J.A.; Devezas, T.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new software application is provided in this paper. • The efficient investment in street lighting and industrial and domestic electrical equipment is analyzed. • The reduction of losses in the conductors of electrical installations is properly accounted for. • The reduction of CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere is also determined. - Abstract: The activities of the electricity sector in production and consumption have implications in almost all environmental problems of today. The main environmental impacts occur during the production of electricity, mainly due to the emission of air pollutants, which is directly linked to climate change that has been observed over time. Ambitious climate change mitigation requires significant changes in many economic sectors, in particular in the production and consumption of energy. Considering that the primary energy consumption has increased, doubling since the 1970s, and in particular the consumption of electricity has had a sharper increase, nearly quadrupling in the same period, all measures that can mitigate environmental impacts on both the supply and demand sides of electricity are of interest. This paper introduces a new software application that analyses efficient investment in street lighting and industrial and domestic electrical equipment, accounting for the reduction of losses in the conductors of electrical installations, which is usually neglected. It also determines the reduction of CO 2 emitted into the atmosphere, which contributes to the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases from a country or particular product

  3. Evaluation of measures for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in energy supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, Kh.; Todorova, S.; Vasilev, Kh.; Simeonova, K.

    1996-01-01

    This study performed by the Energoproekt Company, Sofia (BG) is aimed at estimating the economic costs of CO 2 emissions reduction in the electricity supply system for the period 2000-2020. The specific capital investment and cost price of the following technical options have been compared: reduction of electricity and heat loss; gas and steam cycle power plants; micro hydro potential; renewable sources; extension of nuclear power installations; gas steam turbine equipment; combined cycle power plants. The evaluation is made according to requirements of a baseline scenario - to develop an import-independent energy supply policy and an economic growth without sharp structural changes. A 25-year-operation of a hypothetical energy supply system is modelled by the ENPEP code (ANL, US). The three least-cost options identified are: power loss reduction; gas and steam cycle PPs and hydroelectric objects. An optimal combination of measures, so called ' aggregated scenario' is proposed. It would allow for CO 2 reduction by 23,7 mill tons and prime cost reduction by $19,83 per ton reduced emissions. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  4. A Novel Four-Dimensional Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction System and Its Linear Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a new four-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction chaotic system. The system is obtained in accordance with the complicated relationship between energy saving and emission reduction, carbon emission, economic growth, and new energy development. The dynamics behavior of the system will be analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponents and equilibrium points. Linear feedback control methods are used to suppress chaos to unstable equilibrium. Numerical simulations are presented to show these results.

  5. Research of noise emission sources in railway transport and effective ways of their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the EU conditions attention is systematically paid to noise reduction on the railways. Because TSI rules systematically tighten limits for noise emissions from railway vehicles, noise research must be addressed by all Member States, as the main technical solutions for railway vehicles and construction technological aspects of railway operations can result in lower noise exposure of affected areas or objects. The paper focuses on theoretical investigation of sources and paths of sound propagation, possibilities of noise reduction both on vehicles and by infrastructure and experimental measurements of the situation in transport practice. Methodology for reducing railway noise around tracks has been presented, too.

  6. The public perspective of carbon capture and storage for CO2 emission reductions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Hongxia

    2010-01-01

    To explore public awareness of carbon capture and storage (CCS), attitudes towards the use of CCS and the determinants of CCS acceptance in China, a study was conducted in July 2009 based on face-to-face interviews with participants across the country. The result showed that the awareness of CCS was low among the surveyed public in China, compared to other clean energy technologies. Respondents indicated a slightly supportive attitude towards the use of CCS as an alternative technology to CO 2 emission reductions. The regression model revealed that in addition to CCS knowledge, respondents' understanding of the characteristics of CCS, such as the maturity of the technology, risks, capability of CO2 emission reductions, and CCS policy were all significant factors in predicting the acceptance of CCS. The findings suggest that integrating public education and communication into CCS development policy would be an effective strategy to overcome the barrier of low public acceptance.

  7. Catalytically supported reduction of emissions from small-scale biomass furnace systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Ingo; Lenz, Volker; Schenker, Marian; Thiel, Christian; Kraus, Markus; Matthes, Mirjam; Roland, Ulf; Bindig, Rene; Einicke, Wolf-Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    The increased use of solid biomass in small combustion for generating heat from renewable energy sources is unfortunately associated with increased emissions of airborne pollutants. The reduction is possible on the one hand by the use of high-quality modern furnaces to the latest state of the art. On the other hand, several promising approaches method for retrofitting small-scale furnaces are currently being developed that will allow an effective emission reduction by the subsequent treatment of the exhaust gas. The overview of current available emission control technologies for small-scale biomass combustion plants shows that there is still considerable need for research on the sustainable production of heat from solid biofuels. The amendment to the 1st BImSchV provides a necessary drastic reduction of discharged pollutants from small-scale biomass furnaces. When using the fuel wood in modern central heating boilers the required limits can be met at full load. However, dynamic load changes can cause brief dramatic emission increases even with wood central heating boilers. Firebox and control optimization must contribute in the future to a further reduction of emissions. The typical simple single-room fireplaces like hand-fed wood stoves are suitable under type test conditions to comply the limit values. By contrast, in practical operation, the harmful gas emissions be exceeded without secondary measures normally. The performed experimental investigations show that a reduction of both CO and of organic compounds by catalytic combustion is possible. In addition to developing specially adapted catalysts, it is necessary to provide additional dust separation by combined processes, since conventional catalysts are not suitable for deposition and retention of particulate matter or would lose their activity due to dust accumulation on the active surface, when the catalyst would act as a filter at the same time. To enable sufficiently high reaction temperatures and thus a

  8. Potential reduction of carbon emissions from Crude Palm Oil production based on energy and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patthanaissaranukool, Withida; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy and carbon equivalence from CPO production based on a CBM. ► Energy spent and produced via carbon movement from palm oil mill was determined. ► Scenarios were formulated to evaluate the potential reduction of carbon emission. ► Utilization of biomass from palm oil mill shows the high potential of C-reduction. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate energy and carbon equivalences (CE) associated with palm oil milling and to evaluate sustainability alternatives for energy consumption. Appropriate ways to reduce carbon emissions were also evaluated. A field survey was carried out to quantify the input and output of energy and materials following the conceptual framework of a carbon-balanced model (CBM), which exclude other non-CO 2 greenhouse gases. Survey results indicate that the electrical energy consumption for daily mill start-up averaged 18.7 ± 5.4 kWh/ton Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs). This energy is equivalent to 114.4 ± 33.2 kWh/ton Crude Palm Oil (CPO) which was found to be offset by that generated in the mills using palm fiber as a solid fuel. Currently, organic residues contained in the wastewater are anaerobically converted to methane. The methane is used as fuel to generate electricity and sold to an outside grid network at a generation rate of 8.1 ± 2.1 kWh/ton FFB. Based on the CBM approach, carbon emissions observed from the use of fossil energy in palm oil milling were very small; however, total carbon emission from oil palm plantation and palm oil milling were found to be 12.3 kg CE/ton FFB, resulting in the net carbon reduction in CPO production of 2.8 kg CE/ton FFB or 53.7 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, the sum of C-reduction was found 1.2 times greater than that of C-emission. This figure can be increased up to 5.5, if all biomass by-products are used as fuel to generate electricity only. The full potential for carbon reduction from palm oil milling is estimated at 0.94 kW of electric power for every hectare of

  9. Analysis of Global CCS Technology, Regulations and Its Potential for Emission Reduction with Focus on China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ying; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the development of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology, the progress in CCS demonstration projects, and regulations and policies related to CCS. Barriers and limitations for the large-scale deployment of CCS are discussed. CCS and different technological solutions for emission reduction (e.g., energy conservation and renewable energy) are compared. The analysis shows that China should carefully evaluate the negative impacts of CCS deployment and needs to enhance ...

  10. Could baseline establishment be counterproductive for emissions reduction? Insights from Vietnam’s building sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrysson, Maryna; Lütken, Søren; Puig, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to illustrate institutional dynamics, nationally and transnationally, as well as to question whether demands for baseline setting achieve the ideal trade-off between actual GHG emissions reduction and institutionalized demands for accountability. The analysis reveals that......, it argues for the abolition of baselines in favour of adequate monitoring and evaluation, from the perspective that requirement for deviation from fictitious baselines is unproductive and only serves an international techno-managerial discourse....

  11. Adaptive Observer for Nonlinearly Parameterised Hammerstein System with Sensor Delay – Applied to Ship Emissions Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn V.; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Taking offspring in a problem of ship emission reduction by exhaust gas recirculation control for large diesel engines, an underlying generic estimation challenge is formulated as a problem of joint state and parameter estimation for a class of multiple-input single-output Hammerstein systems...... observer is shown on simulated cases, on tests with a large diesel engine on test bed and on tests with a container vessel....

  12. On the possibilities of reduction in emission caused by home tile stoves in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczyk, W. [Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The coal-fired tile stoves are still very popular in Poland. The estimated total number of such home stoves operated in Cracow reaches ca. 100 000. Operation of these stoves during the heating season belongs to the most significant sources of air pollution. Type and scale of emission of the most important pollutants, caused by coal combustion in home stoves in Cracow has been determined basing upon the investigations carried out at the laboratory of the Department of Power Engineering Machines and Devices, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow, Poland within the American-Polish Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. Further experiments included in this Program allowed to estimate the attainable efficiency of home tile stoves and possible reduction in pollutant emission resulting from their operation. A short discussion of these data and capacities is presented in this lecture.

  13. Coupling of CORINAIR Data to Cost-effective Emission Reduction Strategies Based on Critical Thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, M.; Guardans, R.; Lindstrom, M.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop held by the participants in the EU/LIFE project: Coupling of CORINAIR data to cost-effective emission reduction strategies based on critical thresholds. The project participants include FEI, Filand, NERI, Denmark, CIEMAT, Spain, Lund Univ. Sweden. EMEP/MSC-W, UN/ECE/WGE/CCE and IIASA. The main objective of the project is to support national activities in assessing the spatial and temporal details of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds and the impacts of acidification, eutrophication and ground level ozone. The reproject workshop enabled participants to report preliminary results of the two main tasks, emissions and impacts and to agree on common solutions for the final results. (Author) 11 refs

  14. Reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions by boiler construction companies in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1989-11-01

    Explains that in the USA greater emphasis is placed on reducing pollutant emissions by altering the combustion process than by cleaning flue gases. Results of a joint USA/FRG program show that NO{sub x} concentrations may vary greatly according to the type of slag removal (solid or liquid) and the location and type of burners used. Examines variants and demonstrates that the most effective method of reducing NO{sub x} emissions from large-scale pulverized-coal fired boilers is three-stage combustion used in conjunction with a flue gas cleaning method such as selective catalytic reduction (cyclone burners). Trials found that this method results in a 60% drop in NO{sub x} emissions and, if limestone is added to the tertiary air, a 20% drop in SO{sub 2}. Best results from an economic aspect were achieved when gas was burned in the extra burners. 6 refs.

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  16. Application of X-ray emission techniques for monitoring environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Danesi, P.R.; Dargie, M.; Haselberger, N.; Markowicz, A.; Tajani, A.

    1997-01-01

    X-ray emission techniques are versatile and powerful methods used for multielement non-destructive analysis. They include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Since many years the IAEA has utilised and promoted these techniques for the analysis of environmental, biological and geological samples. In this paper recent progress at our laboratory in selected aspects related to the application of X-ray emission techniques is briefly overviewed. (authors)

  17. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  18. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  19. How to Achieve CO2 Emission Reduction Goals: What 'Jazz' and 'Symphony' Can Offer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving CO 2 emission reduction goals remains one of today's most challenging tasks. Global energy demand will grow for many decades to come. In many regions of the world cheap fossil fuels seem to be the way forward to meet ever growing energy demand. However, there are negative consequences to this, most notably increasing emission levels. Politicians and industry therefore must accept that make hard choices in this generation need to be made to bring about real changes for future generations and the planet to limit CO 2 emissions and climate change. In his presentation, prof. Rose will provide an insight into how CO 2 emission reduction goals can be set and achieved and how a balance between future energy needs and supply can be realised in the long run up to 2050 both globally and regionally. This will be done based on WEC's own leading analysis in this area, namely it recently launched World Energy Scenarios: composing energy futures to 2050 report and WEC's scenarios, Jazz and Symphony. WEC's full analysis, the complete report and supporting material is available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2013/world-energy-scenarios-composing-energy-futures-to-2050.(author)

  20. Ambiguity of source location in acoustic emission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.; Mukherjee, P.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, B.

    1996-01-01

    Location of acoustic emission (AE) source in a plane is detected from the difference of the arrival times of the AE signal to at least three sensors placed on it. The detected location may not be unique in all cases. In this paper, the condition for the unambiguous solution for the location of the source has been deduced mathematically in terms of arrival times of the AE signal, the coordinate of the three sensors and the acoustic velocity. (author)

  1. Environment and mobility 2050: scenarios for a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Ruiz, H.G.

    2009-10-01

    In France an objective of dividing greenhouse gas emissions by four, from the 1990 level, by 2050 has been set. Are these ambitions out of our reach? What will the price to pay for this objective be? We have built a long-term back-casting transport demand model (TILT, Transport Issues in the Long Term) . This model is centered on defined behavior types - in which the speed-GDP elasticity plays a key role - in order to determine demand estimations. This model lets us understand past tendencies - the coupling between growth and personal and freight mobility and adapt behavioral hypothesis - linked to the evolution of public policies - in order to show how a 75% reduction objective can be attained. The main results are an estimation of CO 2 emissions for the transport sector taking into account technical progress and demand. These results are presented as three scenario families named: Pegasus, Chronos and Hestia. Each family corresponds to a growing degree of constraint on mobility. It is possible to divide greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector by four. Technical progress is able to lead to more than half of these reductions. The interest of these scenarios is to show that there exist different paths - through organizational change - to getting the other half of the reductions. (author)

  2. Carbon Emission Reduction with Capital Constraint under Greening Financing and Cost Sharing Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yuhui; Xia, Liangjie

    2018-04-13

    Motivated by the industrial practices, this work explores the carbon emission reductions for the manufacturer, while taking into account the capital constraint and the cap-and-trade regulation. To alleviate the capital constraint, two contracts are analyzed: greening financing and cost sharing. We use the Stackelberg game to model four cases as follows: (1) in Case A1, the manufacturer has no greening financing and no cost sharing; (2) in Case A2, the manufacturer has greening financing, but no cost sharing; (3) in Case B1, the manufacturer has no greening financing but has cost sharing; and, (4) in Case B2, the manufacturer has greening financing and cost sharing. Then, using the backward induction method, we derive and compare the equilibrium decisions and profits of the participants in the four cases. We find that the interest rate of green finance does not always negatively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. Meanwhile, the cost sharing from the retailer does not always positively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. When the cost sharing is low, both of the participants' profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are not less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). When the cost sharing is high, both of the participants' profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance).

  3. Energy saving and emission reduction: A project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianjun; Fu Meichen; Geng Yuhuan; Tao Jin

    2011-01-01

    The small or middle coal mines with illegal operations in developing countries or regions can cause bad energy waste and environmental disruption. The project of coal-resource integration in Shanxi Province of China gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. It is a social- and economic-ecological project. The paper shows the targets of energy saving and emission reduction in Shanxi Province, and analyses the aims, significance, design process and implementation of the integration project. Based on that, the paper discusses the challenges and opportunities the project brings. The analysis shows that the project of coal-resource integration in developing countries or regions can effectively improve mining technologies, collect capital and impel international cooperation and exchange. Finally, the paper analyses the concerns about the future, including the possible problems of implementation period, industrial updating, environmental impact and re-employment. However, the successful integration of coal resources can mitigate energy crisis and climate crisis and promote cleaner production effectively. - Highlights: → Coal-resource integration gives a new idea or an approach to energy saving and emission reduction. → Coal-resource integration mitigates climate crisis and promotes cleaner production. → Coal-resource integration brings challenges and opportunities to traditional mining industries.

  4. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  5. Assessment of CO2 emission reduction and identification of CDM potential in a township

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, R.; Aseri, Tarun Kumar; Jamuwa, Doraj Karnal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India); Bansal, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government Mahila Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the theoretical investigation of CDM opportunity in a township at Jaipur, India. The purpose of study is to identify and analyze the various opportunities viz., installation of solar water heater, energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners, and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers and thus achieve a considerable (65.7 %) reduction in GHG emissions. Out of the various opportunities considered, the retrofitting with solar water heater can be recommended for CDM. Though, the retrofitting with energy efficient lighting, energy efficient air conditioners and energy efficient submersible water pumps in desert coolers claimed CO2 emission reduction of 104.84, 25.92, and 36.94 tons per annum, respectively, but the only opportunity which got through CDM was retrofitting with solar water heater claiming 115.70 tCO2 (100 %) emission reductions per annum which could result into net earnings of 115.70 CERs. The simple and discounted payback period for all four project activities are also calculated with and without CDM and tax benefits.

