WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission energy injection

  1. Energy and exergy analysis of alternating injection of oxygen and steam in the low emission underground gasification of deep thin coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Wolf, Karl Heinz; Rogut, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that by coupling the underground coal gasification (UCG) with the carbon capture and storage (CCS), the coal energy can be economically extracted with a low carbon footprint. To investigate the effect of UCG and CCS process parameters on the feasibility of the UCG....... Additionally, we show that the zero-emission conversion of unmineable deep thin coal resources in a coupled UCG-CCS process, that is not practical with the current state of technology, can be realized by increasing the energy efficiency of the carbon dioxide capture process....... to conduct an energy and exergy analysis of the UCG process. We study the effect of various process parameters on the efficiency of the UCG process, the zero-emission recovery factor of coal, and the total CO2 emission of the process. Moreover, we compare the alternating injection of air...

  2. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  3. Investigation of low emission combustors using hydrogen lean direct injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert ISAC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the key technology challenges for the use of hydrogen in gas turbine engines is the performance of the combustion system, in particular the fuel injectors. Tests were conducted to measure the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions and combustion performance at inlet conditions of 588 to 811 K, 0.4 to 1.4 MPa, and equivalence ratios up to 0.48. All the injectors were based on Lean Direct Injection (LDI technology with multiple injection points and quick mixing. One challenge to hydrogen-based premixing combustion systems is flashback since hydrogen has a reaction rate over 7 times that of Jet-A.

  4. Crystal Collimation with protons at injection energy

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Redaelli, Stefano; Valentino, Gianluca; Scandale, Walter; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    During this MD, performed on August 30th, 2015, bent silicon crystals were tested with protons beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at injection energy, using both horizontal and vertical crystals, providing a crucial test of the hardware for precise crystal angle adjustments (goniometers). Proton channeling was observed for the first time with LHC beams and the channeled beams were probed with scans performed with secondary collimators. Measurements of cleaning efficiency of a crystal-based collimation system were also performed.

  5. Variation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions with furosemide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D M; Rubel, E W

    1994-06-15

    Cochlear function was monitored in adult gerbils using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) during intraperitoneal injection of furosemide. All stimulus parameters were varied independently over a wide range, the stimulus frequencies f1 and f2 from 1 to 16 kHz, and the stimulus levels L1 and L2 from 20 to 80 dB SPL. The observed emissions at 2f1-f2 and 3f1-2f2 could be considered to be made up of two distinct components: (1) an 'active' source which depended in a complex way on the stimulus frequencies and levels, which was dominant at low and moderate stimulus levels, and which, by definition, was eliminated by sufficient furosemide intoxication; and (2) a 'passive' source which was essentially the same at all frequencies, with a level dependence given approximately by a simple power law distribution. The change from the active to the passive source was usually accompanied by an abrupt shift in emission phase angle. A simple summation model was shown to account for the observed form of this transition. The amount of the decrease in 2f1-f2 emission amplitude after furosemide injection was approximately independent of frequency and consistent for the middle frequency ratios and intensity levels (f2/f1 approximately equal to 1.3, L1 x L2 approximately equal to 55 x 50 dB SPL). It was concluded that the combination of DPOAE with furosemide injection can usefully be employed as a probe of active cochlear mechanics.

  6. Combustion and Emission Characteristics According to the Fuel Injection Ratio of an Ultra-Lean LPG Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolwoong Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the fuel injection ratio on the combustion and emission characteristics of stratified lean mixture combustion was investigated for a spray-guided liquefied petroleum gas (LPG direct injection engine. Inter-injection spark-ignition combustion—a specially designed combustion strategy for LPG fuel derived from a two-staged injection—was employed to maximize the improvement in thermal efficiency when combustion stability is secured. When changing the fuel injection ratio, the optimum spark advance and fuel injection timings were experimentally determined to maximize the thermal efficiency based on sweeping timings. The optimum fuel injection ratio with the highest thermal efficiency (42.76% and stable operation was 60%/40%, with the optimization of the spark advance and fuel injection timing, because of the locally rich mixture region in the recirculation zone. NOx emissions were at their highest level with a fuel injection ratio of 60%/40% because of the high combustion temperature, and the levels of total hydrocarbon and CO emissions with 50%/50% and 60%/40% fuel injection ratios were similar, whereas emissions at 70%/30% were significantly higher because of fuel wetting and the formation of over-lean mixture.

  7. Effects of Injection Rate Profile on Combustion Process and Emissions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When multi-injection is implemented in diesel engine via high pressure common rail injection system, changed interval between injection pulses can induce variation of injection rate profile for sequential injection pulse, though other control parameters are the same. Variations of injection rate shape which influence the air-fuel mixing and combustion process will be important for designing injection strategy. In this research, CFD numerical simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted for examining the effects of injection rate shape on diesel combustion and emissions. After the model was validated by experimental results, five different shapes (including rectangle, slope, triangle, trapezoid, and wedge of injection rate profiles were investigated. Modeling results demonstrate that injection rate shape can have obvious influence on heat release process and heat release traces which cause different combustion process and emissions. It is observed that the baseline, rectangle (flat, shape of injection rate can have better balance between NOx and soot emissions than the other investigated shapes. As wedge shape brings about the lowest NOx emissions due to retarded heat release, it produces the highest soot emissions among the five shapes. Trapezoid shape has the lowest soot emissions, while its NOx is not the highest one. The highest NOx emissions were produced by triangle shape due to higher peak injection rate.

  8. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  9. A Comparative Study on Energy and Exergy Analyses of a CI Engine Performed with Different Multiple Injection Strategies at Part Load: Effect of Injection Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Özkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a four stroke four cylinder direct injection CI engine was run using three different injection pressures. In all measurements, the fuel quantity per cycle, the pre injection and main injection timing, the boost pressure and the engine speed were kept constant. The motor tests were performed under 130, 140 and 150 MPa rail pressure. During the theoretical part of the study, combustion, emission, energy and exergy analysis were made using the test results. An increase in the injection pressure increases combustion efficiency. The results show that combustion efficiency is not enough by itself, because the increase in the power need of the injection pump, decreases the thermal efficiency. The increase in the combustion temperature, increases the cooling loss and decreases the exergetic efficiency. In addition, the NOx emissions increased by 12% and soot emissions decreased 44% via increasing injection pressure by 17%. The thermal and exergetic efficiencies are found inversely proportional with injection pressure. Exergy destruction is found independent of the injection pressure and its value is obtained as ~6%.

  10. Observation of plasma microwave emission during the injection of supersonic plasma flows into magnetic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorov, Mikhail; Mansfeld, Dmitry; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Golubev, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    Understanding of the energy transfer mechanisms from supersonic plasma flow into the thermal energy of plasma, waves and accelerated particles in the environment of planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks have been topical for many decades. Almost all mechanisms of energy dissipation in collisionless shock waves end with microscopic processes involving wave-particle interactions. Excitation of plasma waves in electron cyclotron frequency range plays an important role in the dissipation of bulk flow energy across the Earth bow shock. In the present work, the process of plasma deceleration during the injection of supersonic plasma flow across the magnetic field of an arched configuration is experimentally demonstrated. Pulsed plasma microwave emission in the electron cyclotron frequency range is observed. It is shown that the frequency spectrum of plasma emission is determined by the position of the deceleration region in the magnetic field of the magnetic arc and its bandwidth is defined by the magnetic field inhomogeneity in the deceleration region. The observed emission can be related to the cyclotron mechanism of wave generation by non-equilibrium energetic electrons in the dense plasma, especially excitation of electron Bernstein waves. The work was supported by RFBR (Project No. 16-32-60056).

  11. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  12. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  13. Revising China's energy consumption and carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    China is the world's largest carbon emitter and takes the lion's share of new increased emission since 2000, China's carbon emissions and mitigation efforts have received global attentions (Liu et al., Nature 500, 143-145)1. Yet China's emission estimates have been approved to be greatly uncertain (Guan et al., Nature Climate Change 2, 672-675)2. Accurate estimation becomes even crucial as China has recently pledged to reach a carbon emission peak by 2030, but no quantitative target has been given, nor is it even possible to assess without a reasonable baseline. Here we produced new estimates of Chinese carbon emissions for 1950-2012 based on a new investigation in energy consumption activities and emission factors using extensively surveyed and experimental data from 4243 mines and 602 coal samples. We reported that the total energy consumption is 10% higher than the nationally published value. The investigated emission factors used in China are significantly (40%) different from the IPCC default values which were used in drawing up several previous emission inventories. The final calculated total carbon emissions from China are 10% different than the amount reported by international data sets. The new estimate provides a revision of 4% of global emissions, which could have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing of climate change mitigation. 1 Liu, Z. et al. A low-carbon road map for China. Nature 500, 143-145 (2013). 2 Guan, D., Liu, Z., Geng, Y., Lindner, S. & Hubacek, K. The gigatonne gap in China's carbon dioxide inventories. Nature Climate Change, 672-675 (2012).

  14. Emission Constrained Multiple-Pulse Fuel Injection Optimisation and Control for Fuel-Efficient Diesel Engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Jager, B. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2015-01-01

    With the application of multiple-pulse fuel injection profiles, the performance of diesel engines is enhanced in terms of low fuel consumption and low engine-out emission levels. However, the calibration effort increases due to a larger number of injection timing parameters. The difficulty of

  15. Energy injection in short GRBs and the role of magnetars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowlinson, A.; O'Brien, P.T.

    2012-01-01

    A significant fraction of the Long Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) in the Swift sample show a plateau phase which may be due to ongoing energy injection. We find many Short GRBs detected by the Swift satellite show similar behavior. The remnant of NS-NS mergers may not collapse immediately to a BH (or even

  16. The Effect of Injection Timings on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural-Gas Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aljamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental part investigates the effect of injection timing on performance and emissions of homogenous mixture compressed natural-gas direct injection. The engine of 1.6 L capacity, 4 cylinders, spark ignition, and compression ratio of 14 was used. Performance and emission were recorded under wide-open throttle using an engine control system (Rotronics and the portable exhaust gas analyser (Kane. The engine was tested at speed ranging from 1500 revolutions per minute (RPM to 4000 RPM with 500 RPM increments. The engine control unit (ECU was modified using Motec 800. The injection timings investigated were at the end of injection (EOI 120 bTDC, 180 bTDC, 300 bTDC, and 360 bTDC. Results show high brake power, torque, and BMEP with 120 as compared with the other injection timings. At 4000 RPM the power, torque, and BMEP with 120 were 5% compared to that with 180. Furthermore, it shows low BSFC and high fuel conversion efficiency with 120. With 360, the engine produced less CO and CO2 at higher speeds.

  17. High Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    Emission at X-ray and gamma-ray energies has been detected from millisecond pulsars, both isolated and in binary systems. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, so that high-energy emission from these sources is not unexpected. In fact, several nearby energetic millisecond pulsars that have been detected in X-rays could easily have been detected in gamma-rays by EGRET, but they were not. The reason for this may lie in a high-energy spectrum that is very different in these sources from that of normal pulsars. Both polar cap and outer gap models predict a two-component spectrum, one component peaking in hard X-rays and the other peaking above 1 GeV, with a gap at EGRET peak sensitivity. I will discuss the models for high-energy emission from millisecond pulsars, highlighting the differences between polar cap and outer gap models in spectrum and geometry of the emission.

  18. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  19. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  20. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier

  1. Experimental study of inlet manifold water injection on combustion and emissions of an automotive direct injection Diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauzia, Xavier; Maiboom, Alain; Shah, Samiur Rahman [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, UMR CNRS 6598, Internal Combustion Engine Team, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, BP 92101, 44321 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes an experimental study conducted on a modern high speed common-rail automotive Diesel engine in order to evaluate the effects on combustion and pollutant emissions of water injected as a fine mist in the inlet manifold. First, a literature survey describing the several ways to introduce water in an internal combustion engine and reporting the main results from previous studies is presented. It is followed by a short description of the engine and experimental set-up. After that, various results are presented. A special focus is made on water injection (WI) cooling effect. Then, the influence of WI on ignition delay, rate of heat release, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions and engine efficiency is analysed, for various engine operating conditions (speed and load) and various amount of water (up to 4 times the amount of fuel injected). A comparison is made with exhaust gas recirculation to evaluate the potential of inlet WI as an in-cylinder emissions reduction device for automotive application. (author)

  2. Energy-related emissions from telework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitou, Erasmia; Horvath, Arpad

    2003-08-15

    Telework is a growing phenomenon that is thought to save energy and air emissions. This paper applies a systems model to telework and nontelework scenarios in order to quantify greenhouse gas and other air emissions from transportation, heating, cooling, lighting, and electronic and electrical equipment use both at the company and the home office. Using United States data, a WWW-based, scalable decision-support tool was created to evaluate the environmental impacts of teleworkers. For a typical case reflecting United States teleworker patterns, the analysis found that telework has the potential to reduce air emissions. However, Monte Carlo simulation employed to perform a probabilistic analysis over a set of likely parameters has revealed that telework may not affect equally the emissions of all types of pollutants. It may decrease CO2, NOx, SO2, PM10, and CO but not N2O and CH4 emissions. Therefore, the scope and goal of telework programs must be defined early in the implementation process. Work-related transportation (commuting) impacts could be reduced as a result of telework; however, home-related impacts due to an employee spending additional time at home could potentially offset these reductions. Company office-related impacts may not be reduced unless the office space is shared with other employees during telework days or eliminated entirely. In states with high telework potential (California, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Texas), telework could save emissions, but it would depend on commuting and climatic patterns and the electricity mix. Environmentally beneficial telework programs are found to depend mainly on commuting patterns, induced energy usage, and characteristics of the office and home space and equipment use.

  3. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: EMP injection damage effects of a bipolar transistor and its relationship between the injecting voltage and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaowen, Xi; Changchun, Chai; Xingrong, Ren; Yintang, Yang; Bing, Zhang; Xiao, Hong

    2010-04-01

    The response of a bipolar transistor (BJT) under a square-wave electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with different injecting voltages is investigated. Adopting the curve fitting method, the relationship between the burnout time, the damage energy and the injecting voltage is obtained. Research shows that the damage energy is not a constant value, but changes with the injecting voltage level. By use of the device simulator Medici, the internal behavior of the burned device is analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the variation of the damage energy with injecting voltage is caused by the distribution change of hot spot position under different injection levels. Therefore, the traditional way to evaluate the trade-off between the burnout time and the injecting voltage is not comprehensive due to the variation of the damage energy.

  4. EMP injection damage effects of a bipolar transistor and its relationship between the injecting voltage and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Xiaowen; Chai Changchun; Ren Xingrong; Yang Yintang; Zhang Bing; Hong Xiao, E-mail: xixiaowen523103@163.co [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The response of a bipolar transistor (BJT) under a square-wave electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with different injecting voltages is investigated. Adopting the curve fitting method, the relationship between the burnout time, the damage energy and the injecting voltage is obtained. Research shows that the damage energy is not a constant value, but changes with the injecting voltage level. By use of the device simulator Medici, the internal behavior of the burned device is analyzed. Simulation results indicate that the variation of the damage energy with injecting voltage is caused by the distribution change of hot spot position under different injection levels. Therefore, the traditional way to evaluate the trade-off between the burnout time and the injecting voltage is not comprehensive due to the variation of the damage energy. (semiconductor devices)

  5. Essays in renewable energy and emissions trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneifel, Joshua D.

    Environmental issues have become a key political issue over the past forty years and has resulted in the enactment of many different environmental policies. The three essays in this dissertation add to the literature of renewable energy policies and sulfur dioxide emissions trading. The first essay ascertains which state policies are accelerating deployment of non-hydropower renewable electricity generation capacity into a states electric power industry. As would be expected, policies that lead to significant increases in actual renewable capacity in that state either set a Renewables Portfolio Standard with a certain level of required renewable capacity or use Clean Energy Funds to directly fund utility-scale renewable capacity construction. A surprising result is that Required Green Power Options, a policy that merely requires all utilities in a state to offer the option for consumers to purchase renewable energy at a premium rate, has a sizable impact on non-hydro renewable capacity in that state. The second essay studies the theoretical impacts fuel contract constraints have on an electricity generating unit's compliance costs of meeting the emissions compliance restrictions set by Phase I of the Title IV SO2 Emissions Trading Program. Fuel contract constraints restrict a utility's degrees of freedom in coal purchasing options, which can lead to the use of a more expensive compliance option and higher compliance costs. The third essay analytically and empirically shows how fuel contract constraints impact the emissions allowance market and total electric power industry compliance costs. This paper uses generating unit-level simulations to replicate results from previous studies and show that fuel contracts appear to explain a large portion (65%) of the previously unexplained compliance cost simulations. Also, my study considers a more appropriate plant-level decisions for compliance choices by analytically analyzing the plant level decision-making process to

  6. Nitrous Oxide and Ammonia Emissions from Injected and Broadcast-Applied Dairy Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, E W; Dell, C J; Kleinman, P J A; Beegle, D B

    2017-01-01

    Trade-offs associated with surface application or injection of manure pose important environmental and agronomic concerns. Manure injection can conserve nitrogen (N) by decreasing ammonia (NH) volatilization. However, the injection band also creates conditions that potentially favor nitrous oxide (NO) production: an abundant organic substrate-promoting microbial activity, anaerobic conditions favoring denitrification, and large local concentrations of N. We assessed differences in NH volatilization and NO emissions with broadcast application versus shallow disk injection of dairy slurry during the 2011 to 2013 growing seasons on a well-drained silt loam that received average manure-N application rates of 180 kg N ha via injection or 200 kg N ha via broadcast. Ammonia emissions were measured using a photoacoustic gas analyzer and chambers, and NO emissions were measured using syringes to draw timed samples from vented chambers with analysis by gas chromatograph. Results point to a 92 to 98% (3.02-11.05 kg NH-N ha) reduction in NH volatilization (for the initial sampling) with injection compared with broadcasting manure but also reveal 84 to 152% (725.9-3187.8 g NO-N ha) greater cumulative NO emissions. Although losses of N via NO emission were at least three orders of magnitude less than NH volatilization, their potential role as a greenhouse gas is of concern. Despite the potential greenhouse gas trade-offs associated with shallow disk injection of manure, decreasing NH volatilization provides a substantial benefit, especially to farmers who are trying to conserve N and improve the N/P ratio of soil-applied manure. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Minimised engine-out emissions using high injection pressure; Minimierte Motorrohemissionen mittels hoher Einspritzdruecke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajamani, Vinod; Ruhkamp, Ludger [FEV GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Nutzfahrzeug-, Industrie- und Grossmotoren; Herrmann, Olaf Erik [Denso International Europe, Wegberg (Germany). Advanced Diesel EMS; Takeuchi, Katsuhiko [Denso Corporation, Kariya (Japan). Diesel Systems Engineering Div.

    2012-04-15

    At the 20{sup th} Aachen Colloquium the first results on the reduction of fuel consumption and particulate emissions have been presented with a 3000 bar fuel injection system from Denso and FEV. Based on these positive results, further investigations on the reduction of operating costs have carried out using high-pressure injection. The benefits for the end user will be illustrated by the results of typical driving cycles of different off-road applications. (orig.)

  8. Seconday-emission profile monitors at LEAR injection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    This is a view against the direction of the beams. Through the right, smaller, opening the beams (protons, antiprotons, H-, later Pb-ions) entered and, after being put on central orbit with septum and kicker, reappeared as circulating beam through the left, larger, opening. Horizontal and vertical position and density profile of the incoming beam were measured with secondary emission grids. The same measurements were made on the beam after it had completed the first turn in the machine. For this purpose it was prevented from circulating with a beam stopper, mounted through the port at left (not mounted at the time the picture was taken).

  9. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  10. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  11. PS potential performance with a higher injection energy

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S; Borburgh, J; Bodart, D; Chiggiato, P; Damerau, H; Hancock, S; Metral, G; Pittet, S; Rossi, C; Rumolo, G; Steerenberg, R; Widorski, M

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the LHC Injectors upgrade project, the PS has to be brought up to − and to operate reliably at − the level of performance required by the HL-LHC until the end of the LHC lifetime. The study has started on the potential benefits of increasing the injection energy. An overview of the impact of this upgrade will be presented, with a preliminary estimate of the beam characteristics at the SPS entrance and the remaining performance limitations. The necessary hardware modifications will be described, highlighting the critical systems and the risks. The program for the 2011 machine studies and hardware interventions for refining these plans will be presented.

  12. LNG–Air Mixture as a Supplementary Energy Injection into a Biogas Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production efficiency fluctuates with climate variations and agricultural arrangements, which pose a limiting factor upon its single supply to end users via a regional exclusive network, especially in peak demand. In this paper, an appropriate methodology to address the contradiction between biogas supply and demand is proposed. Methane conditioned by the addition of air is described, and can be a supplementary energy injected into a biogas distribution network. To accomplish the mixing process and also inject the exhaust mixture into the distribution system, a mixer–ejector was introduced and integrated into the biogas grid. Finally, the fundamental combustion behaviors of mixed gases were estimated through the analysis of flame appearance, contamination emissions, and the flame stability region. The results showed that the methane/air mixture with a mixing ratio ranging from 49/51 to 53/47 could interchange biogas commendably, and good combustion behavior was obtained on a typical biogas-burning appliance.

  13. Emissions Trading and Promotion of Renewable Energy: We Need Both

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Kemfert; Jochen Diekmann

    2009-01-01

    Emissions trading and the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources are key elements of German and European energy and climate policy. However, some critics oppose a targeted promotion of renewable energy, arguing in particular that this is ineffective or even damaging in conjunction with European emissions trading. Yet upon closer examination, the coexistence of emissions trading and promotion of renewable energy is not only possible, it is essential-provided the interactions bet...

  14. Effects of injection and ignition timing of a large direct injection spark ignition engine fuelled with a hydrogen-CNG mixture on its operating conditions and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenkl Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ignition and fuel injection timing of an experimental 2-liter single cylinder direct injection spark ignition gaseous fuel engine were examined experimentally in this study. An online-prepared mixture of 10-40% hydrogen with compressed natural gas was injected at 8 bar into the cylinder during the intake stroke at 1500 rpm. Heat release rates, maximum indicated pressures, cycle-to-cycle variability, and gaseous emissions were compared for different settings.

  15. Decreasing the emissions of a partially premixed gasoline fueled compression ignition engine by means of injection characteristics and EGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Arash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is presented in order to elucidate some numerical investigations related to a partially premixed gasoline fuelled engine by means of three dimensional CFD code. Comparing with the diesel fuel, gasoline has lower soot emission because of its higher ignition delay. The application of double injection strategy reduces the maximum heat release rate and leads to the reduction of NOx emission. For validation of the model, the results for the mean in-cylinder pressure, H.R.R., NOx and soot emissions are compared with the corresponding experimental data and show good levels of agreement. The effects of injection characteristics such as, injection duration, spray angle, nozzle hole diameter, injected fuel temperature and EGR rate on combustion process and emission formation are investigated yielding the determination of the optimal point thereafter. The results indicated that optimization of injection characteristics leads to simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions with negligible change in IMEP.

  16. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  17. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  18. Soot and smoke emissions numerical evaluation for a direct injection (DI diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of Diesel internal combustion engines emissions is one of the major concerns of the engines manufacturers. Despite the fact that the efficiency of the gas post-treatment systems has been significantly improved, decreasing the smoke and the soot from the cylinder inside remains a main research goal. This work is proposing a theoretical study on these pollutants formation for different kinds of direct injection methods. By dividing the in-cylinder injection the heat release characteristic could be modified, leading to different temperature and pressure levels. Using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR the reduction of the gas temperatures might also be decreased, limiting NOx formation. To evaluate the level of the cylinder gas emissions formation a two-step procedure could be followed. First, by using a numerical calculation system the heat release characteristic can be highlighted concerning a Diesel engine with stratified injection; then, using an experimental relationship applying a large data base, the amount of the gas emissions can be subsequently provided. The authors propose some combinations between injection characteristics and EGR used fractions which could generate successfully results speaking in terms of NOx, soot and smoke formation.

  19. THE ROLE OF STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION IN THE PROMPT EMISSION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: APPLICATION TO HADRONIC INJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, Kohta [Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Asano, Katsuaki; Terasawa, Toshio [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Meszaros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We study effects of particle re-acceleration (or heating) in the post-shock region via magnetohydrodynamic/plasma turbulence, in the context of a mixed hadronic-leptonic model for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, using both analytical and numerical methods. We show that stochastically accelerated (or heated) leptons, which are injected via pp and p{gamma} reactions and subsequent pair cascades, are plausibly able to reproduce the Band function spectra with {alpha} {approx} 1 and {beta} {approx} 2-3 in the {approx}MeV range. An additional hard component coming from the proton-induced cascade emission is simultaneously expected, which can be compatible with observed extra power-law spectra far above the MeV range. We also discuss the specific implications of hadronic models for ongoing high-energy neutrino observations.

  20. Effects of High EGR Rate on Dimethyl Ether (DME Combustion and Pollutant Emission Characteristics in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Sik Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates on dimethyl ether (DME fuel combustion performance, exhaust emissions and particle emission characteristics in a small direct injection diesel engine under various injection timings. To examine the effect of EGR and injection timings, the experiment was performed under high EGR rates (0%, 30%, 50% and injection timings were varied from 40° before top dead center (BTDC to top dead center (TDC of the crank angle to examine the effects of early injection of DME fuel. The combustion pressures and heat release rates for different EGR rates followed similar trends. As the injection timing was advanced, the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP differed little in response to EGR rate in the range from TDC to 25° BTDC, and more for crank angles beyond 25° BTDC. DME combustion exhibited very little soot emission, but soot emission increased slightly with EGR rate. The use of high EGR during combustion produced very low NOx concentrations but increased HC and CO emissions for advanced injection timings from 25° BTDC to 40° BTDC. The use of EGR increased both the emissions of total particle number and particle volume over the whole range of the injection timings; for all cases, total particle volume decreased as injection timing was advanced.

  1. Spheromak Energy Transport Studies via Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, H S; Hill, D N; Wood, R D; Jayakumar, J; Pearlstein, L D

    2008-02-11

    Results from the SSPX spheromak experiment provide strong motivation to add neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. Such auxiliary heating would significantly advance the capability to study the physics of energy transport and pressure limits for the spheromak. This LDRD project develops the physics basis for using NBI to heat spheromak plasmas in SSPX. The work encompasses three activities: (1) numerical simulation to make quantitative predictions of the effect of adding beams to SSPX, (2) using the SSPX spheromak and theory/modeling to develop potential target plasmas suitable for future application of neutral beam heating, and (3) developing diagnostics to provide the measurements needed for transport calculations. These activities are reported in several publications.

  2. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, V V; Volchok, E P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in the realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through the plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in the infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  3. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in a realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through a plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of the electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in an infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and the second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  4. Betatron emission as a diagnostic for injection and acceleration mechanisms in laser-plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corde, S; Phuoc, K Ta; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Lundh, O; Brijesh, P; Arantchuk, L; Sebban, S; Rousse, A; Faure, J; Malka, V; 10.1088/0741-3335/54/12/124023

    2012-01-01

    Betatron x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators is a promising compact source that may be an alternative to conventional x-ray sources, based on large scale machines. In addition to its potential as a source, precise measurements of betatron emission can reveal crucial information about relativistic laser-plasma interaction. We show that the emission length and the position of the x-ray emission can be obtained by placing an aperture mask close to the source, and by measuring the beam profile of the betatron x-ray radiation far from the aperture mask. The position of the x-ray emission gives information on plasma wave breaking and hence on the laser non-linear propagation. Moreover, the measurement of the longitudinal extension helps one to determine whether the acceleration is limited by pump depletion or dephasing effects. In the case of multiple injections, it is used to retrieve unambiguously the position in the plasma of each injection. This technique is also used to study how, in a capillary discha...

  5. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  6. An investigation of methods for injecting emissions from boreal wildfires using WRF-Chem during ARCTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Sessions

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF is considered a "next generation" mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA's Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS in 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia.

    One of the most important aspects of simulating wildfire plume transport is the height at which emissions are injected. WRF-Chem contains an integrated one-dimensional plume rise model to determine the appropriate injection layer. The plume rise model accounts for thermal buoyancy associated with fires and local atmospheric stability. This paper describes a case study of a 10 day period during the Spring phase of ARCTAS. It compares results from the plume model against those of two more traditional injection methods: Injecting within the planetary boundary layer, and in a layer 3–5 km above ground level. Fire locations are satellite derived from the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA and the MODIS thermal hotspot detection. Two methods for preprocessing these fire data are compared: The prep_chem_sources method included with WRF-Chem, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Fire Locating and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE. Results from the simulations are compared with satellite-derived products from the AIRS, MISR and CALIOP sensors.

    When FLAMBE provides input to the 1-D plume rise model, the resulting injection heights exhibit the best agreement with satellite-observed injection heights. The FLAMBE-derived heights are more realistic than those utilizing prep_chem_sources. Conversely, when the planetary boundary layer or the 3–5 km a.g.l. layer were filled with emissions, the resulting injection heights exhibit less

  7. Indirect Band Gap Emission by Hot Electron Injection in Metal/MoS₂ and Metal/WSe₂ Heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Ezhilarasu, Goutham; Chatzakis, Ioannis; Dhall, Rohan; Chen, Chun-Chung; Cronin, Stephen B

    2015-06-10

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as MoS2 and WSe2, are free of dangling bonds and therefore make more "ideal" Schottky junctions than bulk semiconductors, which produce Fermi energy pinning and recombination centers at the interface with bulk metals, inhibiting charge transfer. Here, we observe a more than 10× enhancement in the indirect band gap photoluminescence of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) deposited on various metals (e.g., Cu, Au, Ag), while the direct band gap emission remains unchanged. We believe the main mechanism of light emission arises from photoexcited hot electrons in the metal that are injected into the conduction band of MoS2 and WSe2 and subsequently recombine radiatively with minority holes in the TMDC. Since the conduction band at the K-point is 0.5 eV higher than at the Σ-point, a lower Schottky barrier exists for the Σ-point band, making electron injection more favorable. Also, the Σ band consists of the sulfur pz orbital, which overlaps more significantly with the electron wave functions in the metal. This enhancement in the indirect emission only occurs for thick flakes of MoS2 and WSe2 (≥100 nm) and is completely absent in monolayer and few-layer (∼10 nm) flakes. Here, the flake thickness must exceed the depletion width of the Schottky junction, in order for efficient radiative recombination to occur in the TMDC. The intensity of this indirect peak decreases at low temperatures, which is consistent with the hot electron injection model.

  8. Baseline performance and emissions data for a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezelick, R. A.; Mcfadden, J. J.; Ream, L. W.; Barrows, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Comprehensive fuel consumption, mean effective cylinder pressure, and emission test results for a supercharged, single-cylinder, direct-injected, four-stroke-cycle, diesel test engine are documented. Inlet air-to-exhaust pressure ratios were varied from 1.25 to 3.35 in order to establish the potential effects of turbocharging techniques on engine performance. Inlet air temperatures and pressures were adjusted from 34 to 107 C and from 193 to 414 kPa to determine the effects on engine performance and emissions. Engine output ranged from 300 to 2100 kPa (brake mean effective pressure) in the speed range of 1000 to 3000 rpm. Gaseous and particulate emission rates were measured. Real-time values of engine friction and pumping loop losses were measured independently and compared with motored engine values.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emissions of a Stratified Charge CNG Direct Injection Engine with Turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Hilmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from 1.6 litre, 4 cylinders stratified charge compressed natural gas (CNG direct injection engine with boosting device. A turbocharger with compressor trim of 40 was used to increase engine output. The engine was tested at wide open throttle (WOT and speed ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded under steady state condition. Results show turbocharged CNG engine produced an average of 26% increment in brake power and 24% additional maximum brake torque as compared with natural aspirated (NA CNG engine. Turbocharged CNG engine improved brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and yielded higher fuel conversion efficiency (FCE. Relatively turbocharged CNG engine showed lower emission of hydrocarbon (HC and carbon monoxide (CO throughout tested engine speed. Conversely, the carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrogen oxide (NOx emission produced were slightly higher compared with NA CNG engine.

  10. Energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuanyuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Current energy conservation and emissions reduction strategies in iron and steel industry were reviewed. Since foundry industry is one of the major source of energy consumption and pollution emission (especially CO2, issues concerning energy-saving and emission-reduction have been raised by governments and the industry. Specialists from around the world carried out multidimensional analyses and evaluation on the potentials in energy conservation and emissions reduction in iron and steel industry, and proposed various kinds of analyzing models. The primary measures mainly focus on the targeted policies formulation and also on clean and high-efficient technologies development. The differences and similarities in energy conservation and emission reduction in foundry industry between China and other countries were discussed, while, the future development trend was also pointed out.

  11. Characterization of a high-pressure diesel fuel injection system as a control technology option to improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, J. J.; Dezelick, R. A.; Barrows, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Test results from a high pressure electronically controlled fuel injection system are compared with a commercial mechanical injection system on a single cylinder, diesel test engine using an inlet boost pressure of 2.6:1. The electronic fuel injection system achieved high pressure by means of a fluid intensifier with peak injection pressures of 47 to 69 MPa. Reduced exhaust emissions were demonstrated with an increasing rate of injection followed by a fast cutoff of injection. The reduction in emissions is more responsive to the rate of injection and injection timing than to high peak injection pressure.

  12. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  13. Source Energy and Emission Factors for Energy Use in Buildings (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document supports the other measurement procedures and all building energy-monitoring projects by providing methods to calculate the source energy and emissions from the energy measured at the building. Energy and emission factors typically account for the conversion inefficiencies at the power plant and the transmission and distribution losses from the power plant to the building. The energy and emission factors provided here also include the precombustion effects, which are the energy and emissions associated with extracting, processing, and delivering the primary fuels to the point of conversion in the electrical power plants or directly in the buildings.

  14. Study of exhaust and noise emissions reduction on a single spray direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Hirofumi; Sahara, Masanori; Takamori, Yuji; Sakurai, Shigeru (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    In order to materialize the automobile use small direct injection diesel engine (DI), the reduction in both exhaust emission and noise, as studied, was explained in summary. The DI, as excellent in fuel consumption characteristics, was studied to be adopted to the small automobile, with the materialization of small DI to be about 600cc in capacity per cylinder. However the further diminution in dimension had not been materialized yet, because of the aggravation in exhaust emission and vibration noise. Then a single spray DI, characterized by the approximate sphericity in shape of combustion chamber and adoption of cast iron made piston and two-stage spring nozzle, was prototypically made, with optimizing the combustion in characteristics, decreasing HC in exhaust quantity by modifying the injection system, doing also NOx in exhaust quantity by adopting the lag angle at injection time and EGR, modifying the structure to lower the noise, and adopting an air heater to improve the cold start-up in performance. As a result, the present ten-mode exhaust gas regulation and noise level target were achieved, with the improvement in cold start-up and warm-up properties. 6 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Emission from Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers after Femtosecond Pulse Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Botao; Heberle, Albert

    2007-03-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's) are important devices for optical communication and sensing. Many applications require single-mode operation, which can be achieved by suppressing multiple lateral modes with emission apertures of 10 micrometers or less and by restricting emission to one polarization by reduction of symmetry. Such single-mode lasers still can produce multi-mode emission when subject to high pump currents or high-frequency modulation. Here we will discuss the emission dynamics of single-mode VCSEL's after resonant optical injection of femtosecond pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The VCSEL emission is time and polarization resolved by cross correlation on a nonlinear optical crystal. This all-optical technique gives access to the VCSEL dynamics without limitation from electronics. Our measurements show dynamics in the 10 GHz range stemming from ordinary and from polarization relaxation oscillations. Interference beats above 100 GHz show the importance of dynamic multi-mode behavior. The decay of these beats gives direct information on the roundtrip gain of the dynamically excited modes. Polarization resolved measurements show the feasibility of polarization switching on a subpicosecond time scale.

  16. North European Understanding of Zero Energy/Emission Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Nieminen, Jyri

    2010-01-01

    countries are still to adopt a national definition for these types of buildings. This results often in more than one understanding of ZEBs in each country. This study provides a concise source of information on the north European understanding of zero energy/emission buildings. It puts forward a number......The worldwide CO2 emission mitigation efforts, the growing energy resource shortage and the fact that buildings are responsible for a large share of the world’s primary energy use drives research towards new building concepts, in particular Zero Energy/Emission Buildings (ZEBs). Unfortunately...... may observe a correlation between the zero energy/emission building approach adopted by a country and this particular country’s utility grid characteristics. Moreover, it is to be noted that the ZEB concept is not well defined at the national level in northern Europe and that all of the participating...

  17. An Insight into the Effect of Advanced Injection Strategies on Pollutant Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An advanced numerical investigation has been carried out in order to study the effect of multiple injection strategies on Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Both different injected fuel percentages for each pulse and several dwells between main and post phase were investigated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD and large eddy simulation (LES. Two sets of simulations were taken into account for 10% and 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR fractions. In the first one, the main injection was split into two identical phases, while in the second one into three pulses. Within each set, three strategies were considered, increasing the amount of fuel injected during the main and concurrently decreasing the post pulse. Overall, 48 simulations were employed, since four different dwells between the last phase of the main and post injection were considered. Results show that the pollutant emissions minimization has been obtained for the Schemes injecting 65% and 70% of fuel for both two and three split strategies, but for different values of dwell. In fact, emissions very close to each other for NOx and particulate matter have been reached for these cases. Reductions of about −30% and −71% were respectively obtained for NOx and soot in comparison with experimental emissions related to the single injection case.

  18. greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    involved in the product life cycle, supports data collection and facilitate reporting and transparency of the LCA. (ii) Computation. Computation for inventory datasets consisted of emissions and energy of the activities associated with rice production in. Ghana per hectare per year. Emission inventory data were not available in ...

  19. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  20. Harvesting Energy from CO2 Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaetzle, O.; Paz-García, J.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2014-01-01

    When two fluids with different compositions are mixed, mixing energy is released. This holds true for both liquids and gases, though in the case of gases, no technology is yet available to harvest this energy source. Mixing the CO2 in combustion gases with air represents a source of energy with a

  1. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. (European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Watterson, J. (AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom))

    2011-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2009. (Author)

  2. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Watterson, J. [AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past GHG emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2010. (Author)

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  4. Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Noor-Ul-Ain; Eriksson, Martin O.; Susann Schmidt; Asghar, M.; Pin-Cheng Lin; Per Olof Holtz; Mikael Syväjärvi; G. Reza Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped) ...

  5. Reduction of methyl isothiocyanate atmospheric emissions after application of metam sodium by shank injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajwa, Husein A; Sullivan, David A; Holdsworth, Mark T; Sullivan, Ryan D; Nelson, Shad D

    2013-11-01

    Regulatory initiatives in the United States have created the impetus to reassess application methods for metam sodium (sodium -methyldithiocarbamate), a methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) generator, to reduce flux to the atmosphere. This paper compares flux rates in the years 1990 through 2002 with flux rates based on four studies conducted during the period 2008 through 2010 in California, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Washington using current shank-injection/compaction methods. Up to a 100-fold reduction in peak flux rates and total loss of MITC have been observed. A combination of the following factors led to these reductions in flux: soil moisture goals set at 70% of the field water holding capacity; improved design of shank-injection systems to break up the voids after injection; effective shank compaction to further reduce volatilization; and the use of water sealing, where applicable. These refinements in the application methods for metam sodium provide a means to merge environmental and agricultural goals in the United States and in other countries that use metam sodium. This paper documents the reduced atmospheric emissions of MITC under commercial production conditions when applied using good agricultural practices. This research also shows that MITC flux can be effectively managed without the use of high barrier tarp material. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. [Research on NEDC ultrafine particle emission characters of a port fuel injection gasoline car].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Jin; Tan, Pi-Qiang; Lou, Di-Ming

    2012-12-01

    A Santana gasoline car with multi-port fuel injection (PFI) system was used as the research prototype and an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS) was employed to investigate the exhaust ultrafine particle number and size distribution characters of the tested vehicle in new European driving cycle (NEDC). The tested results showed that the vehicle's nuclear particle number, accumulation particle number, as well as the total particle number emission increased when the car drove in accelerated passage, and the vehicle's particle number emission was high during the first 40 seconds after test started and when the speed was over 90 km x h(-1) in extra urban driving cycle (EUDC) in NEDC. The ultrafine particle distribution of the whole NEDC showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, with diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameter was 24 nm. The ultrafine particle distribution of the urban driving cycle named by the economic commission for Europe (ECE) e. g. ECE I, ECE II - IV, the extra urban driving cycle e. g. EUDC, and the idling, constant speed, acceleration, deceleration operation conditions of NEDC all showed a single peak logarithmic distribution, also with particle diameters of the peak particle number emission ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm, and the geometric mean diameters of different driving cycle and different driving mode were from 14 nm to 42 nm. Therefore, the ultrafine particle emissions of the tested PFI gasoline car were mainly consisted of nuclear mode particles with a diameter of less than 50 nm.

