WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission control strategy

  1. Control strategies for nitrous oxide emissions reduction on wastewater treatment plants operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2017-11-15

    The present paper focused on reducing greenhouse gases emissions in wastewater treatment plants operation by application of suitable control strategies. Specifically, the objective is to reduce nitrous oxide emissions during the nitrification process. Incomplete nitrification in the aerobic tanks can lead to an accumulation of nitrite that triggers the nitrous oxide emissions. In order to avoid the peaks of nitrous oxide emissions, this paper proposes a cascade control configuration by manipulating the dissolved oxygen set-points in the aerobic tanks. This control strategy is combined with ammonia cascade control already applied in the literature. This is performed with the objective to take also into account effluent pollutants and operational costs. In addition, other greenhouse gases emissions sources are also evaluated. Results have been obtained by simulation, using a modified version of Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2, which takes into account greenhouse gases emissions. This is called Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 Gas. The results show that the proposed control strategies are able to reduce by 29.86% of nitrous oxide emissions compared to the default control strategy, while maintaining a satisfactory trade-off between water quality and costs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Equivalent Emission Minimization Strategy for Causal Optimal Control of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Zentner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges during the development of operating strategies for modern diesel engines is the reduction of the CO2 emissions, while complying with ever more stringent limits for the pollutant emissions. The inherent trade-off between the emissions of CO2 and pollutants renders a simultaneous reduction difficult. Therefore, an optimal operating strategy is sought that yields minimal CO2 emissions, while holding the cumulative pollutant emissions at the allowed level. Such an operating strategy can be obtained offline by solving a constrained optimal control problem. However, the final-value constraint on the cumulated pollutant emissions prevents this approach from being adopted for causal control. This paper proposes a framework for causal optimal control of diesel engines. The optimization problem can be solved online when the constrained minimization of the CO2 emissions is reformulated as an unconstrained minimization of the CO2 emissions and the weighted pollutant emissions (i.e., equivalent emissions. However, the weighting factors are not known a priori. A method for the online calculation of these weighting factors is proposed. It is based on the Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB equation and a physically motivated approximation of the optimal cost-to-go. A case study shows that the causal control strategy defined by the online calculation of the equivalence factor and the minimization of the equivalent emissions is only slightly inferior to the non-causal offline optimization, while being applicable to online control.

  3. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  4. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  5. Control strategies for vehicular NOx emissions in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Min; Zhang Yuanhang; Raufer, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Guangzhou is a city in southern China that has experienced very rapid economic development in recent years. The city's air has very high concentrations of various pollutants, including sulphur dioxide (SO 2 , oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone (O 3 ) and particulate. This paper reviews the changes in air quality in the city over the past 15 years, and notes that a serious vehicular-related emissions problem has been superimposed on the traditional coal-burning problem evident in most Chinese cities. As NOx concentrations have increased, oxidants and photochemical smog now interact with the traditional SO 2 and particulate pollutants, leading to increased health risks and other environmental concerns. Any responsible NOx control strategy for the city must include vehicle emission control measures. This paper reviews control strategies designed to abate vehicle emissions to fulfill the city's air quality improvement target in 2010. A cost-effectiveness analysis suggests that, while NOx emission control is expensive, vehicular emission standards could achieve a relatively sizable emissions reduction at reasonable cost. To achieve the 2010 air quality target of NOx, advanced implementation of EURO3 standards is recommended, substituting for the EURO2 currently envisioned in the national regulations Related technical options, including fuel quality improvements and inspection/maintenance (I/M) upgrades (ASM or IM240) are assessed as well. (author)

  6. A novel fuzzy-logic control strategy minimizing N2O emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-10-15

    A novel control strategy for achieving low N 2 O emissions and low effluent NH 4 + concentration is here proposed. The control strategy uses the measurements of ammonium and nitrate concentrations in inlet and outlet of the aerobic zone of a wastewater treatment plant to calculate a ratio indicating the balance among the microbial groups. More specifically, the ratio will indicate if there is a complete nitrification. In case nitrification is not complete, the controller will adjust the aeration level of the plant in order to inhibit the production of N 2 O from AOB and HB denitrification. The controller was implemented using the fuzzy logic approach. It was comprehensively tested for different model structures and different sets of model parameters with regards to its ability of mitigating N 2 O emissions for future applications in real wastewater treatment plants. It is concluded that the control strategy is useful for those plants having AOB denitrification as the main N 2 O producing process. However, in treatment plants having incomplete NH 2 OH oxidation as the main N 2 O producing pathway, a cascade controller configuration adapting the oxygen supply to respect only the effluent ammonium concentration limits was found to be more effective to ensure low N 2 O emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  8. The effects of emission control strategies on light-absorbing carbon emissions from a modern heavy-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Olson, Michael R; Liu, Z Gerald; Schauer, James J