  6. Carbon Emission Reduction with Capital Constraint under Greening Financing and Cost Sharing Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Juanjuan; Zhao, Yuhui; Xia, Liangjie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the industrial practices, this work explores the carbon emission reductions for the manufacturer, while taking into account the capital constraint and the cap-and-trade regulation. To alleviate the capital constraint, two contracts are analyzed: greening financing and cost sharing. We use the Stackelberg game to model four cases as follows: (1) in Case A1, the manufacturer has no greening financing and no cost sharing; (2) in Case A2, the manufacturer has greening financing, but no cost sharing; (3) in Case B1, the manufacturer has no greening financing but has cost sharing; and, (4) in Case B2, the manufacturer has greening financing and cost sharing. Then, using the backward induction method, we derive and compare the equilibrium decisions and profits of the participants in the four cases. We find that the interest rate of green finance does not always negatively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. Meanwhile, the cost sharing from the retailer does not always positively affect the carbon emission reduction of the manufacturer. When the cost sharing is low, both of the participants’ profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are not less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). When the cost sharing is high, both of the participants’ profits in Case B1 (under no greening finance) are less than that in Case B2 (under greening finance). PMID:29652859

  7. What are the opportunities related to the trading of emission reductions in the electricity market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, M.

    2003-01-01

    Gaz Metropolitain distributes approximately 97 per cent of the natural gas used in Quebec. It operates an 8300 kilometre (km) pipeline network and has 150,000 customers. Revenues in 2002 were 1.6 billion. Since 1990, Gaz Metropolitain has reduced its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 30 per cent. After a brief look at the sources of energy in Quebec and their associated GHG emissions, the author discussed the viability of a closed emission trading system with only a limited number of permits. The system could be opened up through the creation of credits in excluded sectors. Under the Kyoto Protocol, countries are allocated emitting permits in an open system since the credits are included in the Protocol. In Canada, the federal government has announced that a domestic emission trading system will be implemented for large emitters. The thermal production sector will be covered by a system consisting of an exchange of rights. Electricity produced from renewable energy sources would be excluded from the system, and it is yet to be decided whether credits could be generated. The creation of credits under the Canadian plan was reviewed. The projects accepted under the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading Pilot (GERT) were examined and the development of the project was described. Some of the projects under GERT include a new dam in Newfoundland, a wind power project in Alberta, and a biomass cogeneration project in British Columbia to name but a few. It was noted that quantifying emissions in the case of indirect reductions is complex but feasible. 3 refs., tabs., figs

  8. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  10. Dose reduction in pediatric abdominal CT: use of iterative reconstruction techniques across different CT platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Singh, Sarabjeet; Otrakji, Alexi; Padole, Atul; Lim, Ruth; Nimkin, Katherine; Westra, Sjirk; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Gee, Michael S. [MGH Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Dose reduction in children undergoing CT scanning is an important priority for the radiology community and public at large. Drawbacks of radiation reduction are increased image noise and artifacts, which can affect image interpretation. Iterative reconstruction techniques have been developed to reduce noise and artifacts from reduced-dose CT examinations, although reconstruction algorithm, magnitude of dose reduction and effects on image quality vary. We review the reconstruction principles, radiation dose potential and effects on image quality of several iterative reconstruction techniques commonly used in clinical settings, including 3-D adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR-3D), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), iDose, sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). We also discuss clinical applications of iterative reconstruction techniques in pediatric abdominal CT. (orig.)

  11. Study of the uniform corrosion of non alloy and stainless steels: combined utilization of acoustic emission and electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaubert, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    In chemical and petrochemical industry, uniform corrosion induces important economic and security disappointments. The mechanisms of this damaging corrosion mode are well understood, but methods for on-line detection are badly missing. Acoustic emission technique presents, to palliate this lack, potentialities that have been studied in an instrumented laboratory loop allowing the simulation of industrial uniform corrosion conditions. In acidic media, acoustic activity is related to the hydrogen evolution resulting from proton reduction; it is therefore well correlated to the damage severity. In neutral aerated media, the deposit formation of corrosion products is not very emissive. Yet, a specific study of frequency parameters allows detection of corrosion evolution, but in that case, the quantification of corrosion rate remains difficult. A subsidiary study confirms the technique applicability in the case of 'acidic' corrosion, even in very noisy conditions. (author) [fr

  12. Elimination of maintenance outage and cost reduction by development of outage-free maintenance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakabe, Hideo; Maruyama, Yoshinaga

    1996-01-01

    The development program of KEPCO on outage-free maintenance techniques for distribution line work since 1984 is overviewed. It has succeeded in eliminating maintenance outages since 1989. The original aim was to improve customer satisfaction. However, in all, four benefits were realised through the development. These are cost reduction, securing of worker safety, improvement of customer service, and advancement of distribution techniques and morale in KEPCO. The introduction of robotic techniques for maintenance work and manipulator techniques for repair work is planned for further modernization. These new techniques are helping in both work safety and work efficiency improvement. Cost reduction and advancement of distribution line work techniques is also considered. (R.P.)

  13. Solutions and business opportunities to achieve emissions reduction objectives; Solutions et opportunites d'affaires pour atteindre vos objectifs de reduction d'emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, J.-F. [GRAME, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Launched in 1989, GRAME is a non-profit organization dedicated to the development of management and analysis tools for sustainable development. It is involved in greenhouse gas (GHG) management, sustainable transportation, sustainable economy and the environment. The author reviewed the events that led to the development of the Kyoto Protocol. The principal factor influencing the development of the Kyoto Protocol was climate change and global warming, caused in large part by GHG emissions. The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol presents business opportunities in both Canada and Quebec, such as the export of products and services based on the expertise developed in the country; promotion of sustainable transportation options; and, investment in energy efficiency and energy substitution. An action plan must include a combination of complementary measures, take into consideration the impact of those measures on the life cycle, and compare the options offering an equivalent service. There are a number of companies that can assist in energy efficiency and energy demand management, including Hydro-Quebec, Gaz Metropolitain, and the Agence de l'efficacite energetique. GRAME has launched an awareness campaign called ClimAction, designed to promote the implementation of concrete measures for the reduction of GHG emissions and energy savings. Successes have been achieved in the renewable energy sector, such as the Paix des Braves agreement between the Inuit and the Quebec government, Hydro-Quebec's commitment to buy 1000 megawatts of wind energy in 10 years, and recent advances in solar water and space heating. The remaining challenges include: government support, separation of duties, and regulations. The factors influencing a Canadian emissions trading market are price of permits, withdrawal of permits, allocation, and when to begin implementation. tabs., figs.

  14. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  15. Potential for greenhouse gas emission reductions using surplus electricity in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusitalo, Ville; Väisänen, Sanni; Inkeri, Eero; Soukka, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Greenhouse gas emission reductions using power-to-x processes are studied using life cycle assessment. • Surplus electricity use led to greenhouse gas emission reductions in all studied cases. • Highest reductions can be achieved by using hydrogen to replace fossil based hydrogen. • High reductions are also achieved when fossil transportation fuels are replaced. - Abstract: Using a life cycle perspective, potentials for greenhouse gas emission reductions using various power-to-x processes via electrolysis have been compared. Because of increasing renewable electricity production, occasionally surplus renewable electricity is produced, which leads to situations where the price of electricity approach zero. This surplus electricity can be used in hydrogen, methane and methanol production via electrolysis and other additional processes. Life cycle assessments have been utilized to compare these options in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. All of the power-to-x options studied lead to greenhouse gas emission reductions as compared to conventional production processes based on fossil fuels. The highest greenhouse gas emission reductions can be gained when hydrogen from steam reforming is replaced by hydrogen from the power-to-x process. High greenhouse gas emission reductions can also be achieved when power-to-x products are utilized as an energy source for transportation, replacing fossil transportation fuels. A third option with high greenhouse gas emission reduction potential is methane production, storing and electricity conversion in gas engines during peak consumption hours. It is concluded that the power-to-x processes provide a good potential solution for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in various sectors.

  16. Research and development of treatment techniques for LLW from decommissioning: Decontamination and volume reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, T.; Kameo, Y.; Nakashio, N.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the amount and/or volume of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) arising from decommissioning of nuclear reactor, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing four decontamination techniques. They are: (a) Gas-carrying abrasive method, (b) In-situ remote electropolishing method for pipe system before dismantling, (c) Bead reaction - thermal shock method, and (d) Laser induced chemical method for components after dismantling. JAERI in developing techniques are also carrying out melting tests of metal and non-metal. Melting was confirmed to be effective in reducing the volume, homogenizing, and furthermore stabilizing non-metallic wastes. (author)

  17. Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Chen Xudong; Zhang Yunsong; Wang Xinbei; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan; Liu Zhu; Ren Wanxia; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhu Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Cities consumed 84% of commercial energy in China, which indicates cities should be the main areas for GHG emissions reduction. Our case study of Shenyang in this paper shows how a clear inventory analysis on GHG emissions at city level can help to identify the major industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts so as to facilitate low-carbon policy-making. The results showed total carbon emission in 2007 was 57 Mt CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e), of which 41 Mt CO 2 e was in-boundary emissions and 16 Mt CO 2 e was out-of-boundary emissions. The energy sector was dominant in the emission inventory, accounting for 93.1% of total emissions. Within energy sector, emissions from energy production industry, manufacturing and construction industry accounted for 88.4% of this sector. Our analysis showed that comparing with geographical boundary, setting system boundary based on single process standard could provide better information to decision makers for carbon emission reduction. After attributing electricity and heating consumption to final users, the resident and commercial sector became the largest emitter, accounting for 28.5% of total emissions. Spatial analysis of emissions showed that industrial districts such as Shenbei and Tiexi had the large potential to reduce their carbon emissions. Implications of results are finally discussed. - Highlights: → An inventory analysis can help identify key industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts. → Setting system boundary can provide better information for carbon emission reduction. → Urban districts with heavy industrial plants have potential to reduce their carbon emissions. → Policies that support urban energy structure optimization can accelerate low-carbon development.

  18. Air quality and emissions reduction initiatives at the City of Calgary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, K.

    2001-01-01

    To conserve, protect and improve the environment for the benefits of the citizens living in Calgary, the City of Calgary is committed to environmental leadership, as declared by the author as an opening statement to this Power Point presentation. The author described some of the partnerships and alliances to which the City of Calgary adheres, such as partner for climate protection program, the Federation of Canadian Municipalities and the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI). The City is aiming at a 20 per cent reduction of 1990 greenhouse gas emission levels within ten years for municipal operations. The Greenhouse Gas Reduction Commitment is divided in three parts: (1) baseline inventory, (2) economic and emissions abatement assessment, and (3) implementation and each phase was explained. Phase 1 relates to an inventory of equivalent carbon dioxide as a standardized measure of greenhouse gases. Both municipal and corporate reduction targets have been identified, as well as targets for buildings. An innovative cooperative partnership with private industry has been initiated, called the energy performance contracting (EPC), where EPC provides upgraded building infrastructure with more energy efficient equipment. The entire concept was detailed. Other initiatives include green power substitutions and street lighting retrofits. The author concluded by providing a greenhouse gas reduction score sheet. Some initiatives at the community level include Web business office/Web initiatives, a public education outreach program and third party agencies. figs

  19. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  20. Provincial Carbon Emissions Reduction Allocation Plan in China Based on Consumption Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecheng Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available China is a country with substantial differences in economic development, energy consumption mix, resources, and technologies, as well as the development path at the provincial level. Therefore, China’s provinces have different potential and degrees of difficulty to carry out carbon emission reduction (CER requirements. In addition, interprovincial trade, with a large amount of embodied carbon emissions, has become the fastest growing driver of China’s total carbon emissions. A reasonable CER allocation plan is, therefore, crucial for realizing the commitment that China announced in the Paris Agreement. How to determine a fair way to allocate provincial CER duties has become a significant challenge for both policy-makers and researchers. In this paper, ecological network analysis (ENA, combined with a multi-regional input-output model (MRIO, is adopted to build an ecological network of embodied emissions across 30 provinces. Then, by using flow analysis and utility analysis based on the ENA model, the specific relationships among different provinces were determined, and the amount of responsibility that a certain province should take quantified, with respect to the embodied carbon emission (ECE flows from interprovincial trade. As a result, we suggest a new CER allocation plan, based on the detailed data of interprovincial relationships and ECE flows.

  1. Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew G. Coulter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST, “strategic” (SPT, “targeted” (TST or based on “clinical signs” (MT. Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Pine Needles and Coal for Electricity Generation using Carbon Taxation and Emission Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mitigating global climate change via emission control and taxation is promising for strengthening the economic benefits of bioenergy generation and utilization. This study examines the cost effectiveness of pine needles as an alternative fuel for off-grid electricity generation in India. We first examined the changes of prices in coal for electricity generation due to CO2 emission reductions and taxes using experimental data of gasification plants. The time value of money and depreciation scale were used to find out the real levellized cost of electricity generation of gasification plants. Then, the costs of electricity generation fuelled by pine needles and coal were estimated using the cost analysis method. Our results indicate that pine needles would have more competitive edge than coal if emission had taxed at about an emission tax INR 525.15 Mg-1 of CO2 (US$ 8.4, or higher would be needed for pine needles at a yield of 202.176 dry Mg hm-2 yr. The price of coal used for electricity generation would have significantly increased if global CO2 emission had abridged by 20% or more. However, pine needles were found a much better fuel source with an increasing yield of 5.05 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to power generation and 2.335 Mg hm-2 yr (with respect to feedstock production.

  3. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  4. Net radiative forcing and air quality responses to regional CO emission reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Fry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO emissions influence global and regional air quality and global climate change by affecting atmospheric oxidants and secondary species. We simulate the influence of halving anthropogenic CO emissions globally and individually from 10 regions on surface and tropospheric ozone, methane, and aerosol concentrations using a global chemical transport model (MOZART-4 for the year 2005. Net radiative forcing (RF is then estimated using the GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory standalone radiative transfer model. We estimate that halving global CO emissions decreases global annual average concentrations of surface ozone by 0.45 ppbv, tropospheric methane by 73 ppbv, and global annual net RF by 36.1 mW m−2, nearly equal to the sum of changes from the 10 regional reductions. Global annual net RF per unit change in emissions and the 100 yr global warming potential (GWP100 are estimated as −0.124 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.34, respectively, for the global CO reduction, and ranging from −0.115 to −0.131 mW m−2 (Tg CO−1 and 1.26 to 1.44 across 10 regions, with the greatest sensitivities for regions in the tropics. The net RF distributions show widespread cooling corresponding to the O3 and CH4 decreases, and localized positive and negative net RFs due to changes in aerosols. The strongest annual net RF impacts occur within the tropics (28° S–28° N followed by the northern midlatitudes (28° N–60° N, independent of reduction region, while the greatest changes in surface CO and ozone concentrations occur within the reduction region. Some regional reductions strongly influence the air quality in other regions, such as East Asia, which has an impact on US surface ozone that is 93% of that from North America. Changes in the transport of CO and downwind ozone production clearly exceed the direct export of ozone from each reduction region. The small variation in CO GWPs among world regions suggests that future international

  5. Effects of emission reductions from the smelters in Sudbury on recovery of lakes within the metal deposition zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, W.; Heneberry, J.; Clark, M.; Malette, M.; Gunn, J. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada) Dept. of Biology

    1999-07-01

    Recent trends are examined in the chemistry of Sudbury lakes for evidence of further chemical recovery, as well as some of the biological characteristics of recovering Sudbury lakes. Preliminary results are provided from studies investigating physical, chemical and biological factors that may influence the lake recovery process with a focus on the lakes close to Sudbury that were historically the most severely affected. Smelter emission reductions in the Sudbury area have led to substantial changes in the water quality of area lakes, and decreases in acidity, sulfate, and copper and nickel concentrations followed the substantial decreases in emissions during the 1970s and similar trends are continuing after the implementation of large additional smelter emission reductions in the 1990s. Some of the most highly affected lakes close to the Sudbury smelters have showed very dramatic reductions in acidity and metal concentrations during the 1990s. Evaluation of the direct effects of the recent emissions reductions is confounded by the potential continuing effects of previous emission reductions and the effects of weather variations on chemistry time trends in Sudbury lakes. Continued monitoring of Sudbury lakes is essential to evaluate the ultimate effect of emission reduction programs, to develop an understanding of the recovery process, and to determine the need for any additional emission reduction requirements. 38 refs., 7 figs.