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connaughton, V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail: aune@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: sjzhu@umd.edu, E-mail: veres@email.gwu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  8. LPG gaseous phase electronic port injection on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of Lean Burn SI Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasker J, Pradeep; E, Porpatham

    2016-08-01

    Gaseous fuels have always been established as an assuring way to lessen emissions in Spark Ignition engines. In particular, LPG resolved to be an affirmative fuel for SI engines because of their efficient combustion properties, lower emissions and higher knock resistance. This paper investigates performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a microcontroller based electronic LPG gaseous phase port injection system. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder diesel engine altered to behave as SI engine with LPG as fuel at a compression ratio of 10.5:1. The engine was regulated at 1500 rpm at a throttle position of 20% at diverse equivalence ratios. The test results were compared with that of the carburetion system. The results showed that there was an increase in brake power output and brake thermal efficiency with LPG gas phase injection. There was an appreciable extension in the lean limit of operation and maximum brake power output under lean conditions. LPG injection technique significantly reduces hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Also, it extremely enhances the rate of combustion and helps in extending the lean limit of LPG. There was a minimal increase of NOx emissions over the lean operating range due to higher temperature. On the whole it is concluded that port injection of LPG is best suitable in terms of performance and emission for LPG fuelled lean burn SI engine.

  9. Decoupling of CO2-emissions from Energy Intensive Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Enevoldsen, M. K.; Ryelund, A. V.

    This report shows that a decoupling between economic growth, expressed as gross value added, and CO2 emissions has been achieved in the period from 1990-2001 in many energy-intensive and less energy-intensive sectors across the Nordic countries. The report investigates the impact of prices...

  10. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  11. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  12. Estimate of China's energy carbon emissions peak and analysis on electric power carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xuan Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available China's energy carbon emissions are projected to peak in 2030 with approximately 110% of its 2020 level under the following conditions: 1 China's gross primary energy consumption is 5 Gtce in 2020 and 6 Gtce in 2030; 2 coal's share of the energy consumption is 61% in 2020 and 55% in 2030; 3 non-fossil energy's share increases from 15% in 2020 to 20% in 2030; 4 through 2030, China's GDP grows at an average annual rate of 6%; 5 the annual energy consumption elasticity coefficient is 0.30 in average; and 6 the annual growth rate of energy consumption steadily reduces to within 1%. China's electricity generating capacity would be 1,990 GW, with 8,600 TW h of power generation output in 2020. Of that output 66% would be from coal, 5% from gas, and 29% from non-fossil energy. By 2030, electricity generating capacity would reach 3,170 GW with 11,900 TW h of power generation output. Of that output, 56% would be from coal, 6% from gas, and 37% from non-fossil energy. From 2020 to 2030, CO2 emissions from electric power would relatively fall by 0.2 Gt due to lower coal consumption, and relatively fall by nearly 0.3 Gt with the installation of more coal-fired cogeneration units. During 2020–2030, the portion of carbon emissions from electric power in China's energy consumption is projected to increase by 3.4 percentage points. Although the carbon emissions from electric power would keep increasing to 118% of the 2020 level in 2030, the electric power industry would continue to play a decisive role in achieving the goal of increase in non-fossil energy use. This study proposes countermeasures and recommendations to control carbon emissions peak, including energy system optimization, green-coal-fired electricity generation, and demand side management.

  13. [Combined effects of injected 1-29 GRF and diet energy level in lactating goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, D; Kann, G; Hervieu, J; Mandran, N; Disenhaus, C

    1990-01-01

    Subcutaneous injections of 1-29 GRF and diet energy level were studied in 48 dairy goats using a 2 x 2 factorial design. Energy and GRF effects were additive on milk production and some interactions were observed on the milk fat and protein contents. Subcutaneous injections seemed to be less efficient in promoting milk secretion than the intravenous route used in a previous trial.

  14. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  15. Effect of injection pressure on performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of diesel-acetylene-fuelled single cylinder stationary CI engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anmesh Kumar; Soni, Shyam Lal; Sharma, Dilip; Jain, Narayan Lal

    2017-12-30

    In this paper, the effect of injection pressure on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a diesel-acetylene fuelled single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) diesel engine with a rated power of 3.5 kW at a rated speed of 1500 rpm was studied. Experiments were performed in dual-fuel mode at four different injection pressures of 180, 190, 200, and 210 bar with a flow rate of 120 LPH of acetylene and results were compared with that of baseline diesel operation. Experimental results showed that highest brake thermal efficiency of 27.57% was achieved at injection pressure of 200 bar for diesel-acetylene dual-fuel mode which was much higher than 23.32% obtained for baseline diesel. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and smoke emissions were also measured and found to be lower, while the NO x emissions were higher at 200 bar in dual fuel mode as compared to those in other injection pressures in dual fuel mode and also for baseline diesel mode. Peak cylinder pressure, net heat release rate, and rate of pressure rise were also calculated and were higher at 200 bar injection pressure in dual fuel mode.

  16. Energy demand modelling and GHG emission reduction: case study Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    and develop new energy policy towards energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, in order to comply with all of the presented tasks. Planning future energy demand, considering various policy options like regulation, fiscal and financial measures, becomes one of the crucial issues of future national...... energy strategy. This paper analyses Croatian long term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG emissions. For that purpose the national energy demand model was constructed (NeD model). The model is comprised out of six modules each representing one sector, following Croatian national...... energy balance; industry, transport, households, services, agriculture and construction. For three of the modules (industry, transport and households) previously developed long term energy demand models were used, while for the remaining three new models were constructed. As an additional feature, new...

  17. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø International Energy Conference 2009 took place 14 – 16 September 2009. The conference focused on: • Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues • Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 – 2020 and subsequent decline • Renewable energy supply technologies...... such as bioenergy, wind and solar • Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies • Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies • Providing renewable energy for the transport sector • Systems aspects for the various regions throughout...... the world • End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use • Energy savings The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 3 August 2009....

  18. Emissions, energy return and economics from utilizing forest residues for thermal energy compared to onsite pile burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; Woodam Chung; Susan Hummel

    2010-01-01

    The emissions from delivering and burning forest treatment residue biomass in a boiler for thermal energy were compared with onsite disposal by pile-burning and using fossil fuels for the equivalent energy. Using biomass for thermal energy reduced carbon dioxide emissions on average by 39 percent and particulate matter emissions by 89 percent for boilers with emission...

  19. Experimental study of the reduction of field emission by gas injection in vacuum for accelerator applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Almaksour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Field emission current from surfaces under vacuum and at high field strengths can be reduced by the injection of gas into the evacuated volume. In this paper, the effects of H_{2}, He, N_{2}, and Ar on this “dark” current emitted from a tungsten carbide point cathode for 2 cm gap distance is studied. Exposure to any of these gases at pressures on the order of 10^{−3}–10^{−2}  Pa was found to reduce the emission current by up to 90% with a time constant on the order of ∼1  minute as compared to the current at 10^{−6}  Pa. The effect was strongly dependent on the gas nature, with Ar and N_{2} having larger effects at lower pressures than He and H_{2}. The reduction was reversible, with the current increasing to near its original value with a time constant on the order of ∼1–10  minutes after pumping down. The effect of the gas remained in the absence of electric field, whatever the gas pressure. Mechanisms for these and related phenomena are discussed.

  20. Experimental study of the reduction of field emission by gas injection in vacuum for accelerator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaksour, K.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Dessante, Ph.; Odic, E.; Simonin, A.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Lepetit, B.; Alamarguy, D.; Bayle, F.; Teste, Ph.

    2014-10-01

    Field emission current from surfaces under vacuum and at high field strengths can be reduced by the injection of gas into the evacuated volume. In this paper, the effects of H2, He, N2, and Ar on this "dark" current emitted from a tungsten carbide point cathode for 2 cm gap distance is studied. Exposure to any of these gases at pressures on the order of 10-3-10-2 Pa was found to reduce the emission current by up to 90% with a time constant on the order of ˜1 minute as compared to the current at 10-6 Pa. The effect was strongly dependent on the gas nature, with Ar and N2 having larger effects at lower pressures than He and H2. The reduction was reversible, with the current increasing to near its original value with a time constant on the order of ˜1-10 minutes after pumping down. The effect of the gas remained in the absence of electric field, whatever the gas pressure. Mechanisms for these and related phenomena are discussed.

  1. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  2. Carbon dioxide emissions, output, and energy consumption categories in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Fethi

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the relation between CO2 emissions, income, non-renewable, and renewable energy consumption in Algeria during the period extending from 1980 to 2011. Our work gives particular attention to the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) with break point method outcome demonstrates the positive effect of non-renewable type of energy on CO2 emissions consumption. On the contrary, the results reveal an insignificant effect of renewable energy on environment improvement. Moreover, the results accept the existence of EKC hypothesis but the highest gross domestic product value in logarithm scale of our data is inferior to the estimated turning point. Consequently, policy-makers in Algeria should expand the ratio of renewable energy and should decrease the quota of non-renewable energy consumption.

  3. Nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions from injected and broadcast applied dairy slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trade-offs associated with surface application or injection of manure pose important environmental and agronomic concerns. Manure injection can conserve nitrogen (N) by decreasing ammonia volatilization. However, the injection band also creates conditions, which potentially favor nitrous oxide produ...

  4. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  5. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Byrnes, S. J.

    2014-03-03

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth\\'s thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations.

  6. Energy and emission factors for ships in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodstroem, E. [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-11-01

    This research project is aimed at providing statistical data on the operation of ships aimed at the calculation of energy consumption and emissions. The information was collected through a questionnaire sent out to ship operators and owners. Additional information was collected from ships registers. The resulting database was analysed and compared with previously used models for the calculation of energy consumption and emission for each ship. The results generally confirm that previously used models give a fair figure of the environmental characteristics of ships. However, the response of the questionnaire was unexpectedly low why the volume of the database in relation to the number of types of vessels must be considered as poor

  7. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth's mid-infrared emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Steven J; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

    2014-03-18

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  9. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, Ronald Wayne [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  10. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  11. Environmental efficiency of energy, materials, and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Michiyuki; Fujii, Hidemichi; Hoang, Vincent; Managi, Shunsuke

    2015-09-15

    This study estimates the environmental efficiency of international listed firms in 10 worldwide sectors from 2007 to 2013 by applying an order-m method, a non-parametric approach based on free disposal hull with subsampling bootstrapping. Using a conventional output of gross profit and two conventional inputs of labor and capital, this study examines the order-m environmental efficiency accounting for the presence of each of 10 undesirable inputs/outputs and measures the shadow prices of each undesirable input and output. The results show that there is greater potential for the reduction of undesirable inputs rather than bad outputs. On average, total energy, electricity, or water usage has the potential to be reduced by 50%. The median shadow prices of undesirable inputs, however, are much higher than the surveyed representative market prices. Approximately 10% of the firms in the sample appear to be potential sellers or production reducers in terms of undesirable inputs/outputs, which implies that the price of each item at the current level has little impact on most of the firms. Moreover, this study shows that the environmental, social, and governance activities of a firm do not considerably affect environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low Emission Energy Scenarios for the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Mark (Complex Environment Systems Group, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, Univ. College London (GB))

    2007-12-15

    Energy consumption is a major cause of carbon dioxide emission, and also largely determines the uncontrolled emissions of many other pollutants. In consequence, energy scenarios are key inputs to the projection of pollution emission, and the formulation of strategies to reduce pollution and achieve environmental objectives. Alternative energy strategies including behavioral change, demand management, energy efficiency, and low carbon fuels are explored in this report. In addition to abating greenhouse gas emissions, these strategies can facilitate cheaper and greater abatement of other atmospheric pollutants as compared to higher carbon scenarios. In general, achieving a given air pollution emission target costs less in a low carbon scenario than in a high carbon scenario. This work is aimed at producing policies that exploit the positive synergy between strategies to limit global warming, and strategies for reaching other environmental objectives such as reduced acidification and improved air quality. Low carbon energy scenarios can improve energy security by reducing the consumption if finite fuels and reducing import requirements. The given objective was to produce scenarios in which the total emission of carbon dioxide from the twenty-five countries of the European Union is reduced by at least 30% over the period 1990 to 2020. To this end scenarios have been produced for each of the twenty-five EU countries taking into account recent historical data and assumed economic and population growths taken from other studies, and selections of policies measures. The scenarios show that, as compared to 1990, CO{sub 2} reductions of more than 30% are feasible by 2020, and that larger reductions are possible, especially in the longer term as technologies with long lifetimes such as power stations, are replaced. Data from the energy scenarios were input to the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model of IIASA (International Institute for

  13. Motorcycles, mopeds: polluting emissions and energy consumption. Initial observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.

    2001-05-01

    The present French fleet of two-wheel vehicles is very heterogeneous (2- and 4-stroke engines with cubic capacity from 50 cm{sup 3} to 1300 cm{sup 3} and automatic or manual transmissions) and generally lacking in any anti-pollution system, which leads to high emission levels of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. Mopeds have high emission levels compared to those of 4-wheel vehicles, which have decreased markedly since 1970. The following chart of limit values confirms that the gap between these two vehicle categories in polluting emissions has increased in just a few years. The implementation of more restrictive regulations about pollution emissions was delayed for a long time because of cumulative technological delays in comparison to private vehicles. But in the end a European directive differentiating two kinds of two-wheel vehicles: mopeds and motorcycles was voted in 1997 (no. 97/24). There are two stages (in 1999 and 2002 respectively) for lowering emissions levels for mopeds (engine size smaller than 50 cm{sup 3}). For motorcycles a single stage was set for 1999, with a second stage still under consideration. Given the high stakes in terms of decreased pollution emission rom the necessary technological leap for the shift from outmoded carburetor engines to more refined technology (injection + post-treatment) under ADEME's guidance, the issue of exhaust-pollution reduction of two-wheel vehicles was included in both the PRIMEQUAL programme, 'Automobile Pollution Emissions' and the PREDIT call for proposals, 'Cycle Fuel Engine Pollution Reduction' in 1999. Several projects of varying technical natures (evaluations of existing engines and technological studies of new solutions in engines and exhaust pollution reduction) have been implemented in partnership with specialist research laboratories (such as the IFP) and manufacturers and outfitters in the sector (Sagem, Arvin Exhaust, Peugeot Motorcycles). Moreover, as the principle

  14. Laboratory investigation of fire radiative energy and smoke aerosol emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Ichoku; J. Vanderlei Martins; Yoram J. Kaufman; Martin J. Wooster; Patrick H. Freeborn; Wei Min Hao; Stephen Baker; Cecily A. Ryan; Bryce L. Nordgren

    2008-01-01

    Fuel biomass samples from southern Africa and the United States were burned in a laboratory combustion chamber while measuring the biomass consumption rate, the fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate (Rfre), and the smoke concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and particulate matter (PM). The PM mass emission rate (RPM) was quantified from...

  15. Greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture in Africa is associated with low food production. The attempt to increase food productivity has the potential to generate some environmental concerns such as greenhouse emissions and energy impacts. The environmental impact of the rice production in the tropics, especially Africa, has not received much ...

  16. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... decades, energy use and CO 2 emissions in manufacturing industries could be reduced by a further quarter to a third, if best available technology were to be applied worldwide. Some of these additional reductions may not be economic in the shortand medium-term, but the sheer extent of the potential suggests that striving for significa...

  17. Assessing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy Use at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, William; Bhatia, Krishan Kumar; Parisi, Matthew; Foote, Jessica; Imperatore, John, III

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the carbon dioxide emissions associated with electric, HVAC, and hot water use from a US university. Design/methodology/approach: First, the total on-campus electrical, natural gas and oil consumption for an entire year was assessed. For each category of energy use, the carbon associated with…

  18. Effect of cetane improver addition into diesel fuel: Methanol mixtures on performance and emissions at different injection pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candan Feyyaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, methanol in ratios of 5-10-15% were incorporated into diesel fuel with the aim of reducing harmful exhaust gasses of Diesel engine, di-tertbutyl peroxide as cetane improver in a ratio of 1% was added into mixture fuels in order to reduce negative effects of methanol on engine performance parameters, and isobutanol of a ratio of 1% was used as additive for preventing phase separation of all mixtures. As results of experiments conducted on a single cylinder and direct injection Diesel engine, methanol caused the increase of NOx emission while reducing CO, HC, CO2, and smoke opacity emissions. It also reduced torque and power values, and increased brake specific fuel consumption values. Cetane improver increased torque and power values slightly compared to methanol-mixed fuels, and reduced brake specific fuel consumption values. It also affected exhaust emission values positively, excluding smoke opacity. Increase of injector injection pressure affected performances of methanol-mixed fuels positively. It also increased injection pressure and NOx emissions, while reducing other exhaust emissions.

  19. Emissions reduction scenarios in the Argentinean Energy Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sbroiavacca, Nicolas; Nadal, Gustavo; Lallana, Francisco; Falzon, James; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010-2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts a 11.3% reduction under the ‘high’ carbon tax. The main reasons for this difference are differences in assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy

  20. Experimental investigation of urea injection parameters influence on NOx emissions from blended biodiesel-fueled diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehregan, Mina; Moghiman, Mohammad

    2017-11-27

    The present work submits an investigation about the effect of urea injection parameters on NOx emissions from a four-stroke four-cylinder diesel engine fueled with B20 blended biodiesel. An L9(34) Taguchi orthogonal array was used to design the test plan. The results reveal that increasing urea concentration leads to lower NOx emissions. Urea flow rate increment has the same influence on NOx emission. The same result is obtained by an increase in spray angle. Also, according to the analysis of variance (ANOVA), urea concentration and then urea flow rate are the most effective design parameters on NOx emissions, while spray angle and mixing length have less influence on this pollutant emission. Finally, since the result of confirmation test is in good agreement with the predicted value based on the Taguchi technique, the predictive capability of this method in the present study could be deduced.

  1. Technical analysis on energy conservation and emission reduction of new energy electric vehicle in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-10-01

    With the global environmental problems and energy crisis continuously emerging, all countries are taking active measures to achieve the benign development of domestic economy and society. Vehicle, as a large oil consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide, nend to be a revolutionary change. Therefore, the development of new energy electric vehicle has become the consensus of the world. On this background, this paper has sorted out the current state and the related development planning of new energy electric vehicles in different countries to predict the car ownership of the new energy electric vehicles using elastic coefficient method and setting different path of development, conclude that under the consideration of energy conservation and emissions reduction factors, our country should mainly promote the BEV to realize the maximum energy conservation and emissions reduction.

  2. Comparison of Gasoline Direct-Injection (GDI) and Port Fuel Injection (PFI) Vehicle Emissions: Emission Certification Standards, Cold-Start, Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Potential, and Potential Climate Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Georges; Saleh, Rawad; Zhao, Yunliang; Presto, Albert A; Lambe, Andrew T; Frodin, Bruce; Sardar, Satya; Maldonado, Hector; Maddox, Christine; May, Andrew A; Drozd, Greg T; Goldstein, Allen H; Russell, Lynn M; Hagen, Fabian; Robinson, Allen L

    2017-06-06

    Recent increases in the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards have led to widespread adoption of vehicles equipped with gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines. Changes in engine technologies can alter emissions. To quantify these effects, we measured gas- and particle-phase emissions from 82 light-duty gasoline vehicles recruited from the California in-use fleet tested on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start unified cycle. The fleet included 15 GDI vehicles, including 8 GDIs certified to the most-stringent emissions standard, superultra-low-emission vehicles (SULEV). We quantified the effects of engine technology, emission certification standards, and cold-start on emissions. For vehicles certified to the same emissions standard, there is no statistical difference of regulated gas-phase pollutant emissions between PFIs and GDIs. However, GDIs had, on average, a factor of 2 higher particulate matter (PM) mass emissions than PFIs due to higher elemental carbon (EC) emissions. SULEV certified GDIs have a factor of 2 lower PM mass emissions than GDIs certified as ultralow-emission vehicles (3.0 ± 1.1 versus 6.3 ± 1.1 mg/mi), suggesting improvements in engine design and calibration. Comprehensive organic speciation revealed no statistically significant differences in the composition of the volatile organic compounds emissions between PFI and GDIs, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Therefore, the secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation potential of the exhaust does not depend on engine technology. Cold-start contributes a larger fraction of the total unified cycle emissions for vehicles meeting more-stringent emission standards. Organic gas emissions were the most sensitive to cold-start compared to the other pollutants tested here. There were no statistically significant differences in the effects of cold-start on GDIs and PFIs. For our test fleet, the measured 14.5% decrease in CO 2 emissions from GDIs was much greater than

  3. Changing Energy Policy. The proposed Energy Efficiency Directive and its consequences for Renewable Energy and EU Emission Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, D. [European Renewable Energies Federation EREF, BRussels (Belgium); Nysten, J. [Becker Buettner Held BBH, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-01-15

    When the foundations for the EU Emission Trade System were laid in 1998, neither renewable energy nor energy efficiency were explicitly taken into account. Now, over a decade later, the EU's climate and energy policy include three-pronged 2020 targets to increase efficiency, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure a minimum share of renewables in the energy mix. However, without careful coordination between the different legislative measures, it is likely that one system will distort the functioning of the other and in the end, the EU will fall short of its bigger energy and climate goals. The Commission's recent Proposal for an Energy Efficiency Directive has been sent to the Parliament and, most recently, a Draft Report has been released by the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy. Against this backdrop, the following article examines the compatibility of the Commission's proposal with the existing Emission Trade System and the Renewable Energy Directive.

  4. Baselining Fugitive and Vented Emissions Across Canadian Energy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, L.; Risk, D. A.; Fougère, C. R.; Lavoie, M.; Atherton, E. E.; Baillie, J.; MacKay, K.; Marshall, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    A recent trilateral accord between North American governments pledges to cut energy sector methane emissions 40-45 per cent below 2012 levels by 2025. Effective methane-reduction policy relies on accurate and spatially extensive emissions data. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of bottom-up data collection for Canadian energy developments, using vehicle-based emission screening and volumetric measurement, combined with forward looking infrared (FLIR) detection for pinpointing source. We analyzed trends across many Canadian developments using an 80,000 km survey campaign conducted in 2015-16 in which CO2, CH4, H2S, and δ13CH4 were measured in proximity to over ten thousand well pads. We found that emissions varied according to infrastructure age, operator size, product, and extraction style. Using these data, we conducted an analysis across several variables to evaluate the potential success of non-exhaustive campaigns for capturing trends, and super-emitters, across the Canadian industry. We found that campaigns would be fiscally feasible, and could be statistically significant depending on scale. However, success was very sensitive to the degree of variation amongst operators and developments, for which we suggest a Monte-Carlo type optimization approach that balances survey coverage with attention to specific localized threats. Similar analyses should be conducted in other accord countries because effective and harmonized oversight could help accelerate emissions reductions.

  5. Heat to electricity conversion by cold carrier emissive energy harvesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, Rune [Department of Engineering Sciences, University of Agder, Jon Lilletuns vei 9, 4879 Grimstad (Norway)

    2015-12-07

    This paper suggests a method to convert heat to electricity by the use of devices called cold carrier emissive energy harvesters (cold carrier EEHs). The working principle of such converters is explained and theoretical power densities and efficiencies are calculated for ideal devices. Cold carrier EEHs are based on the same device structure as hot carrier solar cells, but works in an opposite way. Whereas a hot carrier solar cell receives net radiation from the sun and converts some of this radiative heat flow into electricity, a cold carrier EEH sustains a net outflux of radiation to the surroundings while converting some of the energy supplied to it into electricity. It is shown that the most basic type of cold carrier EEHs have the same theoretical efficiency as the ideal emissive energy harvesters described earlier by Byrnes et al. In the present work, it is also shown that if the emission from the cold carrier EEH originates from electron transitions across an energy gap where a difference in the chemical potential of the electrons above and below the energy gap is sustained, power densities slightly higher than those given by Byrnes et al. can be achieved.

  6. Wind Energy and Air Emission Reduction Benefits: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.; High, C.

    2008-02-01

    This document provides a summary of the impact of wind energy development on various air pollutants for a general audience. The core document addresses the key facts relating to the analysis of emission reductions from wind energy development. It is intended for use by a wide variety of parties with an interest in this issue, ranging from state environmental officials to renewable energy stakeholders. The appendices provide basic background information for the general reader, as well as detailed information for those seeking a more in-depth discussion of various topics.

  7. Use of off-axis injection as an alternative to geometrically merging beams in an energy-recovering linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R [York County, VA

    2012-01-10

    A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.

  8. Cleaner emissions from a DI diesel engine fueled with waste plastic oil derived from municipal solid waste under the influence of n-pentanol addition, cold EGR, and injection timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodharan, Dillikannan; Sathiyagnanam, Amudhavalli Paramasivam; Rajesh Kumar, Babu; Ganesh, Kuttalam Chidambaradhanu

    2018-03-01

    Urban planning and development is a decisive factor that increases the automobile numbers which leads to increased energy demand across the globe. In order to meet the escalating requirements of energy, it is necessary to find viable alternatives. Waste plastic oil (WPO) is one such alternative which has dual benefits as it reduces the environmental pollution caused by plastic waste and it could possibly meet the energy requirement along with fossil fuels. The study attempted to reduce emissions from a DI diesel engine fueled with WPO using 30% by volume of n-pentanol with fossil diesel (WPO70P30). EGR (10, 20, and 30%) and injection timing modifications were made with the intention to find optimum engine operating conditions. The experimental results indicated that addition of renewable component like n-pentanol had improved the combustion characteristics by igniting WPO more homogeneously producing a higher premixed combustion phase. Smoke density for WPO70P30 was found to be twice lower than that of neat WPO at standard injection timing of 23°CA bTDC at any given EGR rate, NOx emissions were slightly on the higher side about 12% for WPO70P30 blend against WPO at same operating conditions. WPO70P30 showed lowest smoke and carbon monoxide emissions than diesel and WPO while delivering BTE's higher than WPO and closer to diesel at all EGR and injection timings. However NOx and HC emissions increased with n-pentanol addition. The use of EGR reduced NOx emissions but was found to aggravate other emissions. It was concluded WPO70P30 can be favorably used in a DI diesel engine at the engines advanced injection timing for better performance than diesel with a slight penalty in NOx emissions.

  9. High-energy Emission Components in the Short GRB 090510

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Guetta, Dafne; Piro, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the origin of the prompt and delayed emission observed in the short GRB 090510. We use the broadband data to test whether the most popular theoretical models for gamma-ray burst emission can accommodate the observations for this burst. We first attempt to explain the soft-to-hard spectral evolution associated with the delayed onset of a GeV tail with the hypothesis that the prompt burst and the high-energy tail both originate from a single process, namely, synchrotron emission from internal shocks (IS). Considerations on the compactness of the source imply that the high-energy tail should be produced in a late-emitted shell, characterized by a Lorentz factor greater than the one generating the prompt burst. However, in this hypothesis, the predicted evolution of the synchrotron peak frequency does not agree with the observed soft-to-hard evolution. Given the difficulties of a single-mechanism hypothesis, we test two alternative double-component scenarios. In the first, the prompt burst is explained as synchrotron radiation from IS and the high-energy emission (up to about 1 s following the trigger) as IS synchrotron-self-Compton. In the second scenario, in view of its long duration (~100 s), the high-energy tail is decoupled from the prompt burst and has an external shock origin. In this case, we show that a reasonable choice of parameters does indeed exist to accommodate the optical-to-GeV data, provided the Lorentz factor of the shocked shell is sufficiently high. Finally, we attempt to explain the chromatic break observed around ~103 s with a structured jet model. We find that this might be a viable explanation and that it lowers the high value of the burst energy derived by assuming isotropy, ~1053 erg, below ~1049 erg, which is more compatible with the energetics from a binary merger progenitor.

  10. The effect of insulated combustion chamber surfaces on direct-injected diesel engine performance, emissions, and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Daniel W.; Vinyard, Shannon; Keribar, Rifat

    1988-01-01

    The combustion chamber of a single-cylinder, direct-injected diesel engine was insulated with ceramic coatings to determine the effect of low heat rejection (LHR) operation on engine performance, emissions, and combustion. In comparison to the baseline cooled engine, the LHR engine had lower thermal efficiency, with higher smoke, particulate, and full load carbon monoxide emissions. The unburned hydrocarbon emissions were reduced across the load range. The nitrous oxide emissions increased at some part-load conditions and were reduced slightly at full loads. The poor LHR engine performance was attributed to degraded combustion characterized by less premixed burning, lower heat release rates, and longer combustion duration compared to the baseline cooled engine.

  11. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Greg; Calkin, David [Human Dimensions Science Program, Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, PO Box 7669, 200 East Broadway Street, Missoula, MT 59807 (United States); Loeffler, Dan [The University of Montana, College of Forestry and Conservation, PO Box 7669, 200 East Broadway Street, Missoula, MT 59807 (United States); Chung, Woodam [The University of Montana, College of Forestry and Conservation, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for energy. We spatially analyzed collecting, grinding, and hauling forest residue biomass on a 515,900 ha area in western Montana, US, to compare the total emissions of burning forest residues in a boiler for thermal energy with the alternatives of onsite disposal by pile-burning and using either natural gas or 2 distillate oil to produce the equivalent amount of useable energy. When compared to the pile-burn/fossil fuel alternatives, carbon dioxide emissions from the bioenergy alternative were approximately 60%, methane emissions were approximately 3%, and particulate emissions less than 10 {mu}m were 11% and 41%, respectively, for emission control and no-control boilers. Emissions from diesel consumption for collecting, grinding, and hauling biomass represented less than 5% of the total bioenergy emissions at an average haul distance of 136 km. Across the study area, an average 21 units of bioenergy were produced for each unit of diesel energy used to collect, grind, and haul biomass. Fossil fuel energy saved by the bioenergy alternative relative to the pile-burn/fossil fuel alternatives averaged 14.7-15.2 GJ t{sup -1} of biomass. (author)

  12. A Reactive Current Injection Technique for Renewable Energy Converters in Low Voltage Ride-Through Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Shih-Feng; Lee, Chia-Tse; Cheng, Po-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Distributed energy resources have assumed an important role in meeting the energy demand of today's world, thanks to their dramatic growth in recent years. Their potential in reducing the green house gas emission also leads to great attentions and expectations. As DERs are integrated into the uti...

  13. Modeling coherent cherenkov radio emissions from high energy electromagnetic showers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoessow, P.

    1998-04-24

    A technique currently under study for the detection of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray neutrinos involves the measurement of radio emissions from the electromagnetic shower generated by the neutrino in a large volume of naturally occurring dielectric such as the Antarctic ice cap or salt domes. The formation of an electron excess in the shower leads to the emission of coherent Cherenkov radiation, an effect similar to the generation of wakefields in dielectric loaded structures. We have used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) wakefield code ARRAKIS to model coherent Cherenkov radiation fields from high energy showers; we present as an example calculations of expected signals in a proof of principle experiment proposed for the Fermilab Main Injector.

  14. Timelines for mitigating methane emissions from energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Mandira; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01

    Energy technologies emitting differing proportions of methane and carbon dioxide vary in their relative climate impacts over time, due to the different atmospheric lifetimes of the two gases. Standard technology comparisons using the global warming potential (GWP) emissions equivalency metric do not reveal these dynamic impacts, and may not provide the information needed to assess technologies and emissions mitigation opportunities in the context of broader climate policy goals. Here we formulate a portfolio optimization model that incorporates changes in technology impacts as a radiative forcing (RF) stabilization target is approached. An optimal portfolio, maximizing allowed energy consumption while meeting the RF target, is obtained by year-wise minimization of the marginal RF impact in an intended stabilization year. The optimal portfolio calls for using certain higher methane-emitting technologies prior to an optimal switching year, followed by methane-light technologies as the stabilization year approac...

  15. Upper limits of particle emission from high-energy collision and reaction near a maximally rotating Kerr black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Hiroya; Miyamoto, Umpei

    2012-01-01

    The center-of-mass energy of two particles colliding near the horizon of a maximally rotating black hole can be arbitrarily high if the angular momentum of either of the incident particles is fine-tuned, which we call a critical particle. We study particle emission from such high-energy collision and reaction in the equatorial plane fully analytically. We show that the unconditional upper limit of the energy of the emitted particle is given by 218.6% of that of the injected critical particle,...

  16. Incentives for energy efficiency in the EU emission trading scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Group for Sustainability and Technology; Betz, Regina [New South Wales Univ. (Australia). Centre for Energy and Environmental Markets

    2008-07-01

    This paper explores the incentives for energy efficiency induced by the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) for installations in the energy and industry sectors. Our analysis of the National Allocation Plans for 27 EU Member States for phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-2012) suggests that the price and cost effects for improvements in carbon and energy efficiency in the energy and industry sectors will be stronger than in phase 1 (2005-2007), but only because the European Commission has substantially reduced the number of allowances to be allocated by the Member States. To the extent that companies from these sectors (notably power producers) pass through the extra costs for carbon, higher prices for allowances translate into stronger incentives for demand- side energy efficiency. With the cuts in allocation to energy and industry sectors these will be forced to greater reductions, thus the non-ET sectors like household, tertiary and transport will have to reduce less, which is more in line with the cost-efficient share of emission reductions. The findings also imply that domestic efficiency improvements in the energy and industry sectors may remain limited since companies can make substantial use of credits from the Kyoto mechanisms. The analysis of the rules for existing installations, new projects and closures suggests that incentives for energy efficiency are higher in phase 2 than in phase 1 because of the increased application of benchmarking to new and existing installations and because a lower share of allowances will be allocated for free. Nevertheless, there is still ample scope to further improve the EU ETS so that the full potential for energy efficiency can be realized. (orig.)

  17. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To accurately represent how conservation and efficiency policies affect energy demand, both direct and indirect impacts need to be included in the accounting. The indirect impacts are defined here as the resource savings that accrue over the fuel production chain, which when added to the energy consumed at the point of use, constitute the full-fuel- cycle (FFC) energy. This paper uses the accounting framework developed in (Coughlin 2012) to calculate FFC energy metrics as time series for the period 2010-2040. The approach is extended to define FFC metrics for the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other air-borne pollutants. The primary focus is the types of energy used in buildings and industrial processes, mainly natural gas and electricity. The analysis includes a discussion of the fuel production chain for coal, which is used extensively for electric power generation, and for diesel and fuel oil, which are used in mining, oil and gas operations, and fuel distribution. Estimates of the energy intensity parameters make use of data and projections from the Energy Information Agency’s National Energy Modeling System, with calculations based on information from the Annual Energy Outlook 2012.

  18. Effect of piston profile on performance and emission characteristics of a GDI engine with split injection strategy - A CFD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaya, Y.; Mallikarjuna, J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have gained popularity in the recent times because of lower fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. But in these engines, the mixture preparation plays an important role which affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics. The mixture preparation in turn depends mainly upon combustion chamber geometry. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to understand the effect of piston profile on the performance and emission characteristics in a GDI engine. The analysis is carried out on a four-stroke wall guided GDI engine using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The spray breakup model used is validated with the available experimental results from the literature to the extent possible. The analysis is carried out for four piston profiles viz., offset pentroof with offset bowl (OPOB), flat piston with offset bowl (FPOB), offset pentroof with offset scoop (OPOS) and inclined piston with offset bowl (IPOB) fitted in an engine equipped with a six-hole injector with the split injection ratio of 30:70. All the CFD simulations are carried out at the engine speed of 2000 rev/min., with the overall equivalence ratio of about 0.65±0.05. The performance and emission characteristics of the engine are compared while using the above piston profiles. It is found that, the OPOB piston is preferred compared to that of the other pistons because it has better in-cylinder flow, IMEP and lower HC emissions compared to that of other pistons.

  19. Improved Energy Pooling Efficiency Through Inhibited Spontaneous Emission

    OpenAIRE

    LaCount, Michael D.; Lusk, Mark T.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative lifetime of molecules or atoms can be increased by placing them within a tuned conductive cavity that inhibits spontaneous emission. This was examined as a possible means of enhancing three-body, singlet-based upconversion, known as energy pooling. Achieving efficient upconversion of light has potential applications in the fields of photovoltaics, biofuels, and medicine. The affect of the photonically constrained environment on pooling efficiency was quantified using a kinetic m...

  20. On the Evolution of and High-Energy Emission from GHz-Peaked-Spectrum Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Ostorero, L.; Begelman, M.C.; Moderski, R.; Kataoka, J.; Wagner, S.

    2007-12-18

    Here we discuss evolution and broad-band emission of compact (< kpc) lobes in young radio sources. We propose a simple dynamical description for these objects, consisting of a relativistic jet propagating into a uniform gaseous medium in the central parts of an elliptical host. In the framework of the proposed model, we follow the evolution of ultrarelativistic electrons injected from a terminal hotspot of a jet to expanding lobes, taking into account their adiabatic energy losses as well as radiative cooling. This allows us to discuss the broad-band lobe emission of young radio sources. In particular, we argue that the observed spectral turnover in the radio synchrotron spectra of these objects cannot originate from the synchrotron self-absorption process but is most likely due to free-free absorption effects connected with neutral clouds of interstellar medium engulfed by the expanding lobes and photoionized by active centers. We also find a relatively strong and complex high-energy emission component produced by inverse-Compton up-scattering of various surrounding photon fields by the lobes electrons. We argue that such high energy radiation is strong enough to account for several observed properties of GHz-peaked-spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies at UV and X-ray frequencies. In addition, this emission is expected to extend up to GeV (or possibly even TeV) photon energies and can thus be probed by several modern {gamma}-ray instruments. In particular, we suggest that GPS radio galaxies should constitute a relatively numerous class of extragalactic sources detected by GLAST.

  1. N{sub 2}O Emission from energy crop fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, B.J. [The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Section of Soil, Water and Plant Nutrition (Denmark); Nyholm Joergensen, R. [Research Centre Foulum, The Danish Inst. of Plant and Soil Science, Dept. of Soil Science (Denmark)

    1996-03-01

    The interest in N{sub 2}O emissions from soils with energy crops is a results of its properties as a greenhouse gas, since the global warming potential of N{sub 2}O per unit mass is about 320 times greater than CO{sub 2}. The contribution of N{sub 2}O from the soil to the atmosphere may increase due to agricultural management. Consequently, large N{sub 2}O emissions can lower the reduction of the greenhouse effect achieved by the substitution of fossil fuels by energy crops. For this reason it is crucial to find the crops for combustion with the lowest potential for emission of N{sub 2}O from the soil per produced energy unit. The aims of this study were to assess the annual N{sub 2}O flux from a Miscanthus `Giganteus` (M. `Giganteus`) and winter rye (Secale cereale) field, and to investigate the factors affecting the N{sub 2}O emission. To obtain these aims a method was developed for measurements in tall crops. The thesis contains a literature review on the N{sub 2}O emission from the soils, a section with development of the technique for N{sub 2}O flux measurements, and an experimental section. Finally, the thesis contains a section where the results are discussed in relation to the use of energy crops. In all the filed studies, the N{sub 2}O emission was measured by using a new developed closed-chamber technique. The main advantages of the chamber method were the ability to contain growing plants up to a height of 3 m, and the relatively large area (2X2m) covered by each other. Soils with annual and perennial crops can be expected to emit less then 3 kg N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. This amount corresponds to 960 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} compared to a total CO{sub 2} reduction of 10 to 19 tons CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} using the energy crops as substituion for fossil fuels. An efficient way to reduce the N{sub 2}O emission is to exclude use of fertiliser but this also reduces the dry matter yield and consequently also the CO{sub 2} reduction

  2. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework.

  4. Conceptual MEIC electron ring injection scheme using CEBAF as a full energy injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Fanglei [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is planning to use the newly upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF 1497 MHz SRF CW recirculating linac as a full-energy injector for the electron collider ring. The electron collider ring is proposed to reuse the 476 MHz PEP-II RF system to achieve high installed voltage and high beam power. The MEIC electron injection requires 3-10 (or 12) GeV beam in 3-4µs long bunch trains with low duty factor and high peak current, resulting in strong transient beam loading for the CEBAF. In this paper, we propose an injection scheme that can match the two systems' frequencies with acceptable injection time, and also address the transient beam loading issue in CEBAF. The scheme is compatible with future upgrade to 952.6 MHz SRF system in the electron ring.

  5. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  6. Tracking industrial energy efficiency and CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-25

    Industry accounts for about one-third of global energy demand. Most of that energy is used to produce raw materials: chemicals, iron and steel, non-metallic minerals, pulp and paper and non-ferrous metals. Just how efficiently is this energy put to work? This question was on the minds of the G8 leaders at their summit in Gleneagles in 2005, when they set a 'Plan of Action for Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development'. They called upon the International Energy Agency to provide information and advice in a number of areas including special attention to the industrial sector. Tracking Industrial Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions responds to the G8 request. This major new analysis shows how industrial energy efficiency has improved dramatically over the last 25 years. Yet important opportunities for additional gains remain, which is evident when the efficiencies of different countries are compared. This analysis identifies the leaders and the laggards. It explains clearly a complex issue for non-experts. With new statistics, groundbreaking methodologies, thorough analysis and advice, and substantial industry consultation, this publication equips decision makers in the public and private sectors with the essential information that is needed to reshape energy use in manufacturing in a more sustainable manner.