    2015-06-01

    Control of atmospheric black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) has been proposed as an important pathway to climate change mitigation, but sources of BC and BrC are still not well understood. In order to better identify the role of modern heavy-duty diesel engines on the production of BC and BrC, emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine operating with different emission control strategies were examined using a source dilution sampling system. The effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) on light-absorbing carbon (LAC) was evaluated at three steady-state engine operation modes: idle, 50% speed and load, and 100% speed and load. LAC was measured with four different engine configurations: engine out, DOC out, DPF out, and engine out with an altered combustion calibration. BC and BrC emission rates were measured with the Aethalometer (AE-31). EC and BC emission rates normalized to the mass of CO₂emitted increased with increasing engine speed and load. Emission rates normalized to brake-specific work did not exhibit similar trends with speed and load, but rather the highest emission rate was measured at idle. EC and OC emissions were reduced by 99% when the DOC and DPF architecture was applied. The application of a DPF was equally effective at removing 99% of the BC fraction of PM, proving to be an important control strategy for both LAC and PM. BC emissions were unexpectedly increased across the DOC, seemingly due to a change aerosol optical properties. Removal of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow due to simulated EGR cooler failure caused a large increase in OC and BrC emission rates at idle, but had limited influence during high load operation. LAC emissions proved to be sensitive to the same control strategies effective at controlling the total mass of diesel PM. In the context of black carbon emissions, very small emission rates of brown carbon were measured over a range of control technologies and engine operating

  9. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  11. CO2 emission from China's energy sector and strategy for its control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jiankun; Deng, Jing; Su, Mingshan

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies the main features of CO 2 emission from fossil energy combustion in China. Then it estimates China's future energy requirements and projects its CO 2 emission from 2010 to 2020 based on the scenario analysis approach. China's rate of carbon productivity growth is estimated to be 5.4% in the period 2005-2020, while the CO 2 intensity of GDP will reduce by about 50% but CO 2 emission in 2020 will still be about 40% higher than prevailing in 2005 because of rapid growth of GDP. This estimation is based on the assumption that China will implement a sustainable development strategy in consideration of climate change issues. The main objectives of the strategy are to implement an 'energy conservation first' strategy, to develop renewable energy and advanced nuclear technology actively, to readjust the country's economic structure, and to formulate and legislate laws and regulations, and to build institutions for energy conservation and development of renewable energy. It concludes that international measures to mitigate CO 2 emission will limit world fossil fuel consumption. China is not placed to replicate the modernization model adopted by developed countries and has to coordinate economic development and carbon dioxide emission control while still in the process of industrialization and modernization. China has to evolve a low carbon industrialization model. This is the key to the success of sustainable development initiatives in China.

  12. Emission control strategies for short-chain chloroparaffins in two semi-hypothetical case cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, M.; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    The short-chain chloroparaffins (SCCP), (C10-13 chloroalkanes) are identified in the European Water Framework Directive, as priority hazardous substances. Within the ScorePP project, the aim is to develop emission control strategies that can be employed to reduce emissions from urban areas...... into receiving waters. Six different scenarios for mitigating SCCP emissions in two different semi-hypothetical case cities representing eastern inland and northern coastal conditions have been evaluated. The analysis, associated with scenario uncertainty, indicates that the EU legislation, Best Available...

  13. Automotive catalyst strategies for future emission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, W.B.; Summers, J.C.; Scaparo, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that while significant advances in Pt/Rh three-way catalyst (TWC) formulations have been accomplished, the use of Pd-containing catalysts for three-way emission control are of interest for overall noble metal cost reduction, lower Rh usage, and potential durability improvements. Applications of Pd are demonstrated for replacement of Pt in conventional Pt/Rh TWC systems, for use in Pd-only three-way catalysts and for lowering methanol and formaldehyde emissions at close-coupled locations on a methanol-fueled vehicle. The individual contributions of Pt, Pd and Rh for aged three-way performance indicate significant advantages of using Pd over Pt. A comparison of vehicle system control strategies illustrates that higher system temperatures significantly lower HC emissions, while air/fuel control strategies are most critical in lowering NO x emissions