  6. The importance of grid integration for achievable greenhouse gas emissions reductions from alternative vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Alternative vehicles must appropriately interface with the electric grid and renewable generation to contribute to decarbonization. This study investigates the impact of infrastructure configurations and management strategies on the vehicle–grid interface and vehicle greenhouse gas reduction potential with regard to California's Executive Order S-21-09 goal. Considered are battery electric vehicles, gasoline-fueled plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles, and plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles. Temporally resolved models of the electric grid, electric vehicle charging, hydrogen infrastructure, and vehicle powertrain simulations are integrated. For plug-in vehicles, consumer travel patterns can limit the greenhouse gas reductions without smart charging or energy storage. For fuel cell vehicles, the fuel production mix must be optimized for minimal greenhouse gas emissions. The plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicle has the largest potential for emissions reduction due to smaller battery and fuel cells keeping efficiencies higher and meeting 86% of miles on electric travel keeping the hydrogen demand low. Energy storage is required to meet Executive Order S-21-09 goals in all cases. Meeting the goal requires renewable capacities of 205 GW for plug-in hybrid fuel cell vehicles and battery electric vehicle 100s, 255 GW for battery electric vehicle 200s, and 325 GW for fuel cell vehicles. - Highlights: • Consumer travel patterns limit greenhouse gas reductions with immediate charging. • Smart charging or energy storage are required for large greenhouse gas reductions. • Fuel cells as a plug-in vehicle range extender provided the most greenhouse gas reductions. • Energy storage is required to meet greenhouse gas goals regardless of vehicle type. • Smart charging reduces the required energy storage size for a given greenhouse gas goal

  7. Achieving emissions reduction through oil sands cogeneration in Alberta’s deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.; Rowe, A.; Sopinka, A.; Wild, P.

    2014-01-01

    The province of Alberta faces the challenge of balancing its commitment to reduce CO 2 emissions and the growth of its energy-intensive oil sands industry. Currently, these operations rely on the Alberta electricity system and on-site generation to satisfy their steam and electricity requirements. Most of the on-site generation units produce steam and electricity through the process of cogeneration. It is unclear to what extent new and existing operations will continue to develop cogeneration units or rely on electricity from the Alberta grid to meet their energy requirements in the near future. This study explores the potential for reductions in fuel usage and CO 2 emissions by increasing the penetration of oil sands cogeneration in the provincial generation mixture. EnergyPLAN is used to perform scenario analyses on Alberta’s electricity system in 2030 with a focus on transmission conditions to the oil sands region. The results show that up to 15–24% of CO 2 reductions prescribed by the 2008 Alberta Climate Strategy are possible. Furthermore, the policy implications of these scenarios within a deregulated market are discussed. - Highlights: • High levels of cogeneration in the oil sands significantly reduce the total fuel usage and CO 2 emissions for the province. • Beyond a certain threshold, the emissions reduction intensity per MW of cogeneration installed is reduced. • The cost difference between scenarios is not significant. • Policy which gives an advantage to a particular technology goes against the ideology of a deregulated market. • Alberta will need significant improvements to its transmission system in order for oil sands cogeneration to persist

  8. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E. H. J.; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-01

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders’ Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today’s low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  9. The application of CFD modelling to support the reduction of CO2 emissions in cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; Vujanović, Milan; Fidaros, Dimitris K.; Priesching, Peter; Minić, Ivica; Tatschl, Reinhard; Duić, Neven; Stefanović, Gordana

    2012-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the leading producers of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, of which CO 2 is the most significant. Recently, researchers have invested a considerable amount of time studying ways to improve energy consumption and pollutant formation in the overall cement manufacturing process. One idea involves dividing the calcination and clinkering processes into two separate furnaces. The calcination process is performed in a calciner while the clinkering process takes place in a rotary kiln. As this is new technology in the cement manufacturing process, calciners are still in the research and development phase. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of CFD to support the design and optimization of calciners, whose use appears to be essential in reduction of CO 2 emission during cement production. The mathematical model of the calcination process was developed, validated and implemented into a commercial CFD code, which was then used for the analysis. From the results obtained by these simulations, researchers will gain an in-depth understanding of all thermo-chemical reactions in a calciner. This understanding can be used to optimize the calciner's geometry, to make production more efficient, to lower pollutant formation and to subsequently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. -- Highlights: ► The potential of CO 2 emissions reduction, by using a cement calciner was presented. ► When a cement calciner is used, CO 2 emissions reduction of 3–4% can be achieved. ► The calcination model was developed, validated, and then used for the analysis. ► Shown method can be applied for investigation and optimization of cement calciners.

  10. Scenario analysis on CO2 emissions reduction potential in China's iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wang Can; Lu Xuedu; Chen Jining

    2007-01-01

    The international climate community has begun to assess a range of possible options for strengthening the international climate change effort after 2012. Analysis of the potential for sector-based emissions reduction and relevant mitigation options will provide the necessary background information for the debate. In order to assess the CO 2 abatement potential of China's steel industry, a model was developed using LEAP software to generate 3 different CO 2 emission scenarios for the industry from 2000 to 2030. The abatement potentials of different scenarios were compared, and their respective feasibilities were assessed according to the cost information. High priority abatement measures were then identified. The results show that the average CO 2 abatement per year in the Recent Policy scenario and in the New Policy scenario, compared with the reference scenario, are 51 and 107 million tons, respectively. The corresponding total incremental costs are 9.34 and 80.95 billion dollars. It is concluded that there is great potential for CO 2 abatement in China's steel industry. Adjusting the structure of the industry and technological advancement will play an important role in emissions reduction. Successful implementation of current sustainable development policies and measures will result in CO 2 abatement at a low cost. However, to achieve higher levels of abatement, the cost will increase dramatically. In the near future, specific energy conservation technologies such as dry coke quenching, exhaust gas and heat recovery equipment will be of great significance. However, taking a long term perspective, emissions reduction will rely more on the adjustment of production processes and the application of more modern large scale plants. Advanced blast furnace technology will inevitably play an important role

  11. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E H J; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-07

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO 2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  12. Carbon Emission Reduction with Regard to Retailer’s Fairness Concern and Subsidies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the impact of consumer environmental awareness (CEA, retailer’s fairness concern, and government subsidies on the two echelon supply chain with one manufacturer and one retailer. The manufacturer produces green products with carbon emission reduction. The government provides two types of alternative subsidies: a fixed subsidy (referred to as an F-type subsidy or a discount subsidy (referred to as a D-type subsidy to encourage the manufacturer to produce a product with a high carbon emission reduction rate. We aim to provide optimal solutions to the manufacturer and the retailer with regard to the retailer’s fairness concern and government subsidies; thus we discuss four decision scenarios: the benchmark model without the fairness concern and subsidy, the model with the retailer’s fairness concern, the model with fairness concern and the F-type subsidy, and the model with fairness concern and the D-type subsidy. We provide explicit solutions and numerical examples of the optimal carbon emission reduction rate, wholesale price, and retail price. Our study has four main findings: firstly, high consumer environmental awareness will benefit both the manufacturer and the retailer in the above four scenarios; secondly, the fairness concern and subsidy have a counter effect on the optimal strategies (the subsidy could alleviate the negative influence caused by retailer’s fairness concern; thirdly, the government could subsidize the retailer when there is unfairness in the supply chain so that the manufacturer could produce a product with lower carbon emission; finally, using the subsidy related to the environmental quality will be more helpful for improving environment quality, especially when the government has a budget constraint.

  13. Technique for systematic bone reduction for fixed implant-supported prosthesis in the edentulous maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S

    2015-06-01

    Bone reduction for maxillary fixed implant-supported prosthodontic treatment is often necessary to either gain prosthetic space or to conceal the prosthesis-tissue junction in patients with excessive gingival display (gummy smile). Inadequate bone reduction is often a cause of prosthetic failure due to material fractures, poor esthetics, or inability to perform oral hygiene procedures due to unfavorable ridge lap prosthetic contours. Various instruments and techniques are available for bone reduction. It would be helpful to have an accurate and efficient method for bone reduction at the time of surgery and subsequently create a smooth bony platform. This article presents a straightforward technique for systematic bone reduction by transferring the patient's maximum smile line, recorded clinically, to a clear radiographic smile guide for treatment planning using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The patient's smile line and the amount of required bone reduction are transferred clinically by marking bone with a sterile stationery graphite wood pencil at the time of surgery. This technique can help clinicians to accurately achieve the desired bone reduction during surgery, and provide confidence that the diagnostic and treatment planning goals have been achieved. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic model reduction: An overview of available techniques with application to power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Savo D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the model reduction techniques used for the reduction of large-scale linear and nonlinear dynamic models, described by the differential and algebraic equations that are commonly used in control theory. The groups of methods discussed in this paper for reduction of the linear dynamic model are based on singular perturbation analysis, modal analysis, singular value decomposition, moment matching and methods based on a combination of singular value decomposition and moment matching. Among the nonlinear dynamic model reduction methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, the trajectory piecewise linear method, balancing-based methods, reduction by optimising system matrices and projection from a linearised model, are described. Part of the paper is devoted to the techniques commonly used for reduction (equivalencing of large-scale power systems, which are based on coherency, synchrony, singular perturbation analysis, modal analysis and identification. Two (most interesting of the described techniques are applied to the reduction of the commonly used New England 10-generator, 39-bus test power system.

  15. Polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies: Determination of emission levels associated with the best available techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrechts, D; Verachtert, E; Vander Aa, S; Polders, C; Van den Abeele, L

    2016-08-01

    Rainwater falling on outdoor storage areas of waste recovery and recycling companies becomes polluted via contact with the stored materials. It contains various pollutants, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, and is characterized by a highly fluctuating composition and flow rate. This polluted rainwater runoff is legally considered as industrial wastewater, and the polluting substances contained in the rainwater runoff at the point of discharge, are considered as emissions into water. The permitting authorities can set emission limit values (discharge limits) at the point of discharge. Best available techniques are an important reference point for setting emission limit values. In this paper, the emission levels associated with the best available techniques for dealing with polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies were determined. The determination is based on an analysis of emission data measured at different companies in Flanders. The data show that a significant fraction of the pollution in rainwater runoff is associated with particles. A comparison with literature data provides strong indications that not only leaching, but also atmospheric deposition play an important role in the contamination of rainwater at waste recovery and recycling companies. The prevention of pollution and removal of suspended solids from rainwater runoff to levels below 60mg/l are considered as best available techniques. The associated emission levels were determined by considering only emission data from plants applying wastewater treatment, and excluding all samples with suspended solid levels >60mg/l. The resulting BAT-AEL can be used as a reference point for setting emission limit values for polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies. Since the BAT-AEL (e.g. 150μg/l for Cu) are significantly lower than current emission levels (e.g. 300μg/l as the 90% percentile and 4910

  16. [Balloon osteoplasty as reduction technique in the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freude, T; Kraus, T M; Sandmann, G H

    2015-10-01

    Tibial plateau fractures requiring surgery are severe injuries of the lower extremities. Depending on the fracture pattern, the age of the patient, the range of activity and the bone quality there is a broad variation in adequate treatment.  This article reports on an innovative treatment concept to address split depression fractures (Schatzker type II) and depression fractures (Schatzker type III) of the tibial head using the balloon osteoplasty technique for fracture reduction. Using the balloon technique achieves a precise and safe fracture reduction. This internal osteoplasty combines a minimal invasive percutaneous approach with a gently rise of the depressed area and the associated protection of the stratum regenerativum below the articular cartilage surface. This article lights up the surgical procedure using the balloon technique in tibia depression fractures. Using the balloon technique a precise and safe fracture reduction can be achieved. This internal osteoplasty combines a minimally invasive percutaneous approach with a gentle raising of the depressed area and the associated protection of the regenerative layer below the articular cartilage surface. Fracture reduction by use of a tamper results in high peak forces over small areas, whereas by using the balloon the forces are distributed over a larger area causing less secondary stress to the cartilage tissue. This less invasive approach might help to achieve a better long-term outcome with decreased secondary osteoarthritis due to the precise and chondroprotective reduction technique.

  17. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Emilia Mmbando; Anderson, David O

    2017-04-01

    Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management.

  19. Low emission transport systems. Reduction of emissions with low-pollutant lubricants; Emissionsarmer Verkehr. Emissionsminderung durch schadstoffarme Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, D; Boehncke, A; Mangelsdorf, I

    2001-07-01

    Due to the lower EURO 4 emission limits, exhaust aftertreatment systems for heavy- and light-duty vehicles will be necessary which are more efficient than the today 3-way- or oxidation-type catalysts. Practicable exhaust aftertreatment systems are, for example, particle traps, SCR or NOx- adsorber catalysts, and combinations of these systems. Most of these exhaust control devices require fuels with sulphur contents below 10 ppm. Then the sulphate emissions from lubricants containing about 0.5% sulphur is in the same order of magnitude as sulphate emissions from low sulfur fuels. Measured data on the influence of sulphur from lubricating oils on future exhaust treatment systems are very limited. Conclusions have mostly been drawn from experimental results with low sulphur fuels. It cannot be ruled out, especially for NOx- adsorbers, that sulphur will adversely affect performance, thus making a reduction of sulphur levels in engine oils necessary. As far as diesel exhaust is concerned lubricants contribute approximately 20 - 26% to total particulate matter and more than 50% to the soluble organic fraction (SOF). Ash deposits derived from additives that contain zinc, calcium, sulphur, or phosphorous are likely to block the newly developed particle filter systems. Also for diesel technologies incorporating precious-metal catalysts (e.g. DOC, CDPF, CR-DPF, Urea- SCR) low sulphur levels are advantageous because the mass of sulphate particulate matter formed from fuel or lubricant sulphur is reduced. Conventional three-way catalysts are less sensitive, the light-off temperature being mainly affected. In summary, all available studies suggest that the lower the level of sulphur the lower emissions are. Furthermore phosphorous (associated with the antiwear additive ZDTP) was shown to limit catalyst life and, together with thermal degradation, is responsible for reduced catalyst efficiency over time. Although there is still a lack of quantitative technical information, it

  20. System Response Analysis and Model Order Reduction, Using Conventional Method, Bond Graph Technique and Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Moin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper basically explores and compares the different modeling and analysis techniques and than it also explores the model order reduction approach and significance. The traditional modeling and simulation techniques for dynamic systems are generally adequate for single-domain systems only, but the Bond Graph technique provides new strategies for reliable solutions of multi-domain system. They are also used for analyzing linear and non linear dynamic production system, artificial intelligence, image processing, robotics and industrial automation. This paper describes a unique technique of generating the Genetic design from the tree structured transfer function obtained from Bond Graph. This research work combines bond graphs for model representation with Genetic programming for exploring different ideas on design space tree structured transfer function result from replacing typical bond graph element with their impedance equivalent specifying impedance lows for Bond Graph multiport. This tree structured form thus obtained from Bond Graph is applied for generating the Genetic Tree. Application studies will identify key issues and importance for advancing this approach towards becoming on effective and efficient design tool for synthesizing design for Electrical system. In the first phase, the system is modeled using Bond Graph technique. Its system response and transfer function with conventional and Bond Graph method is analyzed and then a approach towards model order reduction is observed. The suggested algorithm and other known modern model order reduction techniques are applied to a 11th order high pass filter [1], with different approach. The model order reduction technique developed in this paper has least reduction errors and secondly the final model retains structural information. The system response and the stability analysis of the system transfer function taken by conventional and by Bond Graph method is compared and

  1. Modelling road dust emission abatement measures using the NORTRIP model: Vehicle speed and studded tyre reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M.; Sundvor, I.; Denby, B. R.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.

    2016-06-01

    Road dust emissions in Nordic countries still remain a significant contributor to PM10 concentrations mainly due to the use of studded tyres. A number of measures have been introduced in these countries in order to reduce road dust emissions. These include speed reductions, reductions in studded tyre use, dust binding and road cleaning. Implementation of such measures can be costly and some confidence in the impact of the measures is required to weigh the costs against the benefits. Modelling tools are thus required that can predict the impact of these measures. In this paper the NORTRIP road dust emission model is used to simulate real world abatement measures that have been carried out in Oslo and Stockholm. In Oslo both vehicle speed and studded tyre share reductions occurred over a period from 2004 to 2006 on a major arterial road, RV4. In Stockholm a studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan in 2010 saw a significant reduction in studded tyre share together with a reduction in traffic volume. The model is found to correctly simulate the impact of these measures on the PM10 concentrations when compared to available kerbside measurement data. Importantly meteorology can have a significant impact on the concentrations through both surface and dispersion conditions. The first year after the implementation of the speed reduction on RV4 was much drier than the previous year, resulting in higher mean concentrations than expected. The following year was much wetter with significant rain and snow fall leading to wet or frozen road surfaces for 83% of the four month study period. This significantly reduced the net PM10 concentrations, by 58%, compared to the expected values if meteorological conditions had been similar to the previous years. In the years following the studded tyre ban on Hornsgatan road wear production through studded tyres decreased by 72%, due to a combination of reduced traffic volume and reduced studded tyre share. However, after accounting for exhaust

  2. Performance and emission reduction potential of micro-gasifier improved through better design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Dino Adem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass gasification is getting popular for household cooking application in most developing countries including Ethiopia. The preference for biomass gasification is due to the generation of less CO (Carbon Monoxide and PM (Particulate Matter in comparison with other biomass cookstoves. Our study showed the improvement in thermal efficiency and emission reduction potential of micro-gasifier. A prototype micro-gasifier was built and tested using the water boiling test protocol. The test results gave a thermal efficiency of 39.6% and a specific fuel consumption of 57 g of fuel/ liter of water. With regard to indoor air pollution, the maximum CO & PM registered were 12.5 ppm and 1.85 mg/m3, respectively. Using clean development mechanism (CDM methodology, the estimated emission reduction potential of the micro-gasifier is 1.30 tCO2 per micro-gasifier per year. Generally, the micro-gasifier has better performance compared to the previous designs proposed by other researchers. Thus, disseminating our micro-gasifier at a larger scale in developing countries such as Ethiopia will be beneficial in reducing deforestation and emission that will be brought about by using open-fire stoves and thus, helps to obtain carbon credit.