  7. Offshore wind farms energy injection in the electrical grid - Lithium battery to mitigate power fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    IKNI, DJAMEL; Camara, Mamadou Baïlo; Dakyo, Brayima

    2016-01-01

    The wind farm energy injection in the electrical grid generates the economic and technical challenges which must to be solved for successful large scale wind energy integration in electrical grids. Due to wind speed variations, the wind farm output power presents the fluctuating components which are not compatible to the electrical grid requirements. Today, this problem is a major challenge with the wind farm projects increasing in the world. Large power variations cause the deviations of rms...

  8. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  9. Injection Efficiency of Low-energy Particles at Oblique Shocks with a Focused Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, P.; Zhang, M.; Rassoul, H.

    2013-12-01

    There is strong evidence that a small portion of thermal and suprathermal particles from hot coronal material or remnants of previous solar energetic particle (SEP) events serve as the source of large SEP events (Desai et al. 2006). To build more powerful SEP models, it is necessary to model the detailed particle injection and acceleration process for source particles especially at lower energies. We present a test particle simulation on the injection and acceleration of low-energy suprathermal particles by Laminar nonrelativistic oblique shocks in the framework of the focused transport theory, which is proved to contain all necessary physics of shock acceleration, but avoid the limitation of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). The injection efficiency as a function of Mach number, obliquity, injection speed, shock strength, cross-shock potential and the degree of turbulence is calculated. This test particle simulation proves that the focused transport theory is an extension of DSA theory with the capability of predicting the efficiency of particle injection. The results can be applied to modeling the SEP acceleration from source particles.

  10. Energy efficiency, economic efficiency and future CO{sub 2} emissions form the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Centre for Environmental Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The authors examine the role of energy and economic efficiency in influencing future carbon dioxide emissions of developing countries. The reasons that controlling emissions of developing countries is important are examined along with future scenarios of future energy related emissions and potential for energy efficiency improvements. A number of the policy options are presented. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Considerations in projecting energy-related emissions multiple decades into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of fossil fuels for energy is the primary source of anthropogenic emissions of many air pollutants. Thus, the evolution of the energy system into the future can influence future emissions, driving those emissions up or down as a function of shifts in energy demand and fuel us...

  12. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A. N.; Rydhög, J. S.; Søndergaard, R. V.; Andresen, T. L.; Holm, S.; Munck Af Rosenschöld, P.; Conradsen, K.; Jølck, R. I.

    2016-05-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive 106Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy (10- and 22 Gy) in a high-energy beam setting (18 MV). The developed silver-nanosensor provided high radiopacity on the planning CT-scans sufficient for patient positioning in image-guided radiotherapy and provided dosimetric information about the absorbed dose with a 10% and 8% standard deviation for the stereotactic regimens, 10 and 22 Gy, respectively.Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive 106Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The

  13. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  14. Emission Characteristics for a Homogeneous Charged Compression Ignition Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation Using Split Injection Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the serious issues caused by air pollution and global warming, emission regulations are becoming stricter. New technologies that reduce NOx and PM emissions are needed. To cope with these social exhaust gas regulation demands, many advanced countries are striving to develop eco-friendly vehicles in order to respond to stricter emissions regulations. The homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI incorporates a multi-stage combustion engine with multiple combustion modes, catalyst, direct fuel injection and partial mixing combustion. In this study, the HCCI combustion was applied to analyze and review the results of engines applying HCCI combustion without altering the conventional engine specifications. The optimization of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and compression ratio changes provides an optimal fuel economy. In this study, potential for optimum economy within the range of IMEP 0.8 MPa has been evaluated.

  15. Effect of the total RF voltage on heavy ions at injection energy in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Jebramcik, Marc Andre; Jowett, John; Mertens, Tom; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Emittance growth and particle losses from intra-beam scattering (IBS) are an important source of beam losses, especially at injection energy, for the heavy ions in LHC. The IBS diffusion rates are, among other factors, roughly inversely proportional to the bunch length and energy spread. Since the total RF voltage affects these parameters, it can be optimized to reduce the emittance growth and particle losses introduced by the aforementioned mechanism. During the 2016 proton-lead run, observations of the lifetime of lead-ion beams at injection energy, and at different RF voltages, were made during a dedicated fill. This note summaries these observations and compares the beam evolution with tracking simulations using the Collider Time Evolution (CTE) program.

  16. Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol fuelled port injected homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, Rakesh Kumar; Agarwal, Avinash Kumar [Engine Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2011-04-15

    The homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative combustion concept for in reciprocating engines. The HCCI combustion engine offers significant benefits in terms of its high efficiency and ultra low emissions. In this investigation, port injection technique is used for preparing homogeneous charge. The combustion and emission characteristics of a HCCI engine fuelled with ethanol were investigated on a modified two-cylinder, four-stroke engine. The experiment is conducted with varying intake air temperature (120-150 C) and at different air-fuel ratios, for which stable HCCI combustion is achieved. In-cylinder pressure, heat release analysis and exhaust emission measurements were employed for combustion diagnostics. In this study, effect of intake air temperature on combustion parameters, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency and emissions in HCCI combustion engine is analyzed and discussed in detail. The experimental results indicate that the air-fuel ratio and intake air temperature have significant effect on the maximum in-cylinder pressure and its position, gas exchange efficiency, thermal efficiency, combustion efficiency, maximum rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. Results show that for all stable operation points, NO{sub x} emissions are lower than 10 ppm however HC and CO emissions are higher. (author)

  17. Effect of hydrogen on ethanol-biodiesel blend on performance and emission characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, M; Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J; Dhinesh, B; Annamalai, K

    2016-12-01

    Environment issue is a principle driving force which has led to a considerable effort to develop and introduce alternative fuels for transportation. India has large potential for production of biofuels like biodiesel from vegetable seeds. Use of biodiesel namely, tamanu methyl ester (TME) in unmodified diesel engines leads to low thermal Efficiency and high smoke emission. To encounter this problem hydrogen was inducted by a port fueled injection system. Hydrogen is considered to be low polluting fuel and is the most promising among alternative fuel. Its clean burning characteristic and better performance attract more interest compared to other fuels. It was more active in reducing smoke emission in biodiesel. A main drawback with hydrogen fuel is the increased NO x emission. To reduce NO x emission, TME-ethanol blends were used in various proportions. After a keen study, it was observed that ethanol can be blended with biodiesel up to 30% in unmodified diesel engine. The present work deals with the experimental study of performance and emission characteristic of the DI diesel engine using hydrogen and TME-ethanol blends. Hydrogen and TME-ethanol blend was used to improve the brake thermal efficiency and reduction in CO, NO x and smoke emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar Energy as an Alternative to Energy Saving and Pollutant Emissions Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoițescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is analyzed thermal solar systems efficiency from the point of view of energy savings and pollutant emissions concentrations exhausted during these installations operation. For this purpose were taking into account four versions of solar panel systems combined with different types of conventional heating sources, for which were simulated the operation conditions. As a result of the simulation, there were obtained the values of energy savings and pollutant emissions during the four systems operation. By analyzing these values, the combined thermal system optimum solution was selected.

  19. Measurement of runaway electron energy distribution function during high-Z gas injection into runaway electron plateaus in DIII-Da)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, E. M. [University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, USA; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186, USA; Commaux, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186, USA; Moyer, R. A. [University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, USA; Shiraki, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas—Austin, 2100 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186, USA; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, USA

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of the runaway electron (RE) energy distribution function fεfε during massive gas injection into centered post-disruption runaway electron plateaus has been reconstructed. Overall, fεfε is found to be much more skewed toward low energy than predicted by avalanche theory. The reconstructions also indicate that the RE pitch angle θ is not uniform, but tends to be large at low energies and small θ ~0.1–0.2 at high energies. Overall power loss from the RE plateau appears to be dominated by collisions with background free and bound electrons, leading to line radiation. However, the drag on the plasma current appears to be dominated by collisions with impurity ions in most cases. Synchrotron emission appears not to be significant for overall RE energy dissipation but may be important for limiting the peak RE energy.

  20. Dynamics of secondary ion emission Novel energy and angular spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jalowy, T; Hattass, M; Fiol, J; Afaneh, F; Pereira, J A M; Collado, V; Silveira, E F D; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Groeneveld, K O

    2002-01-01

    A new spectrometer has been developed based on the combination of standard time-of-flight technique and position sensitive delay line detectors. The basic features of the spectrometer, particularly of the multi-hit capable detector, are described. To demonstrate the performance of this new system, the dynamic emission characteristics, i.e. the three-dimensional velocity distribution, of desorbed H sub 2 sup + from Al target by Ar sup 0 impact (570 keV) is presented. It is found that the desorption yield is maximum for radial and axial emission velocities at 1.2 and 12 km/s respectively, corresponding to 1.5 eV ions emitted at 57 deg. to normal (following the projectile radial direction). The initial energy distribution spreads out over 16 eV.

  1. Dynamics of secondary ion emission: Novel energy and angular spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalowy, T. E-mail: jalowy@hsb.uni-frankfurt.de; Neugebauer, R.; Hattass, M.; Fiol, J.; Afaneh, F.; Pereira, J.A.M.; Collado, V.; Silveira, E.F. da; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Groeneveld, K.O

    2002-06-01

    A new spectrometer has been developed based on the combination of standard time-of-flight technique and position sensitive delay line detectors. The basic features of the spectrometer, particularly of the multi-hit capable detector, are described. To demonstrate the performance of this new system, the dynamic emission characteristics, i.e. the three-dimensional velocity distribution, of desorbed H{sub 2}{sup +} from Al target by Ar{sup 0} impact (570 keV) is presented. It is found that the desorption yield is maximum for radial and axial emission velocities at 1.2 and 12 km/s respectively, corresponding to 1.5 eV ions emitted at 57 deg. to normal (following the projectile radial direction). The initial energy distribution spreads out over 16 eV.

  2. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  3. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-06-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process.

  4. Understanding the connection between the energy released during solar flares and their emission in the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, F. Rubio

    2017-10-01

    While progress has been made on understanding how energy is released and deposited along the solar atmosphere during explosive events such as solar flares, the chromospheric and coronal heating through the sudden release of magnetic energy remain an open problem in solar physics. Recent hydrodynamic models allow to investigate the energy deposition along a flare loop and to study the response of the chromosphere. These results have been improved with the consideration of transport and acceleration of particles along the loop. RHESSI and Fermi/GBM X-ray and gamma-ray observations help to constrain the spectral properties of the injected electrons. The excellent spatial, spectral and temporal resolution of IRIS will also help us to constrain properties of explosive events, such as the continuum emission during flares or their emission in the chromosphere.

  5. Determination of charge transport activation energy and injection barrier in organic semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züfle, S.; Altazin, S.; Hofmann, A.; Jäger, L.; Neukom, M. T.; Brütting, W.; Ruhstaller, B.

    2017-09-01

    Charge carrier transport in organic semiconductor devices is thermally activated with characteristic activation energies in the range of 0.2-0.6 eV, leading to strongly temperature-dependent behaviour. For designing efficient organic semiconductor materials and devices, it is therefore indispensable to understand the origin of these activation energies. We propose that in bilayer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) employing a polar electron transport layer, as well as in metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices, the hole injection barrier Einj and the hole mobility activation energy Eμ can be decoupled from each other if temperature-dependent capacitance-frequency (C-f-T) and MIS-CELIV (charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage) experiments are combined. While the C-f-T signal contains information of both injection and transport, the CELIV current is expected to be insensitive to the electrode injection properties. We employ numerical drift-diffusion simulations to investigate the accuracy of this analytical parameter extraction approach and to develop criteria for its validity. We show that the implicit assumption of constant charge density and field profiles leads to systematic errors in determining the activation energies. Thus, one should be aware of the intrinsic limitations of the analytical Arrhenius fit, and for more accurate parameter determination a full drift-diffusion modelling is advised. Applying the analytical method to a standard bilayer OLED, we find that the total activation energy of 0.5 eV for the hole current can be split into contributions of ≈0.25 eV each for injection barrier and mobility. Finally, we also discuss the broader applicability of this method for other device stacks and material combinations.

  6. Assessing industrial energy use and CO2 emissions : Opportunities for energy efficiency, biomass and CCS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saygin, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314118101

    2012-01-01

    A large body of literature deals with issues related to monitoring of industrial energy use and CO2 emissions, assessment of the potentials of low-carbon technologies and the development of long term scenarios. However, in these assessments knowledge gaps and large uncertainties continue to exist.

  7. Comparing projections of industrial energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions in long-term energy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, O. Y.; Kermeli, K.; Crijns-Graus, W.; Worrell, E.; Bibas, R.; Fais, B.; Fujimori, S.; Kyle, P.; Sano, F.; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    The industry sector is a major energy consumer and GHG emitter. Effective climate change mitigation strategies will require a significant reduction of industrial emissions. To better understand the variations in the projected industrial pathways for both baseline and mitigation scenarios, we compare

  8. Energy, emissions, and social consequences of telecommuting. Technical Report One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    By reducing transportation use, telecommuting can help reduce some of the social costs of travel (traffic congestion, time lost, emissions, dependence on imported fuels, accident deaths and property damage). These positive direct effects will be both offset and supplemented by indirect effects of telecommuting: improved traffic flow, latent demand (people will start driving more), and increased urban sprawl. The study indicates that the energy and emissions benefits of telecommuting are not likely to be entirely offset by latent travel demand or by the geographical expansion of cities; perhaps half the potential reduction in vehicle-miles traveled will be replaced by new traffic. From a fuel-use perspective, the indirect benefit of lower average emissions and fuel consumption rates appears sufficient to offset impacts from the third indirect effect, additional travel brought about by increased suburbanization. Substantial levels of telecommuting will also reduce the need for highway capacity expansion, saving capital, maintenance, and urban land. Telecommuting and its benefits will be concentrated in the largest, most congested, and most polluted urban areas (20--25% in the NYC and LA areas; 50% in the 10 largest cities; 90% in the 75 largest).Telecommuting may also have a synergistic beneficial effect on other transportation strategies, e.g., congestion pricing, parking fees, taxes discouraging travel during peak periods, etc. Other beneficial effects may include greater presence of adults at home and on residential communities. Effects of improved telecommunications technology on transportation, freight, economy, industrial operations are discussed, including implications of an ``information superhighway.``

  9. Unexpected high-energy γ emission from decaying exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gottardo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The N=52 Ga83 β decay was studied at ALTO. The radioactive 83Ga beam was produced through the ISOL photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ-ray emission following β decay. While β-delayed neutron emission has been measured to be 56–85% of the decay path, in this experiment an unexpected high-energy 5–9 MeV γ-ray yield of 16(4% was observed, coming from states several MeVs above the neutron separation threshold. This result is compared with cutting-edge QRPA calculations, which show that when neutrons deeply bound in the core of the nucleus decay into protons via a Gamow–Teller transition, they give rise to a dipolar oscillation of nuclear matter in the nucleus. This leads to large electromagnetic transition probabilities which can compete with neutron emission, thus affecting the β-decay path. This process is enhanced by an excess of neutrons on the nuclear surface and may thus be a common feature for very neutron-rich isotopes, challenging the present understanding of decay properties of exotic nuclei.

  10. Effect of combustion chamber geometry on performance, combustion, and emission of direct injection diesel engine with ethanol-diesel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanamoorthi Venkadesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the effect of combustion chamber geometry on performance, combustion and emissions of ethanol-diesel blend operated in direct injection Diesel engine is discussed. The main air motions are generated in the cylinder by the intake - induced swirl, the piston motion, and its geometry. The piston bowl is modified from traditional hemispherical combustion chamber to the toroidal (re-en-trant combustion chamber and operated with Neat diesel and 40% ethanol diesel blend to improve better evaporation and mixing during the compression stroke on a single cylinder Diesel engine. It is found that the toroidal combustion chamber creates better turbulence, squish, and swirl at high compression ratios of 19.5:1 compared to that of traditional one. Further, the combustion is significantly enhanced due to increased swirl. It is concluded that the brake thermal efficiency for toroidal combustion chamber is 33% and the peak pressure in the cylinder as well as peak heat release rate is also increased. Further, it is also concluded that 60% of CO emission, 20% of HC emission, 40% of NOx emission, and 90% in smoke emissions were reduced for toroidal combustion chamber, compared to that of hemispherical combustion chamber.

  11. High Energy Neutrino Emission from Astrophysical Jets in the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smponias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We address simulated neutrino emission originated from astrophysical jets of compact objects within the Galaxy. These neutrinos are of high energies (Eν of the order up to a few TeV and for their observation specialized instruments are in operation, both on Earth and in orbit. Furthermore, some next generation telescopes and detector facilities are in the process of design and construction. The jet flow simulations are performed using the modern PLUTO hydrocode in its relativistic magnetohydrodynamic version. One of the main ingredients of the present work is the presence of a toroidal magnetic field that confines the jet flow and furthermore greatly affects the distribution of the high energy neutrinos.

  12. CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the energy use; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'utilisation de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document brings statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the energy use only. Tables and charts present data for the CO{sub 2} emissions in France, in the world (2001-2002), in the OECD (2000-2002), the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants and refineries in France (1996-1999) and archives of statistics on CO{sub 2} emissions. (A.L.B.)

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated With Establishing Energy Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    NiChonchubhair, Orlaith; Osborne, Bruce; Krol, Dominika; Williams, Mike; Jones, Mike; Lanigan, Gary

    2013-04-01

    Land-use change to biomass crop production can contribute towards meeting both national and international renewable energy and emissions targets. As a carbon-neutral fuel stock, these crops have the capacity to mitigate GHG emissions through the substitution of fossil fuels. However, studies have also provided evidence of carbon sequestration in vegetative and soil reservoirs in these ecosystems. Realisation of this mitigation potential is, however, dependent on suitable crop selection and thorough assessment of the emissions and sinks associated with biomass crop cultivation. The aim of this research was to assess the GHG implications of land-use change to biomass crops by quantifying carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions both during the initial land conversion phase and in the newly-established plantations. Field-scale stands of Miscanthus × giganteus and Reed Canary Grass (RCG; Phalaris arundinacea) were established on land previously under permanent pasture in 2009 and 2010 respectively in the south-east of Ireland. CO2 uptake and release was measured at the ecosystem scale by two open path eddy covariance systems, while N2O fluxes before and after cultivation were sampled using the static chamber technique. Short-term tillage-induced carbon emissions were found to be high immediately after ploughing but transient in nature, reducing to background levels within a matter of hours. Results suggest that longer term losses could be limited to approximately 2 t CO2 ha-1 provided the fallow period is minimised. A more sustained release of N2O was observed after soil cultivation, resulting from increased availability of organic N for mineralisation by soil microbes. Development was initially slow in the Miscanthus stand, however by the third year, the crop had begun to mature and had switched from a net GHG source in the first year of establishment to a net sink of over 10 t CO2 ha-1 yr-1. More rapid establishment of RCG facilitated the development

  14. Orbitally-Modulated High Energy Emission from Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Kust Harding, Alice; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2017-08-01

    Radio, optical and X-ray followup of unidentified Fermi sources has expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries from four to nearly 30. Several systems observed by Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and NuSTAR exhibit double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation. This is attributed to synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated in an intrabinary shock and Doppler boosting by mildly relativistic bulk flow along the shock. It is anticipated that NICER will also detect such emission from B1957+20 and other targets. The structure of the orbital X-ray light curves depend upon the binary inclination, shock geometry, and particle acceleration distribution. In particular, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index yields energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future high energy phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein. We also briefly discuss stability of the shock to dynamical perturbations for redbacks and how observations of correlated X ray-optical variability may test self-regulatory stabilizing mechanisms.

  15. Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor-Ul-Ain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped GQDs and (B-, Na-, and K-doped GQDs, respectively exhibited red- and blue-shift with respect to the photoluminescence of the undoped GQDs. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS revealed that oxygen functional groups were attached to GQDs. We qualitatively correlate red-shift of the photoluminescence with the oxygen functional groups using literature references which demonstrates that more oxygen containing groups leads to the formation of more defect states and is the reason of observed red-shift of luminescence in GQDs. Further on, time resolved photoluminescence measurements of Cl- and N-GQDs demonstrated that Cl substitution in GQDs has effective role in radiative transition whereas in N-GQDs leads to photoluminescence (PL quenching with non-radiative transition to ground state. Presumably oxidation or reduction processes cause a change of effective size and the bandgap.

  16. Tuning the Emission Energy of Chemically Doped Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor-Ul-Ain; Eriksson, Martin O; Schmidt, Susann; Asghar, M; Lin, Pin-Cheng; Holtz, Per Olof; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yazdi, G Reza

    2016-11-03

    Tuning the emission energy of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and understanding the reason of tunability is essential for the GOD function in optoelectronic devices. Besides material-based challenges, the way to realize chemical doping and band gap tuning also pose a serious challenge. In this study, we tuned the emission energy of GQDs by substitutional doping using chlorine, nitrogen, boron, sodium, and potassium dopants in solution form. Photoluminescence data obtained from (Cl- and N-doped) GQDs and (B-, Na-, and K-doped) GQDs, respectively exhibited red- and blue-shift with respect to the photoluminescence of the undoped GQDs. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that oxygen functional groups were attached to GQDs. We qualitatively correlate red-shift of the photoluminescence with the oxygen functional groups using literature references which demonstrates that more oxygen containing groups leads to the formation of more defect states and is the reason of observed red-shift of luminescence in GQDs. Further on, time resolved photoluminescence measurements of Cl- and N-GQDs demonstrated that Cl substitution in GQDs has effective role in radiative transition whereas in N-GQDs leads to photoluminescence (PL) quenching with non-radiative transition to ground state. Presumably oxidation or reduction processes cause a change of effective size and the bandgap.

  17. Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Hančič

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals’ peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process.

  18. Acoustic emission detection of macro-cracks on engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle using PZT sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svečko, Rajko; Kusić, Dragan; Kek, Tomaž; Sarjaš, Andrej; Hančič, Aleš; Grum, Janez

    2013-05-14

    This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals' peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process.

  19. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  20. Crystal Collimation with Lead Ion Beams at Injection Energy in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Andreassen, Arvid; Butcher, Mark; Dionisio Barreto, Cristovao Andre; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Redaelli, Stefano; Scandale, Walter; Serrano Galvez, Pablo; Rijllart, Adriaan; Valentino, Gianluca; Galluccio, Francesca; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    During this MD, performed on December 2nd 2015, bent silicon crystals were tested with ion beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at injection energy, using both horizontal and vertical crystals. Ion channeling was observed for the first time with LHC beams at the record energy of 450 GeV and the channeled beams were probed with scans performed with secondary collimators. Measurements of cleaning efficiency of a crystal-based collimation system were also performed.

  1. Variations of China's emission estimates: response to uncertainties in energy statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chaopeng; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo; Li, Meng; Liu, Fei; Zheng, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of China's energy statistics is of great concern because it contributes greatly to the uncertainties in estimates of global emissions. This study attempts to improve the understanding of uncertainties in China's energy statistics and evaluate their impacts on China's emissions during the period of 1990-2013. We employed the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) model to calculate China's emissions based on different official data sets of energy statistics using the same emission factors. We found that the apparent uncertainties (maximum discrepancy) in China's energy consumption increased from 2004 to 2012, reaching a maximum of 646 Mtce (million tons of coal equivalent) in 2011 and that coal dominated these uncertainties. The discrepancies between the national and provincial energy statistics were reduced after the three economic censuses conducted during this period, and converging uncertainties were found in 2013. The emissions calculated from the provincial energy statistics are generally higher than those calculated from the national energy statistics, and the apparent uncertainty ratio (the ratio of the maximum discrepancy to the mean value) owing to energy uncertainties in 2012 took values of 30.0, 16.4, 7.7, 9.2 and 15.6 %, for SO2, NOx, VOC, PM2.5 and CO2 emissions, respectively. SO2 emissions are most sensitive to energy uncertainties because of the high contributions from industrial coal combustion. The calculated emission trends are also greatly affected by energy uncertainties - from 1996 to 2012, CO2 and NOx emissions, respectively, increased by 191 and 197 % according to the provincial energy statistics but by only 145 and 139 % as determined from the original national energy statistics. The energy-induced emission uncertainties for some species such as SO2 and NOx are comparable to total uncertainties of emissions as estimated by previous studies, indicating variations in energy consumption could be an important source of

  2. Spatial Configuration of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Shanghai, and Our Policy Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexi Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research constructs a 1 km × 1 km Shanghai energy consumption and carbon emission spatial grid through a bottom-up approach. First, we locate all energy consumption locations in Shanghai via GIS. Second, we calculate energy consumption and associated CO2 emissions by energy type, by usage type, and by facilities. Finally, we use a spatial grid to represent the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The grid shows CO2 emissions in Shanghai are highly spatially correlated with energy types and volumes of consumption. This research also finds out that high energy consumption and carbon emission locations in Shanghai display significant spatial aggregation. In 7209 spatial energy consumption cells, the top 10 grids of emissions account for 52.8% of total CO2 emissions in Shanghai; the top 20 grids account for 64.5% and the top 50 grids account for 76.5%. The most critical point emission sources are coal-fired power plants and iron and steel plants. The most important line emission sources are the Yan’an Road and Inner Ring viaducts. The area emission sources that account for the most future-projected growth are commercial and residential natural gas. After this spatial analysis, this paper makes policy suggestions and solutions to conserve energy consumption and mitigate carbon emissions in Shanghai.

  3. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies, including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution, was developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (1 the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed, (2 the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand, and (3 the use of other renewable energy sources, including a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pumping station, with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid. The use of an integrated solution (water and energy proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power, and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations, as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  4. Numerical Analysis of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Multiple Injection Strategies Using a Modified 2-D Flamelet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyujin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multiple injection strategy has been widely used in diesel engines to reduce engine noise, NOx and soot formation. Fuel injection developments such as the common-rail and piezo-actuator system provide more precise control of the injection quantity and time under higher injection pressures. As various injection strategies become accessible, it is important to understand the interaction of each fuel stream and following combustion process under the multiple injection strategy. To investigate these complex processes quantitatively, numerical analysis using CFD is a good alternative to overcome the limitation of experiments. A modified 2-D flamelet model is further developed from previous work to model multi-fuel streams with higher accuracy. The model was validated under various engine operating conditions and captures the combustion and emissions characteristics as well as several parametric variations. The model is expected to be used to suggest advanced injection strategies in engine development processes.

  5. Spectral modification of the laser emission of a terahertz quantum cascade laser induced by broad-band double pulse injection seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markmann, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.markmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Nong, Hanond, E-mail: nong.hanond@ruhr-uni-bochum.de; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Pal, Shovon [AG Terahertz Spektroskopie und Technologie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Scholz, Sven; Kukharchyk, Nadezhda; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Dhillon, Sukhdeep; Tignon, Jérôme [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Supérieure, UMR 8551 CNRS, UPMC, Univ. Paris 6, 75005 Paris (France); Marcadet, Xavier [Alcatel-Thales III-V Lab, Route Départementale 128, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bock, Claudia; Kunze, Ulrich [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffe und Nanoelektronik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate by injection seeding that the spectral emission of a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) can be modified with broad-band THz pulses whose bandwidths are greater than the QCL bandwidth. Two broad-band THz pulses delayed in time imprint a modulation on the single THz pulse spectrum. The resulting spectrum is used to injection seed the THz QCL. By varying the time delay between the THz pulses, the amplitude distribution of the QCL longitudinal modes is modified. By applying this approach, the QCL emission is reversibly switched from multi-mode to single mode emission.

  6. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  7. The impacts of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO2emissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Umit

    2017-06-01

    As a result of great increases in CO 2 emissions in the last few decades, many papers have examined the relationship between renewable energy and CO 2 emissions in the energy economics literature, because as a clean energy source, renewable energy can reduce CO 2 emissions and solve environmental problems stemming from increases in CO 2 emissions. When one analyses these papers, he/she will observe that they employ fixed parameter estimation methods, and time-varying effects of non-renewable and renewable energy consumption/production on greenhouse gas emissions are ignored. In order to fulfil this gap in the literature, this paper examines the effects of non-renewable and renewable energy on CO 2 emissions in Turkey over the period 1970-2013 by employing fixed parameter and time-varying parameter estimation methods. Estimation methods reveal that CO 2 emissions are positively related to non-renewable energy and renewable energy in Turkey. Since policy makers expect renewable energy to decrease CO 2 emissions, this paper argues that renewable energy is not able to satisfy the expectations of policy makers though fewer CO 2 emissions arise through production of electricity using renewable sources. In conclusion, the paper argues that policy makers should implement long-term energy policies in Turkey.

  8. 'Social Laser': action amplification by stimulated emission of social energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-01-13

    The problem of the 'explanation' of recent social explosions, especially in the Middle East, but also in Southern Europe and the USA, has been debated actively in the social and political literature. We can mention the contributions of P. Mason, F. Fukuyama, E. Schmidt, J. Cohen and I. Krastev to this debate. We point out that the diversity of opinions and conclusions is really amazing. At the moment, there is no consistent and commonly acceptable theory of these phenomena. We present a model of social explosions based on a novel approach for the description of social processes, namely the quantum-like approach. Here quantum theory is treated simply as an operational formalism-without any direct relation to physics. We explore the quantum-like laser model to describe the possibility of action amplification by stimulated emission of social energy. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Mobility, energy, and emissions in Cuba and Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.P. [The Open University, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Faculty of Technology; Enoch, M.P. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-01-15

    In many ways Cuba and the USA state of Florida are similar; both comprise similar areas and sized populations, and until 45 years ago they were economically linked. Now, despite being physically close, in economic and political terms Cuba and Florida are worlds apart. Overall, while Florida has grown economically stronger over time, economic growth in Cuba has been far more constrained due to external pressures-most notably the economic blockade by the US and the collapse of the Soviet Block. This paper devises a range of indicators for both territories to explore how mobility, energy use and emissions might be influenced by socio-economic conditions. Specifically, it compares and contrasts how transport policies have developed in an environment with virtually no economic constraints, and a situation where strong constraints were in place. (author)

  10. External Shock in a Multi-bursting Gamma-Ray Burst: Energy Injection Phase Induced by the Later Launched Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Huang, Bao-Quan; Liu, Tong; Gu, Wei-Min; Mu, Hui-Jun; Liang, En-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Central engines of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may be intermittent and launch several episodes of ejecta separated by a long quiescent interval. In this scenario, an external shock is formed due to the propagation of the first launched ejecta into the circum-burst medium and the later launched ejecta may interact with the external shock at a later period. Owing to the internal dissipation, the later launched ejecta may be observed at a later time (t jet). In this paper, we study the relation of t b and t jet, where t b is the collision time of the later launched ejecta with the formed external shock. It is found that the relation of t b and t jet depends on the bulk Lorentz factor (Γjet) of the later launched ejecta and the density (ρ) of the circum-burst medium. If the value of Γjet or ρ is low, the t b would be significantly larger than t jet. However, the t b ∼ t jet can be found if the value of Γjet or ρ is significantly large. Our results can explain the large lag of the optical emission relative to the γ-ray/X-ray emission in GRBs, e.g., GRB 111209A. For GRBs with a precursor, our results suggest that the energy injection into the external shock and thus more than one external-reverse shock may appear in the main prompt emission phase. According to our model, we estimate the Lorentz factor of the second launched ejecta in GRB 160625B.

  11. Effect of injection energy on residual dose around the charge exchange foil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazami Yamamoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC and the accumulator ring (AR of Spallation Neutron Source (SNS can be used as high-power pulsed neutron sources. In both cases, the injection region becomes one of the highest activation areas in the ring. However, residual dose distributions have revealed that the highest activation points in the J-PARC RCS and the SNS AR are different in detail. The dose of the charge exchange chamber in the SNS is more than 100 times larger than that of the RCS though the ratio of beam power is less than 10. We investigated the reason of this difference by Geant4 and MARS, and the calculation results indicated that the difference was due to the dependence of the neutron and pion production rate on the injection energy.

  12. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDIES ON DI-DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH PONGAMIA METHYL ESTER INJECTION AND METHANOL CARBURETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIBABU, N.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The target of the present study is to clarify ignition characteristics, combustion process and knock limit of methanol premixture in a dual fuel diesel engine, and also to improve the trade-off between NOx and smoke markedly without deteriorating the high engine performance. Experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine operating in duel fuel mode using Pongamia methyl ester injection and methanol carburetion. Methanol is introduced into the engine at different throttle openings along with intake air stream by a carburetor which is arranged at bifurcated air inlet. Pongamia methyl ester fuel was supplied to the engine by conventional fuel injection. The experimental results show that exhaust gas temperatures are moderate and there is better reduction of NOx, HC, CO and CO2 at methanol mass flow rate of 16.2 mg/s. Smoke level was observed to be low and comparable. Improved thermal efficiency of the engine was observed.

  13. On-site energy consumption and selected emissions at softwood sawmills in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Presently there is a lack of information describing US southwestern energy consumption and emissions generated from the sawmilling industry. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in the states of Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico to develop a profile of on-site energy consumption and selected emissions for the industry. Energy consumption is...

  14. Very high energy emission from passive supermassive black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedaletti, Giovanna

    2009-10-22

    The H.E.S.S. experiment, an array of four Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, widened the horizon of Very High Energy (VHE) astronomy. Its unprecedented sensitivity is well suited for the study of new classes of expected VHE emitters, such as passive galactic nuclei that are the main focus of the work presented in this thesis. Acceleration of particles up to Ultra High Energies is expected in the magnetosphere of supermassive black holes (SMBH). The radiation losses of these accelerated particles are expected to reach the VHE regime in which H.E.S.S. operates. Predicted fluxes exceed the sensitivity of the array. However, strong photon fields in the surrounding of the acceleration region might absorb the produced radiation. Therefore observations focus on those galactic nuclei that are underluminous at lower photon energies. This work presents data collected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes on the test candidate NGC 1399 and their interpretation. While no detection has been achieved, important constraints can be derived from the obtained upper limits on the maximum energy attainable by the accelerated particles and on the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region. A limit on the magnetic field of B < 74 Gauss is given. The limit is model dependent and a scaling of the result with the assumptions is given. This is the tightest empirical constraint to date. Because of the lack of signal from the test candidate, a stacking analysis has been performed on similar sources in three cluster fields. A search for signal from classes of active galactic nuclei has also been made in the same three fields. None of the analyzed samples revealed a significant signal. Also presented are the expectations for the next generation of Cherenkov Telescopes and an outlook on the relativistic effects expected on the VHE emission close to SMBH. (orig.)

  15. Voltage inverter with push-pull topology to inject energy into electrical systems with modulation SPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Charles M. Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposal for a voltage inverter topology based on push-pull converters, switched at high frequency to inject energy into the grid from a source of DC power. A system using two reverse voltage static converters provides the power grid; energy in the form of alternating current, that can work in conjunction with the provision of utility power. Aiming at the possible use of renewable energy sources, that can be stored in the form of voltage continuous, such as wind, solar, hydroelectric and others. The functioning of topology is presented, such as the power and control circuits, as well as sizing components, theoretical and practical results achieved with the assembly of a prototype 100W of power and switching in 40khz, which after filtering provides the frequency of 60Hz, which is compatible with the Brazilian electrical system.

  16. Numerical analysis of C.I engine to control emissions using exhaust gas recirculation and advanced start of inject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kashyap Chowdary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As major limitation of diesel engines is the high soot and nitrogen oxide emissions which cannot be reduced totally with only conventional catalytic converters today, varying fuel characteristics became a focus of interest to meet the pollution emission legislations as they require very few or no changes in existing engine model. The present work deals with, numerical analysis of combined effect of Advanced Start of Injection (SOI and Exhaust Gas Re-circulation (EGR on performance and emissions which were studied, by performing numerical analysis on a Caterpillar 3401 single cylinder C.I engine model at constant speed using diesel as fuel via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD procedures and validated with experimental data. The SOI is advanced from 11° Crank angle bTDC to 14.5° Crank angle bTDC and EGR as a fraction is increased from 0% to 10%. The modified conditions of these parameters resulted in simultaneous reduction of NOx and Soot.

  17. Determination of the optimal amount of nitrous oxide injected into the engine in order to reduce emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays the number of motor vehicles in large and small cities is growing. Increasing the number of motor vehicles leads to serious increase of the amount of environmental pollution and daily fuel consumption. Motor vehicle emissions that are known as the most air polluting emissions cause 50-90 percent of air pollution. With large increasd in the number of motor vehicles and their emissions todays, many researchers have investigated engine optimization in order to reduce emissions of motor vehicles. But due to the lack of affordable changes in the physical structure of the engine, it is not possible to create major changes in the amount of engine exhaust. Hence, in order to improve engine performance and reduce emissions, a lot of research has been carried out on changes in the fuel and engine inlet air. So, in this study a new method has been proposed and tested in order to detect changes in the charactristics of emissions. So, the effects of enriched nitrous oxide gas on the exhaust emissions of a spark-injection engine were investigated. In this way, a certain amount of Nitrous Oxide (N2O gas was mixed with the engine inlet air (with concentration of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 percent and it was injected to the engine. Then its effect was studied on emission parameters at various engine rotational speeds. Then, by using genetic algorithm, the optimal values of N2O concentration and engine rotational speed were determined to reach the minimum emission parameters. Materials and Methods: To measure the engine emission parameters including CO, CO2, HC and NOx, the expriments were conducted after preparing a system to inject inlet air with different percentages of N2O into an Otto engine (model: M13NI. In this study, the randomized complete block design was used to investigate the effect of N2O concentration (five levels and engine rotational speed (three levels on exhauste emission parameters. Each expriment was replicated 9 times. For

  18. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research

  19. Semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating VCSELs: new concept of emission mirror enabling vertical current injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyszanowski, Tomasz; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2017-02-01

    We propose semiconductor-metal subwavelength grating (SMSG) which can be implemented as VCSEL mirror. Such new type of SMSG plays a double role of the electric contact and mirror simultaneously. It facilitates high optical power reflectance, perfectly vertical current injection. Such construction eliminates the inbuilt current confinement and allows scaling of emitted power by simple variation of SMSG spatial dimensions. To give the credibility to proposed design we perform numerical analysis of VCSEL with SMSG using fully vectorial optical model. We discuss properties of the proposed design realized in arsenide-based material configuration.

  20. Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)

    OpenAIRE

    Hwalong You; Youngkyun Seo; Cheol Huh; Daejun Chang

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO 2 is injected into storage sites, the CO 2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO 2 injection system, CO 2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO 2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO 2 injecti...

  1. Sensitivity analysis of the commercial energy use module of the Commercial and Residential Energy Use and Emissions Simulation System (CRESS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1987-03-01

    A sensitivity analysis of CSEM2, the commercial energy use component of Argonne National Laboratory's Commercial and Residential Energy Use and Emissions Simulation (CRESS) has been carried out using an automated sensitivity analysis tool developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. CSEM2 projects US commercial sector energy use from a number of historical and projected economic and demographic parameters. The energy use projections from CSEM2 are used in later modules of CRESS to make projections of emissions for five fossil energy-related atmospheric pollutants. Sensitivities of commercial energy use projections to the various driver and control parameters are presented in this report.

  2. Automated Vehicle Regulation: An Energy and Emissions Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2016-05-18

    This presentation provides a summary of the current automated vehicles polices in the United States and how they related to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The presentation then looks at future automated vehicle trends that will increase and reduce GHG emissions and what current policies utilized in other areas of law could be adapted for automated vehicle GHG emissions.

  3. Two zone thermodynamic model for prediction of particulate matter emission from direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohankumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, two zone thermodynamic models have been developed for prediction of particulate matter (PM from direct injection Diesel engine. Two key compositions of PM were considered in this simulation model developed, it consists of soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF. Soot formation model were developed initially and then coupled with SOF model to get overall PM formation rates. Primary soot formation rate was obtained by using Hirosysu model and Nagle and Strick-land-Constable model was adopted to get soot oxidation rate. The oxidation and formation rate difference gives overall soot formation value. Unburned hydrocarbons were considered as key factor for SOF formation so the formation and oxidation rate of hydrocarbon was determined. Then the difference between these two gives overall SOF formation rate. At last soot formation and SOF model was integrated to get overall PM formation rate. Various submodels like ignition delay, heat release rate, and combustion model were involved in this study to predict PM formation rate. Validation of this simulation model developed were carried out on single cylinder, naturally aspirated water cooled direct injection Diesel engine. Simulation results matched well with the experimental results and it clearly shows that model developed is an accurate one. Results obtained shows that soot formation increases at higher loads and SOF formation rate increase at lower loads. Simulation model developed is very useful for understanding the PM formation mechanisms and also useful for control of PM formation.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rana@unifg.it; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP{sub 100} associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58 g CO{sub 2eq} MJ{sub e}{sup −1} and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly

  5. Intelligent Heat System – high energy efficient wood stoves with low emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun

    2016-01-01

    . Emission measurements at the research wood stove set-up at DTU Chemical Engineering showed generally low emissions of particles, well below current standards, and high energy efficiency. The highest emissions of CO, VOC and PM were seen in the ignition phase while only a small particle peak was observed...