  14. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NO x or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NO x emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20–50%) on NO x , VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3–1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NO x (85%) and SO 2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. -- Highlights: • Atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta is modeled and evaluated. • Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. • Sulfate aerosol will increase if only NO x emission is reduced. • The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility. -- Responses of visibility changes to various emission reduction scenarios are compared. The multi-pollutant control strategy is most efficient for improving visibility in YRD, China

  15. Strategies to control vehicular emissions: Indian scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virupaksha, T. [Central Institute of Road Transport, Pune (India)

    2002-07-01

    The paper presents a common urban transport policy framework to protect the local and global environment and a state-of-the-art review of recommendations and measures suggested by the local administration in Indian cities from time to time. The measures to combat pollution in urban areas is identified by different cities but there is no cohesive strategy for implementing them. The pursuit of some of these measures are that the haphazard and piecemeal measures have not helped to gain optimum benefit possible or to make a discernible impact on mobility demand and vehicular emissions. A more practical strategy is required to reduce both emission and congestion, using a mixed set of instruments. The instruments are taxes on fuels, vehicles, and parking, incentives and regulations affecting vehicle ownership, usage and movement, traffic management more importantly encouraging non-motorized transport like bicycles by providing suitable lanes. Some of the policy measures seriously needed to be implemented to reduce ongoing pollution menace are enforcing higher maintenance standards, introducing vehicles designed to meet stricter emission standards, retrofitting vehicles to use other kinds of clean fuel, reducing urban congestion through transport management measures, scrapping highly polluting and high usage vehicles, and strengthening institutional links and regulatory issues. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  17. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  18. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies ...... evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.......The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies...

  19. Strategies for decreasing nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oenema, O. [AB-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1999-08-01

    Following the Kyoto Conference of 1997, declaring the urgency of implementing strategies for decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there are several valid arguments to examine the opportunities for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture. This paper provides a review of the state-of-the-art of emission reduction, discusses two strategies for decreasing emissions and identifies various gaps in current knowledge in this field and the need for relevant scientific research. The two strategies discussed are (1) increasing the nitrogen use efficiency toward the goal of lowering total nitrogen input, and (2) decreasing the release of nitrous oxide per unit of nitrogen from the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Increasing nitrogen use efficiency is thought to be the most effective strategy. To that end, the paper discusses several practical actions and measures based on decisions at tactical and operational management levels. Knowledge gaps identified include (1) incomplete understanding of nitrogen cycling in farming systems, (2) incomplete quantitative understanding of emission controlling factors, (3) information gap between science and policy, and (4) information gap between science and practice. Appropriate research needs are suggested for each of these areas. It is suggested that the highest priority should be given to improving the understanding of emission controlling factors in the field and on the farm. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Integrated Emission Management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  1. Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewalla, Umesh

    Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to another in trucks, trailers or shipping containers. The TRUs typically use an internal combustion engine to power the compressor of the refrigeration unit. In the United States TRUs are most commonly powered by diesel engines which vary from 9 to 40 horsepower. TRUs are capable of both heating and cooling. The TRU engines are relatively small, inexpensive and do not use emissions reduction techniques such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A significant number of these engines operate in highly populated areas like distribution centers, truck stops, and other facilities which make them one of the potential causes for health risks to the people who live and work nearby. Diesel particulate matter (PM) is known for its adverse effects on both human beings and the environment. Considering these effects, regulatory bodies have imposed limitations on the PM emissions from a TRU engine. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the regulated emissions from a TRU engine under both engine out and particulate filter system out conditions during pre-durability (when the filter system was new) and post-durability test (after the filter system was subjected to 1000 hours in-field trial). The verification program was performed by the Center for Alternative Fuel, Engines and Emissions (CAFEE) at West Virginia University (WVU). In this program, a catalyzed silicon carbide (SiC) diesel particulate filter (DPF) was evaluated and verified as a Level-3 Verified Diesel Emissions Control Strategy (VDECS) (. 85% PM reduction) under California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations 2702 [1]. The emissions result showed that the filter system reduced diesel PM by a percentage of 96 +/- 1 over ISO 8178-C1 [2] cycle and 92 +/- 5 over EPA TRU [3] cycle, qualifying as a Level 3 VDECS. The percentage

  2. Reactivity-based industrial volatile organic compounds emission inventory and its implications for ozone control strategies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jiani; Shi, Tianli; Sun, Xibo; Fan, Liya; Wang, Liming; Ye, Daiqi