  3. Evaluation of technologies for the reduction of emissions and removal of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daun, M.

    1993-01-01

    Aim of this work is the detailed and transparent evaluation of the technologies in question for the reduction of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and for CO2 removal. For this purpose it is of particular importance to differentiate between the technically possible and the economically thinkable or the ecologically efficient by taking into account the particular conditions in the FRG (West and East German states). Based on the analysis of CO2 flows in the FRG energy conversion technologies in the areas power generation, road traffic and supply of households and small consumers with heat which emit together more than 80% of the total amount of CO2 are chosen for the comparative evaluation. On the basis of a comparative system-analytical evaluation of individual measures a demand-orientated consumption, emission and cost model can be established for the areas power generation, low-temperature heat and road traffic. The characteristic parameters determined in the evaluations serve as basis for such a model. If this model is conceived in a way that also developments in time can be shown it is possible to find out in scenario calculations to which extent these new technologies can contribute in future to a cost-effective reduction of CO2 emissions. The investigation period for the development in time of CO2 emission in the areas mentioned above was chosen to be 25 years (1990-2015). (orig./KW) [de

  4. Economic Performance and Emission Reduction of Supply Chains in Different Power Structures: Perspective of Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues have increasingly received attention in both industry and academia. Many firms have started to make sustainable investments, such as adopting the pollution-abatement technologies, to reduce carbon emissions. To investigate the impacts of the sustainable investment on firms’ profit and emission reduction, we consider supply chains with uncertain demand in different power structures. Specifically, we examine the sustainable investment problem in three supply chain power structures, i.e., manufacturer Stackelberg (MS power structure, vertical Nash (VN power structure and retailer Stackelberg (RS power structure. We first derive the optimal decisions for both the retailer and manufacturer in each power structure. Then, by comparing the results in the three power structures, we find that the manufacturer gets benefits from making the sustainable investment, especially in unequal power structures. When the average market size is large (small enough, both of the supply chain members obtain more profits in the MS (RS power structure. From an environmental perspective, we find that the emission reduction is more significant in sequential games (i.e., MS and RS power structures than that in a simultaneous game (i.e., VN power structure. In addition, we conduct some numerical studies and discuss more managerial insights in the paper.

  5. Long-term energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions in the Swiss residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siller, Thomas; Kost, Michael; Imboden, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the possibilities to reach two long-term targets regarding energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the Swiss residential building stock: a reduction of the final energy consumption by a factor of 3 and of CO 2 emissions by a factor of 5 until 2050. A model is constructed to describe the dynamics of the energy-relevant properties of the residential building stock. Appropriate scenarios are discussed in terms of decisions made during construction or renovation of residential buildings which affect heat demand and determine the energy carriers used for heating and hot water generation. We show that both targets could be reached, although ambitious efforts are necessary. The central element of a successful strategy is to reduce the specific heat demand of existing buildings during renovation and to substitute the heating and hot water systems by less carbon intensive ones. Our results suggest that there is more flexibility to reach the emission target than the energy reduction target

  6. Analysis and application of a novel three-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction dynamic evolution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guochang; Tian, Lixin; Sun, Mei; Fu, Min

    2012-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional energy-saving and emission-reduction chaotic system is proposed, which has not yet been reported in present literature. The system is established in accordance with the complicated relationship between energy-saving and emission-reduction, carbon emissions and economic growth. The dynamic behavior of the system is analyzed by means of Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagrams. With undetermined coefficient method, expressions of homoclinic orbits of the system are obtained. The Šilnikov theorem guarantees that the system has Smale horseshoes and the horseshoes chaos. Artificial neural network (ANN) is used to identify the quantitative coefficients in the simulation models according to the statistical data of China, and an empirical study of the real system is carried out with the results in perfect agreement with actual situation. It is found that the sooner and more perfect energy-saving and emission-reduction is started, the easier and sooner the maximum of the carbon emissions will be achieved so as to reduce carbon emissions and energy intensity. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the results. -- Highlights: ► Use non-linear dynamical method to model the energy-saving and emission-reduction system. ► The energy-saving and emission-reduction attractor is obtained. ► Identify the unknown parameters of the energy-saving and emission-reduction system based on the statistical data. ► Evaluating the achievements of energy-saving and emission-reduction by the time-varying energy intensity calculation formula. ► Some statistical results based on the statistical data in China are presented, which are vivid and adherent to the reality.

  7. The impact of a 50% reduction of solid waste disposal in Canada on methane emissions from landfills in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, L.M.F.; Owen, G.T.; Barclay, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Canada's Green Plan established a goal of 50% reduction in municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal between 1988 and the year 2000. Canada has also committed to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by 2000. MSW landfills are targeted since they account for a significant portion of anthropogenic methane emissions. Current composition and quantities of MSW were estimated. Using five scenarios for achieving a 50% reduction of waste disposed, the quantities and composition of waste managed were estimated through to the year 2000. A first-order decay model was used to estimate methane emissions from landfills of each scenario by varying the methane generation potential (L o ) based on the amount of biodegradable carbon in the MSW stream. Despite the overall reduction in waste, methane emissions are still projected on increase between 1990 and 2000 for scenarios with 25 to 45% of waste going to landfill in 2000. The estimated increases in methane emissions range from 2% for the high composting scenario to 16% for the high landfill scenario. In general, emissions peak during the 1990's and are decreasing by 2000. The projected increase in emissions is due to the 65--75% contribution of MSW landfilled before 1990. In conclusion, a significant reduction in methane emissions from landfills by 2000 will require methane recovery systems in addition to MSW reduction initiatives

  8. Air treatment techniques for abatement of emissions from intensive livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    Melse, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Keywords: Air treatment; Scrubber; Bioscrubber; Biofilter; Biotrickling filter; Ammonia; NH3; Odour; Livestock production; Animal husbandry; Pig; Poultry. Intensive livestock production is connected with a number of environmental effects, including emissions of ammonia (NH3), greenhouse gases (CH4 and N2O), odour, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Possible strategies for emission reduction from animal houses include feed management, adaptation of housing design, and the application o...

  9. Mitigating Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Agricultural Landscape: The Role of Isotopic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Mohammad; Nguyen, Minh Long

    2014-05-01

    A review of studies from agricultural landscapes indicate that intensification of agricultural activities, inefficient use of reactive nitrogen (N) fertilizers and irrigation water, increasing human population and changes in their diet (more protein demand), high stocking rate (number of grazing livestock per hectare) and intensive cultivation are the major influencing factors for nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere. Nitrification (both autotrophic and heterotrophic), denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are the three major microbial processes that produce greenhouse N2O and non-greenhouse gas (N2) and can sometimes occur concurrently in a given soil system. The contribution of N2O production from each of these microbial processes is inconclusive because of the complex interactions between various microbial processes and the physical and chemical conditions in soil microsite (s). Nitrous oxide emissions across an agricultural landscape from different N inputs (chemical fertilizers and animal manure) and soil types are also extremely variable both temporally and spatially and range from 1-20% of the applied N and could therefore represent agronomic loss. The available conventional methods such as acetylene (C2H2) inhibition and helium (He) cannot accurately measure both N2O and N2 and their ratio in a given soil. The use of 15N stable isotopic technique offers the best option to measure both N2O and N2 and to identify their source (nitrification and denitrification) with a greater accuracy. Manipulating soil and fertilizer management practices can minimise these gaseous N losses. For example the combined use of urease inhibitor like (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT) (trade name Agrotain®) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) with urea (100 kg N ha-1) or animal urine (600 kg N ha-1) was shown to reduce N losses by 39-53 % via denitrification-nitrification-DNRA processes. Other farm management

  10. Renewables vs. energy efficiency: The cost of carbon emissions reduction in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Peña, Álvaro; Pérez-Arriaga, Ignacio; Linares, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    While support instruments have succeeded to largely deploy renewables during the 1996–2008 period, little attention has been paid to energy efficiency measures, resulting in a high energy intensity and large growth of energy demand. Energy-related CO 2 emissions have increased significantly. At the same time, important investments in combined cycle gas turbines have taken place. This paper analyses whether, from a cost minimization viewpoint, renewable support has been the best policy for reducing emissions, when compared to the promotion of energy efficiency in sectors such as transportation or buildings. We use a model of the Spanish energy sector to examine its evolution in the time period considered under different policies. It is a bottom-up, static, partial equilibrium, linear programming model of the complete Spanish energy system. We conclude that demand side management (DSM) clearly dominates renewable energy (RE) support if the reduction of emissions at minimum cost is the only concern. We also quantify the savings that could have been achieved: a total of €5 billion per year, mainly in RE subsidies and in smaller costs of meeting the reduced demand (net of DSM implementation cost). - Highlights: ► Energy efficiency is cheaper than renewables for reducing carbon emissions. ► Energy efficiency measures could have saved more than €5 billion per year in Spain. ► Savings could have been bigger without overcapacity in gas combined cycles.

  11. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, Katy; Styring, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO 2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO 2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the “cradle to gate” approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO 2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  12. Evaluating the CO 2 emissions reduction potential and cost of power sector re-dispatch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel C.; Bielen, David A.; Townsend, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Prior studies of the U.S. electricity sector have recognized the potential to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by substituting generation from coal-fired units with generation from under-utilized and lower-emitting natural gas-fired units; in fact, this type of 're-dispatch' was invoked as one of the three building blocks used to set the emissions targets under the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. Despite the existence of surplus natural gas capacity in the U.S., power system operational constraints not often considered in power sector policy analyses, such as transmission congestion, generator ramping constraints, minimum generation constraints, planned and unplanned generator outages, and ancillary service requirements, could limit the potential and increase the cost of coal-to-gas re-dispatch. Using a highly detailed power system unit commitment and dispatch model, we estimate the maximum potential for re-dispatch in the Eastern Interconnection, which accounts for the majority of coal capacity and generation in the U.S. Under our reference assumptions, we find that maximizing coal-to-gas re-dispatch yields emissions reductions of 230 million metric tons (Mt), or 13% of power sector emissions in the Eastern Interconnection, with a corresponding average abatement cost of $15-$44 per metric ton of CO2, depending on the assumed supply elasticity of natural gas.

  13. Carbon emissions reductions and technology gaps in the world's factory, 1990–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ning; Wang, Bing; Chen, Zhongfei

    2016-01-01

    China's manufacturing industries are traditionally energy-intensive sectors and are responsible for over half of the country's total CO_2 emissions. In this paper, we propose a global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach to measure the CO_2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing sectors during the period of 1990–2012. This approach allows us to simultaneously consider technological heterogeneity in manufacturing, non-radial slacks, and undesirable outputs. The global level of environmental technology is incorporated into the efficiency model to improve discriminating power and comparability. The results indicate significant differences in CO_2-emissions-reduction performance among five broad groups of Chinese manufacturing industries. The “global technologies/ innovators group” is the most efficient under meta-frontier technologies, with the smallest technology gap. Meanwhile, the “energy-/resource-intensive commodities group” is, on average, the least efficient. Therefore, the Chinese government should implement targeted policies that encourage firms in the global technologies/innovators group to increase market share while supporting those in the energy-/resource-intensive commodities group to upgrade their technologies. - Highlights: • Global meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function approach is proposed. • It measures CO_2 emissions performance of Chinese manufacturing during 1990–2012. • The impact of group heterogeneity is incorporated. • Global technologies/innovators group is the most efficient under meta-frontier. • Energy-/resource-intensive commodities group is, on average, the least efficient.

  14. Development of an incipient rotor crack detection method by acoustic emission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Reverend, D.; Massouri, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the program presented is to develop a method of detection and monitoring of crack growth in machine rotor by application of acoustic emission techniques. This program is performed by R and D Division of Electricite de France, jointly with INSA de Lyon. The first task of the program is relative to the characterization of acoustic emission during a progressive tensile test performed on a NCT specimen. The second task of the program deals with the experimentation of acoustic emission techniques for the monitoring of a specimen during cycling bending tests. The last task of the program is relative to evaluation of application of acoustic emission techniques for a small rotor integrity monitoring during fatigue rotation tests [fr

  15. Solving Multi-Pollutant Emission Dispatch Problem Using Computational Intelligence Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azzammudin Rahmat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic dispatch is a crucial process conducted by the utilities to correctly determine the satisfying amount of power to be generated and distributed to the consumers. During the process, the utilities also consider pollutant emission as the consequences of fossil-fuel consumption. Fossil-fuel includes petroleum, coal, and natural gas; each has its unique chemical composition of pollutants i.e. sulphur oxides (SOX, nitrogen oxides (NOX and carbon oxides (COX. This paper presents multi-pollutant emission dispatch problem using computational intelligence technique. In this study, a novel emission dispatch technique is formulated to determine the amount of the pollutant level. It utilizes a pre-developed optimization technique termed as differential evolution immunized ant colony optimization (DEIANT for the emission dispatch problem. The optimization results indicated high level of COX level, regardless of any type of fossil fuel consumed.

  16. Project ARES analysis of strategies of greenhouse effect gases emissions reduction. Synthesis report july 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Blanchard, O.; Kitous, A.; Hourcade, J.Ch.; Ghersi, F.; Kousnetzoff, N.; Genet, J.; Fahr, St.; Soria, A.; Russ, P.

    2002-07-01

    The ARES project was realized around three main activities. The first part was the elaboration by the CEPII of a scenario of a world economic growth, detailed by region for the year 2030. The second part develops by the IEPE a scenario of allocation of emission quotas for the year 2030, by a gradual reduction of the emissions growth in the developing countries, the evaluation of the scenario from the POLES model, with a comparison of the results with the alternative models described in literature or proposed by the negotiation. The last part is the extension and the development by the CIRED of the 14 zones IMACLIM model, the elaboration of interfaces with POLES and the study of the general equilibrium effects of the different attribution scenari studied by the IEPE. (A.L.B.)

  17. Possibilities for the reduction of CO2- and CH4-emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels increases the portion of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 and CH 4 . In this paper firstly the specific emission rates of these greenhouse gases for the various fuels are compared. Secondly possibilities for the reduction of CO 2 and CH 4 for natural gas which are relatively small anyhow are discussed. Thirdly the use of renewable energy within the gas industry and the ocean and into depleted reservoirs are discussed. It is shown that the efficient use of energy of the fossil fuel natural gas is most successful in all branches of gas consumption to decrease emission. Combined-cycle processes, cogeneration as well as modern domestic heating systems are described. Fuel cells and the application of hydrogen is shortly discussed. (orig.)

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Emissions Reduction through Vehicle Repair Compared to CNG Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Paul L; Lesko, Jon M; Stedman, Donald H

    1996-10-01

    In return for a temporary waiver from converting five vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the Denver Clean Fuels program, the University of Denver identified, tested, repaired, and retested nine employee commuter vehicles. The results of the study validated the concept that employer-based identification and repair programs can be carried out in a cost-effective way. On average, each repaired vehicle removed fifty times more carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from Denver air than each CNG conversion. The average cost of each repair was eight times less than the average cost of each conversion. The average fuel economy benefit from the repairs was enough to pay for the average cost of repairs in less than three years of normal driving. When the expected lifetimes of repairs and conversions are included, the targeted repair program appears to be over sixty times more cost-effective as a CO emissions reduction strategy than CNG conversion.

  19. S O{sub 2} emission reduction through the use of the humid oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Jurgen [TIBRAS, Titanio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The SO{sub 2} emission reduction unit to be installed in TIBRAS consists of six reactors supplied with activates carbon beds which will remove the SO{sub 2} (0.11 volume percent) contained in the residual gas (150.000 cubic meters per hour) produced in three rotary calciner kilns. The SO{sub 2} reacts with the water in the carbon pores forming diluted sulfuric acid. The activated carbon is fabricated from coke from peat. The weak H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} is reused in the titanium dioxide pigment process. This process is supposed to reduce TIBRAS SO{sub 2} emissions by 50 to 85 percent in addition to eliminating two stacks. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  1. S O{sub 2} emission reduction through the use of the humid oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Jurgen [TIBRAS, Titanio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The SO{sub 2} emission reduction unit to be installed in TIBRAS consists of six reactors supplied with activates carbon beds which will remove the SO{sub 2} (0.11 volume percent) contained in the residual gas (150.000 cubic meters per hour) produced in three rotary calciner kilns. The SO{sub 2} reacts with the water in the carbon pores forming diluted sulfuric acid. The activated carbon is fabricated from coke from peat. The weak H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} is reused in the titanium dioxide pigment process. This process is supposed to reduce TIBRAS SO{sub 2} emissions by 50 to 85 percent in addition to eliminating two stacks. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO 2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  3. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  4. A multinational model for CO2 reduction: defining boundaries of future CO2 emissions in nine countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, Tom; Hill, Douglas.