  6. Embodied energy consumption and carbon emissions evaluation for urban industrial structure optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xi; Chen, Zhanming; Li, Jinkai

    2014-03-01

    Cities are the main material processors associated with industrialization. The development of urban production based on fossil fuels is the major contributor to the rise of greenhouse gas density, and to global warming. The concept of urban industrial structure optimization is considered to be a solution to urban sustainable development and global climate issues. Enforcing energy conservation and reducing carbon emissions are playing key roles in addressing these issues. As such, quantitative accounting and the evaluation of energy consumption and corresponding carbon emissions, which are by-products of urban production, are critical, in order to discover potential opportunities to save energy and to reduce emissions. Conventional evaluation indicators, such as "energy consumption per unit output value" and "emissions per unit output value", are concerned with immediate consumptions and emissions; while the indirect consumptions and emissions that occur throughout the supply chain are ignored. This does not support the optimization of the overall urban industrial system. To present a systematic evaluation framework for cities, this study constructs new evaluation indicators, based on the concepts of "embodied energy" and "embodied carbon emissions", which take both the immediate and indirect effects of energy consumption and emissions into account. Taking Beijing as a case, conventional evaluation indicators are compared with the newly constructed ones. Results show that the energy consumption and emissions of urban industries are represented better by the new indicators than by conventional indicators, and provide useful information for urban industrial structure optimization.

  7. Forecasting energy demand and CO{sub 2}-emissions from energy production in the forest industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to develops new energy forecasting methods for the forest industry energy use. The scenarios have been the most commonly used forecasts, but they require a lot of work. The recent scenarios, which are made for the forest industry, give a wide range of results; e.g. from 27,8 TWh to 38 TWh for electricity use in 2010. There is a need for more simple and accurate methods for forecasting. The time scale for the study is from 1975 to 2010, i.e. 36 years. The basic data for the study is collected from time period 1975 - 1995. It includes the wood use, production of main product categories and energy use in the forest industry. The factors affecting energy use at both industry level and at mill level are presented. The most probable technology trends, which can have an effect on energy production and use and CO{sub 2}-emissions are studied. Recent forecasts for the forest industry energy use till the year 2010 are referred and analysed. Three alternative forecasting methods are studied more closely. These methods are (a) Regression analysis, (b) Growth curves and (c) Delphi-method. Total electricity demand, share of purchased electricity, total fuel demand and share of process-based biofuels are estimated for the time period 1996 - 2010. The results from the different methods are compared to each other and to the recent scenarios. The comparison is made for the results concerning the energy use and the usefulness of the methods in practical work. The average energy consumption given by the forecasts for electricity was 31,6 TWh and for fuel 6,2 Mtoe in 2010. The share of purchased electricity totalled 73 % and process based fuels 77 %. The figures from 1995 are 22,8 TWh, 5,5 Mtoe, 64 % and 68 % respectively. All three methods were suitable for forecasting. All the methods required less working hours and were easier to use than scenarios. The methods gave results with a smaller deviation than scenarios, e.g. with electricity use in 2010 from

  8. Proceedings of IEA combustion 2009 : IEA 31. task leaders meeting on energy conservation and emissions reduction in combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) supports research and development in energy technology. This meeting provided a forum to discuss combustion processes, which is fundamental to achieving further improvements in fuel use efficiency, reducing the production of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, and facilitating the transition to alternative fuels. The presentations demonstrated recent studies in improving the efficiency and fuel flexibility of automotive engines; improving the performance of industrial furnaces; emissions formation and control mechanisms; and fuel injection and fuel/air mixing. The conference also highlighted studies involving hydrogen combustion, alternative fuels, particulate diagnostics, fuel sprays, gas turbines, and advanced combustion processes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The sessions were entitled: HCCI fuels; sprays; nanoparticle diagnostics; alternative fuels; hydrogen internal combustion engines; turbines; energy security; and collaborative task planning. All 45 presentations from the conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  9. Energy equipartition and unidirectional emission in a spaser nanolaser

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2016-03-18

    A spaser is a nanoplasmonic counterpart of a laser, with photons replaced by surface plasmon polaritons and a resonant cavity replaced by a metallic nanostructure supporting localized plasmonic modes. By combining analytical results and first-principle numerical simulations, we provide a comprehensive study of the ultrafast dynamics of a spaser. Due to its highly-nonlinear nature, the spaser is characterized by a large number of interacting degrees of freedom, which sustain a rich manifold of different phases we discover, describe and analyze here. In the regime of strong interaction, the system manifests an irreversible ergodic evolution towards the configuration where energy is equally shared among all the available degrees of freedom. Under this condition, the spaser generates ultrafast vortex-like lasing modes that are spinning on the femtosecond scale and whose direction of rotation is dictated by quantum noise. In this regime, the spaser acquires the character of a nanoparticle with an effective spin. This opens up a range of interesting possibilities for achieving unidirectional emission from a symmetric nanostructure, stimulating a broad range of applications for nanoplasmonic lasers as unidirectional couplers and random information sources.

  10. Reduction of NOx Emission of a Diesel Engine with a Multiple Injection Pump by SCR Catalytic Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with reduction of NOx-emission of a diesel engine with multiple injection pump by SCR catalytic converter. Main aim of the measurement was the detection of SCR catalyst converter efficiency. Tests were realized at the Research and Development workplace of Zetor Tractor a.s. Used engine was equipped with a multiple injection pump with electromagnetic regulator of a fuel charge. During the experiment selective catalytic reduction and diesel particulate filter were used as an after treatment of harmful pollutants reduction. Testing cycle of the eight-point test was chosen and Non-Road Steady Cycle (NRSC was maintained according to 97/68/EC directive. Results confirmed the dependencies between temperatures of SCR catalyst and exhaust gases and the volume of exhaust gases on efficiency of SCR catalyst. During the operation load of the engine, selective catalytic reduction reached efficiency over 90 %. Used after treatment system is suitable for reduction of harmful pollutants according to the Tier 4f norm.

  11. The Energy Spectrum of the Acoustic Emission Signals of Nanoscale Objects

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Marasanov; A.A. Sharko

    2017-01-01

    A one-dimensional discrete-continuum model of the energy spectrum of the acoustic emission signal, allowing filter oscillating components of the acoustic emission signals. The mathematical formalism describing the environment, initiating the signals of acoustic emission, in which the problem of spectral analysis and synthesis of acoustic emission signals is solved by the Fourier transform. The dependence of the spectrum of acoustic vibrations on the size of the parameters, microstructure. The...

  12. Exploring residential energy consumers' willingness to accept and pay to offset their CO2-emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yingkui; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Voluntary carbon offsets have the potential to contribute to reduce carbon emission and thereby meet the national and international target of carbon emission. The public support for such scheme in the energy sector is unclear. We invested whether and why residential energy consumers are w...

  13. Decomposition of energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang and relative mitigation policy recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changjian; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Fei; Lei, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2015-03-01

    Regional carbon emissions research is necessary and helpful for China in realizing reduction targets. The LMDI I (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index I) technique based on an extended Kaya identity was conducted to uncover the main five driving forces for energy-related carbon emissions in Xinjiang, an important energy base in China. Decomposition results show that the affluence effect and the population effect are the two most important contributors to increased carbon emissions. The energy intensity effect had a positive influence on carbon emissions during the pre-reform period, and then became the dominant factor in curbing carbon emissions after 1978. The renewable energy penetration effect and the emission coefficient effect showed important negative but relatively minor effects on carbon emissions. Based on the local realities, a comprehensive suite of mitigation policies are raised by considering all of these influencing factors. Mitigation policies will need to significantly reduce energy intensity and pay more attention to the regional economic development path. Fossil fuel substitution should be considered seriously. Renewable energy should be increased in the energy mix. All of these policy recommendations, if implemented by the central and local government, should make great contributions to energy saving and emission reduction in Xinjiang.

  14. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamborra, I.; Ando, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays,

  15. Reducing Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Corporate Sector, a Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    The study is titled "Reducing energy cost and GreenHouse Gas emission in the corporate sector, A Delphi Study". The study applied the Delphi methodology and focused on the Green IT solutions that can help the modern corporate organizations with less than 1000 employees to decrease their energy costs and GHG emissions. The study presents…

  16. Thermal emissions and climate change: Cooler options for future energy technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cowern, Nick E. B.; Ahn, Chihak

    2008-01-01

    Global warming arises from 'temperature forcing', a net imbalance between energy fluxes entering and leaving the climate system and arising within it. Humanity introduces temperature forcing through greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture, and thermal emissions from fuel burning. Up to now climate projections, neglecting thermal emissions, typically foresee maximum forcing around the year 2050, followed by a decline. In this paper we show that, if humanity's energy use grows at 1%/year, slower ...

  17. Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully ex- plained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed dis- tant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal. PMID:29165399

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-22

    This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990-2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: A Panel Cointegration Analysis for 16 Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Lu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the co-movement and causality relationships between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth for 16 Asian countries over the period 1990–2012. The empirical findings suggest that in the long run, bidirectional Granger causality between energy consumption, GDP and greenhouse gas emissions and between GDP, greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption is established. A non-linear, quadratic relationship is revealed between greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption and economic growth, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve for these 16 Asian countries and a subsample of the Asian new industrial economy. Short-run relationships are regionally specific across the Asian continent. From the viewpoint of energy policy in Asia, various governments support low-carbon or renewable energy use and are reducing fossil fuel combustion to sustain economic growth, but in some countries, evidence suggests that energy conservation might only be marginal.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions of an agro-biogas energy system: Estimation under the Renewable Energy Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Roberto; Ingrao, Carlo; Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Tricase, Caterina

    2016-04-15

    Agro-biogas from energy crops and by-products is a renewable energy carrier that can potentially contribute to climate change mitigation. In this context, application of the methodology defined by the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED) was performed in order to estimate the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100) associated with an agro-biogas supply chain (SC) in Southern Italy. Doing so enabled calculation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission saving in order to verify if it is at least equal to 35% compared to the fossil fuel reference system, as specified by the RED. For the assessment, an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach (International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 2006a,b) was integrated with the RED methodology applied following the guidelines reported in COM(2010)11 and updated by SWD(2014)259 and Report EUR 27215 EN (2015). Moreover, primary data were collected with secondary data extrapolated from the Ecoinvent database system. Results showed that the GWP100 associated with electricity production through the biogas plant investigated was equal to 111.58gCO2eqMJe(-1) and so a 40.01% GHG-emission saving was recorded compared to the RED reference. The highest contribution comes from biomass production and, in particular, from crop cultivation due to production of ammonium nitrate in the overall amount used for crop cultivation. Based upon the findings of the study, the GHG saving calculated slightly exceeds the related minimum proposed by the RED: therefore, improvements are needed anyway. In particular, the authors documented that through replacement of ammonium nitrate with urea the GHG-emission saving would increase to almost 68%, thus largely satisfying the RED limit. In addition, the study highlighted that conservation practices, such as NT, can significantly enable reduction of the GHG-emissions coming from agricultural activities. Therefore, those practices should be increasingly adopted for cultivation of energy

  2. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  3. Study of gamma-ray emission by proton beam interaction with injected Boron atoms for future medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petringa, G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Caliri, C.; Cuttone, G.; Giuffrida, L.; Larosa, G.; Manna, R.; Manti, L.; Marchese, V.; Marchetta, C.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Picciotto, A.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santonocito, D.; Scuderi, V.

    2017-03-01

    In this work an experimental and theoretical study of gamma-prompt emission has been carried out with the main aim being to understand to what extent this approach can be used during a treatment based on proton-boron fusion therapy. An experimental campaign, carried out with a high purity Germanium detector, has been performed to evaluate the gamma emission from two pure 11B and 10B targets. Furthermore, a set of analytical simulations, using the Talys nuclear reaction code has been performed and the calculated spectra compared with the experimental results. These comparisons allowed us to successfully validate Talys which was then used to estimate the gamma emission when a realistic Boron concentration was considered. Both simulations and experimental results suggest that the gamma emission is low at certain proton energies, thus in order to improve the imaging capabilities, while still maintaining the Boron therapeutic role, we propose the addition of natural Copper bound by a dipyrromethene, BodiPy, to boron atoms. Analytical simulations with Talys suggest that the characteristic spectrum of the copper prompt gamma-rays has several peaks in the energetic regions where the background is negligible.

  4. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Rydhög, J. S.; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver......-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive (106)Ag......, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy...

  5. Meat batter production in an extended vane pump-grinder injecting curing salt solutions to reduce energy requirements: variation of curing salt amount injected with the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmscher, Stefan B; Terjung, Eva-Maria; Gibis, Monika; Herrmann, Kurt; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    The integration of a nozzle in an extended vane pump-grinder system may enable the continuous injection of curing salt solutions during meat batter production. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of the curing salt amount injected with the solution (0-100%) on protein solubilisation, water-binding, structure, colour and texture of emulsion-type sausages. The amount of myofibrillar protein solubilised during homogenisation varied slightly from 33 to 36 g kg(-1) . Reddening was not noticeably impacted by the later addition of nitrite. L(*) ranged from 66.9 ± 0.3 to 67.8 ± 0.3, a(*) from 10.9 ± 0.1 to 11.2 ± 0.1 and b(*) from 7.7 ± 0.1 to 8.0 ± 0.1. Although softer sausages were produced when only water was injected, firmness increased with increasing curing salt amount injected and was similar to the control when the full amount of salt was used. The substitution of two-thirds of ice with a liquid brine may enable energy savings due to reduced power consumptions of the extended vane pump-grinder system by up to 23%. The injection of curing salt solutions is feasible without affecting structure and colour negatively. This constitutes a first step towards of an 'ice-free' meat batter production allowing for substantial energy savings due to lower comminution work. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Bioethanol Blending Reduces Nanoparticle, PAH, and Alkyl- and Nitro-PAH Emissions and the Genotoxic Potential of Exhaust from a Gasoline Direct Injection Flex-Fuel Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Maria; Heeb, Norbert V; Haag, Regula; Honegger, Peter; Zeyer, Kerstin; Mohn, Joachim; Comte, Pierre; Czerwinski, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Bioethanol as an alternative fuel is widely used as a substitute for gasoline and also in gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles, which are quickly replacing traditional port-fuel injection (PFI) vehicles. Better fuel efficiency and increased engine power are reported advantages of GDI vehicles. However, increased emissions of soot-like nanoparticles are also associated with GDI technology with yet unknown health impacts. In this study, we compare emissions of a flex-fuel Euro-5 GDI vehicle operated with gasoline (E0) and two ethanol/gasoline blends (E10 and E85) under transient and steady driving conditions and report effects on particle, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and alkyl- and nitro-PAH emissions and assess their genotoxic potential. Particle number emissions when operating the vehicle in the hWLTC (hot started worldwide harmonized light-duty vehicle test cycle) with E10 and E85 were lowered by 97 and 96% compared with that of E0. CO emissions dropped by 81 and 87%, while CO 2 emissions were reduced by 13 and 17%. Emissions of selected PAHs were lowered by 67-96% with E10 and by 82-96% with E85, and the genotoxic potentials dropped by 72 and 83%, respectively. Ethanol blending appears to reduce genotoxic emissions on this specific flex-fuel GDI vehicle; however, other GDI vehicle types should be analyzed.

  7. Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwalong You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection system, CO2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO2 injection system in terms of specific net power consumption, exergy efficiency, and life-cycle cost (LCC to estimate the economic effects. The results showed that the new system reduced specific net power consumption and yielded higher exergy efficiency. The LCC of the new system was more economical. Several cases were examined corresponding to different conditions, specifically, discharge pressure and seawater temperature. This information may affect decision-making when CCS projects are implemented.

  8. Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "Columbia, Missouri: Using Energy Data to Reduce Emissions and Achieve Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of Columbia used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  9. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  10. Impact of International Oil Price on Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of “new normal” economy and frequent “haze”, the strategy of energy conservation and emission reduction aiming to lower costs and reduce pollution is currently still a major strategic direction in China and the world, and will remain so for some time in the future. This paper uses the annual data of West Texas Intermediate (WTI crude oil price in 1987–2014 as samples. We firstly present the direction and mechanism of the influence of oil price change on total consumption of every kind of energy by path analysis, and then consider establishing a Structural Vector Autoregression model of energy conservation and emission reduction in three statuses. Research shows that if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.092% and 0.053% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of high energy consumption and high emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP and carbon dioxide emission increase by 0.043% and 0.065% respectively in the corresponding period. In the status of low energy consumption and low emission, if the international oil price increases by 1%, the energy consumption per GDP per unit increases by 0.067% and carbon dioxide emission decreases by 0.085% in the corresponding period.

  11. Opportunities to change development pathways toward lower greenhouse gas emissions through energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alterra, Swart; Masanet, Eric; Lecocq, Franck; Najam, Adil; Schaeffer, Robert; Winkler, Harald; Sathaye, Jayant

    2008-07-04

    There is a multiplicity of development pathways in which low energy sector emissions are not necessarily associated with low economic growth. However, changes in development pathways can rarely be imposed from the top. On this basis, examples of energy efficiency opportunities to change development pathways toward lower emissions are presented in this paper. We review opportunities at the sectoral and macro level. The potential for action on nonclimate policies that influence energy use and emissions are presented. Examples are drawn from policies already adopted and implemented in the energy sector. The paper discusses relationships between energy efficiency policies and their synergies and tradeoffs with sustainable development and greenhouse gas emissions. It points to ways that energy efficiency could be mainstreamed into devel?opment choices.

  12. The effect of injection timing on energy and exergy analysis of a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Farhadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, due to higher environmental pollution and decreasing fossil fuels many countries make decisions to use renewable fuels and restrict using of fossil fuels. Renewable fuels generally produce from biological sources. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived from the transesterification of vegetable oils, animal fats, or waste frying oils. Considering the differences between diesel and biodiesel fuels, engine condition should be modified based on the fuel or fuel blends to achieve optimum performance. One of the simplest and yet the most widely used models is the thermodynamic model. After verification of the data obtained by model with experimental data it is possible to generalize the extracted data to an unlimited number of functional conditions or unlimited number of fuel types which saves time and reduces costs for experimental engine tests. Using the second law of thermodynamics, it is possible to calculate and analyze the exergy of the engine.4 Materials and Methods In this work, the zero-dimensional model was used to account for internal energy variations, pressure work, heat transfer losses to the solid walls and heat release. The applied assumptions include: The cylinder mixture temperature, pressure and composition were assumed uniform throughout the cylinder. Furthermore, the one-zone thermodynamic model assumes instantaneous mixing between the burned and unburned gases. The cylinder gases were assumed to behave as an ideal gas mixture, Gas properties, include enthalpy, internal energy modeled using polynomial equations associated with temperature. In this research, the equations 1 to 20 were used in Fortran programming language. The results of incylinder pressure obtained by the model were validated by the results of experimental test of OM314 engine. Then the effects of injection timing on Energy and Exergy of the engine were analyzed for B20 fuel. Results and Discussion Comparing the results of the model

  13. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  14. Decomposition and Decoupling Analysis of Energy-Related Carbon Emissions from China Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy-related carbon emissions of China’s manufacturing increased rapidly, from 36988.97 × 104 tC in 1996 to 74923.45 × 104 tC in 2012. To explore the factors to the change of the energy-related carbon emissions from manufacturing sector and the decoupling relationship between energy-related carbon emissions and economic growth, the empirical research was carried out based on the LMDI method and Tapio decoupling model. We found that the production scale contributed the most to the increase of the total carbon emissions, while the energy intensity was the most inhibiting factor. And the effects of the intrastructure and fuel mix on the change of carbon emissions were relatively weak. At a disaggregative level within manufacturing sector, EI subsector had a greater impact on the change of the total carbon emissions, with much more potentiality of energy conservation and emission reduction. Weak decoupling of manufacturing sector carbon emissions from GDP could be observed in the manufacturing sector and EI subsector, while strong decoupling state appeared in NEI subsector. Several advices were put forward, such as adjusting the fuel structure and optimizing the intrastructure and continuing to improve the energy intensity to realize the manufacturing sustainable development in low carbon pattern.

  15. The causal link among militarization, economic growth, CO2 emission, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildirici, Melike E

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship among CO2 emissions, militarization, economic growth, and energy consumption for USA for the period 1960-2013. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between CO2 emissions and militarization was found. To determine the causal link, MWALD and Rao's F tests were applied. According to Rao's F tests, the evidence of a unidirectional causality running from militarization to CO2 emissions, from energy consumption to CO2 emissions, and from militarization to energy consumption all without a feedback was found. Further, the results determined that 26% of the forecast-error variance of CO2 emissions was explained by the forecast error variance of militarization and 60% by energy consumption.

  16. Road freight energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Arvidsson, Niklas; Hovi, Inger Beate

    2014-01-01

    and their impact on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions. A joint analysis method was developed to compare data. Quantitative data was used to conduct a decomposition analysis for several sectors, taking several indicators into account. Statistics from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden include continuous road......Nordic countries have committed to improve the energy efficiency and decrease the CO2 emissions of freight transport. The aim of this paper is to compare the energy efficiency and CO2 emissions in the road industry for the Nordic countries in 2010, in order to identify the key factors......, the differences in transport intensity and energy efficiency also have a significant effect on the total emissions. This study is the first of its kind for the Nordic countries. Our research can be used as a first step in a continuous evaluation of the determinants of road freight CO2 emissions in the European...

  17. Influence of alumina oxide nanoparticles on the performance and emissions in a methyl ester of neem oil fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Gnanasikamani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of the influence of Al2O3 nanoadditive on performance and emissions in a methyl ester of neem oil fueled direct injection Diesel engine is reported in this paper. The Al2O3 nanoparticles are mixed in various proportions (100 to 300 ppm with methyl ester of neem oil. The performance and emissions are tested in a single cylinder computerized, 4-stroke, stationary, water-cooled Diesel engine of 3.5 kW rated power. Results show that the nanoadditive is effective in increasing the performance and controlling the NO emissions of methyl ester of neem oil fueled Diesel engines.

  18. Impact of intersection type and a vehicular fleet's hybridization level on energy consumption and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle's energy consumption and emissions are two major constraints in sustainable development. Both of them have proportionally raised in recent decades with the exponential growth of world traffic demands. The reduction of road traffic-generated energy consumption and emissions have thus become unprecedentedly challenging and worth examining. This paper investigates energy consumption and environmental problems present at roundabout and signalized intersection to analyze the impact of the hybridization level's fleet and intersection type on vehicle consumption and pollution. Instantaneous fuel consumption and emission models coupled with simulation of urban mobility (SUMO are in this study. The authors started with modeling energy consumption. Then, an emission model emissions from traffic (EMIT was implemented to quantify vehicle emissions of CO2, CO and NOx. These models help investigate the influence of intersection type on energy consumption and environmental conditions. The authors implemented a signalized intersection and roundabout using SUMO. The input data are collected from the roundabout of Sousse (Tunisia using video data collection. Since there is a lack of econometric models that emulate hybridized stream behavior near intersections, two energy consumption models for the roundabout and crossroad are developed using traffic flow and hybridization level as the input variables. Compared to crossroads, a roundabout can obtain more environmental improvements and substantial reductions in energy consumption and road traffic emissions.

  19. Use of a novel nitrification inhibitor to reduce nitrous oxide emission from (15)N-labelled dairy slurry injected into soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittert, K; Bol, R; King, R; Chadwick, D; Hatch, D

    2001-01-01

    Recent recommendations for environmentally sound use of liquid animal manure often include injection of slurry into soil. Two of the most important undesired side effects, ammonia (NH(3)) volatilisation and odour emissions, are usually significantly reduced by slurry injection. On the other hand, because of the higher amount of nitrogen (N) remaining in soil, the risk of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) leaching and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions is increased. Thus, the reduction of local effects caused by NH(3) deposition, e.g. N enrichment and soil acidification, may be at the cost of large-scale effects such as ozone depletion and global warming as a result of emitted N(2)O. In this context, nitrification inhibitors can contribute significantly to a reduction in NO(3)(-) leaching and N(2)O production. A field experiment was carried out at IGER, North Wyke, which aimed to evaluate the effect of the new nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP/ENTEC). For this experiment, (15)N enriched dairy slurry was used and the isotopic label in soil N as well as in N(2)O were studied. After slurry injection into the grassland soil in August 2000, the major emissions of N(2)O occurred during the first ten days. As expected, high N(2)O emission rates and (15)N content of the emissions were concentrated on the slurry injection slots, showing a steep decrease towards the untreated centre-point between slurry injection slots. The nitrification inhibitor DMPP proved to be very efficient in reducing N(2)O emissions. At a rate of 2 kg DMPP ha(-1), the total amount of N(2)O emitted was reduced by 32%, when compared with slurry injection without DMPP. The isotopic label of the emitted N(2)O showed that during the 22-day experimental period, emissions from the slurry N pool were strongly reduced by DMPP from 0.93 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) (-DMPP) to 0.50 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) (+DMPP), while only a minor effect on emissions from the soil N pool was observed (0.69 to 0.60 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1

  20. Decoupling economic growth from CO2 emissions: A decomposition analysis of China's household energy consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Chinese household CO2 emissions in 1994–2012 based on the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI structure decomposition model, and discusses the relationship between household CO2 emissions and economic growth based on a decoupling indicator. The results show that in 1994–2012, household CO2 emissions grew in general and displayed an accelerated growth trend during the early 21st century. Economic growth leading to an increase in energy consumption is the main driving factor of CO2 emission growth (an increase of 1.078 Gt CO2 with cumulative contribution rate of 55.92%, while the decline in energy intensity is the main cause of CO2 emission growth inhibition (0.723 Gt CO2 emission reduction with cumulative contribution rate of 38.27%. Meanwhile, household CO2 emissions are in a weak state of decoupling in general. The change in CO2 emissions caused by population and economic growth shows a weak decoupling and expansive decoupling state, respectively. The CO2 emission change caused by energy intensity is in a state of strong decoupling, and the change caused by energy consumption structure fluctuates between a weak and a strong decoupling state.

  1. The collective emission of electromagnetic waves from astrophysical jets - Luminosity gaps, BL Lacertae objects, and efficient energy transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Benford, Gregory; Eilek, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the inner portions of astrophysical jets is constructed in which a relativistic electron beam is injected from the central engine into the jet plasma. This beam drives electrostatic plasma wave turbulence, which leads to the collective emission of electromagnetic waves. The emitted waves are beamed in the direction of the jet axis, so that end-on viewing of the jet yields an extremely bright source (BL Lacertae object). The relativistic electron beam may also drive long-wavelength electromagnetic plasma instabilities (firehose and Kelvin-Helmholtz) that jumble the jet magnetic field lines. After a sufficient distance from the core source, these instabilities will cause the beamed emission to point in random directions and the jet emission can then be observed from any direction relative to the jet axis. This combination of effects may lead to the gap turn-on of astrophysical jets. The collective emission model leads to different estimates for energy transport and the interpretation of radio spectra than the conventional incoherent synchrotron theory.

  2. Tailoring the Energy Landscape in Quasi-2D Halide Perovskites Enables Efficient Green-Light Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na

    2017-05-10

    Organo-metal halide perovskites are a promising platform for optoelectronic applications in view of their excellent charge-transport and bandgap tunability. However, their low photoluminescence quantum efficiencies, especially in low-excitation regimes, limit their efficiency for light emission. Consequently, perovskite light-emitting devices are operated under high injection, a regime under which the materials have so far been unstable. Here we show that, by concentrating photoexcited states into a small subpopulation of radiative domains, one can achieve a high quantum yield, even at low excitation intensities. We tailor the composition of quasi-2D perovskites to direct the energy transfer into the lowest-bandgap minority phase and to do so faster than it is lost to nonradiative centers. The new material exhibits 60% photoluminescence quantum yield at excitation intensities as low as 1.8 mW/cm2, yielding a ratio of quantum yield to excitation intensity of 0.3 cm2/mW; this represents a decrease of 2 orders of magnitude in the excitation power required to reach high efficiency compared with the best prior reports. Using this strategy, we report light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiencies of 7.4% and a high luminescence of 8400 cd/m2.

  3. A strategy to minimize the energy offset in carrier injection from excited dyes to inorganic semiconductors for efficient dye-sensitized solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-Ichi; Osawa, Ayumi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2016-08-10

    Photoinduced carrier injection from dyes to inorganic semiconductors is a crucial process in various dye-sensitized solar energy conversions such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis. It has been reported that an energy offset larger than 0.2-0.3 eV (threshold value) is required for efficient electron injection from excited dyes to metal-oxide semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). Because the energy offset directly causes loss in the potential of injected electrons, it is a crucial issue to minimize the energy offset for efficient solar energy conversions. However, a fundamental understanding of the energy offset, especially the threshold value, has not been obtained yet. In this paper, we report the origin of the threshold value of the energy offset, solving the long-standing questions of why such a large energy offset is necessary for the electron injection and which factors govern the threshold value, and suggest a strategy to minimize the threshold value. The threshold value is determined by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron reduction of semiconductors and typically-used donor-acceptor (D-A) dyes. In fact, the estimated values (0.21-0.31 eV) for several D-A dyes are in good agreement with the threshold value, supporting our conclusion. In addition, our results reveal that the threshold value is possible to be reduced by enlarging the π-conjugated system of the acceptor moiety in dyes and enhancing its structural rigidity. Furthermore, we extend the analysis to hole injection from excited dyes to semiconductors. In this case, the threshold value is given by the sum of two reorganization energies in one-electron oxidation of semiconductors and D-A dyes.

  4. The effect of food consumption and production trends on energy, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    OpenAIRE

    Birkett, D.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this report we assess the trends in food consumption and food-related environmental impacts (in terms of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use) for three regions: Western Europe, the USA and China. The environmental impacts were determined by two methods: a product level analysis, in which the energy and emissions per kilogramme of 19 products was calculated; and a system level analysis, in which the energy use and emissions of each stage in the process chain (i.e. agriculture,...

  5. Factors Affecting Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-min Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is a typical developed region in China. The development of economy has brought lots of carbon emissions. To explore an effective way to reduce carbon emissions, we applied the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI model to find drivers behind carbon emission from 2003 to 2013. Results showed that, in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei, economic output was main contributor to carbon emissions. Then we utilized the decoupling model to comprehensively analyze the relationship between economic output and carbon emission. Based on the two-level model, results indicated the following: (1 Industry sector accounted for almost 80% of energy consumption in whole region. The reduced proportion of industrial GDP will directly reduce the carbon emissions. (2 The carbon factor for CO2/energy in whole region was higher than that of Beijing and Tianjin but lower than that of Hebei. The impact of energy structure on carbon emission depends largely on the proportion of coal in industry. (3 The energy intensity in whole region decreased from 0.79 in 2003 to 0.40 in 2013 (unit: tons of standard coal/ten thousand yuan, which was lower than national average. (4 The cumulative effects of industrial structure, energy structure, and energy intensity were negative, positive, and negative, respectively.

  6. Statistical simulation of the energy spectra of field-emission electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, N. V.; Antonov, A. Yu.; Demchenko, N. S.

    2017-02-01

    Random energies of electrons that escape from the source in the course of field emission are simulated using energy spectra. A relationship of the random values of total energy and the energy related to the normal (with respect to surface) component of momentum is established. A family of quadrature formulas needed for the integration of the distribution density of particles is analyzed. A hypothesis on the compliance of selected random energies with desired distribution laws is statistically tested.

  7. Forest biomass diversion in the Sierra Nevada: Energy, economics and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Springsteen; Thomas Christofk; Robert A. York; Tad Mason; Stephen Baker; Emily Lincoln; Bruce Hartsough; Takuyuki Yoshioka

    2015-01-01

    As an alternative to open pile burning, use of forest wastes from fuel hazard reduction projects at Blodgett Forest Research Station for electricity production was shown to produce energy and emission benefits: energy (diesel fuel) expended for processing and transport was 2.5% of the biomass fuel (energy equivalent); based on measurements from a large pile...

  8. RE Data Explorer: Informing Variable Renewable Energy Grid Integration for Low Emission Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The RE Data Explorer, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, is an innovative web-based analysis tool that utilizes geospatial and spatiotemporal renewable energy data to visualize, execute, and support analysis of renewable energy potential under various user-defined scenarios. This analysis can inform high-level prospecting, integrated planning, and policy making to enable low emission development.

  9. Observations of VHF emissions from 50-mA electron beam injections in the ionosphere that are associated with beam-induced discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, R. T.; Kellogg, P. J.; Monson, S. J.; Franz, R. C.; Nemzek, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.; Potter, D. W.; Denig, W. F.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Earle, G. D.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of strong VHF plasma waves with amplitudes in excess of 0.1 mV/m (Hz)1/2 associated with 50 mA electron beam injections in the ionosphere. Data from three swept-frequency receivers carried on two daughter payloads are analyzed to determine the emission spectra of the electron beam for various energies and currents. These results were obtained from the rocket-borne experiment SCEX 3, NASA flight 39.002 UE, launched February 1, 1990. The accelerator payload also carried photometers, which measured luminosity at wavelengths of 391.4 and 380.5 nm. Several times during electron gun activity the measured luminosity increased much faster than proportional to the beam current. This nonlinear increase is evidence that a discharge is occurring in the vicinity of the accelerator payload. It is inferred from the uniform distribution of the luminosity around the accelerator payload that the observed discharge extends significantly outside the beam cylinder.

  10. Optimization of Photospheric Electric Field Estimates for Accurate Retrieval of Total Magnetic Energy Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumme, E.; Pomoell, J.; Kilpua, E. K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the photospheric magnetic, electric, and plasma velocity fields are essential for studying the dynamics of the solar atmosphere, for example through the derivative quantities of Poynting and relative helicity flux and using the fields to obtain the lower boundary condition for data-driven coronal simulations. In this paper we study the performance of a data processing and electric field inversion approach that requires only high-resolution and high-cadence line-of-sight or vector magnetograms, which we obtain from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The approach does not require any photospheric velocity estimates, and the lacking velocity information is compensated for using ad hoc assumptions. We show that the free parameters of these assumptions can be optimized to reproduce the time evolution of the total magnetic energy injection through the photosphere in NOAA AR 11158, when compared to recent state-of-the-art estimates for this active region. However, we find that the relative magnetic helicity injection is reproduced poorly, reaching at best a modest underestimation. We also discuss the effect of some of the data processing details on the results, including the masking of the noise-dominated pixels and the tracking method of the active region, neither of which has received much attention in the literature so far. In most cases the effect of these details is small, but when the optimization of the free parameters of the ad hoc assumptions is considered, a consistent use of the noise mask is required. The results found in this paper imply that the data processing and electric field inversion approach that uses only the photospheric magnetic field information offers a flexible and straightforward way to obtain photospheric magnetic and electric field estimates suitable for practical applications such as coronal modeling studies.

  11. Factors Influencing Energy Use and Carbon Emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Vanden, Karen [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Jefferson, Gary [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    This research project was designed to fill a critical void in our understanding of the state of energy research and innovation in China. It seeks to provide a comprehensive review and accounting of the various elements of the Chinese government and non-governmental sectors (commercial, university, research institutes) that are engaged in energy-related R&D and various aspects of energy innovation, including specific programs and projects designed to promote renewable energy innovation and energy conservation. The project provides an interrelated descriptive, statistical, and econometric account of China's overall energy innovation activities and capabilities, spanning the full economy with a particular focus on the dynamic industrial sector.

  12. Energy solutions for CO2 emission peak and subsequent decline. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, Hans (eds.)

    2009-09-15

    The conference focused on: 1) Future global energy development options Scenario and policy issues. 2) Measures to achieve CO2 emission peak in 2015 - 2020 and subsequent decline. 3) Renewable energy supply technologies such as bioenergy, wind and solar. 4) Centralized energy technologies such as clean coal technologies. 5) Energy conversion, energy carriers and energy storage, including fuel cells and hydrogen technologies. 6) Providing renewable energy for the transport sector. 7) Systems aspects for the various regions throughout the world. 8) End-use technologies, efficiency improvements in supply and end use. 9) Energy savings. (au)

  13. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  14. DELAYED ONSET OF HIGH-ENERGY EMISSIONS IN LEPTONIC AND HADRONIC MODELS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Katsuaki [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: asano@phys.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: nnp@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Center for Particle and Gravitational Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The temporal-spectral evolution of the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts is simulated numerically for both leptonic and hadronic models. For weak enough magnetic fields, leptonic models can reproduce the few seconds delay of the onset of GeV photon emission observed by Fermi-LAT, due to the slow growth of the target photon field for inverse Compton scattering. For stronger magnetic fields, the GeV delay can be explained with hadronic models, due to the long acceleration timescale of protons and the continuous photopion production after the end of the particle injection. While the FWHMs of the MeV and GeV light curves are almost the same in one-zone leptonic models, the FWHMs of the 1-30 GeV light curves in hadronic models are significantly wider than those of the 0.1-1 MeV light curves. The amount of the GeV delay depends on the importance of the Klein-Nishina effect in both the leptonic and hadronic models. In our examples of hadronic models the energies of the escaped neutrons are comparable to the gamma-ray energy, although their contribution to the ultra high-energy cosmic rays is still subdominant. The resulting neutrino spectra are hard enough to avoid the flux limit constraint from IceCube. The delay of the neutrino emission onset is up to several times longer than the corresponding delay of the GeV photon emission onset. The quantitative differences in the light curves for various models may be further tested with future atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes whose effective area is larger than that of Fermi-LAT, such as CTA.

  15. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  16. Energy development and CO2 emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaolin [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO2 emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO2 emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO2 emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined.

  17. Scenario Prediction of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in China’s Machinery Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boqiang Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and CO2 abatement is currently an important development strategy for China. It is significant to analyze how to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China’s energy-intensive machinery industry. We not only employ a cointegration method and scenario analysis to predict the future energy demand and CO2 emissions in China’s machinery industry, but we also use the Monte Carlo simulation to test the validity of the predictions. The results show that energy demand in the industry will respectively reach 678.759 Mtce (million ton coal equivalent in 2020 and 865.494 Mtce in 2025 under the baseline scenario. Compared with the baseline scenario, the energy savings in 2020 will respectively be 63.654 Mtce and 120.787 Mtce in the medium and advanced scenarios. Furthermore, we forecast the corresponding CO2 emissions as well as the reduction potential respectively in 2020 and 2025. In order to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction, the government should increase energy price, levy environmental taxes based on the emissions level of machinery enterprises, promote mergers and acquisitions of enterprises, and expand the scale of enterprises. This paper provides a reference for energy conservation and CO2 abatement policy in China’s machinery industry.

  18. Renewable energy, carbon emissions, and economic growth in 24 Asian countries: evidence from panel cointegration analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    This article aims to investigate the relationship among renewable energy consumption, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, and GDP using panel data for 24 Asian countries between 1990 and 2012. Panel cross-sectional dependence tests and unit root test, which considers cross-sectional dependence across countries, are used to ensure that the empirical results are correct. Using the panel cointegration model, the vector error correction model, and the Granger causality test, this paper finds that a long-run equilibrium exists among renewable energy consumption, carbon emission, and GDP. CO 2 emissions have a positive effect on renewable energy consumption in the Philippines, Pakistan, China, Iraq, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia. A 1% increase in GDP will increase renewable energy by 0.64%. Renewable energy is significantly determined by GDP in India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, Malaysia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, and Mongolia. A unidirectional causality runs from GDP to CO 2 emissions, and two bidirectional causal relationships were found between CO 2 emissions and renewable energy consumption and between renewable energy consumption and GDP. The findings can assist governments in curbing pollution from air pollutants, execute energy conservation policy, and reduce unnecessary wastage of energy.

  19. CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy and roles of nuclear energy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Osamu; Shimoda, Makoto; Takematsu, Kenji; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    An analysis was made on the potential and cost of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from Japan`s long-term energy systems by using the MARKAL model, developed in the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of International Energy Agency (IEA). Assuming future growths of GDP, the demand for energy services was estimated for the analytical time horizon 1990-2050. Assumptions were made also on prices and availability of fossil fuels, and on availability of nuclear and renewable energy. CO{sub 2} emissions and system costs were compared between energy demand and supply scenarios defined with different assumptions on nuclear energy, a CO{sub 2} disposal option, and natural gas imports. Main results were as follows. Without nuclear energy, the CO{sub 2} emissions will hardly be reduced because of the increases of coal utilization. CO{sub 2} disposal will be effective in reducing the emissions, however at much higher costs than the case with nuclear energy. The expansion of natural gas imports alone will not reduce the emissions at enough low levels. (author)

  20. Life cycle inventory energy consumption and emissions for biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fueled construction vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shih-Hao; Frey, H Christopher; Rasdorf, William J

    2009-08-15

    Substitution of soy-based biodiesel fuels for petroleum diesel will alter life cycle emissions for construction vehicles. A life cycle inventory was used to estimate fuel cycle energy consumption and emissions of selected pollutants and greenhouse gases. Real-world measurements using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) were made forfive backhoes, four front-end loaders, and six motor graders on both fuels from which fuel consumption and tailpipe emission factors of CO, HC, NO(x), and PM were estimated. Life cycle fossil energy reductions are estimated it 9% for B20 and 42% for B100 versus petroleum diesel based on the current national energy mix. Fuel cycle emissions will contribute a larger share of total life cycle emissions as new engines enter the in-use fleet. The average differences in life cycle emissions for B20 versus diesel are: 3.5% higher for NO(x); 11.8% lower for PM, 1.6% higher for HC, and 4.1% lower for CO. Local urban tailpipe emissions are estimated to be 24% lower for HC, 20% lower for CO, 17% lower for PM, and 0.9% lower for NO(x). Thus, there are environmental trade-offs such as for rural vs urban areas. The key sources of uncertainty in the B20 LCI are vehicle emission factors.