    2017-08-01

    Increasingly serious ozone (O3) pollution, along with decreasing NOx emission, is creating a big challenge in the control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in China. More efficient and effective measures are assuredly needed for controlling VOCs. In this study, a reactivity-based industrial VOCs emission inventory was established in China based on the concept of ozone formation potential (OFP). Key VOCs species, major VOCs sources, and dominant regions with high reactivity were identified. Our results show that the top 15 OFP-based species, including m/p-xylene, toluene, propene, o-xylene, and ethyl benzene, contribute 69% of the total OFP but only 30% of the total emission. The architectural decoration industry, oil refinery industry, storage and transport, and seven other sources constituted the top 10 OFP subsectors, together contributing a total of 85%. The provincial and spatial characteristics of OFP are generally consistent with those of mass-based inventory. The implications for O3 control strategies in China are discussed. We propose a reactivity-based national definition of VOCs and low-reactive substitution strategies, combined with evaluations of health risks. Priority should be given to the top 15 or more species with high reactivity through their major emission sources. Reactivity-based policies should be flexibly applied for O3 mitigation based on the sensitivity of O3 formation conditions.

  3. Carbon emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to address a fundamental issue: the cost of slowing climate change. Experts in eight nations were asked to evaluate, using the best economic models available, the prospects for reducing fossil fuel-based carbon emissions in their respective nations. The nations selected as case studies include: the Soviet Union, Poland, the United States, Japan, Hungary, France, the United Kingdom, and Canada. As important contributors to the greenhouse effect, these industrialized nations must find ways to substantially reduce their emissions. This is especially critical given that developing nations' emissions are expected to rise in the coming decades in the search for economic development. Ten papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  4. Evaluation of emission control strategies to reduce ozone pollution in the Paso del Norte region using a photochemical air quality modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Victor Hugo

    Air pollution emissions control strategies to reduce ozone precursor pollutants are analyzed by applying a photochemical modeling system. Simulations of air quality conditions during an ozone episode which occurred in June, 2006 are undertaken by increasing or reducing area source emissions in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Two air pollutants are primary drivers in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) undergo multiple chemical reactions under favorable meteorological conditions to form ozone, which is a secondary pollutant that irritates respiratory systems in sensitive individuals especially the elderly and young children. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to limit ambient air pollutants such as ozone by establishing an 8-hour average concentration of 0.075 ppm as the threshold at which a violation of the standard occurs. Ozone forms primarily due reactions in the troposphere of NOx and VOC emissions generated primarily by anthropogenic sources in urban regions. Data from emissions inventories indicate area sources account for ˜15 of NOx and ˜45% of regional VOC emissions. Area sources include gasoline stations, automotive paint bodyshops and nonroad mobile sources. Multiplicity of air pollution emissions sources provides an opportunity to investigate and potentially implement air quality improvement strategies to reduce emissions which contribute to elevated ozone concentrations. A baseline modeling scenario was established using the CAMx photochemical air quality model from which a series of sensitivity analyses for evaluating air quality control strategies were conducted. Modifications to area source emissions were made by varying NOx and / or VOC emissions in the areas of particular interest. Model performance was assessed for each sensitivity analysis. Normalized bias (NB) and normalized error (NE) were used to identify

  5. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock ampersand Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA's) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation's abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock ampersand Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of

  6. Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy for the Control of Real Driving NOx Emissions of a Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Nüesch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the fact that the real driving NOx emissions (RDE of conventional diesel vehicles can exceed the legislation norms by far, a concept for the control of RDE with a diesel parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV is proposed. By extending the well-known equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS, the power split degree of freedom is used to control the NOx emissions and the battery state of charge (SOC simultaneously. Through an appropriate formulation of the problem, the feedback control is shown to be separable into two dependent PI controllers. By hardware-in-the-loop (HIL experiments, as well as by simulations, the proposed method is shown to minimize the fuel consumption while tracking a given reference trajectory for both the NOx emissions and the battery SOC.

  7. Simple control strategy for mitigating N2O emissions in phase isolated full-scale WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekström, Sara Elisabet Margareta; Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Lemaire, Romain

    2017-01-01

    removal processes relying on nitrification and denitrification are known to produce N2O. A one year long-term study of N2O production and emissions was performed at Lynetten, Denmark’s largest WWTP. Nitrification and denitrification takes place by alternating process conditions as well as influent....... Nitrification phases were identified to produce and emit most of the N2O. High production and emissions were also associated with the afternoon loading peaks at the WWTP. During denitrification phases N2O was produced initially but consumed consequently. An effective control strategy was implemented, whereby N2...