    1996-01-01

    A need to make substantial future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions would require major changes in national energy systems. Nine industrialized countries have explored the technical boundaries of CO 2 emission restrictions during the next 40 to 50 years using comparable scenario assumptions and a standard model, MARKAL. Quantitative results for the countries are shown side by side in a set of energy maps that compare the least-cost evolution of the national energy systems by the main factors that contribute to CO 2 emissions. The ability to restrict future CO 2 emissions and the most cost-effective measures for doing so differ among the countries; an international agreement that would mandate substantial emission restrictions among countries by an equal percentage reduction is clearly impossible. The results are a first step toward a basis for allocating such international reductions, and the multinational process by which they were produced provides an example for further international greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. (Author)

  5. Observation of reduction of secondary electron emission from helium ion impact due to plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E M; Doerner, R P; Nishijima, D; Pigarov, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Growth of nanostructured fuzz on a tungsten target in a helium plasma is found to cause a significant (∼3×) reduction in ion impact secondary electron emission in a linear plasma device. The ion impact secondary electron emission is separated from the electron impact secondary electron emission by varying the target bias voltage and fitting to expected contributions from electron impact, both thermal and non-thermal; with the non-thermal electron contribution being modeled using Monte-Carlo simulations. The observed (∼3×) reduction is similar in magnitude to the (∼2×) reduction observed in previous work for the effect of tungsten fuzz formation on secondary electron emission due to electron impact. It is hypothesized that the observed reduction results from re-absorption of secondary electrons in the tungsten fuzz. (paper)

  6. Reduction of VOC emission from natural flours filled biodegradable bio-composites for automobile interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Lee, Byoung-Ho; Kim, Sumin; Kim, Hyun-Joong; Yun, Ju-Ho; Yoo, Seung-Eul; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-03-15

    Various experiments, such as the thermal extract (TE) method, field and emission cell (FLEC) method and 20 L small chamber, were performed to examine the total volatile organic compound (TVOC) emissions from bio-composites. The TVOC of neat poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was ranged from 0.26 mg/m(2)h to 4.11 mg/m(2)h with increasing temperature. For both PLA bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour, the temperature increased from 0.30 mg/m(2)h to 3.72 mg/m(2)h and from 0.19 mg/m(2)h to 8.74 mg/m(2)h, respectively. The TVOC emission factors of all samples increased gradually with increasing temperature. Above 70°C, both PLA-P and PLA-C composites had higher TVOC emission factors than neat PLA due to the rapid emission of natural volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as furfural (2-furancarboxyaldehyde). PLA composites containing 30 wt% flour had high 1,4-dioxane reduction ability, >50%. The TVOC of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) was emitted rapidly from 50 °C to 90 °C due to succinic acid from the pyrolysis of PBS. The TVOC emission factors of PLA bio-composite and PBS bio-composites were reduced using the bake-out method (temperature at 70 °C and baking time 5h). The initial TVOC emission factors of the PLA and PBS bio-composites with pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour were reduced by the baking treatment using FLEC. The TVOC factors from PLA and PBS decreased until 5 days and were commonly maintained a relatively constant value after 5 days using 20L small chamber. The decrease in TVOC emission showed a similar trend to that of the TE and FLEC method. This method confirmed the beneficial effect of the baking treatment effect for polypropylene and linear density polyethylene (LDPE). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atmospheric impacts of black carbon emission reductions through the strategic use of biodiesel in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongliang [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Magara-Gomez, Kento T. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Environmental Engineering Department, Pontificia Bolivariana University-Bucaramanga, Km 7 Vía Piedecuesta, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Olson, Michael R. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Okuda, Tomoaki [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Walz, Kenneth A. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Madison Area Technical College, 3550 Anderson Street, Madison, WI 53704 (United States); Schauer, James J. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 660 North Park Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kleeman, Michael J., E-mail: mjkleeman@ucdavis.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Davis, 1 Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The use of biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel has gained interest as a strategy for greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy security, and economic advantage. Biodiesel adoption may also reduce particulate elemental carbon (EC) emissions from conventional diesel engines that are not equipped with after-treatment devices. This study examines the impact of biodiesel blends on EC emissions from a commercial off-road diesel engine and simulates the potential public health benefits and climate benefits. EC emissions from the commercial off-road engine decreased by 76% when ultra-low sulfur commercial diesel (ULSD) fuel was replaced by biodiesel. Model calculations predict that reduced EC emissions translate directly into reduced EC concentrations in the atmosphere, but the concentration of secondary particulate matter was not directly affected by this fuel change. Redistribution of secondary particulate matter components to particles emitted from other sources did change the size distribution and therefore deposition rates of those components. Modification of meteorological variables such as water content and temperature influenced secondary particulate matter formation. Simulations with a source-oriented WRF/Chem model (SOWC) for a severe air pollution episode in California that adopted 75% biodiesel blended with ULSD in all non-road diesel engines reduced surface EC concentrations by up to 50% but changed nitrate and total PM2.5 mass concentrations by less than ± 5%. These changes in concentrations will have public health benefits but did not significantly affect radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The removal of EC due to the adoption of biodiesel produced larger coatings of secondary particulate matter on other atmospheric particles containing residual EC leading to enhanced absorption associated with those particles. The net effect was a minor change in atmospheric optical properties despite a large change in atmospheric EC

  8. Atmospheric impacts of black carbon emission reductions through the strategic use of biodiesel in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Magara-Gomez, Kento T.; Olson, Michael R.; Okuda, Tomoaki; Walz, Kenneth A.; Schauer, James J.; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel has gained interest as a strategy for greenhouse gas emission reductions, energy security, and economic advantage. Biodiesel adoption may also reduce particulate elemental carbon (EC) emissions from conventional diesel engines that are not equipped with after-treatment devices. This study examines the impact of biodiesel blends on EC emissions from a commercial off-road diesel engine and simulates the potential public health benefits and climate benefits. EC emissions from the commercial off-road engine decreased by 76% when ultra-low sulfur commercial diesel (ULSD) fuel was replaced by biodiesel. Model calculations predict that reduced EC emissions translate directly into reduced EC concentrations in the atmosphere, but the concentration of secondary particulate matter was not directly affected by this fuel change. Redistribution of secondary particulate matter components to particles emitted from other sources did change the size distribution and therefore deposition rates of those components. Modification of meteorological variables such as water content and temperature influenced secondary particulate matter formation. Simulations with a source-oriented WRF/Chem model (SOWC) for a severe air pollution episode in California that adopted 75% biodiesel blended with ULSD in all non-road diesel engines reduced surface EC concentrations by up to 50% but changed nitrate and total PM2.5 mass concentrations by less than ± 5%. These changes in concentrations will have public health benefits but did not significantly affect radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. The removal of EC due to the adoption of biodiesel produced larger coatings of secondary particulate matter on other atmospheric particles containing residual EC leading to enhanced absorption associated with those particles. The net effect was a minor change in atmospheric optical properties despite a large change in atmospheric EC

  9. A supply chain optimization framework for CO2 emission reduction: Case of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyanarengan Ravi, Narayen; Zondervan, Edwin; Van Sint Annaland, Martin; Fransoo, Jan C.; Grievink, J.

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for the industrial deployment of a CO2 emission reduction methodology is to reduce the overall cost and the integration of all the nodes in the supply chain for CO2 emission reduction. In this work, we develop a mixed integer linear optimization model that selects appropriate sources, capture process, transportation network and CO2 storage sites and optimize for a minimum overall cost. Initially, we screen the sources and storage options available in the Netherlands at diffe...

  10. Bioreducer use in blast furnace ironmaking in Finland:techno-economic assessment and CO₂ emission reduction potential

    OpenAIRE

    Suopajärvi, H. (Hannu)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Most of the steel produced in the world is based on the integrated blast furnace-converter route, which is based on the use of virgin raw materials. Large amounts of fossil-based, carbon containing reductants are used in blast furnaces, which results in carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Fossil carbon dioxide emissions from steel production can be reduced by new technologies or moving from non-renewable to renewable energy sources. Biomass-based reductants could be one...

  11. The role of anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction in achieving the Paris Agreement's objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienola, Anca; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; O'Donnell, Declan; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Laaksonen, Ari

    2017-04-01

    The Paris agreement reached in December 2015 under the auspices of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims at holding the global temperature increase to well below 2◦C above preindustrial levels and "to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5◦C above preindustrial levels". Limiting warming to any level implies that the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) - the dominant driver of long-term temperatures - that can ever be emitted into the atmosphere is finite. Essentially, this means that global CO2 emissions need to become net zero. CO2 is not the only pollutant causing warming, although it is the most persistent. Short-lived, non-CO2 climate forcers also must also be considered. Whereas much effort has been put into defining a threshold for temperature increase and zero net carbon emissions, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the non-CO2 climate forcers, including not just the non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons etc.) but also the anthropogenic aerosols like black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulfate. This study investigates the possibility of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5◦C by the end of the century under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions simulated with the very simplistic MAGICC climate carbon cycle model as well as with ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA + UVic ESCM. The simulations include two different CO2 scenarios- RCP3PD as control and a CO2 reduction leading to 1.5◦C (which translates into reaching the net zero CO2 emissions by mid 2040s followed by negative emissions by the end of the century); each CO2 scenario includes also two aerosol pollution control cases denoted with CLE (current legislation) and MFR (maximum feasible reduction). The main result of the above scenarios is that the stronger the anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction is, the more significant the temperature increase by 2100 relative to pre

  12. Greenhouse gas emission reduction scenarios for BC : meeting the twin objectives of temperature stabilization and global equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.R.

    2008-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies are needed in order to prevent rises in global temperatures. This report presented 6 GHG emission scenarios conducted to understand the kind of contribution that the province of British Columbia (BC) might make towards reducing global warming in the future. Short, medium, and longer term GHG reduction targets were benchmarked. The University of Victoria earth system climate model was used to calculate emission pathways where global average temperature did not exceed 2 degrees C above pre-industrial values, and where atmospheric GHGs were stabilized at 400 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e). Global carbon emission budgets of the total amount of GHG emissions permissible between now and 2100 were identified. A carbon emission budget for 2008 to 2100 was then developed based on the population of BC. Average annual emission reduction rates for the world and for BC were also identified. It was concluded that dramatically reduced emissions will be insufficient to achieve an equilibrium temperature less than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels. Global reductions of greater than 80 per cent are needed to prevent unacceptable levels of ocean acidification. Results suggested that carbon sequestration technologies may need to be used to remove CO 2 from the atmosphere by artificial means. 38 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  13. An analysis of energy strategies for CO2 emission reduction in China. Case studies by MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangya

    1994-12-01

    The China's energy system has been analyzed by using the MARKAL model in this study and the time period is from the year 1990 to 2050. The MARKAL model is applied here to evaluate the cost effective energy strategies for CO 2 emission reduction in China. Firstly the Reference Energy System (RES) of China and its database were established, and the useful energy demand was projected on the basis of China's economic target and demographic forecasting. Four scenarios, BASE1-BASE4 were defined with different assumptions of crude oil and natural uranium availability. Analytical results show that without CO 2 emission constrains coal consumption will continue to hold a dominant position in primary energy supply, and CO 2 emissions in 2050 will be 9.55 BtCO 2 and 10.28 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Under the CO 2 emission constraints, nuclear and renewable energy will play important roles in CO 2 emission reduction, and feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction estimated by this study is 3.16 BtCO 2 in 2050. The cumulative CO 2 emission from 1990 to 2050 will be 418.25 BtCO 2 and 429.16 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Total feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction from 1990 to 2050 is 95.97 BtCO 2 . (author)

  14. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Opportunities for Civil Works Projects Unique to the US Army Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    petroleum gas ( LPG ) (4% of emissions). Figure 1 shows Tableau Software results for USACE MSCs GE GHG emissions. MVD, ERDC, and NAD (including Washington...ventilating, and air-conditioning LED light emitting diode LPG liquid petroleum gas LRC US Army Corps of Engineers — Chicago District MMBTU million...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 12 -1 9 Center for the Advancement of Sustainability Innovations (CASI) Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction

  15. The need for novel model order reduction techniques in the electronics industry (Chapter 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, W.H.A.; Benner, P.; Hinze, M.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the present and future needs of the electronics industry with regard to model order reduction. The industry has always been one of the main motivating fields for the development of MOR techniques, and continues to play this role. We discuss the search for provably passive

  16. Relativistic formulations with Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique for the three-particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, S.; Afnan, I.R.

    1980-05-01

    A critical comparison for two-types of three-dimensional covariant equations for the three-particle system obtained by the Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique with the Whitghtman-Garding momenta and the usual Jacobi variables is presented. The relations between the relativistic and non-relativistic equations in the low energy limit are discussed

  17. Identification of dose-reduction techniques for BWR and PWR repetitive high-dose jobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionne, B.J.; Baum, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of concern about the apparent increase in collective radiation dose to workers at nuclear power plants, this project will provide information to industry in preplanning for radiation protection during maintenance operations. This study identifies Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) repetitive jobs, and respective collective dose trends and dose reduction techniques. 3 references, 2 tables

  18. New model reduction technique for a class of parabolic partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos

    1991-01-01

    A model reduction (or lumping) technique for a class of parabolic-type partial differential equations is given, and its application is discussed. The frequency response of the temperature distribution in any multilayer solid is developed and given by a matrix expression. The distributed transfer

  19. The costs of emission reduction policies, markets for emission rights: what can we learn from the models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, O.

    2001-01-01

    Several models have been developed to assess the economic impacts of the commitments undertaken at Kyoto by the various parties to the Framework Agreement on Climatic Change. Following a seminar organised by the European Commission, the task here is to take stock of the various points of agreement or the differences made apparent by the models concerning the economic challenges relating to the Kyoto protocol. Qualitatively, the results are similar on several points: the implementation of the Kyoto protocol within the countries of appendix B represents a cost for these economies, except for those countries possessing hot air compared to an autarkic situation, the exchange of emission rights leads to a gain for each of the participants in the market but the setting of a ceiling for these exchanges brings about a reduction in global gains from exchange and strongly affects the division of these gains between countries. Finally, the recognition of families of greenhouse gas other than CO 2 reduces the costs of observing the Kyoto commitments. However, the quantitative results frequently diverge, both due to the type of model used (general or sector based balance) and the hypotheses chosen for the exogenous variables. It is therefore important to carry out awareness analyses, to propose sets of common hypotheses for certain exogenous variables and even to define a reference scenario common to all of the models in order to be able to re-examine the results, but this time on a common basis. The tasks of modelling should also be continued and enhanced in the following areas: What are the impacts of an emission rights market at a sector-based level (beginning with industry)? What is the exact effect of the inclusion of the six families of greenhouse gas and the absorption of carbon by the wells? Finally, what are the possibilities of differing objectives concerning a second round of commitments (post Kyoto)? (author)

  20. Comparisons of receive array interference reduction techniques under erroneous generalized transmit beamforming

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    This paper studies generalized single-stream transmit beamforming employing receive array co-channel interference reduction algorithms under slow and flat fading multiuser wireless systems. The impact of imperfect prediction of channel state information for the desired user spatially uncorrelated transmit channels on the effectiveness of transmit beamforming for different interference reduction techniques is investigated. The case of over-loaded receive array with closely-spaced elements is considered, wherein it can be configured to specified interfering sources. Both dominant interference reduction and adaptive interference reduction techniques for statistically ordered and unordered interferers powers, respectively, are thoroughly studied. The effect of outdated statistical ordering of the interferers powers on the efficiency of dominant interference reduction is studied and then compared against the adaptive interference reduction. For the system models described above, new analytical formulations for the statistics of combined signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio are presented, from which results for conventional maximum ratio transmission and single-antenna best transmit selection can be directly deduced as limiting cases. These results are then utilized to obtain quantitative measures for various performance metrics. They are also used to compare the achieved performance of various configuration models under consideration. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

  1. An Optimization Mechanism Intended for Static Power Reduction Using Dual-thTechnique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo P. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption reduction is a challenge nowadays. Techniques for dynamic and static power minimization have been proposed, but most of them are very time consuming. This work proposes an algorithm for reducing static power, which can be perfectly inserted in the conventional design flow for integrated systems considering an open source environment (open access infrastructure. The proposed approach, based on a Dual-Threshold technique, replaces part of the cells of the circuit by cells with a higher threshold voltage without resulting in timing violations in the circuit. The decision to replace a cell is based on timing estimates of the circuit modeling with the cell replacement, before it is actually replaced. The fact that only some cells are replaced every iteration results in a reduction of the runtime of the algorithm. Additionally, results showed a reduction in static power up to 39.28%, when applying the proposed approach in the ISCAS85 benchmark circuits.