  1. Ultraweak photon emission in strawberry fruit during ripening and aging is related to energy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jinli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE, or biophoton emission, is a phenomenon observed in various living organisms, including plants. In this study, we analyzed the UPE from ripening strawberry fruits, to elucidate its source and association with cellular energy.

  2. Estimating impacts of emission specific characteristics on vehicle operation for quantifying air pollutant emissions and energy use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Nesamani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and illustrates a methodology to predict the fraction of time motor vehicles spend in different operating conditions from readily observable variables called emission specific characteristics (ESC. ESC describe salient characteristics of vehicles, roadway geometry, the roadside environment, traffic, and driving style (aggressive, normal, and calm. The information generated by our methodology can then be entered in vehicular emission models that rely on vehicle specific power, i.e., comprehensive modal emissions model (CMEM, international vehicle emissions (IVE, or motor vehicle emission simulator (MOVES to compute energy consumption and vehicular emissions for various air pollutants. After generating second-by-second vehicle trajectories from a calibrated micro-simulation model, the authors estimated structural equation models to examine the influence of link ESC on vehicle operation. Authors' results show that 67% of the link speed variance is explained by ESC. Overall, the roadway geometry exerts a greater influence on link speed than traffic characteristics, the roadside environment, and driving style. Moreover, the speed limit has the strongest influence on vehicle operation, followed by facility type and driving style. Better understanding the impact on vehicle operation of ESC could help metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs and regional transportation authorities predict vehicle operations and reduce the environmental footprint of motor vehicles.

  3. Integrated energy & emission management for hybrid electric truck with SCR aftertreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Schoot, W.J.; Bosch, P.P.J. van den

    2010-01-01

    Energy management in hybrid vehicles typically relates to the vehicle powertrain, whereas emission management is associated with the combustion engine and aftertreatment system. To achieve maximum performance in fuel economy and regulated pollutants, the concept of (model-based) Integrated

  4. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries.......The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  5. Intravitreal injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic - intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone - intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone - intravitreal injection; Lucentis - intravitreal injection; Avastin - intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab - intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab - intravitreal injection; ...

  6. Energetic particle emission and nuclear dynamics around the Fermi energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, P.; Coniglione, R.; Colonna, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Bellia, G.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Loukachine, K.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Piatteli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Colonna, N.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Vannini, G.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Fabbietti, L.; Iori, I.; Moroni, A.; Margagliotti, G.; Milazzo, P. M.; Rui, R.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Scarpaci, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Energetic proton emission was investigated in the reaction 58Ni+ 58Ni at 30 AMeV and compared with the results of dynamical calculations with a momentum dependent mean field. Preliminary results on proton and intermediate mass fragment coincidences are also presented.

  7. Energy use, cost and CO2 emissions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288519361; Brouwer, A.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Kuramochi, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838683; van den Broek, M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2010-01-01

    We examine efficiency, costs and greenhouse gas emissions of current and future electric cars (EV), including the impact from charging EV on electricity demand and infrastructure for generation and distribution. Uncoordinated charging would increase national peak load by 7% at 30% penetration rate

  8. greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    global warming were applied. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Greenhouse gas emission. Approximately 477 kg CO2-equivalents of greenhouse gas was emitted per hectare of rice production in Ghana. (Table 4). Among the three main components of greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4 and N2O; N2O accounted for the highest ...

  9. Application research on big data in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bingdong; Chen, Jing; Wang, Mei; Yao, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    In the context of big data age, the energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation is a natural big data industry. The planning, management, decision-making of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation and other aspects should be supported by the analysis and forecasting of large amounts of data. Now, with the development of information technology, such as intelligent city, sensor road and so on, information collection technology in the direction of the Internet of things gradually become popular. The 3G/4G network transmission technology develop rapidly, and a large number of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data is growing into a series with different ways. The government not only should be able to make good use of big data to solve the problem of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation, but also to explore and use a large amount of data behind the hidden value. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics and application technology of energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation data, this paper carries out its application research in energy conservation and emission reduction of transportation industry, so as to provide theoretical basis and reference value for low carbon management.

  10. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  11. Emission-energy dependence of ultrafast P-emission decay in ZnO from bulk to nanofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakaiki, Shuji, E-mail: s.wakaiki@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ichida, Hideki [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Bamba, Motoaki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kawase, Toshiki; Kawakami, Masaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Mizoguchi, Kohji [Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Kim, DaeGwi; Nakayama, Masaaki [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kanematsu, Yasuo [Department of Material and Life Science, Division of Advanced Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Science and Technology Entrepreneurship Laboratory, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We have performed time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy for ZnO thin films with thicknesses of 90, 460, and 2800 nm under intense excitation condition. We clearly observed the P emission due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. It was found that, in the 460- and 2800-nm thick samples, the decay time of the P emission considerably depends on the detection energy inversely proportional to the group velocity of the polariton in a bulk crystal with each factor of proportionality. In contrast, the energy dependence is less remarkable in the 90-nm thick sample. The decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. The thickness dependence of the P-emission-decay profiles is explained by considering the crossover from the polariton modes in the 2800-nm thick sample (bulk-like film) to the exciton-/photon-like modes in the 90-nm thick sample (nanofilm). - Highlights: • We clearly observed the P-PL dynamics due to inelastic exciton–exciton scattering. • The P-PL decay times are basically shortened with a decrease in the film thickness. • The P-PL decay time depends on the detection energy in the bulk-like sample. • The energy dependence of the P-PL decay time almost disappears in the 90-nm sample. • The thickness dependence is explained by the crossover between exciton and photon.

  12. Modeling GHG emission and energy consumption in selected greenhouses in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, SH.; Khoshnevisan, B. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    It is crucial to determine energy efficiency and environmental effects of greenhouse productions. Such study can be a viable solution in probing challenges and existing defects. The aims of this study were to analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for pepper production using biological method inside greenhouses which used natural gas (NG) heating system in Esfahan province. Data were collected from 22 greenhouse holders using a face to face questionnaire method, in 2010-2011. Also, functional area was selected 1000 m2. Total energy input, total energy output, energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and total GHG emissions were calculated as 297799.9 MJ area-1, 3851.84 MJ area-1, 0.013, 0.016 kg MJ-1, 61.85 MJ kg-1, -293948 MJ area-1 and 14390.85 kg CO2 equivalent area-1, respectively. Result revealed that replacing diesel fuel with NG will not be an effective way of reducing energy consumption for greenhouse production. However, it is crucial to focus on energy management in order to enhance the energy and environmental indices. One way to supply adequate input energy and a reduction in GHG emissions is the utilization of renewable and clean energy sources instead of NG and diesel fuel. Also, it is suggested to adopt solar greenhouses in the region and to supply electricity from non-fossil sources seriously.

  13. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  14. Energy Sensitivity analysis and greenhouse gas emissions for tea production in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Nikkhah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of the production in every region requires consideration of energy flow in the production system, moreover, investigating the production system inputs from environmental management point of view is of high importance. In this study energy use and greenhouse gas emissions is investigated. Data were collected through interviews with 75 tea farmers and comparing the results with Farmers Information Book. Total energy input was 39060.60 MJ ha-1. Energy efficiency was calculated as 0.22. Chemical fertilizers had the largest share in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions with 58.55% and 74.22% in tea production respectively. Total greenhouse gas emission in tea production was 1281.82 kgCO2eq. ha-1. The Results of Cobb-Douglas model and sensitivity analysis of energy inputs revealed that the effect of all energy inputs except chemicals were positive on the yield, and the Input of human labor energy on yield was significant at the level of one percent. Energy of labor input had the most sensitivity and also had the most effect on the yield and then the machinery energy input and chemicals had the next highest effect on the yield of tea production in Guilan province Sustainable development of the production in every region requires consideration of energy flow in the production system, moreover, investigating the production system inputs from environmental management point of view is of high importance. In this study energy use and greenhouse gas emissions is investigated. Data were collected through interviews with 75 tea farmers and comparing the results with Farmers Information Book. Total energy input was 39060.60 MJ ha-1. Energy efficiency was calculated as 0.22. Chemical fertilizers had the largest share in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions with 58.55% and 74.22% in tea production respectively. Total greenhouse gas emission in tea production was 1281.82 kgCO2eq. ha-1. The Results of Cobb-Douglas model and sensitivity

  15. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  16. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop.

  17. Energy and Emissions from U.S. Population Shifts and Implications for Regional GHG Mitigation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoesly, Rachel; Matthews, H Scott; Hendrickson, Chris

    2015-11-03

    Living in different areas is associated with different impacts; the movement of people to and from those areas will affect energy use and emissions over the U.S. The emissions implications of state-to-state migration on household energy and GHG emissions are explored. Three million households move across state lines annually, and generally move from the North East to the South and West. Migrating households often move to states with different climates (thus different heating and cooling and needs), different fuel mixes, and different regional electricity grids, which leads them to experience changes in household emissions as a result of their move. Under current migration trends, the emissions increases of households moving from the Northeast to the South and Southwest are balanced by the emissions decreases of households moving to California and the Pacific Northwest. The net sum of emissions changes for migrating households is slightly positive but near zero; however, that net zero sum represents the balance of many emission changes. Planning for continued low carbon growth in low carbon regions or cities experiencing high growth rates driven by migration is essential in order to offset the moderate emissions increases experienced by households moving to high carbon regions.

  18. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  19. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Transportation in Beef Cattle Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for transportation is an important part of the life cycle analysis (LCA of beef cattle production because it is associated with energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper describes the development and application of a model that estimates energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport in beef cattle production. The animal transport model is based on the weight and number of animals in each weight category, type of trailer, vehicle, and fuel used. The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission estimates of animal feed transportation are based on the weight of a truckload and the number of truckloads of feed transported. Our results indicate that a truckload is travelling approximately 326 km in connection with beef cattle production in the study region. The fuel consumption amounts to 24 L of fossil fuel per 1000 kg of boneless beef. The corresponding greenhouse gas emission is 83 kg. It appears from our results that the majority of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are associated with sending the finished cattle to slaughterhouses and bringing feeder cattle to feedlots. Our results point out appreciable reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions by changing from conventional fuel to bio-fuel.

  20. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  1. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, Erik [Center For Transportation And The Environment, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries

  2. Injection in the lower stratosphere of biomass fire emissions followed by long-range transport: a MOZAIC case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Cammas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a stratospheric injection by deep convection of biomass fire emissions over North America (Alaska, Yukon and Northwest Territories on 24 June 2004 and its long-range transport over the eastern coast of the United States and the eastern Atlantic. The case study is based on airborne MOZAIC observations of ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and water vapour during the crossing of the southernmost tip of an upper level trough over the Eastern Atlantic on 30 June and on a vertical profile over Washington DC on 30 June, and on lidar observations of aerosol backscattering at Madison (University of Wisconsin on 28 June. Attribution of the observed CO plumes to the boreal fires is achieved by backward simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART. A simulation with the Meso-NH model for the source region shows that a boundary layer tracer, mimicking the boreal forest fire smoke, is lofted into the lowermost stratosphere (2–5 pvu layer during the diurnal convective cycle at isentropic levels (above 335 K corresponding to those of the downstream MOZAIC observations. It is shown that the order of magnitude of the time needed by the parameterized convective detrainment flux to fill the volume of a model mesh (20 km horizontal, 500 m vertical above the tropopause with pure boundary layer air would be about 7.5 h, i.e. a time period compatible with the convective diurnal cycle. Over the area of interest, the maximum instantaneous detrainment fluxes deposited about 15 to 20% of the initial boundary layer tracer concentration at 335 K. According to the 275-ppbv carbon monoxide maximum mixing ratio observed by MOZAIC over Eastern Atlantic, such detrainment fluxes would be associated with a 1.4–1.8 ppmv carbon monoxide mixing ratio in the boundary layer over the source region.

  3. Online Measurement of the Energy Spread of Multi-Turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. [Brown U.; Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab; Hendricks, B. S. [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment of Fermilab accelerators to measure energy spread of the proton beam from the LINAC at an injection into the Booster. It uses a digitizing oscilloscope and provides users an ability to configure the scope settings for optimal data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, a) a one shot timeline is generated to initiate beam injection into the Booster, b) a gap of about 40 ns is produced in the injected beam using a set of fast kickers, c) collects line charge distribution data from the wall current monitor for the first 200 μs from the injection and d) performs complete data analysis to extract full beam energy spread of the beam. The program also gives the option to store the data for offline analyses. We illustrate a case with an example. We also present results on beam energy spread as a function of beam intensity from recent measurements.

  4. Terahertz injection lasers based on PbSnSe alloy with an emission wavelength up to 46.5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maremyanin, K. V., E-mail: kirillm@ipmras.ru; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Bovkun, L. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Chizhevskii, E. G.; Zasavitskii, I. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Diffusion injection lasers based on Pb{sub 1} {sub –} {sub x}Sn{sub x}Se alloy, emitting in a wide spectral range of 10–46.5 μm depending on the composition and temperatures are fabricated. A technology for growing high-quality single crystals from the vapor phase under conditions of free growth is developed. The dependences of the total emission intensity on the pump current and the emission spectra of injection lasers based on Pb{sub 1–x}Sn{sub x}Se are studied. In these samples, lasing of long-wavelength radiation to a record wavelength of 46.5 μm is achieved.

  5. Neural network modeling of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of watermelon production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Nabavi-Pelesaraei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine energy consumption, model and analyze the input–output, energy efficiencies and GHG emissions for watermelon production using artificial neural networks (ANNs in the Guilan province of Iran, based on three different farm sizes. For this purpose, the initial data was collected from 120 watermelon producers in Langroud and Chaf region, two small cities in the Guilan province. The results indicated that total average energy input for watermelon production was 40228.98 MJ ha–1. Also, chemical fertilizers (with 76.49% were the highest energy inputs for watermelon production. Moreover, the share of non-renewable energy (with 96.24% was more than renewable energy (with 3.76% in watermelon production. The rate of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy was calculated as 1.29, 0.68 kg MJ−1 and 11733.64 MJ ha−1, respectively. With respect to GHG analysis, the average of total GHG emissions was calculated about 1015 kgCO2eq. ha−1. The results illustrated that share of nitrogen (with 54.23% was the highest in GHG emissions for watermelon production, followed by diesel fuel (with 16.73% and electricity (with 15.45%. In this study, Levenberg–Marquardt learning Algorithm was used for training ANNs based on data collected from watermelon producers. The ANN model with 11–10–2 structure was the best one for predicting the watermelon yield and GHG emissions. In the best topology, the coefficient of determination (R2 was calculated as 0.969 and 0.995 for yield and GHG emissions of watermelon production, respectively. Furthermore, the results of sensitivity analysis revealed that the seed and human labor had the highest sensitivity in modeling of watermelon yield and GHG emissions, respectively.

  6. Energy use and carbon dioxide emission of Indonesian small and medium scale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priambodo, A.; Kumar, S. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2001-07-01

    In Asia, small and medium scale industries (SMIs) form a significant number of establishments contributing to economic growth, stimulating indigenous entrepreneurship, leading to overall development and serving as a training center for developing skills of industrial workers and entrepreneurs. Because of the nature of these enterprises with their inefficient use of energy and other resources, they contribute to local pollution and other environmental problems. Studies on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from these industries are few, especially in developing countries. This article presents an estimation of CO{sub 2} emission due to energy (fuel and electricity) consumption in seven SMI sectors in Indonesia. The specific energy consumption and the energy intensity (energy use per value addition) of these sectors have been estimated. Results of the energy use survey and detailed energy audits show that the highest specific fuel consumption is found in the textile industry, followed by the fabricated metal and chemical industries, while the highest specific electricity consumption is found in the fabricated metal industry, followed by the textile and chemical industries. The highest energy intensity among small industry sectors is found in the food and beverages sector. CO{sub 2} emission from the SMI sectors of Indonesia was estimated based on Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change methodology by considering the emission from each audited factory and from the aggregated energy consumption data of the SMI sectors. The textile and fabricated metal industry contribute the highest specific CO{sub 2} emission. The analysis shows that the contribution of liquid fuels to CO{sub 2} emission is very significant in the SMI sector. The overall contribution by the small industrial sector is about 366,000 tons in 1993 compared to about 46 million tons generated by all industrial sectors. (Author)

  7. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactions among energy consumption, economic development and greenhouse gas emissions in Japan after World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The long-term dynamic changes in the triad, energy consumption, economic development, and Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in Japan after World War II were quantified, and the interactions among them were analyzed based on an integrated suite of energy, emergy and economic indices...

  9. Spatial Distribution of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of Regional Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Facing serious energy-related constraints and environmental stress, the development of the green logistics industry is restricted by degrees of logistics energy utilization and carbon emissions. Considering different logistics spatial distributions, this paper uses the degree of regional logistics energy utilization and the spatial distribution of carbon emissions as two indicators of green logistics to investigate the regional differences and changes in spatiotemporal logistics energy efficiency. We firstly measure the regional logistics in terms of energy consumption and carbon emission, then further measure the logistics by energy intensity and carbon intensity. Based on these four indicators, the relations between spatiotemporal logistics and regional logistics development are analyzed. Through studying the spatial and temporal evolution trends of the above indicators, we found that a certain convergence exists. Finally, based on the analysis, the suggestions for energy saving and emission reduction are proposed according to regional conditions. The results benefit to narrow the efficiency gap between regions and achieve the goal of improving logistics energy efficiency.

  10. Energy use efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of farming systems in north Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Rafiee, Shahin; Jafari, Ali; Keyhani, Alireza; Mousavi-Avval, Seyed Hashem; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    Efficient use of energy resources in crop production is an important goal in sustainable agriculture. This study compares the energy flow in farming systems across farm size with their corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions - presented in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.) - in the

  11. Comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented of a model study comparing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands. Calculations have been performed for model farms, designed on the basis of current organic and conventional farming practices. Energy use and

  12. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in organic and conventional farming systems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.F.F.P.; Haan, de J.J.; Sukkel, W.; Schils, R.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is often considered to contribute to reducing energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, also on a per unit product basis. For energy, this is supported by a large number of studies, but the body of evidence for GHGs is smaller. Dutch agriculture is characterized by

  13. Simulation of Energy Consumption and Emissions from Rail Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    , aerodynamic, gravitational and acceleration. A necessary element in the calculation is the driving pattern, that is, the distribution of speeds and accelerations for typical operation.In the report, data are analyzed to provide operation condition distributions on both a spatial and temporal basis......This report describes the methodology used in the ARTEMIS rail emissions model. The approached used is a matrix of operating conditions, speeds and accelerations, for which basic parameters are used to calculated the resistance to motion of trains. Four types of resistance are included: rolling...

  14. Structure, Stability and Emissions of Lean Direct Injection Combustion, including a Novel Multi-Point LDI System for NOx Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalva Gomez, Rodrigo

    Experimental research on Lean Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for gas turbine applications is presented. LDI combustion is an alternative to lean premixed combustion which has the potential of equivalent reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions and of peak combustor exit temperatures, but without some drawbacks of premixed combustors, such as flashback and autoignition. Simultaneous observations of the velocity field and reaction zone of an LDI swirl-stabilized combustor with a mixing tube at atmospheric conditions, with the goal of studying the flame stabilization mechanism, are shown. The flame was consistently anchored at the shear layer formed by the high-speed reactants exiting the mixing tube and the low speed recirculation region. Individual image analysis of the location of the tip of the recirculation zone and tip of the reaction region confirmed previously observed trends, but showed that calculation of the distance between these two points for corresponding image pairs yields results no different than when calculated from random image pairs. This most likely indicates a lag in the anchoring of the flame to changes in the recirculation zone, coupled with significant stochastic variation. An alternate LDI approach, multi-point LDI (MLDI), is also tested experimentally. A single large fuel nozzle is replaced by multiple small fuel nozzles to improve atomization and reduce the total volume of the high-temperature, low velocity recirculation zones, reducing NOx formation. The combustor researched employs a novel staged approach to allow good performance across a wide range of conditions by using a combination of nozzle types optimized to various power settings. The combustor has three independent fuel circuits referenced as pilot, intermediate, and outer. Emissions measurements, OH* chemiluminescence imaging, and thermoacoustic instability studies were run in a pressurized combustion facility at pressures from 2.0 to 5.3 bar. Combustor performance

  15. Influence of Advanced Injection Timing and Fuel Additive on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Running on Plastic Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalargaris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the investigation of engine optimisation when plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO is used as the primary fuel of a direct injection diesel engine. Our previous investigation revealed that PPO is a promising fuel; however the results suggested that control parameters should be optimised in order to obtain a better engine performance. In the present work, the injection timing was advanced, and fuel additives were utilised to overcome the issues experienced in the previous work. In addition, spray characteristics of PPO were investigated in comparison with diesel to provide in-depth understanding of the engine behaviour. The experimental results on advanced injection timing (AIT showed reduced brake thermal efficiency and increased carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides emissions in comparison to standard injection timing. On the other hand, the addition of fuel additive resulted in higher engine efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. Finally, the spray tests revealed that the spray tip penetration for PPO is faster than diesel. The results suggested that AIT is not a preferable option while fuel additive is a promising solution for long-term use of PPO in diesel engines.

  16. Pooled effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine powered with biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani, J; Parthasarathy, M; Dhinesh, B; Annamalai, K

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the effect of injection pressure on combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine powered with turbulence inducer piston was studied. Engine tests were executed using conventional diesel and 20% blend of adelfa biodiesel [A20]. The results acquired from renewable fuel A20 in the conventional engine showed reduction in brake thermal efficiency being the result of poor air fuel mixing characteristics and the higher viscosity of the tested fuel. This prompted further research aiming at the improvement of turbulence for better air fuel mixing by a novel turbulence inducer piston [TIP]. The investigation was carried out to study the combined effect of injection pressure and turbulence inducer piston. Considerable improvement in the emission characteristics like hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, smoke was acheived as a result of optimised injection pressure. Nevertheless, the nitrogen oxide emissions were slightly higher than those of the conventional unmodified engine. The engine with turbulence inducer piston shows the scope for reducing the major pollution and thus ensures environmental safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Advanced Fuel/Vehicle Systems: A North American Study of Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Criteria Pollutant Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Norman [General Moters Corporation, Flint, MI (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weber, Trudy [General Moters Corporation, Flint, MI (United States); Darlington, Thomas [Air Improvement Resource, Inc., Novi, MI (United States)

    2005-05-01

    An accurate assessment of future fuel/propulsion system options requires a complete vehicle fuel-cycle analysis, commonly called a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis. This WTW study analyzes energy use and emissions associated with fuel production (or well-to-tank [WTT]) activities and energy use and emissions associated with vehicle operation (or tank-to-wheels [TTW]) activities.

  18. Cooperation between construction- and energy sector to decrease the carbon emissions and primary energy use in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Ola (WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    WSP and Fourfact have together with the Construction and Energy sector in Sweden investigated and calculated which measures should be accomplished to decrease the carbon emissions and the primary energy use. The cost efficiency has been calculated for all measures, and one result was that the profit is generally higher for measures in the energy supply system compared to measures in the individual buildings. Because of huge variations between district heating networks and because of the quantity of energy consumed by households is similar all over Sweden, the location of single houses and buildings is more important for their carbon footprints and for their primary energy use, than their individual energy consumption. Our calculation shows, that the most efficient way to decrease carbon emissions and primary energy use in Sweden, is to convert all single houses heated by electricity into district heating. Since we use marginal energy for the calculations, the effect of converting single houses is greater compared to if the environmental factors from marginal energy were not used. Since a majority of all single houses are heated by electricity, the potential of converting them to be heated by district heating is great. In this project, we have created the useful excel tool Sture. With Sture, analyses of Sweden can be done, but also a person with basic knowledge of his or her house and energy use, can calculate which measures are suitable and cost efficient.

  19. Pollutant emissions and energy efficiency of Chinese gasifier cooking stoves and implications for future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ellison M; Shan, Ming; Yang, Xudong; Li, Jiarong; Baumgartner, Jill

    2014-06-03

    Household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is the leading environmental health risk factor globally. In China, almost half of all homes use solid fuel to meet their household energy demands. Gasifier cookstoves offer a potentially affordable, efficient, and low-polluting alternative to current solid fuel combustion technology, but pollutant emissions and energy efficiency performance of this class of stoves are poorly characterized. In this study, four Chinese gasifier cookstoves were evaluated for their pollutant emissions and efficiency using the internationally recognized water boiling test (WBT), version 4.1.2. WBT performance indicators included PM2.5, CO, and CO2 emissions and overall thermal efficiency. Laboratory investigation also included evaluation of pollutant emissions (PM2.5 and CO) under stove operating conditions designed to simulate common Chinese cooking practices. High power average overall thermal efficiencies ranged from 22 to 33%. High power average PM2.5 emissions ranged from 120 to 430 mg/MJ of useful energy, and CO emissions ranged from 1 to 30 g/MJ of useful energy. Compared with several widely disseminated "improved" cookstoves selected from the literature, on average, the four Chinese gasifier cookstoves had lower PM2.5 emissions and higher CO emissions. The recent International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Workshop Agreement on tiered cookstove ranking was developed to help classify stove performance and identify the best-performing stoves. The results from this study highlight potential ways to further improve this approach. Medium power stove operation emitted nearly twice as much PM2.5 as was emitted during high power stove operation, and the lighting phase of a cooking event contributed 45% and 34% of total PM2.5 emissions (combined lighting and cooking). Future approaches to laboratory-based testing of advanced cookstoves could improve to include greater differentiation between different modes of

  20. Prediction model of energy consumption in Jiangsu Province based on constraint condition of carbon emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Z. G.; Xue, T. T.; Chen, Y. J.; Chao, X. H.

    2017-11-01

    In order to achieve the targets for energy conservation and economic development goals in Jiangsu Province under the constraint of carbon emission, this paper uses the gray GM (1,1) model to predict and optimize the consumption structure of major energy sources (coal, oil, natural gas, etc.) in Jiangsu province in the "13th Five-Year" period and the next seven years. The predictions meet the requirement of reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP of China by 50%. The results show that the proposed approach and model is effective. Finally, we put forward opinions and suggestions on the way of energy-saving and emission-reduction, the adjustment of energy structure and the policy of coal consumption in Jiangsu Province.

  1. Injection of electrons and protons with energies of tens of MeV into L less than 3 on 24 March 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, J. B.; Kolasinski, W. A.; Fillius, R. W.; Mullen, E. G.

    1992-01-01

    On 24 March 1991 instrumentation aboard CRRES observed the almost instantaneous injection of electrons and protons with energies above 15 MeV into the L-region in the range 2-3. The energy spectrum of the injected electrons, a power law (E exp -6) peaked at 15 MeV and continued to at least 50 MeV.

  2. LIDAR-based urban metabolism approach to neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Coops, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kellet, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture

    2010-07-01

    A remote sensing technology was used to model neighbourhood scale energy and carbon emissions in a case study set in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC). The study was used to compile and aggregate atmospheric carbon flux, urban form, and energy and emissions data in a replicable neighbourhood-scale approach. The study illustrated methods of integrating diverse emission and uptake processes on a range of scales and resolutions, and benchmarked comparisons of modelled estimates with measured energy consumption data obtained over a 2-year period from a research tower located in the study area. The study evaluated carbon imports, carbon exports and sequestration, and relevant emissions processes. Fossil fuel emissions produced in the neighbourhood were also estimated. The study demonstrated that remote sensing technologies such as LIDAR and multispectral satellite imagery can be an effective means of generating and extracting urban form and land cover data at fine scales. Data from the study were used to develop several emissions reduction and energy conservation scenarios. 6 refs.

  3. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  4. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  5. Emissions balancing of renewable energy sources. Avoided emissions due to the use of renewable energies in 2007; Emissionsbilanz erneuerbarer Energietraeger. Durch Einsatz erneuerbarer Energien vermiedene Emissionen im Jahr 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmler, Michael; Mohrbach, Elke; Schneider, Sven; Dreher, Marion; Herbener, Reinhard

    2009-10-15

    The report on the emissions accounting with respect to renewable energy covers the following issues: 1. Introduction and purpose. 2. Methodology concerning the balancing for electricity, heat and traffic, uncertainties due to lack of data. 3. Energy supply from renewable energy sources in 2007. 4. Fossil energy substitution by renewable energy sources: electricity, heat and traffic. 5. Emissions from different energy supply lines: electricity, heat, traffic. 6. Results of the emissions accounting for renewable energy sources: electricity, heat, traffic and comprehensive review. 7. Retroacting accounting and forward projection.

  6. Determinants of CO2 emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Hamzah, Khairum; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Kun, Sek Siok

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO2 in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO2 level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO2 emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO2 emissions.

  7. Optimization for municipal solid waste treatment based on energy consumption and contaminant emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, An-Ying; Li, Zhen-Shan; Wang, Lei; Xia, Meng-Jing

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyzes the characterization of energy consumption and contaminant emissions from a municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment system that comprises transfer station, landfill site, combustion plant, composting plant, dejecta treatment station, and an integrated MSW treatment plant. The consumed energy and energy medium materials were integrated under comprehensive energy consumption (CEC) for comparison. Among typical MSW disposal methods such as combustion, composting, and landfilling, landfilling has the minimum CEC value. Installing an integrated treatment plant is the recommended MSW management method because of its lower CEC. Furthermore, this method is used to ensure process centralization. In landfill sites, a positive linear correlation was observed between the CEC and contaminant removal ratios when emitted pollutants have a certain weight coefficient. The process should utilize the minimum CEC value of 5.3702 kgce/t MSW and consider energy consumption, energy recovery, MSW components, and the equivalent of carbon dioxide emissions.

  8. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  9. Modeling the CO2 emissions and energy saved from new energy vehicles based on the logistic-curve

    OpenAIRE

    Bao-Jun Tang; Xiao-Feng Wu; Xian Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government has outlined plans for developing new energy vehicles (NEVs) to achieve energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper used a logistic-curve to predict the market share of NEVs in the next decade, and then calculated the potential environment benefits of each and every car or the total according to the report of IPCC (2006). The results indicated that NEVs were of benefit in achieving above goals, particularly electric vehicles (EVs). However, they will have a l...

  10. High-energy emission in short GRBs and the role of magnetar central engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rowlinson, A.; O'Brien, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    A significant number of long Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) detected by the Swift Satellite have a plateau phase signifying ongoing energy injection. Using BAT and XRT observations, we find that many short GRBs show similar behavior which challenges the typical short GRB progenitor model. We suggest the

  11. Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Sweden 1800-2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Kander, Astrid

    2002-01-01

    Large transformations of technologies have occurred in the Swedish economy during the last two centuries, resulting in higher income, better quality of products and changing composition of GDP. An agrarian society has given way to an industrial society and lately to a post-industrial phase. The energy supply systems have changed, from traditional energy carriers, such as firewood and muscle energy to modern carriers like coal, oil and electricity, with effects on CO2 emissions. Not only the e...

  12. Accurate prediction of emission energies with TD-DFT methods for platinum and iridium OLED materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Glenn R

    2017-06-01

    Accurate prediction of triplet excitation energies for transition metal complexes has proven to be a difficult task when confronted with a variety of metal centers and ligand types. Specifically, phosphorescent transition metal light emitters, typically based on iridium or platinum, often give calculated results of varying accuracy when compared to experimentally determined T1 emission values. Developing a computational protocol for reliably calculating OLED emission energies will allow for the prediction of a complex's color prior to synthesis, saving time and resources in the laboratory. A comprehensive investigation into the dependence of the DFT functional, basis set, and solvent model is presented here, with the aim of identifying an accurate method while remaining computationally cost-effective. A protocol that uses TD-DFT excitation energies on ground-state geometries was used to predict triplet emission values of 34 experimentally characterized complexes, using a combination of gas phase B3LYP/LANL2dz for optimization and B3LYP/CEP-31G/PCM(THF) for excitation energies. Results show excellent correlation with experimental emission values of iridium and platinum complexes for a wide range of emission energies. The set of complexes tested includes neutral and charged complexes, as well as a variety of different ligand types.

  13. Impacts of urban forests on offsetting carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Kong, Zheng-hong; Escobedo, Francisco J; Gao, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified carbon storage and sequestration by urban forests and carbon emissions from energy consumption by several industrial sources in Hangzhou, China. Carbon (C) storage and sequestration were quantified using urban forest inventory data and by applying volume-derived biomass equations and other models relating net primary productivity (NPP) and mean annual biomass increments. Industrial energy use C emissions were estimated by accounting for fossil fuel use and assigning C emission factors. Total C storage by Hangzhou's urban forests was estimated at 11.74 Tg C, and C storage per hectare was 30.25 t C. Carbon sequestration by urban forests was 1,328, 166.55 t C/year, and C sequestration per ha was 1.66 t C/ha/year. Carbon emissions from industrial energy use in Hangzhou were 7 Tg C/year. Urban forests, through sequestration, annually offset 18.57% of the amount of carbon emitted by industrial enterprises, and store an amount of C equivalent to 1.75 times the amount of annual C emitted by industrial energy uses within the city. Management practices for improving Hangzhou's urban forests function of offsetting C emissions from energy consumption are explored. These results can be used to evaluate the urban forests' role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  15. Optimal Renewable Energy Integration into Refinery with CO2 Emissions Consideration: An Economic Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnifro, M.; Taqvi, S. T.; Ahmad, M. S.; Bensaida, K.; Elkamel, A.

    2017-08-01

    With increasing global energy demand and declining energy return on energy invested (EROEI) of crude oil, global energy consumption by the O&G industry has increased drastically over the past few years. In addition, this energy increase has led to an increase GHG emissions, resulting in adverse environmental effects. On the other hand, electricity generation through renewable resources have become relatively cost competitive to fossil based energy sources in a much ‘cleaner’ way. In this study, renewable energy is integrated optimally into a refinery considering costs and CO2 emissions. Using Aspen HYSYS, a refinery in the Middle East was simulated to estimate the energy demand by different processing units. An LP problem was formulated based on existing solar energy systems and wind potential in the region. The multi-objective function, minimizing cost as well as CO2 emissions, was solved using GAMS to determine optimal energy distribution from each energy source to units within the refinery. Additionally, an economic feasibility study was carried out to determine the viability of renewable energy technology project implementation to overcome energy requirement of the refinery. Electricity generation through all renewable energy sources considered (i.e. solar PV, solar CSP and wind) were found feasible based on their low levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The payback period for a Solar CSP project, with an annual capacity of about 411 GWh and a lifetime of 30 years, was found to be 10 years. In contrast, the payback period for Solar PV and Wind were calculated to be 7 and 6 years, respectively. This opens up possibilities for integrating renewables into the refining sector as well as optimizing multiple energy carrier systems within the crude oil industry

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Dunphy, R. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Panel Data for MENA Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbi Farhani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy plays a vital role in economic development. It performs a key for sustainable development. Hence, many studies have attempted to look for the direction of causality between energy consumption (EC, economic growth (GDP and CO2 emissions. This paper, therefore, applies the panel unit root tests, panel cointegration methods and panel causality test to investigate the relationship between EC, GDP and CO2 emissions for 15 MENA countries covering the annual period 1973-2008. The finding of this study reveals that there is no causal link between GDP and EC; and between CO2 emissions and EC in the short run. However, in the long run, there is a unidirectional causality running from GDP and CO2 emissions to EC. In addition, to deal with the heterogeneity in countries and the endogeneity bias in regressors, this paper applies respectively the FMOLS and the DOLS approach to estimate the long-run relationship between these three factors.

  19. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  20. Deleterious Emission Abatement through Structured Energy Use Pattern: A North Central Nigeria Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi-Banji Ademola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holistic view of household energy consumption based on greenhouse gas emissions in the North Central cities of Nigeria was examined in this study. Scenarios considered were based on income level of energy users (low and high and energy metering system (i.e. pre-paid and post-paid energy billing systems. Strong direct nexus was observed between energy use and emissions pattern. Energy utilization by post-paid category had higher weekly average value of 35.09 and 41.70 kWh as against 23.18 and 33.38 kWh for low and high income pre-paid consumers respectively. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from both classification followed similar trend. Data obtained and analysed in the study show that global warming and acidification potentials could be reduced by 33.94 and 19.95 % for low and high income category consumers when pre-paid meters are in place. Conclusively, energy system users with pre-paid metering system displayed reasonable level of management decisions that reduce energy wastage and consequently environmental negative impacts.

  1. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  2. Computer simulation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and process economics of the fluid milk process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasula, P M; Yee, W C F; McAloon, A J; Nutter, D W; Bonnaillie, L M

    2013-05-01

    Energy-savings measures have been implemented in fluid milk plants to lower energy costs and the energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although these measures have resulted in reductions in steam, electricity, compressed air, and refrigeration use of up to 30%, a benchmarking framework is necessary to examine the implementation of process-specific measures that would lower energy use, costs, and CO2 emissions even further. In this study, using information provided by the dairy industry and equipment vendors, a customizable model of the fluid milk process was developed for use in process design software to benchmark the electrical and fuel energy consumption and CO2 emissions of current processes. It may also be used to test the feasibility of new processing concepts to lower energy and CO2 emissions with calculation of new capital and operating costs. The accuracy of the model in predicting total energy usage of the entire fluid milk process and the pasteurization step was validated using available literature and industry energy data. Computer simulation of small (40.0 million L/yr), medium (113.6 million L/yr), and large (227.1 million L/yr) processing plants predicted the carbon footprint of milk, defined as grams of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per kilogram of packaged milk, to within 5% of the value of 96 g of CO 2e/kg of packaged milk obtained in an industry-conducted life cycle assessment and also showed, in agreement with the same study, that plant size had no effect on the carbon footprint of milk but that larger plants were more cost effective in producing milk. Analysis of the pasteurization step showed that increasing the percentage regeneration of the pasteurizer from 90 to 96% would lower its thermal energy use by almost 60% and that implementation of partial homogenization would lower electrical energy use and CO2e emissions of homogenization by 82 and 5.4%, respectively. It was also demonstrated that implementation of steps to lower non

  3. Evidence for cluster shape effects on the kinetic energy spectrum in thermionic emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, F; Lépine, F; Baguenard, B; Pagliarulo, F; Concina, B; Bordas, C; Parneix, P

    2007-11-28

    Experimental kinetic energy release distributions obtained for the thermionic emission from C(n) (-) clusters, 10< or =n< or =20, exhibit significant non-Boltzmann variations. Using phase space theory, these different features are analyzed and interpreted as the consequence of contrasting shapes in the daughter clusters; linear and nonlinear isomers have clearly distinct signatures. These results provide a novel indirect structural probe for atomic clusters associated with their thermionic emission spectra.

  4. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel

  5. Carbon's footprints: The politics of producing energy and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Robert

    2011-12-01

    This study fills a gap in the literature on climate change policy: it investigates lessons from the historical experience of energy policy in addition to the more common analogies to environmental policy experiences that are drawn in the literature. By examining energy policies from the nineteen-seventies, an additional perspective is gained into situations where the costs of cooperation---and benefits of free-riding---are high. This provides a contrast with relatively easier cases like ozone depletion, where costs are low, benefits are high, and the incentives to participate and comply are both obvious and simple to modify. Such an approach can better explain persistent puzzles concerning divergences in policies relating to global public goods and common-pool resources, as well as to energy use and prices. The results suggest the need for a renewed focus on the incentives facing actors in the formation of climate change policies, and especially on the role that dynamic change in national resource bases play in shaping the initial conditions under which business-as-usual policy positions are set.

  6. ENERGY SOURCES AND CARBON EMISSIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY SECTOR IN SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines CO2 emissions from electricity and fuel consumption of different energy sources consumed in the Iron and Steel Industry sector (non-ferrous included, also known as basic metal in five South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The study finds that about 30% of the total energy in the manufacturing industry is used in this sector, which is about 11% of total industrial input, contributing approximately 13% to the Manufacturing Value Added (MVA. Electricity, on the other hand, shares almost 60% of total energy consumption in the five countries in South Asia, followed by natural gas, coal, kerosene and diesel. The study also finds that CO2 emissions vary across sectors in countries in which the study was conducted. For instance, while in Bangladesh CO2 emissions are primarily caused by electricity generation, in India the majority of CO2 emissions are originated from coal. On the contrary, CO2 emissions in Nepal are mostly generated through other fuels such as Charcoal, Diesel and Kerosene. This study provides some policy recommendations, which could help reduce CO2 emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry sector in the South Asian region.

  7. The potential influence of energy efficiency and economic efficiency on developing country carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1996-12-31

    Discusses the hypothesis that, despite the opportunities for and value to the developing world of greater energy efficiency, in a situation where tight restrictions on global CO{sub 2} emissions were necessary, efficiency alone could make only a limited contribution to restraining the growth of emissions in developing countries. This is because of the projected rapid energy growth rates in most developing countries, especially in the industrial sector and from fossil-fuelled electricity and transport. The need for research and development work on energy efficiency, to address global CO{sub 2} emissions, particularly fuel switching, and policy options for the control of CO{sub 2}, are also examined. 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Particle and light fragment emission in peripheral heavy ion collisions at Fermi energies

    CERN Document Server

    Piantelli, S; Olmi, A; Bardelli, L; Bartoli, A; Bini, M; Casini, G; Coppi, C; Mangiarotti, A; Pasquali, G; Poggi, G; Stefanini, A A; Taccetti, N; Vanzi, E

    2006-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the average multiplicities of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments emitted in peripheral and semiperipheral collisions is presented as a function of the beam energy, violence of the collision and mass of the system. The data have been collected with the "Fiasco" setup in the reactions 93Nb+93Nb at 17, 23, 30, 38AMeV and 116Sn+116Sn at 30, 38AMeV. The midvelocity emission has been separated from the emission of the projectile-like fragment. This last component appears to be compatible with an evaporation from an equilibrated source at normal density, as described by the statistical code Gemini at the appropriate excitation energy. On the contrary, the midvelocity emission presents remarkable differences for what concerns both the dependence of the multiplicities on the energy deposited in the midvelocity region and the isotopic composition of the emitted light charged particles.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Agro‐biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel‐derived CO2...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass......‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of energy crops may affect the sustainability of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Heiske, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Agro-biofuels are expected to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases because CO2 emitted during the combustion of the biofuels has recently been taken from the atmosphere by the energy crop. Thus, when replacing fossil fuels with biofuels we reduce the emission of fossil fuel-derived CO2...... or incorporation of crop residues. In this study we relate measured field emissions of N2O to the reduction in fossil fuel-derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye-vetch, vetch and grass......-clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2) biogas production and 3) co-production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas...

  11. A model for high-energy emission of the Intrabinary shock in pulsar binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hongjun

    2018-01-01

    We present our studies of intrabinary shock emission for astrophysical binary systems with a neutron star. We construct a model for the shock emission and compare the model calculation with the light curve and the spectral energy distribution of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856. The model assumes a slow and a fast population of particles accelerated in the shock, and computes the high-energy emission spectra and orbital light curves produced by synchrotron, self-Compton and external Compton processes of the high-energy particles in the shock. The model allows one to study plasma properties and to constrain the binary geometry, most importantly the inclination angle (i). We discuss potential use of this model for other pulsar binaries to determine the inclination angle of the binary hence the mass of the neutron star.

  12. The cost of reducing CO2 emissions - methodological approach, illustrated by the Danish energy plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-01-01

    available. One of the tools available for this purpose is the construction of cost-reduction curves, relating the marginal cost of CO2 reduction and the quantity of the reduced emission to specific technology options. This paper outlines different approaches for establishing cost-reduction curves for CO2...... emissions, and a case based on the Danish Energy21-plan is analysed illustrating one of these approaches. The analysis is carried out from the broad perspective of the overall energy system, but with the main emphasis on renewable energy technologies, especially the use of wind energy and biomass...... in the Danish system; The paper concludes that the construction of reduction cost curves is helpful in two ways: (1) to decompose existing energy strategies (scenarios) into individual reduction options and (2) to compare new options with an existing strategy. In both cases the reduction cost curve highlights...

  13. Energy resources' utilization in organic and conventional vineyards: Energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavargiris, Stefanos E.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Nikolaidou, Anna E.; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L. [Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A. [Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    An energy analysis, in conventional and organic vineyards, combined with ethanol production and greenhouse gas emissions, is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy flow between organic and conventional vineyards in three locations, to calculate CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O-emissions based on the used fossil energy and to explore if wine industry wastes can be used to extract bioethanol. The data were collected through personal interviews with farmers during 2004-2005. Eighteen farmers, who owned vineyards about 1 ha each, were randomly selected to participate in this study [(3 conventional and 3 organic) x 3 locations]. The means averaged over all locations for fertilizer application, plant protection products application, transportation, harvesting, labor, machinery, fuels, plant protections products and tools energy inputs, total energy inputs, outputs (grapes), outputs (grapes + shoots), grape yield, man hour, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher in conventional than in organic vineyards, while the opposite occurred for the pruning. Means averaged over two farming systems for harvesting, tools energy inputs, energy outputs (grapes), grape yield, pomace and ethanol from pomace were significantly higher at location A, followed by location C and location B. Finally, for irrigation, the means averaged over the two farming systems were significantly lower at location C. Greenhouse gas emissions were significant lower in organic than in conventional vineyards. The results show a clear response of energy inputs to energy outputs that resulted from the farming system and location. (author)

  14. Relationship between construction characteristics and carbon emissions from urban household operational energy usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Li, Xuanqi; Pan, Lingyang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Carbon emitted from urban metabolism constitutes a substantial proportion of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission, which is at least partially responsible for the recent global warming. Part of the urban carbon emission comes from residential energy consumption. Given the ongoing rapid urbanization and strict emission-reduction requirement, understanding the urban home energy usage carbon emission (UHEUCE) is of great importance to optimize the sustainability of social and economic developments in China. For this reason, a survey has been conducted to exam the condition of home energy usage in Xiamen Island, SE China. This study was based on 340 valid responses and a general linear model for univariate method. The analysis showed (1) among the residential building characteristics, window thermal insulation has the greatest effect on UHEUCE. (2) Construction age and wall thermal insulation could also influence UHEUCE in areas where summer is hot and winter is warm. The better heat prohibiting effect of external wall and window, as well as the newer construction, the more UHEUCE can be generated. The survey provided helpful first-hand data for design and planning on urban energy saving, emission reduction, and for relevant scientific researches. (author)

  15. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  16. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-02-15

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways

  17. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......Organic farming (OF) principles include the idea of reducing dependence of fossil fuels, but little has been achieved on this objective so far in Danish OF. Energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from an average 39 ha cash crop farm were calculated and alternative crop rotations for bio......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  18. Harvesting renewable energy from Earth’s mid-infrared emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Steven J.; Blanchard, Romain; Capasso, Federico

    2014-01-01

    It is possible to harvest energy from Earth's thermal infrared emission into outer space. We calculate the thermodynamic limit for the amount of power available, and as a case study, we plot how this limit varies daily and seasonally in a location in Oklahoma. We discuss two possible ways to make such an emissive energy harvester (EEH): A thermal EEH (analogous to solar thermal power generation) and an optoelectronic EEH (analogous to photovoltaic power generation). For the latter, we propose using an infrared-frequency rectifying antenna, and we discuss its operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations. PMID:24591604

  19. A model for the estimation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions from rail transport. It is based on the estimation of energy consumption from a matirx describing the distribution of speeds and accelerations for operation. It is shown that calculations can be performed...... on a spatial or temporal distribution of operating conditions. CO2 and NOx emissions are generally predicted within 20 % of experimental values. The influence of matrix size is determined. Typical results are presented indicating the effects of operating speed, number of stops and covering goods wagons...

  20. Model Analysis of Energy Network System in Zero Emission Industrial Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi

    The aim of this study was to evaluate energy saving in cases of introducing both a cogeneration system and an energy network in Kokubo Industrial Park. The industrial park has implemented zero emission activities since 1992. The energy data of 22 factories were classified into steam, hot water, heating, cooling and electric power on the basis of interviews. The author developed an energy network model based on linear programming, so as to minimize the total system cost. The industrial park was divided into a 10,000 square meter mesh in order to take steam transport into consideration. Three cases were investigated. The ratio of energy saving to demand reached 22% compared with the reference system. It was found that the energy network system could correspond to the energy demand seasonally. This is useful for the stable supply of energy, prevention of air pollution, and improvement of urban design.

  1. Development and evaluation of shallow injection of slurry into ley

    OpenAIRE

    Rodhe, Lena

    2004-01-01

    Shallow injection of slurry on grassland can reduce ammonia emissions compared to surface spreading and increase plant nitrogen utilisation. Other advantages include enhanced silage quality and lower odour. Disadvantages include higher investment costs, increased draught requirements and potential crop damage. The objective of this thesis was to determine appropriate techniques for slurry injection into ley that would minimise ammonia emissions, contamination of crops and energy inputs, while...

  2. Injection system used into SI engines for complete combustion and reduction of exhaust emissions in the case of alcohol and petrol alcohol mixtures feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Cofaru, C.; Aleonte, M.

    2017-10-01

    Internal combustion engines still play a major role in today transportation but increasing the fuel efficiency and decreasing chemical emissions remain a great goal of the researchers. Direct injection and air assisted injection system can improve combustion and can reduce the concentration of the exhaust gas pollutes. Advanced air-to-fuel and combustion air-to-fuel injection system for mixtures, derivatives and alcohol gasoline blends represent a major asset in reducing pollutant emissions and controlling combustion processes in spark-ignition engines. The use of these biofuel and biofuel blending systems for gasoline results in better control of spark ignition engine processes, making combustion as complete as possible, as well as lower levels of concentrations of pollutants in exhaust gases. The main purpose of this paper was to provide most suitable tools for ensure the proven increase in the efficiency of spark ignition engines, making them more environmentally friendly. The conclusions of the paper allow to highlight the paths leading to a better use of alcohols (biofuels) in internal combustion engines of modern transport units.

  3. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Tight Oil Production in the Bakken Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Adam R.; Yeskoo, Tim; McNally, Michael S.; Vafi, Kourosh; Yeh, Sonia; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q.

    2016-11-17

    The Bakken formation has contributed to the recent rapid increase in U.S. oil production, reaching a peak production of >1.2 × 106 barrels per day in early 2015. In this study, we estimate the energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 7271 Bakken wells drilled from 2006 to 2013. We model energy use and emissions using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) model, supplemented with an open-source drilling and fracturing model, GHGfrack. Overall well-to-refinery-gate (WTR) consumption of natural gas, diesel, and electricity represent 1.3%, 0.2%, and 0.005% of produced crude energy content, respectively. Fugitive emissions are modeled for a “typical” Bakken well using previously published results of atmospheric measurements. Flaring is a key driver of emissions: wells that flared in 2013 had a mean flaring rate that was ≈500 standard cubic feet per barrel or ≈14% of the energy content of the produced crude oil. Resulting production-weighted mean GHG emissions in 2013 were 10.2 g of CO2 equivalent GHGs per megajoule (henceforth, gCO2eq/MJ) of crude. Between-well variability gives a 5–95% range of 2–28 gCO2eq/MJ. If flaring is completely controlled, Bakken crude compares favorably to conventional U.S. crude oil, with 2013 emissions of 3.5 gCO2eq/MJ for nonflaring wells, compared to the U.S. mean of ≈8 gCO2eq/MJ.

  4. Evaluation of energy input and greenhouse gases emissions from alfalfa production in the Sistan region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Asgharipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of forage production methods that maximize energy efficiency and minimize Greenhouse Gases (GHGs emissions is essential. The aims of this survey were to assess the energy consumption, emissions of GHGs and global warming potential (GWP of alfalfa production systems in Sistan region, Sistan and Baluchestan province in the South–east of Iran. Data were collected randomly from 110 alfalfa farm using face-to-face questionnaire survey. Energy inputs included chemical fertilizers, diesel fuel, pesticides, seed, machinery and human labor. The results indicated that average total input and output energies in alfalfa production during the entire lifetime of the farm were 313.52GJha−1 and 962.85GJha−1, respectively. The most important energy inputs belonged to electricity (72.5%, followed by diesel fuel (12.3% and N fertilizer (6.0%. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 3.07 and 0.209kgMJ−1, respectively. Share of direct and indirect energy were 85% and 15%, respectively. Total emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 in alfalfa farms were 8262.67kgha−1, 557.31kgha−1 and 7.65kgha−1, respectively. Hence, total GWP was 181190 kg CO2eha−1 and 2.77 kg of CO2ekg−1 of dry hay produced. In terms of CO2e, 95.3% of the GWP originate from N2O, 4.6% from CO2 and 0.1% from CH4. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in alfalfa agroecosystems.

  5. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  6. Lifecycle Assessment of Beijing-Area Building Energy Use and Emissions: Summary Findings and Policy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-09-15

    Buildings are at the locus of three trends driving China's increased energy use and emissions: urbanization, growing personal consumption, and surging heavy industrial production. Migration to cities and urban growth create demand for new building construction. Higher levels of per-capita income and consumption drive building operational energy use with demand for higher intensity lighting, thermal comfort, and plug-load power. Demand for new buildings, infrastructure, and electricity requires heavy industrial production. In order to quantify the implications of China's ongoing urbanization, rising personal consumption, and booming heavy industrial sector, this study presents a lifecycle assessment (LCA) of the energy use and carbon emissions related to residential and commercial buildings. The purpose of the LCA model is to quantify the impact of a given building and identify policy linkages to mitigate energy demand and emissions growth related to China's new building construction. As efficiency has become a higher priority with growing energy demand, policy and academic attention to buildings has focused primarily on operational energy use. Existing studies estimate that building operational energy consumption accounts for approximately 25% of total primary energy use in China. However, buildings also require energy for mining, extracting, processing, manufacturing, and transporting materials, as well as energy for construction, maintenance, and decommissioning. Building and supporting infrastructure construction is a major driver of industry consumption--in 2008 industry accounted for 72% of total Chinese energy use. The magnitude of new building construction is large in China--in 2007, for example, total built floor area reached 58 billion square meters. During the construction boom in 2007 and 2008, more than two billion m{sup 2} of building space were added annually; China's recent construction is estimated to account for half of global

  7. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    Global energy markets and climate change in the twenty first century depend, to an extraordinary extent, on China. China is now, or will soon be, the world's largest energy consumer. Since 2007, China has been the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite its large and rapidly expanding influence on global energy markets and the global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumption and GHG emissions in China are low relative to developed countries. The Chinese economy, and with it energy use and GHG emissions, are expected to grow vigorously for at least the next two decades, raising a question of critical historical significance: How can China's economic growth imperative be meaningfully reconciled with its goals of greater energy security and a lower carbon economy? Most scholars, governments, and practitioners have looked to technology---energy efficiency, nuclear power, carbon capture and storage---for answers to this question. Alternatively, this study seeks to root China's future energy and emissions trajectory in the political economy of its multiple transitions, from a centrally planned to a market economy and from an agrarian to a post-industrial society. The study draws on five case studies, each a dedicated chapter, which are organized around three perspectives on energy and GHG emissions: the macroeconomy; electricity supply and demand; and nitrogen fertilizer production and use. Chapters 2 and 3 examine how growth and structural change in China's macroeconomy have shaped energy demand, finding that most of the dramatic growth in the country's energy use over the 2000s was driven by an acceleration of its investment-dominated, energy-intensive growth model, rather than from structural change. Chapters 4 and 5 examine efforts to improve energy efficiency and increase the share of renewable generation in the electric power sector, concluding that China's power system lacks the flexibility in generation, pricing, and demand to

  8. Life Comparative Analysis of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions of Different Building Structural Frame Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to quantitatively measure and compare the environmental load and construction cost of different structural frame types. Construction cost also accounts for the costs of CO2 emissions of input materials. The choice of structural frame type is a major consideration in construction, as this element represents about 33% of total building construction costs. In this research, four constructed buildings were analyzed, with these having either reinforced concrete (RC or steel (S structures. An input-output framework analysis was used to measure energy consumption and CO2 emissions of input materials for each structural frame type. In addition, the CO2 emissions cost was measured using the trading price of CO2 emissions on the International Commodity Exchange. This research revealed that both energy consumption and CO2 emissions were, on average, 26% lower with the RC structure than with the S structure, and the construction costs (including the CO2 emissions cost of the RC structure were about 9.8% lower, compared to the S structure. This research provides insights through which the construction industry will be able to respond to the carbon market, which is expected to continue to grow in the future.

  9. Possible emissions from electricity generation from geothermal energy; Moegliche Emissionen bei der Stromerzeugung aus Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heberle, Florian; Bruggemann, Dieter [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Transportprozesse (LTTT)

    2013-03-15

    Electricity from geothermal energy in the low temperature range can be efficiently recovered if power plant processes are used with organic working fluids. It is inevitable that a small part of the sometimes harmful fluids leaking from the plant - a conflict in the development of climate-friendly renewable energy actually. A short report of the Centre for Energy Technology at the University of Bayreuth, on behalf of UBA quantifies the emissions of fluorinated hydrocarbons for different development scenarios and emission rates. [German] Strom aus Erdwaerme im Niedertemperaturbereich kann effizient gewonnen werden, wenn Kraftwerksprozesse mit organischen Arbeitsmedien einsetzt werden. Dabei ist es nicht zu vermeiden, dass ein kleiner Teil der mitunter klimaschaedlichen Fluide, aus den Anlagen entweicht - ein Zielkonflikt beim Ausbau der eigentlich klimaschonenden erneuerbaren Energie. Ein Kurzgutachten des Zentrums fuer Energietechnik der Universitaet Bayreuth im Auftrag des UBA quantifiziert die Emissionen fluorierter Kohlenwasserstoffe fuer verschiedene Ausbauszenarien und Emissionsraten.

  10. Impact of warmer weather on electricity sector emissions due to building energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Paul; Holloway, Tracey; Patz, Jonathan; Harkey, Monica; Ahl, Doug; Abel, David; Schuetter, Scott; Hackel, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Most US energy consumption occurs in buildings, with cooling demands anticipated to increase net building electricity use under warmer conditions. The electricity generation units that respond to this demand are major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), both of which have direct impacts on public health, and contribute to the formation of secondary pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter. This study quantifies temperature-driven changes in power plant emissions due to increased use of building air conditioning. We compare an ambient temperature baseline for the Eastern US to a model-calculated mid-century scenario with summer-average temperature increases ranging from 1 C to 5 C across the domain. We find a 7% increase in summer electricity demand and a 32% increase in non-coincident peak demand. Power sector modeling, assuming only limited changes to current generation resources, calculated a 16% increase in emissions of NOx and an 18% increase in emissions of SO2. There is a high level of regional variance in the response of building energy use to climate, and the response of emissions to associated demand. The East North Central census region exhibited the greatest sensitivity of energy demand and associated emissions to climate.

  11. Cow power: the energy and emissions benefits of converting manure to biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Amanda D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2008-07-01

    This report consists of a top-level aggregate analysis of the total potential for converting livestock manure into a domestic renewable fuel source (biogas) that could be used to help states meet renewable portfolio standard requirements and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the US, livestock agriculture produces over one billion tons of manure annually on a renewable basis. Most of this manure is disposed of in lagoons or stored outdoors to decompose. Such disposal methods emit methane and nitrous oxide, two important GHGs with 21 and 310 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide, respectively. In total, GHG emissions from the agricultural sector in the US amounted to 536 million metric tons (MMT) of carbon dioxide equivalent, or 7% of the total US emissions in 2005. Of this agricultural contribution, 51 to 118 MMT of carbon dioxide equivalent resulted from livestock manure emissions alone, with trends showing this contribution increasing from 1990 to 2005. Thus, limiting GHG emissions from manure represents a valuable starting point for mitigating agricultural contributions to global climate change. Anaerobic digestion, a process that converts manure to methane-rich biogas, can lower GHG emissions from manure significantly. Using biogas as a substitute for other fossil fuels, such as coal for electricity generation, replaces two GHG sources—manure and coal combustion—with a less carbon-intensive source, namely biogas combustion. The biogas energy potential was calculated using values for the amount of biogas energy that can be produced per animal unit (defined as 1000 pounds of animal) per day and the number of animal units in the US. The 95 million animal units in the country could produce nearly 1 quad of renewable energy per year, amounting to approximately 1% of the US total energy consumption. Converting the biogas into electricity using standard microturbines could produce 88 ± 20 billion kWh, or 2.4 ± 0.6% of annual electricity

  12. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission Evaluation Scenarios of Mea Fah Luang University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laingoen Onn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, quantity of the educational institutes building shared one fourth of commercial building. Among the energy consumption and conservation in the building in Thailand are mostly study in typical office and resident building. Mea Fah Luang University (MFU was selected to represent the educational institutes building where located in the northern part of Thailand. The average temperature in the northern is lower than other parts of Thailand. This study was firstly collected the data about quantity and behaviour of energy consumption in MFU based on the energy audit handbook. Although MFU is located in the northern of Thailand. The highest energy consumption is in the part of air condition. When the energy efficiency appliances and energy conservation building are implemented, the cost of energy will be saved around 15,867,960 Baht. Furthermore, the greenhouse gas emission is also reduced about 72.01 kg CO2, equivalent/m2/year.

  13. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  14. Emissions impacts of wind and energy storage in a market environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen

    2011-12-15

    This study examines the emissions impacts of adding wind and energy storage to a market-based electric power system. Using Texas as a case study, we demonstrate that market power can greatly effect the emissions benefits of wind, due to most of the coal-fired generation being owned by the two dominant firms. Wind tends to have less emissions benefits when generators exercise market power, since coal-fired generation is withheld from the market and wind displaces natural gas-fired generators. We also show that storage can have greater negative emissions impacts in the presence of wind than if only storage is added to the system. This is due to wind increasing on- and off-peak electricity price differences, which increases the amount that storage and coal-fired generation are used. We demonstrate that this effect is exacerbated by market power.

  15. Secondary electron emission of tin and tin-lithium under low energy helium plasma exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvon, V.; Oyarzabal, E.; Zoethout, E.; Martin-Rojo, A. B.; Morgan, T. W.; Tabares, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) yields of tin (Sn) and tin-lithium (SnLi) eutectic (20 at.% Li) samples were measured in He-plasma at a mean incoming electron energy up to 120 eV. SnLi shows a maximum yield of about 1.45 at 110 eV electron energy while the yield of the Sn surface was measured to

  16. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  17. Economic and Environmental Considerations for Zero-emission Transport and Thermal Energy Generation on an Energy Autonomous Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontina Petrakopoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost and environmental impact of fossil-fuel energy generation in remote regions can make renewable energy applications more competitive than business-as-usual scenarios. Furthermore, energy and transport are two of the main sectors that significantly contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. This paper focuses on the generation of thermal energy and the transport sector of a fossil fuel-based energy independent island in Greece. We evaluate (1 technologies for fully renewable thermal energy generation using building-specific solar thermal systems and (2 the replacement of the vehicle fleet of the island with electric and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. The analysis, based on economic and environmental criteria, shows that although solar thermal decreases greenhouse gases by 83%, when compared to the current diesel-based situation, it only becomes economically attractive with subsidy scenarios equal to or higher than 50%. However, in the transport sector, the sum of fuel and maintenance costs of fuel-cell and electric vehicles is found to be 45% lower than that of the current fleet, due to their approximately seven times lower fuel cost. Lastly, it will take approximately six years of use of the new vehicles to balance out the emissions of their manufacturing phase.

  18. Permissible emission limit estimation via iterative back-calculation: Case of Assaluyeh energy zone, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehpour, Hossein; Saboohi, Yadollah; Tsatsaronis, George

    2018-01-01

    In the present research work, an environmental policy procedure for setting a cap on emissions, as a crucial step in any total emission control system, has been provided and evaluated. It is shown that general regulations on emission intensities and rates do not guarantee that ambient air quality standards are met in intense industrial zones. Local emission limits are necessary to meet ambient air quality standards in these zones. To that end, we used dispersion simulators to back-calculate pollutant concentration thresholds for a large and intense energy system in the Assaluyeh region of southern Iran. Verified modeling results indicate 218 d of pollutant concentration threshold exceedance in Assaluyeh in a simulated year. Back-calculation to assess the total permissible emission level indicates the need for 68% reduction in total emission to meet ambient air quality standards. We then used the model to help identify effective control strategies, including emission reductions and appropriate timing of specific operations. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:130-138. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Assessing GHG emissions, and energy and economic analysis of cotton production in the Golestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R Taheri-Rad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Golestan province is one of Northern provinces in Iran. The area under cultivation of agricultural products in this province is 724.697 hectares, of which about 694.618 hectares are used for farm products (AJMDC, 2011. Cotton as one of oilseed is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production (Ahmad et al., 2011. In the study of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for cotton production in Alborz province, results showed that the total energy input was 31.237 MJ ha-1. Energy efficiency and energy productivity were 1.85 and 0.11, respectively, and greenhouse gas emissions of cotton production in Alborz province were 1195.25 kg CO2eq ha-1 (Pishgar-Komleh et al., 2012. Another study on energy analysis, greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of agricultural production was performed in Northern Iran (AghaAlikhani et al., 2013; Royan et al., 2012; Pishgar-Komleh et al., 2011; Mohammadi et al., 2010; Taheri-Garavand et al., 2010. The aims of this study were to determine the energy flow, greenhouse gas emissions and economic analysis of cotton production in the Golestan province and also to determine the effect of energy inputs on cotton yield. Materials and methods: This research was conducted during 2011-2012 in three areas including Gorgan, Aq’qala and Gonbad in the Golestan province. The primary data were collected from the rice producers through a field survey with the help of a structured questionnaire. The number of subjects were studied by the Cochran formula (Snedecor and Cochran, 1980. Accordingly, 43 cotton producers were determined. In this study, eight energy inputs including seed, labor, machinery, diesel fuel, chemical fertilizers, chemicals, water for irrigation and farmyard manure for cotton production system were considered as independent variables. The outputs of the system including lint and seed were considered as dependent variable. Energy indices including energy efficiency, energy productivity

  20. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  1. Reduction of energy consumption and Greenhouse gas emissions in a plant for the separation of amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantes-Jaramillo, D.; Segovia-Hernandez, J.G.; Hernandez, S. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Facultad de Quimica, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2008-10-15

    The chemical industry comprises of the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is central to the modern world economy, converting raw materials into more than 70 000 different products. However, environmental regulations and the risk of climate change are putting pressure on the chemical industry to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, we use the concept of process intensification (using thermally coupled distillation) to reduce energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in a plant for the separation of amines. The results show that the use of thermally coupled distillation sequences can be related to a reduction in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and good theoretical control properties in the re-designed plant. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilau, Asmerom M.

    This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented

  3. The changing structure of energy supply, demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuby, M.; He, C.F.; Trapido-Lurie, B.; Moore, N. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Because of its enormous population, rapid economic growth, and heavy reliance on coal, China passed the United States as the world's largest source of CO{sub 2} emissions in 2006. China is also becoming a major factor in the global oil market. This article analyzes China's energy production and consumption, with a focus on the energy and CO{sub 2} emissions per capita and per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) and the mix of energy sources and end uses. Energy flow diagrams for 1987 and 2007 make it possible to visualize the allocation of energy from sources through energy transformation to final uses in units of metric tons of coal equivalent. Declining coal use by residences, agriculture, and transportation has been more than offset by a massive increase in electricity and industry usage. The article places these changes in political-economic context and helps illustrate and explain the difficulties China faces in trying to reduce its absolute CO{sub 2} emissions and why it instead proposes to reduce its CO{sub 2} per unit of GDP.

  4. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.Y. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Applied Economics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmed, S. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2007-03-15

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (Author)

  5. Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Petroleum Refining Sector in Mexico from 2015 to 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granados-Hernández Elías

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the volume of production of petroleum products of high demand, such as gasoline, rises the use of energy and therefore emissions of CO2 in oil refineries. In Mexico, for example, gasoline demand scenario for the next 20 years growth will increase the fuel consumption by almost 55%, considering a historical trend in traffic. The purpose of this study as to determine the impact of energy consumption per unit of processing oil and CO2 emissions using the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC as well as employing the stoichiometric calculation based on the carbon content. Different projections were made using four technological options of oil refining, processing three types of pure raw (Olmeca, Istmo, Maya and four blends (M1, M2, M3, M4. When performing an energy balance results show that projecting very complex refineries to meet a specific demand for gasoline will consume less energy and therefore CO2 emissions will be lower. This study is important as a tool for energy planning and environmental pollution in Mexico, as well as an object of analysis of the energy sector worldwide.

  6. Basic petrochemicals from natural gas, coal and biomass: energy use and CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, T.; Patel, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    While high-value basic petrochemicals (HVCs) are mostly produced through conventional naphtha and ethane-based process routes, it is also possible to produce them through coal and biomass-based routes. In this paper, we compared these routes in terms of energy use and CO2 emissions per ton of HVCs.

  7. ELVIS: Comparing Electric and Conventional Vehicle Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Making the transition from conventional combustion vehicles (CVs) to electric vehicles (EVs) requires the users to be comfortable with the limited range of EVs. We present a system named ELVIS that enables a direct comparison of energy/fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and travel-time between CVs...

  8. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  9. Future energy-efficient and low-emissions glass melting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.; Limpt, J.A.C. van; Lankhorst, A.M.; Santen, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, there is an increasing drive to develop new technologies or concepts for industrial glass melting furnaces, with the main aim to increase the energy efficiency, tabilize production and reduce emissions. The application of new process sensors, improved furnace design, intelligent

  10. Setting Corporate Targets for GHG Emission Reduction in Energy Management and GHG Reporting Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Rietbergen

    2013-01-01

    Energy management and carbon accounting schemes are increasingly being adopted as a corporate response to climate change. These schemes often demand the setting of ambitious targets for the reduction of corporate greenhouse gas emissions. There is however only limited empirical insight in the

  11. The effect of food consumption and production trends on energy, greenhouse gas emissions and land use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkett, D.; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X

    2008-01-01

    In this report we assess the trends in food consumption and food-related environmental impacts (in terms of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land use) for three regions: Western Europe, the USA and China. The environmental impacts were determined by two methods: a product level analysis, in

  12. ELVIS: Comparing Electric and Conventional Vehicle Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Making the transition from conventional combustion vehicles (CVs) to electric vehicles (EVs) requires the users to be comfortable with the limited range of EVs. We present a system named ELVIS that enables a direct comparison of energy/fuel consumption, CO2 emissions, and travel-time between CVs ...

  13. Are renewable energy policies upsetting carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso; Koengkan, Matheus

    2017-06-01

    The impact of renewable energy policies in carbon dioxide emissions was analysed for a panel of ten Latin American countries, for the period from 1991 to 2012. Panel autoregressive distributed lag methodology was used to decompose the total effect of renewable energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in its short- and long-run components. There is evidence for the presence of cross-sectional dependence, confirming that Latin American countries share spatial patterns. Heteroskedasticity, contemporaneous correlation, and first-order autocorrelation cross-sectional dependence are also present. To cope with these phenomena, the robust dynamic Driscoll-Kraay estimator, with fixed effects, was used. It was confirmed that the primary energy consumption per capita, in both the short- and long-run, contributes to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and also that renewable energy policies in the long-run, and renewable electricity generation per capita both in the short- and long-run, help to mitigate per capita carbon dioxide emissions.

  14. Torrefaction study for energy upgrading on Indonesian biomass as low emission solid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, R.; Siregar, N. C.; Hasanah, F.

    2017-05-01

    Torrefaction is a pyrolysis process with low heating rate and temperature lower than 300°C in an inert condition which transforms biomass into a low emission solid fuel with relatively high energy. Through the torrefaction process biomass can be altered so that the end product is easy to grind and simple in the supply chain. The research was aimed at designing torrefaction reactor and upgrading energy content of some Indonesian biomass. The biomass used consist of empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFB), cassava peel solid waste, and cocopeat (waste of coconut fiber). These biomass were formed into briquette and pellet form and were torrified with 300°C temperature during 1.5 hours without air. The results of terrified biomass and non-torrefied biomass were compared after burning on the stove in term of energy content and air emission quality. The result shows that energy content of biomass have increased by 1.1 up to 1.36 times. Meanwhile emission air resulted from its combustion was met with Indonesian emission regulation.

  15. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain and biomass yields and composition, soil carbon changes, and production input data from a long-term continuous corn and switchgrass replicated field trial in the western Corn Belt USA were used to estimate energy yields and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Corn was produced without tillage wi...

  16. Dynamic Energy Consumption and Emission Modelling of Container Terminal based on Multi Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection and energy saving pressure press the increasing attention of container terminal operators. In order to comply with the more and more strict environmental regulation, reducing energy consumption and air pollution emissions, meanwhile, optimizing the operation efficiency, which, is an urgent problem to container terminal operator of China. This paper based on the characteristic of Container Terminal Operation System (CTOS, which includes several sections of container product processes, consist of berth allocation problem, truck dispatching problem, yard allocation problem and auxiliary process. Dynamic energy consumption and emissions characteristic of each equipment and process is modelled, this paper presents the architecture of CTOS based on the multi agent system with early-warning model, which is based on multi-class support vector machines (SVM. A simulation on container terminal is built on the JADE platform to support the decision-making of container terminal, which can reduce energy consumption and air pollution emissions, allows the container terminal operator to be more flexible in their decision to meet the Emission Control Area regulation and Green Port Plan of China.

  17. Estimation of main greenhouse gases emission from household energy consumption in the West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Maher; Abu Rayyan, Ma'moun

    2013-08-01

    The main GHGs (CO₂, NO(x), and SO₂) have been quantified based on national energy and population statistics. The results show that the contribution of households' energy consumption in the West Bank to global CO₂ emission is about 0.016%, while contribution of total energy consumption by all sectors is about 0.041%. The results show that wood is the most polluting energy source in terms of CO₂ and NO(x) emission, while electricity is the most polluting source in terms of SO₂. Other sources like diesel, kerosene, and LPG that contribute to the GHGs emission are also quantified. The total amounts of CO₂, NO(x), and SO₂ by households in the West Bank are 4.7 million tonne per year, 3.02 thousand tonne per year, and 2.23 thousand tonne per year respectively. This study presents a set of measures that might help in reducing the level of GHGs emission and protect the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  19. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth: a multivariate and causality analysis for Ghana, 1971-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, GDP, energy use, and population growth in Ghana was investigated from 1971 to 2013 by comparing the vector error correction model (VECM) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). Prior to testing for Granger causality based on VECM, the study tested for unit roots, Johansen's multivariate co-integration and performed a variance decomposition analysis using Cholesky's technique. Evidence from the variance decomposition shows that 21 % of future shocks in carbon dioxide emissions are due to fluctuations in energy use, 8 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in GDP, and 6 % of future shocks are due to fluctuations in population. There was evidence of bidirectional causality running from energy use to GDP and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to energy use, carbon dioxide emissions to GDP, carbon dioxide emissions to population, and population to energy use. Evidence from the long-run elasticities shows that a 1 % increase in population in Ghana will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 1.72 %. There was evidence of short-run equilibrium relationship running from energy use to carbon dioxide emissions and GDP to carbon dioxide emissions. As a policy implication, the addition of renewable energy and clean energy technologies into Ghana's energy mix can help mitigate climate change and its impact in the future.

  1. Tuning THz emission properties of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junction stacks by charge carrier injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilaslan, O.; Rudau, F.; Wieland, R.; Hampp, J. S.; Zhou, X. J.; Ji, M.; Kiselev, O.; Kinev, N.; Huang, Y.; Hao, L. Y.; Ishii, A.; Aksan, M. A.; Hatano, T.; Koshelets, V. P.; Wu, P. H.; Wang, H. B.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

    2017-03-01

    We report on doping and undoping experiments of terahertz (THz) emitting intrinsic Josephson junction stacks, where the change in charge carrier concentration is achieved by heavy current injection. The experiments were performed on stand-alone structures fabricated from a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O{}8+δ single crystal near optimal doping. The stacks contained about 930 intrinsic Josephson junctions. On purpose, the doping and undoping experiments were performed over only a modest range of charge carrier concentrations, changing the critical temperature of the stack by less than 1 K. We show that both undoping and doping is feasible also for the large intrinsic Josephson junction stacks used for THz generation. Even moderate changes in doping introduce large changes in the THz emission properties of the stacks. The highest emission power was achieved after doping a pristine sample.

  2. Prompt neutron emission and energy balance in 235U(n,f

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göök Alf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of prompt fission neutron (PFN emission are of importance in understanding the fission process in general and the sharing of excitation energy among the fission fragments in particular. Experimental activities at JRC-Geel on PFN emission in response to OECD/NEA nuclear data requests is presented in this contribution. The focus lies on on-going investigations of PFN emission from the reaction 235U(n,f in the region of the resolved resonances taking place at the GELINA facility. For this reaction strong fluctuations of fission fragment mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy have been observed as a function of incident neutron energy in the resonance region. In addition, fluctuations of prompt neutron multiplicities have also been observed. The goal of the present study is to verify the current knowledge of PFN multiplicity fluctuations and to study correlations with fission fragment properties. The experiment employs a scintillation detector array for neutron detection, while fission fragment properties are determined via the double kinetic energy technique using a position sensitive twin ionization chamber. Results on PFN multiplicity correlations with fission fragment properties from the present study show significant differences compared to earlier studies on this reaction, induced by thermal neutrons. Specifically, the total kinetic energy dependence of the neutron multiplicity per fission shows an inverse slope FX1TKE/FX2ν approximately 35% weaker than observed in earlier studies of thermal neutron induced fission on 235U. The inverse slope is related to the energy carried away per emitted neutron and is, thereby, closely connected to the energy balance of the fission reaction. The present result should have strong impact on the modeling of both prompt neutron and prompt γ-ray emission in fission of the 236U compound nucleus.

  3. Prompt neutron emission and energy balance in 235U(n,f)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göök, Alf; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan

    2017-09-01

    Investigations of prompt fission neutron (PFN) emission are of importance in understanding the fission process in general and the sharing of excitation energy among the fission fragments in particular. Experimental activities at JRC-Geel on PFN emission in response to OECD/NEA nuclear data requests is presented in this contribution. The focus lies on on-going investigations of PFN emission from the reaction 235U(n,f) in the region of the resolved resonances taking place at the GELINA facility. For this reaction strong fluctuations of fission fragment mass distributions and mean total kinetic energy have been observed as a function of incident neutron energy in the resonance region. In addition, fluctuations of prompt neutron multiplicities have also been observed. The goal of the present study is to verify the current knowledge of PFN multiplicity fluctuations and to study correlations with fission fragment properties. The experiment employs a scintillation detector array for neutron detection, while fission fragment properties are determined via the double kinetic energy technique using a position sensitive twin ionization chamber. Results on PFN multiplicity correlations with fission fragment properties from the present study show significant differences compared to earlier studies on this reaction, induced by thermal neutrons. Specifically, the total kinetic energy dependence of the neutron multiplicity per fission shows an inverse slope FX1TKE/FX2ν approximately 35% weaker than observed in earlier studies of thermal neutron induced fission on 235U. The inverse slope is related to the energy carried away per emitted neutron and is, thereby, closely connected to the energy balance of the fission reaction. The present result should have strong impact on the modeling of both prompt neutron and prompt γ-ray emission in fission of the 236U compound nucleus.

  4. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  5. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Assessment of Conventional and Solar Assisted Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the buildings is responsible for 26% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions where cooling typically accounts for over 50% of the total building energy use. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing the cooling systems’ environmental footprint with applications of alternative renewable energy source. Three types of cooling systems, water cooled, air cooled and a hybrid solar-based air-conditioning system, with a total of six scenarios were designed in this work. The scenarios accounted for the types of power supply to the air-conditioning systems with electricity from the grid and with a solar power from highly integrated building photovoltaics (BIPV. Within and between these scenarios, systems’ energy performances were compared based on energy modelling while the harvesting potential of the renewable energy source was further predicted based on building’s detailed geometrical model. The results showed that renewable energy obtained via BIPV scenario could cover building’s annual electricity consumption for cooling and reduce 140 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year. The hybrid solar air-conditioning system has higher energy efficiency than the air cooled chiller system but lower than the water cooled system.

  6. Elimination of scattered gamma rays from injection sites using upper offset energy windows in sentinel lymph node scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Hiroto; Tsushima, Hiroyuki; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Konishi, Takahiro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2015-05-01

    The identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) near injection sites is difficult because of scattered gamma rays. The purpose of this study was to investigate the optimal energy windows for elimination of scattered gamma rays in order to improve the detection of SLNs. The clinical study group consisted of 56 female patients with breast cancer. While the energy was centred at 140 keV with a 20% window for Tc-99m, this energy window was divided into five subwindows with every 4% in planar imaging. Regions of interest were placed on SLNs and the background, and contrast was calculated using a standard equation. The confidence levels of interpretations were evaluated using a five-grade scale. The contrast provided by 145.6 keV±2% was the best, followed by 140 keV±2%, 151.2 keV±2%, 134.4 keV±2% and 128.8 keV±2% in that order. When 128.8 keV±2% and 134.4 keV±2% were eliminated from 140 keV±10% (145.6 keV±6%), the contrast of SLNs improved significantly. The confidence levels of interpretation and detection rate provided by the planar images with 140 keV±10% were 4.74±0.58 and 94.8%, respectively, and those provided by 145.6 keV±6% were 4.94±0.20 and 100%. Because lower energy windows contain many scattered gamma rays, upper offset energy windows, which exclude lower energy windows, improve the image contrast of SLNs near injection sites.