  2. An insight on hydrogen fuel injection techniques with SCR system for NO{sub X} reduction in a hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Hall 11A, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune 411019, Maharashtra (India); Nagarajan, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ICE Division, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University-Chennai, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Internal combustion engines continue to dominate in many fields like transportation, agriculture and power generation. Among the various alternative fuels, hydrogen is a long-term renewable and less polluting fuel (Produced from renewable energy sources). In the present experimental investigation, the performance and emission characteristics were studied on a direct injection diesel engine in dual fuel mode with hydrogen inducted along with air adopting carburetion, timed port and manifold injection techniques. Results showed that in timed port injection, the specific energy consumption reduces by 15% and smoke level by 18%. The brake thermal efficiency and NO{sub X} increases by 17% and 34% respectively compared to baseline diesel. The variation in performance between port and manifold injection is not significant. The unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions are lesser in port injection. The oxides of nitrogen are higher in hydrogen operation (both port and manifold injection) compared to diesel engine. In order to reduce the NO{sub X} emissions, a selective catalytic converter was used in hydrogen port fuel injection. The NO{sub X} emission reduced upto a maximum of 74% for ANR (ratio of flow rate of ammonia to the flow rate of NO) of 1.1 with a marginal reduction in efficiency. Selective catalytic reduction technique has been found to be effective in reducing the NO{sub X} emission from hydrogen fueled diesel engines. (author)

  3. The climate fund. Some notions on the socio-economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions and emission reductions in an international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Van der Burg, T.; Jansen, H.M.A.; Verbruggen, H.

    1995-05-01

    The title project investigates the possibility of setting up an international climate fund and the way in which this could be arranged. A climate fund is a potential method to enhance the efficiency and efficacy of the reduction of the increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. It would allow countries to transfer capital, for instance through the here proposed climate fund, and to redistribute the damages caused by global warming. This project focuses on the economic aspects of a climate fund, although some attention will also be given to its political feasibility. The system of tradeable emission permits, of which joint implementation is often seen as a pilot phase, presumes that fixed emission targets exist. In this report the emissions are not prefixed, but optimised in a cost-benefit analysis in which the impact of international capital transfer is examined. In order to determine the impact of international capital transfer on the efficiency and efficacy on optimal greenhouse gas emission reduction, three building blocks are needed. The first block concerns the costs of climate change, or the benefits of climate change control. The second block concerns the costs of emission reduction. The third block is the model to integrate costs and benefits, and calculate the optimal emission control with and without international capital transfers. The project is split into four conceptual phases. In the first phase, a literature survey has been performed of the socio-economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas emission reductions, with a particular focus on the international distribution of costs and benefits. In the second phase, the costs and benefits are modelled in the Climate Framework for Uncertainty, Negotiation and Distribution (FUND). In the third phase the optimal emission reductions are calculated with and without international capital transfers in several game-theoretic settings. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Reduction of harmful emissions from a diesel engine fueled by kapok methyl ester using combined coating and SNCR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedharaj, S.; Vallinayagam, R.; Yang, W.M.; Saravanan, C.G.; Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.E.; Lee, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal barrier coating was accomplished by coating the engine components with PSZ. • Under-utilized kapok oil biodiesel was used as renewable fuel in a coated engine. • The BTE of the engine was improved by 9% with reduced BSFC. • CO, HC and smoke were reduced by 40%, 35.3% and 21.4%, respectively. • After implementing SCR assembly, the NO X emission was decreased by 13.4%. - Abstract: This research work has been formulated to reduce the stinging effect of NO X emission on atmospheric environment from a coated diesel engine fueled by biodiesel. As such, in the current study, we attempted to harness the renewable source of energy from in-edible kapok oil, which is normally under-utilized despite being a viable feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. Notably, steam treatment process followed by crushing of the kapok seeds in a mechanical expeller was done to extract large quantities of kapok oil for the application of diesel engine, which is quite distinct of a method adopted herein. The conventional trans-esterification process was availed to synthesize KME (kapok methyl ester) and the physical and thermal properties of it were estimated by ASTM standard methods. Subsequently, two blends of KME with diesel such as B25 (KME – 25% and diesel – 75%) and B50 (KME – 50% and diesel – 50%) were prepared and tested in a single cylinder diesel engine with thermal barrier coating. To help realize the coating process, PSZ (partially stabilized zirconia), a pertinent coating material in respect of its poor thermal conductivity and better durability, has been chosen as the coating material to be applied on engine components by plasma spray coating technique. As an outcome of the coating study, B50 was found to show improved BTE (brake thermal efficiency) than that in an uncoated engine, with notable decrease in major emissions such as HC (hydrocarbon), CO (carbon monoxide) and smoke. However, due to reduction in heat losses and increase in in

  5. Reduction of fossil fuel emissions in the USA: A holistic approach towards policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gopal; Bagheri, Fathollah; Mann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, the response of the federal government to the global initiative of reduction of emissions of CO 2 has been limited. With the Kyoto Protocol having entered into force in February 2005, there will be renewed international pressure on the United States for action. Concurrently, the US economy, growing modestly, is characterized by large current account and budget deficits. This situation calls for garnering additional revenue through repealing of the recent tax cuts. An option available is to impose a modest carbon tax. The rationale of such a tax is that it would address the twin objectives of additional revenue and reduction of emissions. In this paper, the impact of a hypothetical carbon tax imposed in a revenue-neutral context on 2001 household incomes is analyzed primarily to ascertain its progressivity. Progressivity of any tax is strongly associated with its political acceptability. The incidence of the hypothetical carbon tax is computed across the income quintiles. It is observed that only the households in the highest income quintile and the lowest income quintile are impacted by the tax. It is found that this tax is weakly regressive in the US context

  6. Joint Decisions on Emission Reduction and Inventory Replenishment with Overconfidence and Low-Carbon Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufeng Ji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a game-theoretical analysis of joint decisions on carbon emission reduction and inventory replenishment with overconfidence and consumer’s low-carbon preference for key supply chain players when facing effort-dependent demand. We consider respectively the overconfidence of a supplier who overestimates the impacts of his emission reduction efforts on product demand and the overconfidence of a retailer who underestimates the variability of the stochastic demand. We find, surprisingly, that the supplier’s overconfidence can mitigate “double marginalization” but hurt self-profit, while the retailer’s overconfidence can be an irrelevant factor for self-profit. The retailer aiming at short-term trading should actively seek an overconfident supplier, while the supplier should actively seek a rational retailer for whom the critical fractile is more than 0.5, whereas for an overconfident retailer, the critical fractile is less than or equal to 0.5. The study also underlines the effect of regulation parameters as an important contextual factor influencing low-carbon operations.

  7. Feasibility study on reduction of gasoline emissions from oil depots and gasoline stations in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A field survey was conducted of oil shipment depots in Java and Bali islands owned by Indonesia's state-run oil company to study measures for reduction in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Studies were made on the grasp of the amount of the hydrocarbon vapor emitted into the air, the amount of the gasoline recovered in case of adopting the vapor emission preventive technology, equipment cost/operational cost, etc. Concretely, the following three were studied: change of the gasoline storage tank to the inner floating roof type, and prevention of evaporation loss at the time of receiving and breathing loss caused by temperature changes; replacement with the vapor recovery type loading arm to recover gasoline vapor generated at the time of shipment/filling, and installation of the vapor recovery unit to recover vapor as gasoline; vapor balance system to recover in underground tank the gasoline vapor generated at the time of filling gasoline at gas station. As a result of the study, the recovered gasoline amount was 66,393 Kl/y and the CO2 reduction amount was 14,474 t/y at oil shipment depots and approximately 650 gasoline stations in Jakarta and Surabaya. (NEDO)

  8. Reduction of fossil fuel emissions in the USA: a holistic approach towards policy formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, G.; Bagheri, F.; Mann, M. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks (United States)

    2007-02-15

    In the United States, the response of the federal government to the global initiative of reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} has been limited. With the Kyoto Protocol having entered into force in February 2005, there will be renewed international pressure on the United States for action. Concurrently, the US economy, growing modestly, is characterized by large current account and budget deficits. This situation calls for garnering additional revenue through repealing of the recent tax cuts. An option available is to impose a modest carbon tax. The rationale of such a tax is that it would address the twin objectives of additional revenue and reduction of emissions. In this paper, the impact of a hypothetical carbon tax imposed in a revenue-neutral context on 2001 household incomes is analyzed primarily to ascertain its progressivity. Progressivity of any tax is strongly associated with its political acceptability. The incidence of the hypothetical carbon tax is computed across the income quintiles. It is observed that only the households in the highest income quintile and the lowest income quintile are impacted by the tax. It is found that this tax is weakly regressive in the US context. (author)

  9. A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Active Travel Intervention with Health and Carbon Emission Reduction Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Mark; Witten, Karen; Woodward, Alistair

    2018-01-01

    Active travel (walking and cycling) is beneficial for people’s health and has many co-benefits, such as reducing motor vehicle congestion and pollution in urban areas. There have been few robust evaluations of active travel, and very few studies have valued health and emissions outcomes. The ACTIVE before-and-after quasi-experimental study estimated the net benefits of health and other outcomes from New Zealand’s Model Communities Programme using an empirical analysis comparing two intervention cities with two control cities. The Programme funded investment in cycle paths, other walking and cycling facilities, cycle parking, ‘shared spaces’, media campaigns and events, such as ‘Share the Road’, and cycle-skills training. Using the modified Integrated Transport and Health Impacts Model, the Programme’s net economic benefits were estimated from the changes in use of active travel modes. Annual benefits for health in the intervention cities were estimated at 34.4 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and two lives saved due to reductions in cardiac disease, diabetes, cancer, and respiratory disease. Reductions in transport-related carbon emissions were also estimated and valued. Using a discount rate of 3.5%, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 11:1 and was robust to sensitivity testing. It is concluded that when concerted investment is made in active travel in a city, there is likely to be a measurable, positive return on investment. PMID:29751618

  10. What is a fair CO2 tax increase? On fair emission reductions in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how individual preferences for fair reductions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions affect the support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline and diesel. We assume that people not only care about their own material welfare, but also have preferences for fairness in policy design, and we explore the implications using original data from a mail questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Swedish population. The main result is that fairness in policy design does matter. Those respondents who adhere to a fairness principle tend to be relatively more positive to increases in the CO 2 tax. One possible explanation for this result is that there is a relatively high degree of reciprocity regarding the origin of emissions and the fairness regarding who should bear the burden of CO 2 reductions. Via a split sample analysis, we also find that the relative importance of fairness principles is dependent upon whether one uses a car often or not. This sheds light on the potential goal conflict between the importance of fairness principles and self-interest in the form of a need for private car transportation. (author)

  11. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in China by cleaner coal technology towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Chen, Sha

    2015-01-01

    the complete life cycle modeling of CCTs. The advanced technologies include super-critical (super-C), ultra super-critical (USC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The results show that the higher efficiency technologies have lower potential impacts. Compared with the average level of power...... generation technology, CO2 emissions reduction is 6.4% for super-C, 37.4% for USC and 61.5% for IGCC. Four coal power scenarios are developed based on the assumption of potential investment power for CCTs in 2020, which are super-C, USC, USC and old low efficiency generation substitution by USC, IGCC...... and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The CO2 emissions intensity is 1.93 kg/kWh for super-C, 1.69 kg/kWh for USC, 1.59 kg/kWh for USC + replacement and 1.29 kg/kWh for IGCC + CCS. The CO2 emissions intensity was 1.95 kg/kWh in 2010, which had decreased 5.5% compared with the level in 2005. The energy...

  13. Energy efficiency and reduction of CO2 emissions from campsites management in a protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moretto, Deny; Branca, Teresa Annunziata; Colla, Valentina

    2018-06-02

    Campsites can be a pollution source, mainly due to the energy consumption. In addition, the green areas, thanks to the direct CO 2 sequestration and the shading, indirectly prevent the CO 2 emissions related to energy consumption. The methodology presented in this paper allowed assessing the annual CO 2 emissions directly related to the campsite management and the consequent environmental impact in campsite clusters in Tuscany. The software i-Tree Canopy was exploited, enabling to evaluate in terms of "canopy" the tonnes of CO 2 sequestered by the vegetation within each campsite. Energy and water consumptions from 2012 to 2015 were assessed for each campsite. As far as the distribution of sequestered CO 2 is concerned, the campsites ranking was in accordance to their size. According to the indicator "T-Tree" or canopy cover, a larger area of the canopy cover allows using less outdoor areas covered by trees for the sequestration of the remaining amount of pollutants. The analysis shows that the considered campsites, that are located in a highly naturalistic Park, present significant positive aspects both in terms of CO 2 emission reductions and of energy efficiency. However, significant margins of improvement are also possible and they were analysed in the paper. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Steering levies on the purchase of new cars for the reduction of CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, P. de; Mueller, M.; Peters, A.; Hauser, A.

    2007-12-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the background, mechanisms and prognoses for the reduction of CO 2 emissions of new cars. This report focuses on policy measures - specifically the collection of budget-neutral so-called 'feebates' - that aim to influence the behaviour of buyers of new cars as a means of enhancing energy efficiency and reducing CO 2 emissions. Both the European Union and Switzerland are pursuing a three-pillar strategy in which agreements with manufacturers and importers (pillar 1) are supplemented by the provision of more detailed information for customers in the form of energy labels for new vehicles as well as catalogues listing levels of fuel consumption (pillar 2). Pillar 3 concerns measures aimed at influencing car buying behaviour, generally based on the use of the energy label for new vehicles in order to realise the existing potentials for reducing CO 2 emissions. The report takes a look at Switzerland's car market, buying behaviour, information on efficient vehicles, acceptance factors and incentive schemes. The findings of the study are presented and commented on.

  15. Feasibility study on energy saving and reduction of CO2 emissions at Pertamina's Cilacap Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective of saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emission, a basic survey has been performed on the atmospheric crude oil distillation units and the high vacuum distillation units at Cilacap Refinery in Indonesia. The first site survey in September 2000 has carried out a survey on the situation of the facilities and operation upon obtaining the facility data and operation information from Pertamina. As a result, it was revealed that there is a room of improvement in the heat recovery, whereas a modification design was executed on the improvement proposals on the heat exchanger system. However, the second site survey in November 2000 has revealed that Pertamina had executed in 1998 through 1999 the de-bottlenecking project on the crude oil atmospheric distillation units (two units) and the high vacuum distillation units (two units), by which the capability has been expanded, and the heat recovery rate has been increased. It is not possible to look for extremely large enhancement of the heat recovery rate beyond that point, and the reduction of CO2 emission would also be small. As a result of discussions, the present project was found capable of reducing annually the CO2 emission by 36,500 tons. (NEDO)

  16. Photochemical modeling in California with two chemical mechanisms: model intercomparison and response to emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxia; Kelly, James T; Avise, Jeremy C; Kaduwela, Ajith P; Stockwell, William R

    2011-05-01

    An updated version of the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) chemical mechanism (SAPRC07C) was implemented into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) version 4.6. CMAQ simulations using SAPRC07C and the previously released version, SAPRC99, were performed and compared for an episode during July-August, 2000. Ozone (O3) predictions of the SAPRC07C simulation are generally lower than those of the SAPRC99 simulation in the key areas of central and southern California, especially in areas where modeled concentrations are greater than the federal 8-hr O3 standard of 75 parts per billion (ppb) and/or when the volatile organic compound (VOC)/nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratio is less than 13. The relative changes of ozone production efficiency (OPE) against the VOC/NOx ratio at 46 sites indicate that the OPE is reduced in SAPRC07C compared with SAPRC99 at most sites by as much as approximately 22%. The SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C mechanisms respond similarly to 20% reductions in anthropogenic VOC emissions. The response of the mechanisms to 20% NOx emissions reductions can be grouped into three cases. In case 1, in which both mechanisms show a decrease in daily maximum 8-hr O3 concentration with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 decrease in SAPRC07C is smaller. In case 2, in which both mechanisms show an increase in O3 with decreasing NOx emissions, the O3 increase is larger in SAPRC07C. In case 3, SAPRC07C simulates an increase in O3 in response to reduced NOx emissions whereas SAPRC99 simulates a decrease in O3 for the same region. As a result, the areas where NOx controls would be disbeneficial are spatially expanded in SAPRC07C. Although the results presented here are valuable for understanding differences in predictions and model response for SAPRC99 and SAPRC07C, the study did not evaluate the impact of mechanism differences in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guidance for using numerical models in demonstrating air quality attainment

  17. ON THE PAPR REDUCTION IN OFDM SYSTEMS: A NOVEL ZCT PRECODING BASED SLM TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARUN JEOTI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR reduction is still an important challenge in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel Zadoff-Chu matrix Transform (ZCT precoding based Selected Mapping (SLM technique for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems. This technique is based on precoding the constellation symbols with ZCT precoder after the multiplication of phase rotation factor and before the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT in the SLM based OFDM (SLM-OFDM Systems. Computer simulation results show that, the proposed technique can reduce PAPR up to 5.2 dB for N=64 (System subcarriers and V=16 (Dissimilar phase sequences, at clip rate of 10-3. Additionally, ZCT based SLM-OFDM (ZCT-SLM-OFDM systems also take advantage of frequency variations of the communication channel and can also offer substantial performance gain in fading multipath channels.