  7. The analysis of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a large-scale commercial building in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable test, diagnosis, and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission of a large-scale commercial building are described in this article. Basic information about energy consumption equipment is included in the investigation. Further diagnoses about the operational state of air-conditioning water systems, and ducted systems were implemented. Energy consumption decreased 200 kWh/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009 after energy-saving reconstruction in 2006. Next, a carbon audit was carried out; this comprised CO2 emission statistics associated with the energy use and categorization and structural analysis (categorization refers to energy categorization and structural analysis means the composition and its proportion relationship of all kinds of primary energy and secondary energy in energy production or consumption. Greenhouse gas emissions could be less than 150 kg/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of the correlation between CO2 emissions, building gross domestic product, and energy efficiency is also presented. This article makes an analysis on the energy utilization and energy-saving reconstruction of a public commercial building in Shanghai and then makes an analysis of carbon audit about greenhouse gas emissions related to energy utilization (it analyzes the status of building’s energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions, to have a more comprehensive understanding on the internal relationship between energy consumption and its greenhouse gas emissions and provide researchful reference data for the development with reduction strategies of greenhouse gas emission in future building.

  8. Life-cycle energy production and emissions mitigation by comprehensive biogas-digestate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin; Song, Dan

    2012-06-01

    In the context of global energy shortages and climate change, developing biogas plants with links to agricultural system has become an important strategy for cleaner rural energy and renewable agriculture. In this study, a life-cycle energy and environmental assessment was performed for a biogas-digestate utilization system in China. The results suggest that biogas utilization (heating, illumination, and fuel) and comprehensive digestate reuse are of equal importance in the total energy production of the system, and they also play an important role in systemic greenhouse gas mitigation. Improvement can be achieved in both energy production and emissions mitigation when the ratio of the current three biogas utilization pathways is adjusted. Regarding digestate reuse, a tradeoff between energy and environmental performance can be obtained by focusing on the substitution for top-dressing, base fertilizers, and the application to seed soaking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determining national greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy using the Balance Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzböck, Therese; Rechberger, Helmut; Cencic, Oliver; Fellner, Johann

    2016-03-01

    Different directives of the European Union require operators of waste-to-energy (WTE) plants to report the amount of electricity that is produced from biomass in the waste feed, as well as the amount of fossil CO2 emissions generated by the combustion of fossil waste materials. This paper describes the application of the Balance Method for determining the overall amount of fossil and thus climate relevant CO2 emissions from waste incineration in Austria. The results of 10 Austrian WTE plants (annual waste throughput of around 2,300 kt) demonstrate large seasonal variations in the specific fossil CO2 emissions of the plants as well as large differences between the facilities (annual means range from 32±2 to 51±3 kg CO(2,foss)/GJ heating value). An overall amount of around 924 kt/yr of fossil CO2 for all 10 WTE plants is determined. In comparison biogenic (climate neutral) CO2 emissions amount to 1,187 kt/yr, which corresponds to 56% of the total CO2 emissions from waste incineration. The total energy input via waste feed to the 10 facilities is about 22,500 TJ/yr, of which around 48% can be assigned to biogenic and thus renewable sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects.

  11. The potentional of renewable energy sources for greenhouse gases emissions reduction in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedinec Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As European Union (EU candidate country, Macedonia is in the process of adoption of the EU strategic energy policies, harmonization of the national legislation with the EU legislation and defining the respective national goals. In this regard, the government has recently adopted a National Strategy for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources (RES, prepared by ICEIM-MANU. The main goal of this paper is to assess the potential for greenhouse gases (GHG emissions reduction by implementation of 21%-RES-scenarios from the Strategy. The corresponding emissions reduction is calculated against the baseline (reference scenario developed within the Second National Communication on Climate Change. Furthermore, all potential RES technologies are analyzed from economic aspect and combined in a form of emissions reduction cost curve, displaying the total marginal cost of the GHG emissions reduction by RES. Finally, on the bases of the environmental and economic effectiveness of the considered RES technologies, as well as taking into account the country specific barriers, the priority actions for GHG emissions reduction are identified.

  12. Knock Resistance and Fine Particle Emissions for Several Biomass-Derived Oxygenates in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Burton, Jonathan; Sindler, Petr; Christensen, Earl; Fouts, Lisa; Chupka, Gina M.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Several high octane number oxygenates that could be derived from biomass were blended with gasoline and examined for performance properties and their impact on knock resistance and fine particle emissions in a single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition engine. The oxygenates included ethanol, isobutanol, anisole, 4-methylanisole, 2-phenylethanol, 2,5-dimethyl furan, and 2,4-xylenol. These were blended into a summertime blendstock for oxygenate blending at levels ranging from 10 to 50 percent by volume. The base gasoline, its blends with p-xylene and p-cymene, and high-octane racing gasoline were tested as controls. Relevant gasoline properties including research octane number (RON), motor octane number, distillation curve, and vapor pressure were measured. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis was used to estimate heat of vaporization and particulate matter index (PMI). Experiments were conducted to measure knock-limited spark advance and particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results show a range of knock resistances that correlate well with RON. Molecules with relatively low boiling point and high vapor pressure had little effect on PM emissions. In contrast, the aromatic oxygenates caused significant increases in PM emissions (factors of 2 to 5) relative to the base gasoline. Thus, any effect of their oxygen atom on increasing local air-fuel ratio was outweighed by their low vapor pressure and high double-bond equivalent values. For most fuels and oxygenate blend components, PMI was a good predictor of PM emissions. However, the high boiling point, low vapor pressure oxygenates 2-phenylethanol and 2,4-xylenol produced lower PM emissions than predicted by PMI. This was likely because they did not fully evaporate and combust, and instead were swept into the lube oil.

  13. Relationship between Energy Consumption, CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth and Trade in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Palamalai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the causal nexus between various sources of energy consumption, viz. Coal, Crude Oil, Electricity and Natural Gas, CO2 emissions, economic growth and trade in India using the Perron unit root test, Gregory and Hansen cointegration test and Vector Error Correction Model. The study exhibits a long-run relationship between various sources of energy consumption, economic growth, CO2 emissions and trade in India. By and large, the empirical results confirm that economic growth fuels rate of various sources of energy consumption i.e. coal, crude petroleum, electricity and natural gas. The findings reveal that increase in CO2 emissions leads to achieve high level of economic activity in India. In addition, the study finds that foreign trade influences the various sources of non-renewable energy consumption in the long-term. However, the energy consumption do not significantly contributes towards promoting foreign trade, except crude petroleum, in the short-run.

  14. Assessment on the energy flow and carbon emissions of integrated steelmaking plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huachun He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China’s iron and steel industry has developed rapidly over the past two decades. The annual crude steel production is nearly half of the global production, and approximately 90% of the steel is produced via BF–BOF route that is energy-intensive. Based on the practice of integrated steelmaking plants, a material flow analysis model that includes three layers, i.e., material, ferrum, and energy, was constructed on process levels to analyze the energy consumption and carbon emissions according to the principle of mass conservation and the First Law of Thermodynamics. The result shows that the primary energy intensity and carbon emissions are 20.3 GJ/t and 0.46 tC/t crude steel, respectively, including coke and ancillary material’s preparation. These values are above the world’s average level of the BF–BOF route and could be regarded as a high-performance benchmark of steelmaking efficiency. However, the total energy consumption and carbon emission from steelmaking industry were approximately 13095 PJ and 300 MtC, respectively, on the best practice estimation in 2011, and are still large numbers for achieving the goal of reducing global warming. The potential carbon reduction will be limited if no significant changes are undertaken in the steel industry.

  15. Soft-photon emission effects and radiative corrections for electromagnetic processes at very high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Higher-order electromagnetic processes involving particles at ultrahigh energies are discussed, with particular attention given to Compton scattering with the emission of an additional photon (double Compton scattering). Double Compton scattering may have significance in the interaction of a high-energy electron with the cosmic blackbody photon gas. At high energies the cross section for double Compton scattering is large, though this effect is largely canceled by the effects of radiative corrections to ordinary Compton scattering. A similar cancellation takes place for radiative pair production and the associated radiative corrections to the radiationless process. This cancellation is related to the well-known cancellation of the infrared divergence in electrodynamics.

  16. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The contribution of energy efficiency and renewables to the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, J.A.; Mateo, I. [Union Electrica Fenosa, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-11-01

    The problems emerging with respect to the potential consequences of global warming, along with the commitment of the European Union in October 1990 to stabilise of CO{sub 2} emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000, has generated a polemic around what is the best method to achieve emissions reductions. The European Commission has proposed a series of measures, among which should be highlighted, for its potential effects, the imposition of a tax on the consumption of energy and CO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand, different organisations, among them Eurelectric, have opposed this tax, arguing that there exist alternative solutions, such as the adoption of voluntary commitments between companies/national governments, to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and which at the same time have a much lower cost/benefit ratio. This speech outlines the potential of some of the measures included in the proposed framework for voluntary commitments made by Eurelectric, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions reduction and levels of compliance with the EU stabilisation commitment. More concretely, descriptions will be made of the effects of the increased use of natural gas in electricity generation, improvements in energy efficiency and the promotion and development of co-generation and renewable energies on CO{sub 2} emissions on a national level (Spain), as well as applications of the same principles within a particular company (Union Fenosa). The establishment of a general framework of voluntary commitments, like the one proposed, that facilitates for companies and governments the implementation of these types of measures, is considered a procedure that, while achieving the forecast objectives for reduction and stabilisation, does not present the inconveniences associated with the tax. 3 tabs.

  18. The relationship between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia: a three-way linkage approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Chindo; Abdul-Rahim, A S

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the three-way linkage relationships between CO2 emission, energy consumption and economic growth in Malaysia, covering the 1975-2015 period. An autoregressive distributed lag approach was employed to achieve the objective of the study and gauged by dynamic ordinary least squares. Additionally, vector error correction model, variance decompositions and impulse response functions were employed to further examine the relationship between the interest variables. The findings show that economic growth is neither influenced by energy consumption nor by CO2 emission. Energy consumption is revealed to be an increasing function of CO2 emission. Whereas, CO2 emission positively and significantly depends on energy consumption and economic growth. This implies that CO2 emission increases with an increase in both energy consumption and economic growth. Conclusively, the main drivers of CO2 emission in Malaysia are proven to be energy consumption and economic growth. Therefore, renewable energy sources ought to be considered by policy makers to curb emission from the current non-renewable sources. Wind and biomass can be explored as they are viable sources. Energy efficiency and savings should equally be emphasised and encouraged by policy makers. Lastly, growth-related policies that target emission reduction are also recommended.

  19. Energy use and CO2 emissions of consumer goods transport. Trends of Dutch imports in the period 1969-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, Jelco

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The energy use and CO2 emissions related to world-wide transportation of consumer goods have increased sharply during the last years. It is expected that this trend will continue in the future. Because the energy use and CO2 emissions related to

  20. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-11-29

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  1. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great. PMID:24977216

  2. Study on Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiekun Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  3. Study on influencing factors of carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong Province of China from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiekun; Song, Qing; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Youyou; Luan, Long

    2014-01-01

    Carbon emissions from energy consumption of Shandong province from 1995 to 2012 are calculated. Three zero-residual decomposition models (LMDI, MRCI and Shapley value models) are introduced for decomposing carbon emissions. Based on the results, Kendall coordination coefficient method is employed for testing their compatibility, and an optimal weighted combination decomposition model is constructed for improving the objectivity of decomposition. STIRPAT model is applied to evaluate the impact of each factor on carbon emissions. The results show that, using 1995 as the base year, the cumulative effects of population, per capita GDP, energy consumption intensity, and energy consumption structure of Shandong province in 2012 are positive, while the cumulative effect of industrial structure is negative. Per capita GDP is the largest driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a great impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption intensity is a weak driver and has certain impact on carbon emissions; population plays a weak driving role, but it has the most significant impact on carbon emissions; energy consumption structure is a weak driver of the increasing carbon emissions and has a weak impact on carbon emissions; industrial structure has played a weak inhibitory role, and its impact on carbon emissions is great.

  4. Intelligent Heat System - High-Energy Efficient Wood Stoves with Low Emissions. Field Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Nickelsen, Joachim; Hansen, Brian Brun

    2014-01-01

    Wood stoves have the potential of providing CO2-neutral energy without transmission loss—but with the significant drawbacks of high emissions of pollutants and particulate matter at low altitude close to private homes, and with an uneven heat release profile which produces non-optimal heating com...... in 2012. The automatic control system developed for wood stoves in this project ensures optimal combustion conditions, thereby minimizing the emissions throughout a complete wood log combustion cycle. This improved performance has been verified by field tests in private homes....

  5. Low-energy X-ray line emission from IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, P. A.; Kahn, S. M.; Mason, K. O.; Tuohy, I. R.

    1981-01-01

    HEAO 1 observations of the spectrum of the supernova remnant IC 443 in the energy range of 0.4-3 keV reveal the presence of a complex structure suggestive of emission from Fe XVIII-XX, S XV-XVI, and Si XIII-XIV ions. The best electron temperature in the band for simple model fits is about (6-11) x 10 to the 6th K. Raymond and Smith collisional equilibrium emission models do not adequately fit the data. These results are discussed in terms of possible nonequilibrium effects in the remnant.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Report, 2005 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith W. Jacobson, David P. Fuehne

    2006-09-01

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2006.

  7. The use of maize stalks for energy purposes and emissions measurement during their combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Angelovič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was a monitoring of possibilities of maize cortical harvesting by combine harvesters and its subsequent use for energy purposes during combustion. We monitored the combustion of packages with the moisture of 18% and 38% and the effect of moisture on the content of gas emissions of CO2, NO, NO2 as well as the percentage of residual O2 in the flue gas after combustion. All values of monitored emission limits were in current normative limits defined in Collection of Laws no. 356/2010.

  8. Test of Zero-point Energy Emission from Gases Flowing Through Casimir Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriyeva, Olga; Moddel, Garret

    A recently issued patent [1] describes a method by which vacuum energy is extracted from gas flowing through a Casimir cavity. According to stochastic electrodynamics, the electronic orbitals in atoms are supported by the ambient zero-point (ZP) field. When the gas atoms are pumped into a Casimir cavity, where long-wavelength ZP field modes are excluded, the electrons spin down into lower energy orbitals and release energy in the process. This energy is collected in a local absorber. When the electrons exit the Casimir cavity they are re-energized to their original orbitals by the ambient ZP fields. The process is repeated to produce continuous power. In this way, the device functions like a heat pump for ZP energy, extracting it globally from the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and collecting it in a local absorber. This energy can be used for heating, or converted to electric power. We carried out a series of experiments to test whether energy is, in fact, radiated from Casimir cavities when the appropriate gas flows through them. The Casimir cavity devices we tested were nanopore polycarbonate membranes with submicron pores having a density of 3x108pores/cm2. Gas was pumped through the membranes in a stainless steel vacuum system, and emitted energy was measured using a broadband pyroelectric detector and lock-in amplifier. Emission in the infrared was clearly observed. We analyzed the emission from different gases and cavities to determine its origin. None of the conventional thermodynamic models we applied to our data fully explain it, leaving open the possibility that it is due to Casimir-cavity-induced emission from ZP fields.

  9. Modelling the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries using numerical relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, G.; Lamberts, A.; Fromang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Detailed modelling of the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries has been propounded as a path to pulsar wind physics. Aims: Fulfilling this ambition requires a coherent model of the flow and its emission in the region where the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind of its companion. Methods: We have developed a code that follows the evolution and emission of electrons in the shocked pulsar wind based on inputs from a relativistic hydrodynamical simulation. The code is used to model the well-documented spectral energy distribution and orbital modulations from LS 5039. Results: The pulsar wind is fully confined by a bow shock and a back shock. The particles are distributed into a narrow Maxwellian, emitting mostly GeV photons, and a power law radiating very efficiently over a broad energy range from X-rays to TeV gamma rays. Most of the emission arises from the apex of the bow shock. Doppler boosting shapes the X-ray and very high energy (VHE) lightcurves, constraining the system inclination to i ≈ 35°. There is tension between the hard VHE spectrum and the level of X-ray to MeV emission, which requires differing magnetic field intensities that are hard to achieve with constant magnetisation σ and Lorentz factor Γp of the pulsar wind. Our best compromise implies σ ≈ 1 and Γp ≈ 5 × 103, so respectively higher and lower than the typical values in pulsar wind nebulae. Conclusions: The high value of σ derived here, where the wind is confined close to the pulsar, supports the classical picture that has pulsar winds highly magnetised at launch. However, such magnetisations will require that further investigations are based on relativistic MHD simulations. Movies associated to Figs. A.1-A.4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Investigation of emissions characteristics of secondary butyl alcohol-gasoline blends in a port fuel injection spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri I.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust emissions especially from light duty gasoline engine are a major contributor to air pollution due to the large number of vehicles on the road. The purpose of this study is to experimentally analyse the exhaust pollutant emissions of a four-stroke port fuel spark ignition engines operating using secondary butyl alcohol–gasoline blends by percentage volume of 5% (GBu5, 10% (GBu10 and 15% (GBu15 of secondary butyl- alcohol (2-butanol additives in gasoline fuels at 50% of wide throttle open. The exhaust emissions characteristics of the engine using blended fuels was compared to the exhaust emissions of the engine with gasoline fuels (G100 as a reference fuels. Exhaust emissions analysis results show that all of the blended fuels produced lower CO by 8.6%, 11.6% and 24.8% for GBu5, GBu10 and GBu15 respectively from 2500 to 4000 RPM, while for HC, both GBu10 and GBu15 were lower than that G100 fuels at all engine speeds. In general, when the engine was operated using blended fuels, the engine produced lower CO and HC, but higher CO2.

  11. Energy Deposition Studies for the Upgrade of the LHC Injection Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, A; Cerutti, F; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Maciariello, F L; Meddahi, M; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Appleby, R B

    2013-01-01

    The LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project aims at upgrading the systems in the LHC injection chain, to reliably deliver the beams required by the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Given the challenging beam intensities and emittances, a review of the existing beam-intercepting devices is on-going, in order to assess heat loads and consequent thermo-mechanical stresses. Moreover, the exposure of downstream elements to induced shower radiation is assessed. The study is intended to spot possible issues and contribute to the definition of viable design and layout solutions.

  12. Energy deposition studies for the upgrade of the LHC injection lines

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, A; Appleby, R B; Cerutti, F; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Maciariello, F L; Meddahi, M

    2013-01-01

    The LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) Project aims at up- grading the systems in the LHC injection chain, to reli- ably deliver the beams required by the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). Given the challenging beam intensities and emittances, a review of the existing beam-intercepting devices is on-going, in order to assess heat loads and con- sequent thermo-mechanical stresses. Moreover, the expo- sure of downstream elements to induced shower radiation is assessed. The study is intended to spot possible issues and contribute to the definition of viable design and layout solutions.

  13. Forest treatment residues for thermal energy compared with disposal by onsite burning: Emissions and energy return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Jones; Dan Loeffler; David Calkin; Woodam Chung

    2010-01-01

    Mill residues from forest industries are the source for most of the current wood-based energy in the US, approximately 2.1% of the nation's energy use in 2007. Forest residues from silvicultural treatments, which include limbs, tops, and small non-commercial trees removed for various forest management objectives, represent an additional source of woody biomass for...

  14. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In

  15. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  16. Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Burrows, D; Busetto, G; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, A; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Deklotz, M; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hernando Morat, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgrò, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tagliaferri, G; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-03-27

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  17. Energy saving and emission reduction revolutionizing China's environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Great pressure to curb carbon emission and increased need for energy have forced China to develop an 'energy saving and emission reduction' (ESER) plan. ESER has become China's basic national policy, and a guideline for China's energy and environmental issues during the 11th Five-Years Plan (2006-2010). ESER represents a recalibration of China's economic model, moving away from growth-at-all-cost in favor of a more 'balanced and sustainable' output. In 2007, China's GDP grew by 11.4%, but emission of COD and SO{sub 2} decreased by 3.14% and 4.66% respectively compared to 2006, energy consumption for each unit of GDP declined by 3.27% also compared to 2006. ESER is also the engine behind reform of China's traditional administrative system which has always favored economic growth over environmental protection. The ESER accountability system sets green efforts as a decisive factor in determining the career prospects of local leaders. Also, China's State Environmental Protection Agency has been upgraded to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, gaining cabinet status for the first time. A greener future relative to the previous three decades can be anticipated with confidence for China provided that the best practices enunciated by ESER are taken to heart by policymakers. (author)

  18. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Huo, Hong

    2007-04-01

    Since the United States began a programme to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types—categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly—from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path.

  19. Household energy consumption and carbon emissions for sustainable cities – A critical review of modelling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Oladokun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of how household energy consumption and carbon emissions (HECCE modelling paradigms have evolved over the years. This is achieved by adopting the literature review methodology for the study. The paper first reviewed the previous studies that are serving as the theoretical framework underpinning the HECCE models. Further to this, the paper identified an array of energy models that have evolved over the years together with their capability of analysing energy consumption and their associated carbon emission trends in housing sector of the economy. The results of the study showed that econometric (mainly top-down, building physics, and statistical (mainly bottom-up methods are the existing approaches that have found application in modelling HECCE issues. However, a number of limitations were noticed in these existing modelling techniques. These are (1 lack of transparency in the model algorithms, (2 inability to account for the complex, interdependencies, and dynamic nature of the issue of energy consumption and carbon emissions, (3 limited evidence to show for the occupants–dwelling interactions, and (4 lack of enough capacity to accommodate qualitative data input. And as such, the study concluded that there is the need to scout for more robust and sophisticated modelling approaches that take into consideration the kind of complexity involved in issues relating to HECCE.

  20. Replacement policy of residential lighting optimized for cost, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixi; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Saitou, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Accounting for 10% of the electricity consumption in the US, artificial lighting represents one of the easiest ways to cut household energy bills and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by upgrading to energy-efficient technologies such as compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and light emitting diodes (LED). However, given the high initial cost and rapidly improving trajectory of solid-state lighting today, estimating the right time to switch over to LEDs from a cost, primary energy, and GHG emissions perspective is not a straightforward problem. This is an optimal replacement problem that depends on many determinants, including how often the lamp is used, the state of the initial lamp, and the trajectories of lighting technology and of electricity generation. In this paper, multiple replacement scenarios of a 60 watt-equivalent A19 lamp are analyzed and for each scenario, a few replacement policies are recommended. For example, at an average use of 3 hr day‑1 (US average), it may be optimal both economically and energetically to delay the adoption of LEDs until 2020 with the use of CFLs, whereas purchasing LEDs today may be optimal in terms of GHG emissions. In contrast, incandescent and halogen lamps should be replaced immediately. Based on expected LED improvement, upgrading LED lamps before the end of their rated lifetime may provide cost and environmental savings over time by taking advantage of the higher energy efficiency of newer models.

  1. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, Mohammad, E-mail: m.yousefi@pgs.razi.ac.ir [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi [Departments of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoramivafa, Mahmud [Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha{sup −1}, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ{sup −1}, respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO{sub 2,} 31.58 kg N{sub 2}O and 3.82 kg CH{sub 4} per hectare{sub .} Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co{sub 2}eq ha{sup −1} in corn production systems. In terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO{sub 2}, 76% from N{sub 2}O, and 1% from CH{sub 4}. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg C ha{sup −1}. Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg C ha{sup −1} and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. - Highlights: • Increasing of energy consumption leaded to decreasing energy use efficiency in corn agroecosystems. • Total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission as CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in corn production systems were 2994.66, 31.58 and 3.82 kg ha{sup -1}, respectively. • Global warming potential (GWP) was 12864.84 kg CO{sub 2}eq ha{sup -1} in corn production systems. • Sustainability index in corn production systems was 2.05. • Reducing use of chemicals fertilizer and diesel fuel

  2. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E H J; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-07

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO 2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  3. Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Duval

    Full Text Available Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L. is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1. Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  5. Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnke, Frank, E-mail: mehnke@physik.tu-berlin.de; Kuhn, Christian; Stellmach, Joachim; Rothe, Mark-Antonius; Reich, Christoph; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Pristovsek, Markus; Wernicke, Tim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kolbe, Tim; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Rass, Jens [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-21

    The effects of the heterostructure design on the injection efficiency and external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet (UV)-B light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated. It was found that the functionality of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N:Mg electron blocking layer is strongly influenced by its aluminum mole fraction x and its magnesium doping profile. By comparing LED electroluminescence, quantum well photoluminescence, and simulations of LED heterostructure, we were able to differentiate the contributions of injection efficiency and internal quantum efficiency to the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs. For the optimized heterostructure using an Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N:Mg electron blocking layer with a Mg to group III ratio of 4% in the gas phase the electron leakage currents are suppressed without blocking the injection of holes into the multiple quantum well active region. Flip chip mounted LED chips have been processed achieving a maximum output power of 3.5 mW at 290 mA and a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.54% at 30 mA.

  6. Effect of Jet Injection Angle and Number of Jets on Mixing and Emissions From a Reacting Crossflow at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.John, D.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2000-01-01

    The mixing of air jets into hot, fuel-rich products of a gas turbine primary zone is an important step in staged combustion. Often referred to as "quick quench," the mixing occurs with chemical conversion and substantial heat release. An experiment has been designed to simulate and study this process, and the effect of varying the entry angle (0 deg, 22.5 deg and 45 deg from normal) and number of the air jets (7, 9, and 11) into the main flow, while holding the jet-to-crossflow mass-low ratio, MR, and momentum-flux ratio, J, constant (MR = 2.5;J = 25). The geometry is a crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct with side-wall injection of jets issuing from orifices equally spaced around the perimeter. A specially designed reactor, operating on propane, presents a uniform mixture to a module containing air jet injection tubes that can be changed to vary orifice geometry. Species concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, NO(x) and HC were obtained one duct diameter upstream (in the rich zone), and primarily one duct radius downstream. From this information, penetration of the jet, the spatial extent of chemical reaction, mixing, and the optimum jet injection angle and number of jets can be deduced.

  7. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Ismail, Siti Fatimah [Faculty of Entrepeneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Bandar, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Khairum [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya,76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Halim, Bushra Abdul [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak (Malaysia); Kun, Sek Siok [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  8. CO2 emission and global warming potential (GWP of energy consumption in paddy field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Dastan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study was to estimation of greenhouse gases (GHG emissions and global warming in rice production and identify measures to reducing fossil energy use and greenhouse gases emissions. Three rice production systems included SRI, improved and conventional were studied. All activities, field operation and data in production methods and differents inputs rates were monitored and recorded in 2011e2012. Results showed that averages of total energy input in production systems was 22793.02 MJ ha-1 that the least energy input equal 16102.98 MJ ha-1 was observed in SRI. Electricity had the most contribution of energy input in production systems that the greatest global warming and GHGs accounted. Nitrogen fertilizer and fuel were ranked in second and third in GHGs. Average across rice production, GWP were estimated equal to 2307.33 kg CO2-eq ha-1. The maximum and minimum GWP equal to 1640 and 2554 kg CO2-eq ha-1 equivalent to 255.8 and 479.3 kg eq-CO2 GJ-1 were obtained in SRI and conventional systems, respectively. The minimum and maximum GWP per unit energy input was the minimum were in SRI and was the maximum in conventional system. SRI had the least GWP per unit energy output and improved system was ranked in seconed. Therefore, it was concluded that GWP had the positive correlation with field management methods and inputs use.

  9. Improving energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions using wind-electricity and storage heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry; Lakshminarayanan, Hari [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2012-07-01

    The world economic crisis and volatile world energy markets are making energy security a challenge in most jurisdictions. This is especially true of communities with lengthy heating seasons and limited domestic energy resources which rely heavily on imported energy to meet their space heating requirements. This paper describes how the City of Summerside in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island installed a 12 MW wind-farm and a number of electric thermal-storage heaters and domestic hot water units to demonstrate the viability of using a variable source of electricity, the wind, to heat residential structures. The decision was taken to both improve energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, since Summerside relies on light-fuel oil to meet over 80% of its residential heating demand, adding to the community's greenhouse gas emissions. Given the need to utilize wind-electricity both efficiently and effectively, the paper introduces five methods for the control and allocation of wind-electricity. It shows that although Summerside has opted for recharging the thermal storage units during the overnight hours, the test households would meet most of their heating needs if they were to be available for recharging throughout the day. The paper also examines some of the shortcomings associated with wind-heating; however, in a time of growing concerns over energy security, the importance of wind to meet the heating requirements of communities cannot be overlooked.

  10. A Multiple Period Problem in Distributed Energy Management Systems Considering CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroda, Yuki; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    Consider a special district (group) which is composed of multiple companies (agents), and where each agent responds to an energy demand and has a CO2 emission allowance imposed. A distributed energy management system (DEMS) optimizes energy consumption of a group through energy trading in the group. In this paper, we extended the energy distribution decision and optimal planning problem in DEMSs from a single period problem to a multiple periods one. The extension enabled us to consider more realistic constraints such as demand patterns, the start-up cost, and minimum running/outage times of equipment. At first, we extended the market-oriented programming (MOP) method for deciding energy distribution to the multiple periods problem. The bidding strategy of each agent is formulated by a 0-1 mixed non-linear programming problem. Secondly, we proposed decomposing the problem into a set of single period problems in order to solve it faster. In order to decompose the problem, we proposed a CO2 emission allowance distribution method, called an EP method. We confirmed that the proposed method was able to produce solutions whose group costs were close to lower-bound group costs by computational experiments. In addition, we verified that reduction in computational time was achieved without losing the quality of solutions by using the EP method.

  11. Emission energy of azole-based ionic iridium(III) complexes: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Paula; Junquera-Hernández, José M; Bolink, Henk J; Ortí, Enrique

    2015-05-14

    A theoretical density functional theory study has been performed on different families of cationic cyclometallated Ir(III) complexes with the general formula [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](+) and azole-based ligands. The goal was to investigate the effect that the number and position of the nitrogen atoms of the azole ring have on the electronic structure and emission wavelength of the complex. The increase in the number of nitrogen atoms changes the relative energy of the HOMO and LUMO levels and leads to a gradual shift in the emission wavelength that can be larger than 100 nm. The direction of the shift however depends on the ligand in which the azole ring is introduced. The emission shifts to bluer wavelengths when the azole forms part of the cyclometallating C^N ligands, whereas it shifts to the red when the 5-membered ring is incorporated into the ancillary N^N ligand. The position of the nitrogen atoms in the azole ring also plays an important role in determining the emission energy. Complexes with phenyl-azole C^N ligands bearing a nitrogen in the azole position to which the phenyl is linked show a markedly blue-shifted emission compared to complexes with the same number of nitrogen atoms in the azole ring and bearing a carbon atom in that position. Therefore, when comparing the emission properties of azole-based [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](+) complexes, not only the number of nitrogen atoms of the azole but also their position in the ring and the ligand where the azole ring is incorporated should be taken into account.

  12. CO sub 2 emissions from developing countries: Better understanding the role of energy in the long term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Ketoff, A.

    1991-02-01

    This study examines energy use and carbon emissions in the developing world. Based on analyses of present energy-use patterns in 17 developing nations, this study presents high emissions and low emissions scenarios for these nations in the year 2025. These nations combined account for two thirds of the energy-related carbon emissions presently generated in the developing world. The analysis reveals that energy demand expands dramatically by 2025 and grows increasingly carbon intensive. In the high emissions scenario, carbon emissions from these countries increase four-fold. The greatest share of carbon stems from the industrial sector in 2025, followed by the transport and residential sectors. With the implementation of policies aimed at reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, the low emissions scenario reduces the level of carbon in 2025 by 20 percent relative to the high emissions scenario figure. These nations achieve 80 percent of the carbon reductions by improving the efficiency of energy production and use and the remaining 20 percent by implementing fuel-switching measures. Of all the sectors examined, the industrial sector offers the greatest opportunity for absolute carbon savings (39 percent of the total). This summary is volume one of five volumes.

  13. Early shell crack detection technique using acoustic emission energy parameter blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Sang Bum [RECTUSON Co.,Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Dong Myung; Yang, Bo Suk [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Blast furnaces are crucial equipment for steel production. A typical furnace risks unexpected accidents caused by contraction and expansion of the walls under an environment of high temperature and pressure. In this study, an acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system was tested for evaluating the large-scale structural health of a blast furnace. Based on the growth of shell cracks with the emission of high energy levels, severe damage can be detected by monitoring increases in the AE energy parameter. Using this monitoring system, steel mill operators can establish a maintenance period, in which actual shell cracks can be verified by cross-checking the UT. From this study, we expect that AE systems permit early fault detection for structural health monitoring by establishing evaluation criteria based on the severity of shell cracking.

  14. Growth of Low-Density Vertical Quantum Dot Molecules with Control in Energy Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuster D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we present results on the formation of vertical molecule structures formed by two vertically aligned InAs quantum dots (QD in which a deliberate control of energy emission is achieved. The emission energy of the first layer of QD forming the molecule can be tuned by the deposition of controlled amounts of InAs at a nanohole template formed by GaAs droplet epitaxy. The QD of the second layer are formed directly on top of the buried ones by a strain-driven process. In this way, either symmetric or asymmetric vertically coupled structures can be obtained. As a characteristic when using a droplet epitaxy patterning process, the density of quantum dot molecules finally obtained is low enough (2 × 108 cm−2 to permit their integration as active elements in advanced photonic devices where spectroscopic studies at the single nanostructure level are required.

  15. Bursts of the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission at high and ultra-high energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidvansky A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by the ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes and 100 TeV (EAS arrays are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, maybe the difference between “flares” and “waves” recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by the AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  16. Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from an algae fractionation process for producing renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegallapati, Ambica K.; Frank, Edward D.

    2016-09-01

    In one approach to algal biofuel production, lipids are extracted and converted to renewable diesel and non-lipid remnants are converted to biogas, which is used for renewable heat and power to support the process. Since biofuel economics benefit from increased fuel yield, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory analyzed an alternative pathway that extracts lipids and also makes ethanol from carbohydrates in the biomass. In this paper, we examine the environmental sustainability of this "fractionation pathway" through life-cycle analysis (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions and energy use. When the feedstock productivity was 30 (18) g/m(2)/d, this pathway emitted 31 (36) gCO(2)e/MJ of total fuel, which is less than the emissions associated with conventional low sulfur petroleum diesel (96 gCO(2)e/MJ). The fractionation pathway performed well in this model despite the diversion of carbon to the ethanol fuel.

  17. Thermionic and Photo-excited Electron Emission for Energy Conversion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. McCarthy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes advances in thermionic and photoemission materials and applications dating back to the work on thermionic emission by Guthrie in 1873 and the photoelectric effect by Hertz in 1887. Thermionic emission has been employed for electron beam generation from Edison’s work with the light bulb to modern day technologies such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The photoelectric effect has been utilized in common devices such as cameras and photocopiers while photovoltaic cells continue to be widely successful and further researched. Limitations in device efficiency and materials have thus far restricted large-scale energy generation sources based on thermionic and photoemission. However, recent advances in the fabrication of nanoscale emitters suggest promising routes for improving both thermionic and photo-enhanced electron emission along with newly developed research concepts, e.g., photonically enhanced thermionic emission. However, the abundance of new emitter materials and reduced dimensions of some nanoscale emitters increases the complexity of electron emission theory and engender new questions related to the dimensionality of the emitter. This work presents derivations of basic two and three-dimensional thermionic and photoemission theory along with comparisons to experimentally acquired data. The resulting theory can be applied to many different material types regardless of composition, bulk and surface structure.

  18. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D., E-mail: dcv@uom.g [Department of Applied Informatics, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatia St., Thessaloniki 54006 (Greece); Karagianni, S., E-mail: stelkar@uom.g [Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatia St., Thessaloniki 54006 (Greece); Pempetzoglou, M., E-mail: mariap@socadm.duth.g [Department of Social Administration, Democritus University of Thrace, 1 Panagi Tsaldari St., 69100 Komotini (Greece); Sfetsos, A., E-mail: ts@ipta.demokritos.g [Environmental Research Laboratory, INT-RP, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarhou Grigoriou, Agia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  19. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece. An input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D. [Department of Applied Informatics, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatia St., Thessaloniki 54006 (Greece); Karagianni, S. [Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, 156 Egnatia St., Thessaloniki 54006 (Greece); Pempetzoglou, M. [Department of Social Administration, Democritus University of Thrace, 1 Panagi Tsaldari St., 69100 Komotini (Greece); Sfetsos, A. [Environmental Research Laboratory, INT-RP, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarhou Grigoriou, Agia Paraskevi 15310 (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (1) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (2) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed. (author)

  20. Indicators of CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency. Comparison of Finland with other countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtilae, A.; Savolainen, I.; Tuhkanen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The generic technology options recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to reduce fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions include efficiency improvements both in the supply and use of energy, switching to less carbon-intensive fuels, and switching to renewable energy resources. The present study considers, using indicators based on statistics, to which extent these options are already being utilized in various OECD countries. The efficiency of energy production is high in Finland, due to extensive utilization of cogeneration of electricity and heat both for industry and for the tertiary and residential sectors. The use of sustainable produced biomass for combined heat and power generation is the largest in the world. About 10 % of the total national electricity production is generated using wood-derived fuels and modern power plant technologies. Improvements in the energy efficiency of manufacturing industries during the last twenty years in Finland are similar to the average in OECD countries, and the relative decrease in CO{sub 2} intensity has been more rapid than that in the OECD as a whole. In the manufacturing of pulp and paper, and iron and steel, Finnish industries are among the most efficient; however, the differences in energy intensities among the countries considered are relatively small in these sectors. The energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions attributable to the Finnish residential sector are low, despite the cold climate, due to good insulation of houses and cogeneration of heat and power. If the dependency of heating energy demand on climatic conditions is accounted for using heating degree-day corrections, the values for Finland are among the lowest among the western industrialized nations. The energy demand in Finland for the transport sector is in general relatively low; in particular, the energy use in road freight transport per tonnekilometer is the lowest of the countries studied. (orig.) 50 refs.

  1. The comparison of engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of sesame oil-diesel fuel mixture with diesel fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, Batman (Turkey); Bulut, Huesamettin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osmanbey Campus, Harran University, 63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    The use of vegetable oils as a fuel in diesel engines causes some problems due to their high viscosity compared with conventional diesel fuel. Various techniques and methods are used to solve the problems resulting from high viscosity. One of these techniques is fuel blending. In this study, a blend of 50% sesame oil and 50% diesel fuel was used as an alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance and exhaust emissions were investigated and compared with the ordinary diesel fuel in a diesel engine. The experimental results show that the engine power and torque of the mixture of sesame oil-diesel fuel are close to the values obtained from diesel fuel and the amounts of exhaust emissions are lower than those of diesel fuel. Hence, it is seen that blend of sesame oil and diesel fuel can be used as an alternative fuel successfully in a diesel engine without any modification and also it is an environmental friendly fuel in terms of emission parameters. (author)

  2. Comparative studies on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with neem oil and pumpkin seed oil biodiesel with and without fuel preheater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Muneeswaran; Rathinam, Thansekhar Maruthu; Viswanathan, Karthickeyan

    2018-02-01

    In the present experimental analysis, two non-edible oils namely neem oil and pumpkin seed oil were considered. They are converted into respective biodiesels namely neem oil methyl ester (B1) and pumpkin seed oil methyl ester (B2) through transesterification process and their physical and chemical properties were examined using ASTM standards. Diesel was used as a baseline fuel in Kirloskar TV1 model direct injection four stroke diesel engine. A fuel preheater was designed and fabricated to operate at various temperatures (60, 70, and 80 °C). Diesel showed higher brake thermal efficiency (BTE) than biodiesel samples. Lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was obtained with diesel than B1 sample. B1 exhibited lower BSFC than B2 sample without preheating process. High preheating temperature (80 °C) results in lower fuel consumption for B1 sample. The engine emission characteristics like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke were found lower with B1 sample than diesel and B2 except oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission. In preheating of fuel, B1 sample with high preheating temperature showed lower CO, HC, and smoke emission (except NOx) than B2 sample.

  3. Bremsstrahlung component of the diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission at MeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, W.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1984-04-15

    Recently the galactic plane has been resolved at low and medium ..gamma..-ray energies in the directions toward the center and anticenter. Spectral measurements are now available at those energies, where the contribution of ..pi../sup 0/-decay from nuclear reactions of cosmic-ray protons (and heavier nuclei) with interstellar matter can be neglected. Under the assumption that most of the observed ..gamma..-ray flux below 30 MeV is produced by electron bremsstrahlung, restrictions on the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons in interstellar space below 100 MeV are derived. The most accurate bremsstrahlung production cross sections of Koch and Motz and of Blumental and Gould are used in order to derive the bremsstrahlung production spectrum in interstellar space down to 10 keV-photon energies. If the low-energy ..gamma..-ray emission, as seen by most observers, is indeed produced by electron bremsstrahlung, then a high interstellar electron flux at MeV energy results, which-at higher energies-connects to the upper limit derived by Cummings, Stone, and Vogt. Such a high low-energy electron flux would be able to explain the ionization rate of 1 x 10/sup -15/ ion pairs (H-atom/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) in H I regions. Because of uncertainties in the low-energy ..gamma..-ray measurements, however, no definite conclusion is possible yet.

  4. UV-visible digital imaging of split injection in a Gasoline Direct Injection engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever tighter limits on pollutant emissions and the need to improve energy conversion efficiency have made the application of gasoline direct injection (GDI feasible for a much wider scale of spark ignition engines. Changing the way fuel is delivered to the engine has thus provided increased flexibility but also challenges, such as higher particulate emissions. Therefore, alternative injection control strategies need to be investigated in order to obtain optimum performance and reduced environmental impact. In this study, experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine fuelled with commercial gasoline in lean-burn conditions. The single-cylinder was equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio and wall guided fuel injection. Optical accessibility was ensured through a conventional elongated hollow Bowditch piston and an optical crown, accommodating a fused-silica window. Experimental tests were performed at fixed engine speed and injection pressure, whereas the injection timing and the number of injections were adjusted to investigate their influence on combustion and emissions. UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to follow the combustion process, from ignition to the late combustion phase. All the optical data were correlated with thermodynamic analysis and measurements of exhaust emissions. Split injection strategies (i.e. two injections per cycle with respect to single injection increased combustion efficiency and stability thanks to an improvement of fuel air mixing. As a consequence, significant reduction in soot formation and exhaust emission with acceptable penalty in terms of HC and NOx were measured.

  5. IceCube and HAWC constraints on very-high-energy emission from the Fermi bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ke; Su, Meng; Linden, Tim; Murase, Kohta

    2017-12-01

    The nature of the γ -ray emission from the Fermi bubbles is unknown. Both hadronic and leptonic models have been formulated to explain the peculiar γ -ray signal observed by the Fermi-LAT between 0.1-500 GeV. If this emission continues above ˜30 TeV , hadronic models of the Fermi bubbles would provide a significant contribution to the high-energy neutrino flux detected by the IceCube observatory. Even in models where leptonic γ -rays produce the Fermi bubbles flux at GeV energies, a hadronic component may be observable at very high energies. The combination of IceCube and HAWC measurements have the ability to distinguish these scenarios through a comparison of the neutrino and γ -ray fluxes at a similar energy scale. We examine the most recent four-year data set produced by the IceCube Collaboration and find no evidence for neutrino emission originating from the Fermi bubbles. In particular, we find that previously suggested excesses are consistent with the diffuse astrophysical background with a p-value of 0.22 (0.05 in an extreme scenario that all the IceCube events that overlap with the bubbles come from them). Moreover, we show that existing and upcoming HAWC observations provide independent constraints on any neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles due to the close correlation between the γ -ray and neutrino fluxes in hadronic interactions. The combination of these results disfavors a significant contribution from the Fermi bubbles to the IceCube neutrino flux.

  6. Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Aki, Hirohisa; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge, energy-efficiency technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. This paper examines how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cost- or CO2-minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various technologies: photovoltaic modules (PV) and other on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and passive/demand-response technologies. A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has a multi-criteria objective function is used. The objective is minimization of a weighted average of the building's annual energy costs and CO2 emissions. The MILP's constraints ensure energy balance and capacity limits. In addition, constraining the building's energy consumed to equal its energy exports enables us to explore how energy sales and demand-response measures may enable compliance with the ZNEB objective. Using a commercial test site in northernCalifornia with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find that a ZNEB requires ample PV capacity installed to ensure electricity sales during the day. This is complemented by investment in energy-efficient combined heat and power (CHP) equipment, while occasional demand response shaves energy consumption. A large amount of storage is also adopted, which may be impractical. Nevertheless, it shows the nature of the solutions and costs necessary to achieve a ZNEB. Additionally, the ZNEB approach does not necessary lead to zero-carbon (ZC) buildings as is frequently argued. We also show a multi-objective frontier for the CA example, whichallows us to estimate the

  7. New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

    2007-12-01

    The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has

  8. Steam cracking and methane to olefins: Energy use, CO2 emissions and production costs

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, T; Patel, M.K.; Blok, K.

    2008-01-01

    While most olefins (e.g., ethylene and propylene) are currently produced through steam cracking routes, they can also possibly be produced from natural gas (i.e., methane) via methanol and oxidative coupling routes. We reviewed recent data in the literature and then compared the energy use, CO2 emissions and production costs of methane-based routes with those of steam cracking routes. We found that methane-based routes use more than twice as much process energy than state-of-the-art steam cra...

  9. Analysing methodological choices in calculations of embodied energy and GHG emissions from buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard; Birgisdottir, Harpa; Moncaster, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The importance of embodied energy and embodied greenhouse gas emissions (EEG) from buildings is gaining increased interest within building sector initiatives and on a regulatory level. In spite of recent har- monisation efforts, reported results of EEG from building case studies display large...... obtained, thus providing a framework for reinterpretation and more effective comparison. The collection of over 80 international case studies developed within the International Energy Agency’s EBC Annex 57 research programme is used as the quantitative foundation to present a comprehensive analysis...

  10. Towards a better understanding of hard photon emission in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, R.; Maiolino, C.; Agodi, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Coniglione, R.; Milazzo, P. M.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.; Bruno, M.; Colonna, M.; Colonna, N.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, M. L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Gramegna, F.; Iori, I.; Loukachine, K.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Mastinu, P. F.; Migneco, E.; Moroni, A.; Piattelli, P.; Rui, R.; Santonocito, D.; Tonetto, F.; Vannini, G.

    High energy photon spectra have been measured in several 58Ni induced reactions at 30A MeV incident energy. A two source analysis of the data has been performed using a two exponential parameterization of the associated gamma spectra. The relative intensity of the two components has been deduced as a function of the total mass of the interacting system and of the impact parameter. To attempt a characterization of the emission sources, correlations between photons and IMF's have been measured for the first time.

  11. New Trends in Energy Harvesting from Earth Long-Wave Infrared Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Mescia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review, even if not exhaustive, on the current technologies able to harvest energy from Earth’s thermal infrared emission is reported. In particular, we discuss the role of the rectenna system on transforming the thermal energy, provided by the Sun and reemitted from the Earth, in electricity. The operating principles, efficiency limits, system design considerations, and possible technological implementations are illustrated. Peculiar features of THz and IR antennas, such as physical properties and antenna parameters, are provided. Moreover, some design guidelines for isolated antenna, rectifying diode, and antenna coupled to rectifying diode are exploited.

  12. Energy and emission scenarios and the production structure of Finnish wood processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, J.; Tamminen, E. (Laboratory of Electrical and Automation Engineering, Technical Research Centre of Finland (FI))

    1991-01-01

    The possibilities of wood processing industry to adapt itself to emission and energy use restrictions are studied. Only structural change as a means of adaptation is taken into account - the possibilities of process technology development are not a subject of this study. Main tool in the analysis is a linear programming model of wood processing industry. Optimal production structure in 1995 serves as a reference point in the study. It is determined on the basis of expected market conditions of raw wood, energy, pulp and paper. Results of CO2 reduction scenario are presented. (author).

  13. High energy (gamma)-ray emission from the starburst nucleus of NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo-Santamaria, E; Torres, D F

    2005-06-15

    The high density medium that characterizes the central regions of starburst galaxies and its power to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies make these objects good candidates as {gamma}-rays sources. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the multifrequency emission of the starburst galaxy NGC 253, from radio to gamma-rays, is presented. The model is in agreement with all current measurements and provides predictions for the high energy behavior of the NGC 253 central region. Prospects for observations with the HESS array and GLAST satellite are especially discussed.

  14. Systematic Assessment of Carbon Emissions from Renewable Energy Access to Improve Rural Livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Cherni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One way of increasing access to electricity for impoverished unconnected areas without adding significant amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere is by promoting renewable energy technologies. However, decision-makers rarely, if ever, take into account the level of in-built energy requirements and consequential CO2 emissions found in renewable energy, particularly photovoltaic cells and related equipment, which have been widely disseminated in developing countries. The deployment of solar panels worldwide has mostly relied on silicon crystalline cell modules, despite the fact that less polluting material—in particular, thin film and organic cells—offers comparatively distinct technical, environmental and cost advantages characteristics. A major scientific challenge has thus been the design of a single decision-making approach to assess local and global climate change-related impacts as well as the socio-economic effects of low-carbon technology. The article focuses on the functions of the multi-criteria-based tool SURE-DSS and environmental impact analysis focused on greenhouse gases (GHG emissions balance to inform the selection of technologies in terms of their impact on livelihoods and CO2eq. emissions. An application in a remote rural community in Cuba is discussed. The results of this study show that while PV silicon (c-Si, thin film (CdTe and organic solar cells may each equally meet the demands of the community and enhance people’s livelihoods, their effect on the global environment varies.

  15. Reliability effect on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of mining hauling fleet towards sustainable mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Peralta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral commodity prices have decreased swiftly since 2012. For example, gold price, which was above $1800 per ounce, is currently about $1250 per ounce. Price slumps were even more severe in the base metals. Furthermore, the resource degradation and complex geologic conditions give rise to operation costs. As a result, many mining operations and development projects were eventually suspended, cancelled or ceased. Environmental compliance is also another challenge to the mining industry. The fuel consumed by diesel trucks emits greenhouse gases, which are one of contributors to the global warming. In Canada, the provinces of Quebec, British Columbia and Alberta introduced carbon taxes with the objective of reducing gas emissions in attempt to mitigate climate change. In this scope, only way to stay in business for a mining company is to invest more efficient and environmental friendly production practices such that operation costs are reduced. Given that maintenance costs and energy consumption are the largest contributors to operation costs, the minimization of carbon emissions and the maximization of equipment availability would be beneficial. This paper addresses to quantify the relationship between equipment reliability and energy consumption through a case study. It shows that a maintenance policy based on equipment reliability can significantly reduce energy consumption and its associated gas emissions.

  16. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM), and AM has been increasingly adopted by aircraft component manufacturers for lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleet-wide life-cycle primary energy savings at most reach 70-173 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2–2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative GHG emission reductions were estimated at 92.1–215.0 million metric tons. In addition, thousands of tons of aluminum, titanium and nickel alloys could be potentially saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  17. Emission of low-energy electrons from multicharged ions interacting with metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (United States)); Havener, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States)); Hughes, I.G. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (United States)); Zehner, D.M.; Meyer, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Low-energy electron spectra are reported for 60- and 100-keV multicharged ions interacting at an incident angle of 20[degree] with Au and Cu surfaces. Analysis of the spectra indicate that at least two features contribute. The first feature represents the major contribution to the total electron yield and consists of 5--10-eV electrons emitted over a wide range of angles. The angular distribution of this component is not symmetric with respect to the surface normal, but shows an increase in the forward direction of the incident ions. It will be shown that this component arises predominantly from below the surface. Possible potential-emission mechanisms which may contribute will be discussed. The second feature, which constitutes a minor part of the overall electron emission, occurs at higher electron energies ([similar to]20 eV), and is peaked at the extreme forward angles. Binary encounters between incident ions and metal electrons at the surface-vacuum interface will be shown to describe the main features of this component. At even higher electron energies ([gt]40 eV) the spectra show a tail whose slope does not depend on either the initial charge state or kinetic energy of the incident ions. The invariance with kinetic energy is in sharp contrast with the corresponding experimental results from ion-atom collisions.

  18. Enhancement of low-energy electron emission in 2D radioactive films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronschinske, Alex; Pedevilla, Philipp; Murphy, Colin J.; Lewis, Emily A.; Lucci, Felicia R.; Brown, Garth; Pappas, George; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2015-09-01

    High-energy radiation has been used for decades; however, the role of low-energy electrons created during irradiation has only recently begun to be appreciated. Low-energy electrons are the most important component of radiation damage in biological environments because they have subcellular ranges, interact destructively with chemical bonds, and are the most abundant product of ionizing particles in tissue. However, methods for generating them locally without external stimulation do not exist. Here, we synthesize one-atom-thick films of the radioactive isotope 125I on gold that are stable under ambient conditions. Scanning tunnelling microscopy, supported by electronic structure simulations, allows us to directly observe nuclear transmutation of individual 125I atoms into 125Te, and explain the surprising stability of the 2D film as it underwent radioactive decay. The metal interface geometry induces a 600% amplification of low-energy electron emission (targeted nanoparticle therapies.

  19. Energy use and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of drones for commercial package delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Samaras, Constantine; O'Neill, Emma R; Lubers, Alia; Mitchell, Alexandra S; Ceperley, Daniel

    2018-02-13

    The use of automated, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver commercial packages is poised to become a new industry, significantly shifting energy use in the freight sector. Here we find the current practical range of multi-copters to be about 4 km with current battery technology, requiring a new network of urban warehouses or waystations as support. We show that, although drones consume less energy per package-km than delivery trucks, the additional warehouse energy required and the longer distances traveled by drones per package greatly increase the life-cycle impacts. Still, in most cases examined, the impacts of package delivery by small drone are lower than ground-based delivery. Results suggest that, if carefully deployed, drone-based delivery could reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy use in the freight sector. To realize the environmental benefits of drone delivery, regulators and firms should focus on minimizing extra warehousing and limiting the size of drones.

  20. Low-frequency ionospheric sounding with Narrow Bipolar Event lightning radio emissions: energy-reflectivity spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jacobson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze data on radio-reflection from the D-region of the lower ionosphere, retrieving the energy-reflection coefficient in the frequency range ~5–95 kHz. The data are the same as developed for a recent study of ionospheric-reflection height, and are based on recordings of powerful (multi-Gigawatt radio emissions from a type of narrow (~10 μs lightning discharge known as "Narrow Bipolar Events". The sequential appearance of first the groundwave signal, and then the ionospheric single-hop reflection signal, permits us to construct the energy-reflection ratio. We infer the energy reflection's statistical variation with solar zenith angle, angle-of-incidence, frequency, and propagation azimuth. There is also a marginally-significant response of the energy reflectivity to solar X-ray flux density. Finally, we review the relationship of our results to previous published reports.

  1. Low-frequency ionospheric sounding with Narrow Bipolar Event lightning radio emissions: energy-reflectivity spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jacobson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyze data on radio-reflection from the D-region of the lower ionosphere, retrieving the energy-reflection coefficient in the frequency range ~5–95 kHz. The data are the same as developed for a recent study of ionospheric-reflection height, and are based on recordings of powerful (multi-Gigawatt radio emissions from a type of narrow (~10 μs lightning discharge known as "Narrow Bipolar Events". The sequential appearance of first the groundwave signal, and then the ionospheric single-hop reflection signal, permits us to construct the energy-reflection ratio. We infer the energy reflection's statistical variation with solar zenith angle, angle-of-incidence, frequency, and propagation azimuth. There is also a marginally-significant response of the energy reflectivity to solar X-ray flux density. Finally, we review the relationship of our results to previous published reports.

  2. In-use measurement of activity, energy use, and emissions of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graver, Brandon M; Frey, H Christopher; Choi, Hyung-Wook

    2011-10-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could reduce transportation air emissions and energy use. However, a method is needed for estimating on-road emissions of PHEVs. To develop a framework for quantifying microscale energy use and emissions (EU&E), measurements were conducted on a Toyota Prius retrofitted with a plug-in battery system on eight routes. Measurements were made using the following: (1) a data logger for the hybrid control system; (2) a portable emissions measurement system; and (3) a global positioning system with barometric altimeter. Trends in EU&E are estimated based on vehicle specific power. Energy economy is quantified based on gasoline consumed by the engine and grid energy consumed by the plug-in battery. Emissions from electricity consumption are estimated based on the power generation mix. Fuel use is approximately 30% lower during plug-in battery use. Grid emissions were higher for CO₂, NO(x), SO₂, and PM compared to tailpipe emissions but lower for CO and hydrocarbons. EU&E depends on engine and plug-in battery operation. The use of two energy sources must be addressed in characterizing fuel economy; overall energy economy is 11% lower if including grid energy use than accounting only for fuel consumption.

  3. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  4. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Assessing the impact of energy saving measures on the future energy demand and related GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction of Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukšec, Tomislav; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Novosel, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    and renewable energy sources. Croatian long-term energy demand and its effect on the future national GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are analysed in this paper. For that purpose the NeD model was constructed (National energy demand model). The model is comprised out of six modules, each representing one sector...

  6. High-energy Emission from Nonrelativistic Radiative Shocks: Application to Gamma-Ray Novae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurm, Indrek; Metzger, Brian D.

    2018-01-01

    The observation of GeV gamma-rays from novae by Fermi/LAT demonstrates that the nonrelativistic radiative shocks in these systems can accelerate particles to energies of at least ∼10 GeV. The low-energy extension of the same nonthermal particle distribution inevitably gives rise to emission in the hard X-ray band. Above ≳ 10 {keV}, this radiation can escape the system without significant absorption/attenuation, and can potentially be detected by NuSTAR. We present theoretical models for hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission from radiative shocks in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios, accounting for the rapid evolution of the downstream properties due to the fast cooling of thermal plasma. We find that due to strong Coulomb losses, only a fraction of {10}-4{--}{10}-3 of the gamma-ray luminosity is radiated in the NuSTAR band; nevertheless, this emission could be detectable simultaneously with the LAT emission in bright gamma-ray novae with a ∼50 ks exposure. The spectral slope in hard X-rays is α ≈ 0 for typical nova parameters, thus serving as a testable prediction of the model. Our work demonstrates how combined hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations can be used to constrain properties of the nova outflow (velocity, density, and mass outflow rate) and particle acceleration at the shock. A very low X-ray to gamma-ray luminosity ratio ({L}{{X}}/{L}γ ≲ 5× {10}-4) would disfavor leptonic models for the gamma-ray emission. Our model can also be applied to other astrophysical environments with radiative shocks, including SNe IIn and colliding winds in massive star binaries.

  7. Neutron emission spectroscopy of DT plasmas at enhanced energy resolution with diamond detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacomelli, L., E-mail: giacomelli@ifp.cnr.it; Tardocchi, M. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” CNR, Milano (Italy); Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Gorini, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma “P. Caldirola,” CNR, Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Milocco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Occhialini,” Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Chen, Z. J.; Du, T. F.; Fan, T. S.; Hu, Z. M.; Peng, X. Y. [School of Physics, State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing (China); Hjalmarsson, A. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    This work presents measurements done at the Peking University Van de Graaff neutron source of the response of single crystal synthetic diamond (SD) detectors to quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of 14-20 MeV. The results show an energy resolution of 1% for incoming 20 MeV neutrons, which, together with 1% detection efficiency, opens up to new prospects for fast ion physics studies in high performance nuclear fusion devices such as SD neutron spectrometry of deuterium-tritium plasmas heated by neutral beam injection.

  8. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  9. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  10. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  11. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Oil Production in the Eagle Ford Shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Sonia; Ghandi, Abbas; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Brandt, Adam R.; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael Q.; Vafi, Kourosh; Reedy, Robert C.

    2017-01-30

    A rapid increase in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in shale and “tight” formations that began around 2000 has resulted in record increases in oil and natural gas production in the U.S. This study examines energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil and natural gas produced from ~8,200 wells in the Eagle Ford Shale in southern Texas from 2009 to 2013. Our system boundary includes processes from primary exploration wells to the refinery entrance gate (henceforth well-to-refinery or WTR). The Eagle Ford includes four distinct production zones—black oil (BO), volatile oil (VO), condensate (C), and dry gas (G) zones—with average monthly gas-to-liquids ratios (thousand cubic feet per barrel—Mcf/bbl) varying from 0.91 in the BO zone to 13.9 in the G zone. Total energy consumed in drilling, extracting, processing, and operating an Eagle Ford well is ~1.5% of the energy content of the produced crude and gas in the BO and VO zones, compared with 2.2% in the C and G zones. On average, the WTR GHG emissions of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel derived from crude oil produced in the BO and VO zones in the Eagle Ford play are 4.3, 5.0, and 5.1 gCO2e/MJ, respectively. Comparing with other known conventional and unconventional crude production where upstream GHG emissions are in the range 5.9–30 gCO2e/MJ, oil production in the Eagle Ford has lower WTR GHG emissions.

  12. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  13. Energy supply structures and strategies for the reduction of emissions in selected Central and Eastern European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jattke, A.; Haasis, H.-D.; Oder, C.; Russ, P.; Rentz, O. (University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Institute for Industrial Production)

    1993-01-01

    This article sets out to analyse strategies for the reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] emissions applied by a selection of Central and Eastern European countries, together with the impact of these strategies upon national energy supply structure. Hungary, Lithuania and the European sector of Russia are used as representative examples of the wide variety of energy industry structures and future developments in Eastern Europe. Current energy supply, transformation and consumer demand conditions in the various economic sectors (industry, transport, the domestic sector, etc.) have been used as a basis for the establishment of the national cost of emission reduction strategies, together with preferred national structure for emission reduction measures. Calculated cost functions are based upon a technical and economic assessment of available energy transformation and emission reduction technologies. The potential of various options for emission reduction, such as the substitution of fuels or technologies, secondary emission reduction techniques and energy conservation measures have also been quantified. This process has been used as a means of identifying and assessing the interdependence of strategies for the reduction of various atmospheric pollutants. The EFOM-ENV Energy/Emission Model has been used as a methodological tool. 15 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Net energy payback and CO2 emissions from three midwestern wind farms: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates a life-cycle net energy analysis and carbon dioxide emissions analysis of three Midwestern utility-scale wind systems. Both the Energy Payback Ratio (EPR) and CO2 analysis results provide useful data for policy discussions regarding an efficient and low-carbon energy mix. The EPR is the amount of electrical energy produced for the lifetime of the power plant divided by the total amount of energy required to procure and transport the materials, build, operate, and decommission the power plants. The CO2 analysis for each power plant was calculated from the life-cycle energy input data. A previous study also analyzed coal and nuclear fission power plants. At the time of that study, two of the three wind systems had less than a full year of generation data to project the life-cycle energy production. This study updates the analysis of three wind systems with an additional four to eight years of operating data. The EPR for the utility-scale wind systems ranges from a low of 11 for a two-turbine system in Wisconsin to 28 for a 143-turbine system in southwestern Minnesota. The EPR is 11 for coal, 25 for fission with gas centrifuge enriched uranium and 7 for gaseous diffusion enriched uranium. The normalized CO2 emissions, in tonnes of CO2 per GW eh, ranges from 14 to 33 for the wind systems, 974 for coal, and 10 and 34 for nuclear fission using gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enriched uranium, respectively. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  15. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  16. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin' ichiro, E-mail: i.tamborra@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl [GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.

  17. Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

  18. Contribution of electric energy to the process of elimination of low emission sources in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, J.; Mejer, T.; Wybranski, A. [Power Distribution Plant, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At present energy supply belongs to the most important global problems. A significant part of energy is consumed for residential heating purposes. Depending on climatic conditions, fuel distribution and the level of technological development, the contribution of these purposes ranges between ca. 50% (Poland) and ca. 12% (Spain). The power engineering structure in Poland is based almost exclusively upon solid fuels, i.e. hard and brown coal. Chemical compounds (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) produced in combustion process influence negatively the natural environment. The contribution of residential heating in this negative effect is rather significant. Because of the fact, that the resources of fossil fuels (the most important source of energy at present) are limited and their influence on natural environment is negative, efforts are made to find out more effective ways of energy consumption and to reduce the pollutant emission from heating sources. This problem is a topical issue in Cracow, especially during the heating season because the coal-fired stoves situated in the central part of the town remain the most important source of pollutant emission. These sources cause serious menace to the health of inhabitants; furthermore the pollutants destroy Cracow monuments entered in the UNESCO world list of human heritage.

  19. Willingness to engage in energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction: An empirical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluwa, S. E.; Siong, H. C.

    2014-02-01

    Africa's response to climate change has largely been focused on adaptation rather than mitigation. The reason for this is based on the fact that the continent contributes very little to global CO2 emission. Again, mitigation policies like carbon tax as being practised in developed countries may be costly and difficult to implement in a continent where most economies are fragile. Using behavioural change as an adaptation approach, we examined the opinion of Ibadan city residents towards energy conservation and CO2 emissions reduction. A total of 822 respondents were sampled across the three residential neighbourhoods of the city. Results from the study showed that female and male respondents differed in their opinion towards energy conservation. However, the female respondents tended to record higher mean scores on majority of the items used to capture energy conservation behaviour than their male counterparts. Also, those with higher level of education seemed to be more conscious of the environmental consequences arising from energy use at home than those with lower educational background. However, very slight variations were recorded in the mean value score across the different age groups, those respondents above 50 years scored a bit higher than other age groups.

  20. Electric urban delivery trucks: energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon; Thomas, Valerie M; Brown, Marilyn A

    2013-07-16

    We compare electric and diesel urban delivery trucks in terms of life-cycle energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and total cost of ownership (TCO). The relative benefits of electric trucks depend heavily on vehicle efficiency associated with drive cycle, diesel fuel price, travel demand, electric drive battery replacement and price, electricity generation and transmission efficiency, electric truck recharging infrastructure, and purchase price. For a drive cycle with frequent stops and low average speed such as the New York City Cycle (NYCC), electric trucks emit 42-61% less GHGs and consume 32-54% less energy than diesel trucks, depending upon vehicle efficiency cases. Over an array of possible conditions, the median TCO of electric trucks is 22% less than that of diesel trucks on the NYCC. For a drive cycle with less frequent stops and high average speed such as the City-Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle (CSHVC), electric trucks emit 19-43% less GHGs and consume 5-34% less energy, but cost 1% more than diesel counterparts. Considering current and projected U.S. regional electricity generation mixes, for the baseline case, the energy use and GHG emissions ratios of electric to diesel trucks range from 48 to 82% and 25 to 89%, respectively.

  1. Biogas in organic agriculture-effects on productivity, energy self-sufficiency and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugesgaard, Siri; Olesen, Jørgen E; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of manure and crops provides the possibility of a combined production of renewable energy and organic fertilizer on organic farms and has been suggested as an option to improve sustainability of organic agriculture. In the present study, the consequences of implementation of a...... that production of biogas on organic farms holds the possibility for the farms to achieve a positive energy balance, provide self-sufficiency with organic fertilizer nitrogen, and reduce GHG emissions.......Anaerobic digestion of manure and crops provides the possibility of a combined production of renewable energy and organic fertilizer on organic farms and has been suggested as an option to improve sustainability of organic agriculture. In the present study, the consequences of implementation...... of anaerobic digestion and biogas production were analyzed on a 1000 ha model farm with combined dairy and cash crop production, representing organic agriculture in Denmark. The effects on crop rotation, nitrogen flows and losses, yield, energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were evaluated for four...

  2. Injection of a Phase Modulated Source into the Z-Beamlet Laser for Increased Energy Extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Schwarz, Jens; Smith, Ian C; Shores, Jonathon; Speas, Christopher; Porter, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser has been operating at Sandia National Laboratories since 2001 to provide a source of laser-generated x-rays for radiography of events on the Z-Accelerator. Changes in desired operational scope have necessitated the increase in pulse duration and energy available from the laser system. This is enabled via the addition of a phase modulated seed laser as an alternative front-end. The practical aspects of deployment are discussed here.

  3. Effect of Cracow program elimination of low emission sources upon the energy management system in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedberg, J. [Deputy Mayor of Cracow (Poland); Goerlich, K. [Deputy Mayor of Cracow (Poland); Glowacki, K. [Office of the City of Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At the end of the 1980s, the energy management at the local level-like the whole set of such utility services-was based upon respective enterprises subject to a certain supervision of the establishing body and to a control of the District Inspectorate of Energy Management. Those enterprises that deal with generation and supply of heat energy to the local market, with distribution of heat, natural gas and electricity, operated as state companies; the last two branches made a part of either regional or national companies. Irrespective of the aforesaid, the co-generation power plants existed usually outside the heat generation and supply system. The business economics of these enterprises was not subject to any market rules whatsoever, the prices were controlled and the customers had no right of choice of the energy supplier. From the very beginning the low emission elimination program assumed to have commercial rules introduced in the energy management. Thus, it turned out necessary to prepare the market - to draw up inventory of the conditions and needs related with heat supply and to take up market solutions as well. The management system, and in particular the items specified below, is discussed. The co-operation of energy distribution enterprises has been based upon a voluntary agreement (The Team for Energy Suppliers) so as to agree upon the basic actions of the respective partners; joint actions have been taken up more and more willingly.

  4. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under-utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fired power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide-equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base.

  5. Projection of Denmark's energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases; Danmarks energifremskrivning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of the baseline projection is to get an assessment of how energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases will evolve in the future, if no new policy measures are introduced, often referred to as a 'frozen policy' scenario. The actual development will continuously be influenced by new political initiatives, and the projection is thus not to be regarded as a long-term prognosis, but rather as a progress which from some given objectives, defines the challenges of future energy policy. The baseline projection is based on a number of general economic conditions (the output of industries, private consumption, fuel prices, etc.), a number of technology-specific assumptions (how much different types of facilities cost, what is their efficiency, etc.) and assumptions about what energy market players will do on purely market terms. Projections of this nature will always be subject to many central and uncertain assumptions. A different development than the assumed will therefore be able to move the outcome in both directions. This year's energy projections are associated with a particular uncertainty due to the large uncertainty about the duration of the economic crisis for the global economy. This uncertainty affects directly the energy projection, as economic activity and demand for energy services are closely linked. The big drop in energy consumption due to the downturn in the economy from 2008 to 2009 illustrates this. (ln)

  6. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Brook, B.W. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart TAS (Australia); Meneley, D.A. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Misak, J. [UJV-Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Blees, T. [Science Council for Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Van Erp, J.B. [Illinois Commission on Atomic Energy, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  7. Polarization of high-energy emission in a pulsar striped wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, Jérôme; Kirk, John

    2008-02-01

    Recent observations of the polarization of the optical pulses from the Crab pulsar motivated detailed comparative studies of the emission predicted by the polar cap, the outer gap and the two-pole caustics models. In this work, we study the polarization properties of the synchrotron emission emanating from the striped wind model. We use an explicit asymptotic solution for the large-scale field structure related to the oblique split monopole and valid for the case of an ultra-relativistic plasma. This is combined with a crude model for the emissivity of the striped wind and of the magnetic field within the dissipating stripes themselves. We calculate the polarization properties of the high-energy pulsed emission and compare our results with optical observations of the Crab pulsar. The resulting radiation is linearly polarized. In the off-pulse region, the electric vector lies in the direction of the projection on the sky of the rotation axis of the pulsar, in good agreement with the data. Other properties such as a reduced degree of polarization and a characteristic sweep of the polarization angle within the pulses are also reproduced.

  8. Polarisation Of High-Energy Emission In A Pulsar Striped Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, J. A.; Kirk, J. G.

    2006-08-01

    Recent observations of the polarisation of the optical pulses from the Crab pulsar (Kanbach et al. 2005, AIP Proceedings, astro-ph/0511636) motivated detailed comparative studies of the emission predicted by the polar cap, the outer gap and the two-pole caustics models. In this work, we study the polarisation properties of the synchrotron emission emanating from the striped wind model. We use an explicit asymptotic solution for the large-scale field structure related to the oblique split monopole and valid for the case of an ultrarelativistic plasma (Bogovalov, A&A, 1999, 349, 1017). This is combined with a crude model for the emissivity of the striped wind and of the magnetic field within the dissipating stripes themselves. We calculate the polarisation properties of the high-energy pulsed emission and compare our results with optical observations of the Crab pulsar. The resulting radiation is linearly polarized. In the off-pulse region, the electric vector lies in the direction of the projection on the sky of the rotation axis of the pulsar, in good agreement with the data. Other properties such as a reduced degree of polarisation and a characteristic sweep of the polarisation angle within the pulses are also reproduced (Petri & Kirk, ApJ Letters, 2005, 627, L37).

  9. Cloud point extraction of vanadium in parenteral solutions using a nonionic surfactant (PONPE 5.0) and determination by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilloud, Gustavo M; de Wuilloud, Jorgelina C A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G; Silva, Maria F; Olsina, Roberto A; Martinez, Luis D

    2002-10-16

    A preconcentration and determination methodology for vanadium at trace levels in parenteral solutions was developed. Cloud point extraction was successfully employed for the preconcentration of vanadium prior to inductively coupled plasma atomic optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) coupled to a flow injection (FI) system. The vanadium was extracted as vanadium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol [V-(5-Br-PADAP)] complex, at pH 3.7 mediated by micelles of the nonionic surfactant polyoxyethylene (5.0) nonylphenol (PONPE 5.0). The extracted surfactant-rich phase (100 mul) was mixed with 100 mul of ethanol and this final volume injected into ICP-OES for the vanadium determination. Under these conditions, the 50 ml sample solution preconcentration allowed raising an enrichment factor of 250-fold; however, it was possible to obtain a theoretical enrichment factor of 500-fold. The lower limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 16 ng l(-1). The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 2.0 mug l(-1) V level was 2.3% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated with the peak heights. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for vanadium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 50 mug l(-1). The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in parenteral solution samples.

  10. EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN LIFE CYCLE OF DIESEL OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Haller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following article is an analysis of designed processes of the life cycle of the most popular fuel for Diesel engines: diesel oil. This fuel is produced from petroleum, which is a non-renewable source of energy. Analysis was carried out with the assumptions of Life Cycle Assessment, which is a tool to test the environmental impact of the product. The life cycle of diesel was divided into five unit processes: petroleum extraction, transport of petroleum to the refinery, refining petroleum to diesel, transport of diesel to the recipient and utilization of delivered fuel by transport company. For every process the energy consumption and emission of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulphursulphur oxides was calculated, with assumption of probable data, that could occur in real processes. The analysis has shown, that the process of refining petroleum is highly pollution-intensive. Also the combustion of diesel generates a significant amount of pollutants’ emission, which is why it is necessary to develop technologies that could contribute to the reduction of emission.

  11. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Caspi, Amir; McTiernan, James M.; Ryan, Daniel; Warren, Harry

    2015-10-01

    We compare the ability of 11 differential emission measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of the Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) and EUV Variability Experiment (SDO/EVE), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite/ X-ray Sensor (GOES/XRS). The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial-synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov Chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/ X-Ray Telescope (XRT) method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature Tw^{fit}/Tw^{sim}=0.9±0.1, the peak emission measure EMp^{fit}/EMp^{sim}=0.6±0.2, the total emission measure EMt^{fit}/EMt^{sim}=0.8±0.3, and the multi-thermal energies E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{approx}=1.2±0.4. We find that the AIA spatial-synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yield the most accurate results.

  12. The capacity for integrated community energy solutions policies to reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Goldberg, S.; Sharp, J.; Melton, N.; Peters, J.; Wolinetz, M. [Quality Urban Energy Systems of Tomorrow, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miller, E. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cavens, D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-08-26

    The implementation of policies promoting integrated urban energy solutions (ICES) could allow a reduction in Canada's urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. The concept and its related policies impact all urban sectors of the economy, such as residential, commercial, urban and inter-city personal transportation, freight transportation, waste and water. ICES policies are considered feasible and necessary, and many cities around the world, like Stockholm and Utrecht, have implemented them successfully. Sustainable land use policies should be the first to be developed since all urban form, transportation, and energy use decisions are made within the framework they generate. In the long term, moderate to aggressive ICES policies generate reductions of GHG emission and energy use but also an increase of 0.3-0.9% of the GDP. Aggressive ICES policies also allow a reduction in the structural unemployment and an increase of the number of jobs. While the effects of the implementation of targeted abatement policies such as the carbon tax or technology regulations are observed within a few years, ICES produce effects on a longer term. In the short term, they allow the release of money that could be spent by households to reduce the economic burden generated by abatement policies. In the longer term, they allow reductions to take over the effects of the short term policies, taking into consideration the increasing size of the population and the economy. Therefore, ICES policies seem to be an important part of comprehensive policy efforts intending to satisfy Canada's energy use and GHG emissions objectives. 218 refs., 49 tabs., 41 figs.

  13. Faint High-energy Gamma-Ray Photon Emission of GRB 081006A from Fermi Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Akerlof, Carl W.; Pandey, Shashi B.; McKay, Timothy A.; Zhang, BinBin; Zhang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument has firmly detected more than 20 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV. Using the matched filter technique, three more GRBs have also shown evidence of correlation with high-energy photon emission as demonstrated by Akerlof et al. In this paper, we present another GRB, GRB 081006A, unambiguously detected by the matched filter technique. This event is associated with more than 13 high-energy photons above 100 MeV. The likelihood analysis code provided by the Fermi Science Support Center generated an independent verification of this detection using a comparison of the test statistics value with similar calculations for random LAT data fields. We have performed detailed temporal and spectral analysis of photons from 8 keV up to 0.8 GeV from the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the LAT. The properties of GRB 081006A can be compared to those of the other two long-duration GRBs detected at similar significance, GRB 080825C and GRB 090217A. We find that GRB 081006A is more similar to GRB 080825C with comparable appearances of late high-energy photon emission. As demonstrated previously, there appears to be a surprising dearth of faint LAT GRBs, with only one additional GRB identified in a sample of 74. In this unique period when both Swift and Fermi are operational, there is some urgency to explore this aspect of GRBs as fully as possible.

  14. FAINT HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY PHOTON EMISSION OF GRB 081006A FROM FERMI OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; Pandey, Shashi B.; McKay, Timothy A. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing, E-mail: zwk@umich.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument has firmly detected more than 20 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV. Using the matched filter technique, three more GRBs have also shown evidence of correlation with high-energy photon emission as demonstrated by Akerlof et al. In this paper, we present another GRB, GRB 081006A, unambiguously detected by the matched filter technique. This event is associated with more than 13 high-energy photons above 100 MeV. The likelihood analysis code provided by the Fermi Science Support Center generated an independent verification of this detection using a comparison of the test statistics value with similar calculations for random LAT data fields. We have performed detailed temporal and spectral analysis of photons from 8 keV up to 0.8 GeV from the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the LAT. The properties of GRB 081006A can be compared to those of the other two long-duration GRBs detected at similar significance, GRB 080825C and GRB 090217A. We find that GRB 081006A is more similar to GRB 080825C with comparable appearances of late high-energy photon emission. As demonstrated previously, there appears to be a surprising dearth of faint LAT GRBs, with only one additional GRB identified in a sample of 74. In this unique period when both Swift and Fermi are operational, there is some urgency to explore this aspect of GRBs as fully as possible.

  15. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ding [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Wenying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  16. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis of titanium dioxide nanoparticle distribution after intravenous and subcutaneous injection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patri, Anil; Umbreit, Thomas; Zheng, J; Nagashima, K; Goering, Peter; Francke-Carroll, Sabine; Gordon, Edward; Weaver, James; Miller, Terry; Sadrieh, Nakissa; McNeil, Scott; Stratmeyer, Mel

    2009-11-01

    In an effort to understand the disposition and toxicokinetics of nanoscale materials, we used EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) to detect and map the distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in tissue sections from mice following either subcutaneous (s.c.) or intravenous (i.v.) injection. TiO2 nanoparticles were administered at a dose of 560 mg/kg (i.v.) or 5600 mg/kg (s.c.) to Balb/c female mice on two consecutive days. Tissues (liver, kidney, lung, heart, spleen, and brain) were examined by light microscopy, TEM (transmission electron microscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), and EDS following necropsy one day after treatment. Particle agglomerates were detected by light microscopy in all tissues examined, EDS microanalysis was used to confirm that these tissues contained elemental titanium and oxygen. The TEM micrographs and EDS spectra of the aggregates were compared with in vitro measurements of TiO2 nanoparticle injection solution (i.e., in water). The nanoparticles were also characterized using dynamic light scattering in water, 10 mM NaCl, and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). In low ionic strength solvents (water and 10 mM NaCl), the TiO2 particles had average hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 114-122 nm. In PBS, however, the average diameter increases to 1-2 microm, likely due to aggregation analogous to that observed in tissue by TEM and EDS. This investigation demonstrates the suitability of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for detection of nanoparticle aggregates in tissues and shows that disposition of TiO2 nanoparticles depends on the route of administration (i.v. or s.c.).

  17. Optical theorem for electromagnetic field scattering by dielectric structures and energy emission from the evanescent wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Barabanenkov, Yu N; Barabanenkov, M Yu; Nikitov, S A

    2005-08-01

    We present an optical theorem for evanescent (near field) electromagnetic wave scattering by a dielectric structure. The derivation is based on the formalism of angular spectrum wave amplitudes and block scattering matrix. The optical theorem shows that an energy flux is emitted in the direction of the evanescent wave decay upon scattering. The energy emission effect from an evanescent wave is illustrated in two examples of evanescent wave scattering, first, by the electrical dipole and, second, one-dimensional grating with line-like rulings. Within the latter example, we show that an emitted energy flux upon evanescent wave scattering can travel through a dielectric structure even if the structure has a forbidden gap in the transmission spectrum of incident propagating waves.

  18. Kinetic energy spectra in thermionic emission from small tungsten cluster anions: evidence for nonclassical electron capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concina, Bruno; Baguenard, Bruno; Calvo, Florent; Bordas, Christian

    2010-03-14

    The delayed electron emission from small mass-selected anionic tungsten clusters W(n)(-) has been studied for sizes in the range 9 < or = n < or = 21. Kinetic energy spectra have been measured for delays of about 100 ns after laser excitation by a velocity-map imaging spectrometer. They are analyzed in the framework of microreversible statistical theories. The low-energy behavior shows some significant deviations with respect to the classical Langevin capture model, which we interpret as possibly due to the influence of quantum dynamical effects such as tunneling through the centrifugal barrier, rather than shape effects. The cluster temperature has been extracted from both the experimental kinetic energy spectrum and the absolute decay rate. Discrepancies between the two approaches sugges