  18. Analysis and Design of International Emission Trading Markets Applying System Dynamics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Pickl, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    The design and analysis of international emission trading markets is an important actual challenge. Time-discrete models are needed to understand and optimize these procedures. We give an introduction into this scientific area and present actual modeling approaches. Furthermore, we develop a model which is embedded in a holistic problem solution. Measures for energy efficiency are characterized. The economic time-discrete "cap-and-trade" mechanism is influenced by various underlying anticipatory effects. With a systematic dynamic approach the effects can be examined. First numerical results show that fair international emissions trading can only be conducted with the use of protective export duties. Furthermore a comparatively high price which evokes emission reduction inevitably has an inhibiting effect on economic growth according to our model. As it always has been expected it is not without difficulty to find a balance between economic growth and emission reduction. It can be anticipated using our System Dynamics model simulation that substantial changes must be taken place before international emissions trading markets can contribute to global GHG emissions mitigation.

  19. The research and application of electricity economic boom model under the constraint of energy conservation and emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangyan; Xia, Huaijian; Chen, Meiling; Wang, Dong; Jia, Sujin

    2017-10-01

    Energy saving and emission reduction policies affects the development of high power industry, thereby affecting electricity demand, so the study of the electricity industry boom helps to master the national economy. This paper analyses the influence of energy saving and emission reduction on power generation structure and pollutant emission in power industry. Through the construction of electricity market composite boom index to indicate electricity boom, using boom index to study volatility characteristics and trend of electricity market. Here we provide a method for the enterprise and the government, that it can infer the overall operation of the national economy situation from power data.

  20. Emissions of CO2 from road freight transport in London: Trends and policies for long run reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Alberto M.; Bristow, Abigail L.

    2010-01-01

    Freight transport has been receiving increasing attention in both literature and practice following the growing recognition of its importance in urban transport planning. This paper analyses historical and projected road freight CO 2 emissions in the city of London and explores the potential mitigation effect of a set of freight transport policies and logistics solutions. Findings indicate a range of policies with potential to reduce emissions in the period up to 2050. However, this reduction would appear to only be capable of partly counterbalancing the projected increase in freight traffic. More profound behavioural measures therefore appear to be necessary for London's CO 2 emissions reduction targets to be met.

  1. Inventory and Policy Reduction Potential of Greenhouse Gas and Pollutant Emissions of Road Transportation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, emissions from the road transportation industry in China have been increasing rapidly. To evaluate the reduction potential of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of the industry in China, its emission inventory was calculated and scenario analysis was created for the period between 2012 and 2030 in this paper. Based on the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP model, the development of China’s road transportation industry in two scenarios (the business-as-usual (BAU scenario and the comprehensive-mitigation (CM scenario was simulated. In the Comprehensive Mitigation scenario, there are nine various measures which include Fuel Economy Standards, Auto Emission Standards, Energy-saving Technology, Tax Policy, Eco-driving, Logistics Informatization, Vehicle Liquidation, Electric Vehicles, and Alternative Fuels. The cumulative energy and emission reductions of these specific measures were evaluated. Our results demonstrate that China’s road transportation produced 881 million metric tons of CO2 and emitted 1420 thousand tons of CO, 2150 thousand tons of NOx, 148 thousand tons of PM10, and 745 thousand tons of HC in 2012. The reduction potential is quite large, and road freight transportation is the key mitigation subsector, accounting for 85%–92% of the total emission. For energy conservation and carbon emission mitigation, logistics informatization is the most effective method, potentially reducing 1.80 billion tons of coal equivalent and 3.83 billion tons of CO2 from 2012 to 2030. In terms of air pollutant emission mitigation, the auto emission standards measure performs best with respect to NOx, PM10, and HC emission mitigation, and logistic informatization measure is the best in CO emission reduction. In order to maximize the mitigation potential of China’s road transportation industry, the government needs to implement various measures in a timely and strict fashion.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Techniques for PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janjić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM signals is studied. Besides describing three techniques for PAPR reduction, SeLective Mapping (SLM, Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS and Interleaving, a detailed analysis of the performances of these techniques for various values of relevant parameters (number of phase sequences, number of interleavers, number of phase factors, number of subblocks depending on applied technique, is carried out. Simulation of these techniques is run in Matlab software. Results are presented in the form of Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF curves for PAPR of 30000 randomly generated OFDM symbols. Simulations are performed for OFDM signals with 32 and 256 subcarriers, oversampled by a factor of 4. A detailed comparison of these techniques is made based on Matlab simulation results.

  3. PEAK-TO-AVERAGE POWER RATIO REDUCTION USING CODING AND HYBRID TECHNIQUES FOR OFDM SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali K. Shiragapur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the research work investigated is based on an error correction coding techniques are used to reduce the undesirable Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR quantity. The Golay Code (24, 12, Reed-Muller code (16, 11, Hamming code (7, 4 and Hybrid technique (Combination of Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion proposed by us are used as proposed coding techniques, the simulation results shows that performance of Hybrid technique, reduces PAPR significantly as compared to Conventional and Modified Selective mapping techniques. The simulation results are validated through statistical properties, for proposed technique’s autocorrelation value is maximum shows reduction in PAPR. The symbol preference is the key idea to reduce PAPR based on Hamming distance. The simulation results are discussed in detail, in this article.

  4. Emissions and prevention/control techniques for automobile body shops in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffery, J.D.; Sager, M.

    1999-08-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from automobile body repair shops are believed to be significant and to contribute to ozone nonattainment in El Paso, Texas and to violations of ozone air quality standards in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico. The Direccion de Desarrollo Urbano Y Ecologia (DDUE), (the local agency in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) requested CICA's assistance in determining emissions from and identifying appropriate pollution prevention and control techniques for automobile body repair shops in Ciudad Juarez.

  5. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farchi

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid.We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat, we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet.The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for

  6. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Sara; De Sario, Manuela; Lapucci, Enrica; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid. We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat), we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South) and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP) coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet. The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline) according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for cardiovascular disease

  7. Effect of process parameters and injector position on the efficiency of NOx reduction by selective non catalytic reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Mehmood, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Javed, M.T.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of atomizer pressure dilution of the reducing reagent and the injector position on the efficiency or the NOx reduction by a selective non-catalytic reduction technique using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane in air at stoichiometric amount of oxygen and the desired levels of initial NOx (400-450 ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. The work was directed to investigate the effect of atomizer pressure, dilution of urea reagent and the injector position. The atomizer pressure was varied from 1 to 3bar and 20-25% increase in efficiency was observed by decreasing the pressure. Effect of dilution of urea solution was investigated by varying the strength of the solution from the 8 to 32% and 40-45% increase in the efficiency was observed. Effects of injector position was investigated by injecting the urea solution both in co current and counter current direction of the flue gases and 20-25% increase in the efficiency was observed in counter current direction. (author)

  8. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob Raglend, I. [School of Electrical Sciences, Noorul Islam University, Kumaracoil 629 180 (India); Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B. [School of Electrical Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore 632 004 (India); Kothari, D.P. [FNAE, FNASC, SMIEEE, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  9. Comparison of AI techniques to solve combined economic emission dispatch problem with line flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob Raglend, I.; Veeravalli, Sowjanya; Sailaja, Kasanur; Sudheera, B.; Kothari, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study has been made on the solutions obtained using combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) problem considering line flow constraints using different intelligent techniques for the regulated power system to ensure a practical, economical and secure generation schedule. The objective of the paper is to minimize the total production cost of the power generation. Economic load dispatch (ELD) and economic emission dispatch (EED) have been applied to obtain optimal fuel cost of generating units. Combined economic emission dispatch (CEED) is obtained by considering both the economic and emission objectives. This bi-objective CEED problem is converted into single objective function using price penalty factor approach. In this paper, intelligent techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA), evolutionary programming (EP), particle swarm optimization (PSO), differential evolution (DE) are applied to obtain CEED solutions for the IEEE 30-bus system and 15-unit system. This proposed algorithm introduces an efficient CEED approach that obtains the minimum operating cost satisfying unit, emission and network constraints. The proposed algorithm has been tested on two sample systems viz the IEEE 30-bus system and a 15-unit system. The results obtained by the various artificial intelligent techniques are compared with respect to the solution time, total production cost and convergence criteria. The solutions obtained are quite encouraging and useful in the economic emission environment. The algorithm and simulation are carried out using Matlab software. (author)

  10. An empirical study on the institutional factors of energy conservation and emissions reduction: Evidence from listed companies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Jin, Xiaocui; Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Corporate excessive energy consumption and emissions are negative externality problems, with the basic countermeasure of establishing a series of institutional programs to promote corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. This paper analyzes the influence of institutional factors such as laws, tax policies, credit policies, government subsidies, media supervision and marketization degree on corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction from the institutional perspective. The data, from 84 listed Chinese chemical and steel companies from 2006 to 2010, was analyzed using both a fixed effect model and the generalized method of moments (GMM) model. The empirical results demonstrate that these institutional factors positively affect corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. Specifically, four factors – tax policies, government subsidies, credit policies and media supervision – have a significant positive relationship with corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction; whereas laws and marketization degree exhibit no significant effects. The research findings are theoretically and practically significant to the Chinese government with regard to improving the institutional environment and promoting corporate energy conservation and emissions reduction. - Highlights: ► Theoretical analysis of the influence of institutional factors based on NIE. ► Empirical analysis of the influence of institutional factors on ECER by regression. ► Economic measures and public opinions have positive influence on ECER in China. ► Laws and the degree of marketization have weak influence on ECER in China

  11. Post-2012 climate regime. How industrial and developing nations can help to reduce emissions - assessing emission trends, reduction potentials, incentive systems and negotiation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Vicki; Graichen, Jakob; Healy, Sean; Schleich, Joachim; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Berlin (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This report analyses the emissions reduction targets submitted under the Copenhagen Accord by developed and developing countries in matters of four key questions: - Do the pledges add up to the emission reductions required necessary by science? - What are the costs associated with meeting the given targets? - Are the proposed emission reduction efforts of Annex I parties comparable? - What would comparable efforts look like taking country-specific socio-economic indicators into account? Secondary to these questions this report explores the economic and environmental implications of the submitted pledges and NAMAs. Furthermore, we analyze and assess the comparability of efforts of Annex I mitigation pledges compared to a range of socio-economic indicators that may provide a basis for a ''fair'' effort sharing agreement to achieve a given target. (orig.)

  12. Atmospheric pollution reduction effect and regional predicament: An empirical analysis based on the Chinese provincial NOx emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Liu, Chao; Chen, Kunlun; Huang, Yalin; Diao, Beidi

    2017-07-01

    Atmospheric pollution emissions have become a matter of public concern in recent years. However, most of the existing researches on NOx pollution are from the natural science and technology perspective, few studies have been conducted from an economic point, and regional differences have not been given adequate attention. This paper adopts provincial panel data from 2006 to 2013 and the LMDI model to analyze the key driving factors and regional dilemmas of NOx emissions. The results show that significant regional disparities still exit on NO x emissions and its reduction effect 27 provinces didn't accomplish their corresponding reduction targets. Economic development factor is the dominating driving factor of NO x emissions during the study period, while energy efficiency and technology improvement factors offset total NO x emissions in the majority of provinces. In addition, the industrial structure factor plays a more significant role in reducing the NO x emissions after 2011. Therefore, the government should consider all these factors as well as regional heterogeneity in developing appropriate pollution mitigating policies. It's necessary to change NOx emissions control attitude from original key areas control to divided-zone control, not only attaches great importance to the reduction of the original key areas, but also emphasizes the new potential hotspots with high NO x emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Production, Value, and Reduction Responsibility of Carbon Emissions through Electricity Consumption of Manufacturing Industries in South Korea and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitikun, Medhawin

    This dissertation provides a new method of measuring efforts by manufacturing industries to reduce their emissions by curtailing electricity consumption. Employing comprehensive firm-level data from the National Manufacture Annual Surveys of South Korea and Thailand, I construct the measure from estimates of revenue functions by industry. The data consists of firms from more than 20 industries in each year from 1982 to 2005 for Korea and from 2001 to 2008 for Thailand. With a total of more than two million observations, I estimate revenue functions for each industry and year. Here, I use three inputs: number of employees(L), fixed asset stock(K), and electricity consumption(E) and two types of functional forms to represent each industry's revenue function. Second, under market competitive condition, I find that profit maximizing firms deviated their level of electricity usage in production from the profit-maximizing level during the time period for both countries, and I develop a theoretical framework to explain this behavior. Then, I tested the theory using my empirical models. Results support the notion of a hidden environmental value expressed by firms in the form of voluntary deviations from profit-maximizing levels of input demand. The measure used is the gap between the marginal revenue product of electricity and its price. This gap should increase with income, consistent with the Environmental Kuznets Curve literature. My current model provides considerable support for this proposition. Estimates indicate, in most industries, a negative relationship between per-capita income and emissions. In the final section of the dissertation, I consider the equitable distribution of emissions reduction burden under an international agreement such as the reduction effort, Kyoto Protocol. Both developed and developing countries have to cut their emissions to a specific reduction percentage target. Domestically, I present two extreme scenarios. In the first scenario

  14. A comprehensive analysis of China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency: From production and treatment perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Lv, Lin; Sun, Jiasen; Ji, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Energy and environmental issues have recently aroused increasing interest in China and many approaches are used to evaluate energy and environmental performance. In this paper, a two-stage network DEA framework is applied to evaluate the efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction in China during the period of the eleventh five-year plan, from 2006 to 2010. In this study, economic activities are divided into production and treatment processes. This is different from previous research which generally focused on either environmental efficiency or energy efficiency, omitting the integration of energy and environmental measures. Today, energy saving and emission reduction are both parts of the basic state policy of China and are equally important. The empirical results in this study show that: (i) eastern China has the best energy saving and emission reduction efficiency, performing is better than western and central China. (ii) The efficiency of the production process in central China is better than that in western China while the western area performs better than the central area in term of treatment efficiency. (iii) Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China was relatively stable in the five years and the pollution treatment efficiency maintained a rising trend. -- Highlights: •We measured China's regional energy saving and emission reduction efficiency using two-stage DEA approach. •The production and treatment processes are incorporated in evaluation. •Eastern China performs best in terms of energy saving and emission reduction efficiency. •Integrated efficiency of energy saving and emission reduction of China kept a stable trend during 2006–2010

  15. [Awareness of health co-benefits of carbon emissions reduction in urban residents in Beijing: a cross-sectional survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J H; Zhang, Y; Wang, J; Chen, H J; Zhang, G B; Liu, X B; Wu, H X; Li, J; Li, J; Liu, Q Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand the awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction in urban residents in Beijing and the influencing factors, and provide information for policy decision on carbon emission reduction and health education campaigns. Methods: Four communities were selected randomly from Fangshan, Haidian, Huairou and Dongcheng districts of Beijing, respectively. The sample size was estimated by using Kish-Leslie formula for descriptive analysis. 90 participants were recruited from each community. χ (2) test was conducted to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals' awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the factors influencing the awareness about the health co-benefits. Results: In 369 participants surveyed, 12.7 % reported they knew the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. The final logistic regression analysis revealed that age ( OR =0.98), attitude to climate warming ( OR =0.72) and air pollution ( OR =1.59), family monthly average income ( OR =1.27), and low carbon lifestyle ( OR =2.36) were important factors influencing their awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emission reduction. Conclusion: The awareness of the health co-benefits of carbon emissions reduction were influenced by people' socio-demographic characteristics (age and family income), concerns about air pollution and climate warming, and low carbon lifestyle. It is necessary to take these factors into consideration in future development and implementation of carbon emission reduction policies and related health education campaigns.

  16. Opportunities and criticisms of voluntary emission reduction projects developed by Public Administrations: Analysis of 143 case studies implemented in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Michela; Del Borghi, Adriana; Strazza, Carlo; Parodi, Lara; Arcioni, Livia; Proietti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 143 voluntary emission reduction projects have been analysed. • The projects belong to renewable energy, energy efficiency and transport sectors. • Voluntary emission reduction standards and methodologies have been applied. • The paper identified the main criticisms for each sector. • Energy efficiency projects are the most promising for public entities. - Abstract: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) sets an overall framework for intergovernmental efforts to tackle the challenge posed by climate change. Besides the “flexibility mechanisms” defined by the Kyoto Protocol to lower the overall costs of achieving their emissions targets, The Voluntary Green House Gases (GHG) reduction projects can have a lead role in GHG reduction in “non Emissions Trading System ETS sectors”. Nowadays, the voluntary market is characterised by critical aspects, such as fragmentation, lack of accounting, monitoring and validation rules that have led to the low spread of voluntary emission reduction projects developed by local authorities in the European Union despite their high potentiality. The aim of this paper is to test the applicability of voluntary emission reduction projects in the public sector following a homogeneous and consistent pattern. A research has been performed at local level on 143 voluntary emission reduction projects implemented by Public Administrations in Northern and Central Italy in renewable energy, energy efficiency and transport sectors. The applicable standards and methodologies have been checked and the case studies have been analysed though a three-step process: Preliminary additionality assessment; Projects selection; Validation of the selected project. The assessment shows that energy efficiency projects, once overcoming additionality issues, are the most promising for public entities while renewable energy and transport projects resulted to be mainly affected by double counting problems and

  17. Evaluation of Clipping Based Iterative PAPR Reduction Techniques for FBMC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Kollár

    2014-01-01

    to conventional orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM technique. The low ACLR of the transmitted FBMC signal makes it especially favorable in cognitive radio applications, where strict requirements are posed on out-of-band radiation. Large dynamic range resulting in high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR is characteristic of all sorts of multicarrier signals. The advantageous spectral properties of the high-PAPR FBMC signal are significantly degraded if nonlinearities are present in the transceiver chain. Spectral regrowth may appear, causing harmful interference in the neighboring frequency bands. This paper presents novel clipping based PAPR reduction techniques, evaluated and compared by simulations and measurements, with an emphasis on spectral aspects. The paper gives an overall comparison of PAPR reduction techniques, focusing on the reduction of the dynamic range of FBMC signals without increasing out-of-band radiation. An overview is presented on transmitter oriented techniques employing baseband clipping, which can maintain the system performance with a desired bit error rate (BER.

  18. Using acoustic emission technique to monitor fractures on the analogous pressure pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lichen

    1989-01-01

    By using the acoustic emission technique to monitor the fractures on analogous pressure pipes of the primary circuit which has had cracks and loading with pressure was investigated. The dynamical process, from cracking to fracturing, was recorded by the acoustic emission technique. Comparing with the conventional method, this method gives more informations, such as pre-cracking, cracking growing, fast fracturing and the pressure values at different phases. During testing time a microcomputer was used for real-time data processing and locating the fracturing position. These data are useful for the mechanical analysis of the reactor components

  19. Reduction of thermal models of buildings: improvement of techniques using meteorological influence models; Reduction de modeles thermiques de batiments: amelioration des techniques par modelisation des sollicitations meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautin, S.

    1997-04-01

    This work concerns the modeling of thermal phenomena inside buildings for the evaluation of energy exploitation costs of thermal installations and for the modeling of thermal and aeraulic transient phenomena. This thesis comprises 7 chapters dealing with: (1) the thermal phenomena inside buildings and the CLIM2000 calculation code, (2) the ETNA and GENEC experimental cells and their modeling, (3) the techniques of model reduction tested (Marshall`s truncature, Michailesco aggregation method and Moore truncature) with their algorithms and their encoding in the MATRED software, (4) the application of model reduction methods to the GENEC and ETNA cells and to a medium size dual-zone building, (5) the modeling of meteorological influences classically applied to buildings (external temperature and solar flux), (6) the analytical expression of these modeled meteorological influences. The last chapter presents the results of these improved methods on the GENEC and ETNA cells and on a lower inertia building. These new methods are compared to classical methods. (J.S.) 69 refs.

  20. Testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in eastern Pennsylvania: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    EPA has installed radon reduction measures in 38 houses in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. All were basement houses with hollow block or poured concrete foundation walls. The reduction approaches tested in most houses involved active soil ventilation, including: suction on the footing drain tile system; suction underneath the concrete slabs, using pipes inserted through the slabs from inside the house; and ventilation of the void network inside hollow block foundation walls. Heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) were tested in three houses. The current results confirm that, for the houses tested here, drain tile suction appears consistently able to provide high radon reductions when a complete loop of drain tile exists, often reducing high-radon houses to 4 pCi/l (148 B1/m 3 ) and less. Sub-slab suction (with pipes through the slab) can also provide high reductions if a sufficient number of suction pipes are located properly. Placement of one or more sub-slab suction pipes near each perimeter wall appears in this testing to aid in treating the major soil gas entry routes, although fewer pipes can sometimes give high reductions if conditions are favorable. For effective radon reduction using any active soil ventilation technique, it is important that major wall and slab openings be closed, and that a fan be employed that is capable of developing adequate static pressure

  1. Utilisation of acoustic emission technique to monitor lubrication condition in a low speed bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin Jamaludin; Mohd Jailani Mohd Nor

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring of lubrication condition in rolling element bearings through the use of vibration analysis is an established technique. However, this success has not mirrored at low rotational speeds. At low speeds the energy generated from the poor lubricated bearing lubrication might not show as an obvious change in signature and thus become undetectable using conventional vibration measuring equipment. This paper presents an investigation into the applicability of acoustic emission technique and analysis for detecting poorly lubricated bearing rotating at a speed of 1.12 rpm. Investigations were centered on a test-rig designed to simulate the real bearing used in the field. The variation of lubricant amount in the low-speed bearing was successfully monitored using a new developed method known as pulse injection technique (PIT). The PIT technique was based on acoustic emission method. The technique involved transmitting a Dirac pulse to the test bearing via a transmitting acoustic emission sensor while the bearing was in operation. Analysing the captured acoustic emission signatures using established statistical method could differentiate between properly and poorly lubricated bearing. (Author)

  2. Airborne emission measurements of SO2 , NOx and particles from individual ships using a sniffer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Salo, K.; Ekholm, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    A dedicated system for airborne ship emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles has been developed and used from several small aircraft. The system has been adapted for fast response measurements at 1 Hz, and the use of several of the instruments is unique. The uncertainty of the given data is about 20% for SO2 and 24% for NOx emission factors. The mean values with one standard deviation for multiple measurements of 158 ships measured from the air on the Baltic and North Sea during 2011 and 2012 show emission factors of 18.8 ± 6.5 g kg-1 fuel , 66.6 ± 23.4 g kg-1 fuel and 1.8 ± 1.3 1016 particles kg-1 fuel for SO2, NOx and particle number, respectively. The particle size distributions were measured for particle diameters between 15 and 560 nm. The mean sizes of the particles are between 45 and 54 nm dependent on the distance to the source, and the number size distribution is monomodal. Concerning the sulfur fuel content, around 85% of the monitored ships comply with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) limits. The reduction of the sulfur emission control area (SECA) limit from 1.5 to 1% in 2010 appears to have contributed to reduction of sulfur emissions that were measured in earlier studies from 2007 to 2009. The presented method can be implemented for regular ship compliance monitoring.

  3. Monitoring Persistent Volcanic Emissions from Sulphur Springs, Saint Lucia: A Community Approach to Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Cox, L.; Jackson, V. B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic and geothermal emissions are known natural sources of volatiles to the atmosphere. Volcanogenic air pollutants known to cause the most serious impact are carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Some studies into the potential for volcanic emissions to produce chronic diseases in humans indicate that areas of major concern include respiratory problems, particularly silicosis (Allen et al. 2000; Baxter et al. 1999; Buist et al. 1986), psychological stress (Shore et al. 1986), and chemical impacts of gas or ash (Giammanco et al. 1998). Sulphur Springs Park in Saint Lucia has a very high recreational value with >200,000 visitors annually, while the nearby town of Soufrière has >8,400 residents. Residents and visitors have raised concerns about the volcanic emissions and its health effects. As part of the volcanic surveillance programme undertaken by the UWI, Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in Saint Lucia, a new monitoring network has been established for quantifying the ambient SO2 in air, to which staff and visitors at the volcanic park are exposed to. The implementation and continued operation of this network has involved the training of local personnel in the active field sampling and analytical techniques required for the assessment of ambient SO2 concentrations, using a low cost monitor as well as commercial passive samplers. This approach recognizes that environmental hazards are a usual part of life and productive livelihoods, and to minimize post-disaster response and recovery it is beneficial to promote preparedness and mitigation, which is best achieved at the local level with community involvement. It is also intended that the volcanic emissions monitoring network could be used as a method to establish and maintain community-based initiatives that would also be helpful when volcanic threat manifests.

  4. Fundamental and assessment of concrete structure monitoring by using acoustic emission technique testing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, M. S. M.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.; Shahidan, S.; Ghadzali, N. S.; Misri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique is one of the non-destructive (NDT) testing, where it can be used to determine the damage of concrete structures such as crack, corrosion, stability, sensitivity, as structure monitoring and energy formed within cracking opening growth in the concrete structure. This article gives a comprehensive review of the acoustic emission (AE) technique testing due to its application in concrete structure for structural health monitoring (SHM). Assessment of AE technique used for structural are reviewed to give the perception of its structural engineering such as dam, bridge and building, where the previous research has been reviewed based on AE application. The assessment of AE technique focusing on basic fundamental of parametric and signal waveform analysis during analysis process and its capability in structural monitoring. Moreover, the assessment and application of AE due to its function have been summarized and highlighted for future references

  5. The power sector in China and India: greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential and scenarios for 1990-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeze, Carolien; Vlasblom, Jaklien; Gupta, Joyeeta; Boudri, Christiaan; Blok, Kornelis

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases from China and India are expected to increase in the coming two decades. The objectives of this study are two-fold: (1) to quantify the technical potential of various options to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the electricity sector in China and India in the year 2020, and (2) to evaluate a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario plus a number of best practice technology (BPT) scenarios for emission reduction of greenhouse gases from electricity production in China and India up to the year 2020. Options to reduce emissions include end use efficiency improvement, fuel switches, and efficiency improvement of existing and new power plants. For China, we calculated that the individual options analysed have technical potentials to reduce 2020 emissions ranging from 1% to 43% (relative to 2020 unabated emissions) and for India from 4% to 45%. Relatively large reduction potentials are calculated for end use efficiency improvement (43% for China and 45% for India), replacement of coal by renewable energy (23% for China and 14% for India) and natural gas (11% for China and 14% for India). Reducing electricity losses during transmission and distribution would reduce emissions by 7% (China) and 6% (India) and electrical efficiency improvement of power plants by 9% in both countries. The reduction options differ with respect to their feasibility. In the BAU scenario, emissions increase considerably between 1990 and 2020. Next, we present results for three BPT scenarios, which reflect the combined technical potential of selected options to reduce emissions. Our calculations indicate that all three scenarios have a potential to reduce emissions to about half the 2020 BAU level. The three scenarios are very different in their assumptions on reduction options, indicating that there are different strategies possible for realising relatively large emission reductions in China and India. We conclude that end use efficiency improvement may be one of

  6. Accuracy Enhanced Stability and Structure Preserving Model Reduction Technique for Dynamical Systems with Second Order Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    A method for model reduction of dynamical systems with the second order structure is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique preserves the second order structure of the system, and also preserves the stability of the original systems. The method uses the controllability and observability...... gramians within the time interval to build the appropriate Petrov-Galerkin projection for dynamical systems within the time interval of interest. The bound on approximation error is also derived. The numerical results are compared with the counterparts from other techniques. The results confirm...

  7. A Suboptimal PTS Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Lung Hung

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A suboptimal partial transmit sequence (PTS based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented for the low computation complexity and the reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. In general, PTS technique can improve the PAPR statistics of an OFDM system. However, it will come with an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors and the search complexity increasing exponentially with the number of subblocks. In this paper, we work around potentially computational intractability; the proposed PSO scheme exploits heuristics to search the optimal combination of phase factors with low complexity. Simulation results show that the new technique can effectively reduce the computation complexity and PAPR reduction.

  8. A Suboptimal PTS Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shu-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A suboptimal partial transmit sequence (PTS based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is presented for the low computation complexity and the reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. In general, PTS technique can improve the PAPR statistics of an OFDM system. However, it will come with an exhaustive search over all combinations of allowed phase weighting factors and the search complexity increasing exponentially with the number of subblocks. In this paper, we work around potentially computational intractability; the proposed PSO scheme exploits heuristics to search the optimal combination of phase factors with low complexity. Simulation results show that the new technique can effectively reduce the computation complexity and PAPR reduction.

  9. Computational reduction techniques for numerical vibro-acoustic analysis of hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell Mediante, Ester

    . In this thesis, several challenges encountered in the process of modelling and optimizing hearing aids are addressed. Firstly, a strategy for modelling the contacts between plastic parts for harmonic analysis is developed. Irregularities in the contact surfaces, inherent to the manufacturing process of the parts....... Secondly, the applicability of Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques to lower the computational complexity of hearing aid vibro-acoustic models is studied. For fine frequency response calculation and optimization, which require solving the numerical model repeatedly, a computational challenge...... is encountered due to the large number of Degrees of Freedom (DOFs) needed to represent the complexity of the hearing aid system accurately. In this context, several MOR techniques are discussed, and an adaptive reduction method for vibro-acoustic optimization problems is developed as a main contribution. Lastly...

  10. Use experiences of MCNP in nuclear energy study. 2. Review of variance reduction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; eds.

    1998-03-01

    `MCNP Use Experience` Working Group was established in 1996 under the Special Committee on Nuclear Code Evaluation. This year`s main activity of the working group has been focused on the review of variance reduction techniques of Monte Carlo calculations. This working group dealt with the variance reduction techniques of (1) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of fusion reactor system, (2) concept design of nuclear transmutation system using accelerator, (3) JMTR core calculation, (4) calculation of prompt neutron decay constant, (5) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation for exposure evaluation, (6) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of shielding system, etc. Furthermore, this working group started an activity to compile `Guideline of Monte Carlo Calculation` which will be a standard in the future. The appendices of this report include this `Guideline`, the use experience of MCNP 4B and examples of Monte Carlo calculations of high energy charged particles. The 11 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Use experiences of MCNP in nuclear energy study. 2. Review of variance reduction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Toshihiro

    1998-03-01

    ''MCNP Use Experience'' Working Group was established in 1996 under the Special Committee on Nuclear Code Evaluation. This year''s main activity of the working group has been focused on the review of variance reduction techniques of Monte Carlo calculations. This working group dealt with the variance reduction techniques of (1) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of fusion reactor system, (2) concept design of nuclear transmutation system using accelerator, (3) JMTR core calculation, (4) calculation of prompt neutron decay constant, (5) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation for exposure evaluation, (6) neutron and gamma ray transport calculation of shielding system, etc. Furthermore, this working group started an activity to compile ''Guideline of Monte Carlo Calculation'' which will be a standard in the future. The appendices of this report include this ''Guideline'', the use experience of MCNP 4B and examples of Monte Carlo calculations of high energy charged particles. The 11 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  12. Dramatic reduction of sulfur dioxide emission in Northeastern China in the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of spatial and temporal variations of sulfur dioxide concentration in planetary boundary layer were conducted. The data were generated by NASA satellite daily from October of 2004 and were obtained through NASA Giovanni. The global monthly mean spatial distribution of sulfur dioxide showed several hot spots including: several spots on some islands in the Pacific Ocean, several spots in central America, and central Africa. Most of these hot spots of sulfur dioxide are related to known active volcanos. The biggest hot spot of sulfur dioxide were observed in Northeastern China. While high concentration sulfur dioxide was still observed in Northeastern China in 2017. The area averaged concentration of sulfur dioxide declined dramatically since its peak in 2008. This temporal trend indicates that sulfur reduction effort has been effective in the last decade or post 2008 financial crisis recovery lead an industry less sulfur dioxide emission.

  13. Model-based comparison of strategies for reduction of stormwater micropollutant emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    to improve the recipient quality by reducing the fluxes of heavy metals (copper, zinc) and organic compounds (fluoranthene) to natural waters. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data. When comparing the different control strategies, the integrated model showed the greater benefits......Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) emissions from stormwater systems require the comparison of different scenarios including source control, end-of-pipe treatment, or their combination. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools for this comparison, as they can integrate...... the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns and evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements, was used to evaluate 6 different strategies...

  14. A Sensitivity Analysis of Timing and Costs of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, R.; Van der Zwaan, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal timing and macro-economic costs of carbon emission reductions that mitigate the global average atmospheric temperature increase. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy sources, fossil-fuelled and non-fossil-fuelled. Technological change is represented endogenously through learning curves, and niche markets exist implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-fossil-fuelled energy source. Under these conditions, with a temperature increase constraint of 2C, early abatement is found to be optimal, and, compared to the results of many existing top-down models, the costs of this strategy prove to be low. We perform an extensive sensitivity analysis of our results regarding the uncertainties that dominate various economic and technological modeling parameters. Uncertainties in the learning rate and the elasticity of substitution between the two different energy sources most significantly affect the robustness of our findings

  15. Nuclear energy. Choice for GHG emission reduction and sustainable energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Zou Lin; Wang Yongping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the sustainability of China's energy development and the major challenges in four energy priorities are discussed by establishing and applying of Indicators of Sustainable Energy Development (ISED) with consideration of nuclear power as one viable option. On this basis, China's Energy Strategy to 2020 is discussed in detail. On the other hand, the crucial role that nuclear energy will play in the fields of emission reduction and climate change is discussed by analyzing illustrative models under different energy development scenarios. An assessment on what could look like in a fast developing country like China when an equivalent fund was invested in five different energy options of hydro-power, coal-fired power, nuclear power, wind power and gas-fired power would be presented with a discussion about possible future international