  8. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  9. Role of sectoral and multi-pollutant emission control strategies in improving atmospheric visibility in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S; Gao, Yang; Dong, Xinyi; Zhuang, Guoshun; Lin, Yanfen

    2014-01-01

    The Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system is used to investigate the response of atmospheric visibility to the emission reduction from different sectors (i.e. industries, traffic and power plants) in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Visibility improvement from exclusive reduction of NOx or VOC emission was most inefficient. Sulfate and organic aerosol would rebound if NOx emission was exclusively reduced from any emission sector. The most efficient way to improve the atmospheric visibility was proven to be the multi-pollutant control strategies. Simultaneous emission reductions (20-50%) on NOx, VOC and PM from the industrial and mobile sectors could result in 0.3-1.0 km visibility improvement. And the emission controls on both NOx (85%) and SO2 (90%) from power plants gained the largest visibility improvement of up to 4.0 km among all the scenarios. The seasonal visibility improvement subject to emission controls was higher in summer while lower in the other seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri; 2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain))" data-affiliation=" (ICRA, Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, H2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain))" >Corominas, Lluís; Gernaey, Krist V.; Guo, Lisha; Lindblom, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO 2 emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N 2 O emissions, especially since N 2 O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO 2 . The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. - Graphical abstract: The 3-D representation of effluent quality (EQI), operational cost (OCI) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the evaluation of several (plant-wide) control/operational strategies: (1) modification of the DO set point, (2) modification of the primary clarifier TSS removal efficiency and (3) modification of the anaerobic

  11. Balancing effluent quality, economic cost and greenhouse gas emissions during the evaluation of (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in WWTPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Center for Process Engineering and Technology (PROCESS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Arnell, Magnus [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); CIT Urban Water Management, Gjuterigatan 1D, SE-582 73 Linköping (Sweden); Amerlinck, Youri [BIOMATH, Department of Mathematical Modelling, Statistics and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Corominas, Lluís [ICRA, Catalan Institute for Water Research, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, H_2O Building, Emili Grahit 101, 17003 Girona (Spain); Gernaey, Krist V. [Center for Process Engineering and Technology (PROCESS), Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 229, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Guo, Lisha [ModelEAU, Département de génie civil et de génie des eaux, Université Laval, 1065 Avenue de la Médecine, Québec G1V 0A6, QC (Canada); Lindblom, Erik [Division of Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation (IEA), Department of Measurement Technology and Industrial Electrical Engineering (MIE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Sweco Environment, Gjörwellsgatan 22, SE-100 26 Stockholm (Sweden); and others

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to show the potential additional insight that result from adding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to plant performance evaluation criteria, such as effluent quality (EQI) and operational cost (OCI) indices, when evaluating (plant-wide) control/operational strategies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The proposed GHG evaluation is based on a set of comprehensive dynamic models that estimate the most significant potential on-site and off-site sources of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. The study calculates and discusses the changes in EQI, OCI and the emission of GHGs as a consequence of varying the following four process variables: (i) the set point of aeration control in the activated sludge section; (ii) the removal efficiency of total suspended solids (TSS) in the primary clarifier; (iii) the temperature in the anaerobic digester; and (iv) the control of the flow of anaerobic digester supernatants coming from sludge treatment. Based upon the assumptions built into the model structures, simulation results highlight the potential undesirable effects of increased GHG production when carrying out local energy optimization of the aeration system in the activated sludge section and energy recovery from the AD. Although off-site CO{sub 2} emissions may decrease, the effect is counterbalanced by increased N{sub 2}O emissions, especially since N{sub 2}O has a 300-fold stronger greenhouse effect than CO{sub 2}. The reported results emphasize the importance and usefulness of using multiple evaluation criteria to compare and evaluate (plant-wide) control strategies in a WWTP for more informed operational decision making. - Graphical abstract: The 3-D representation of effluent quality (EQI), operational cost (OCI) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) during the evaluation of several (plant-wide) control/operational strategies: (1) modification of the DO set point, (2) modification of the primary clarifier TSS removal efficiency and (3

  12. 40 CFR 52.1582 - Control strategy and regulations: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Ozone... Control strategy and regulations: Ozone. (a) Subchapter 16 of the New Jersey Administrative Code, entitled... demonstration that emissions from growth in vehicle miles traveled will not increase motor vehicle emissions and...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1982 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1982... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1982 Control strategy... emission control equipment, selected from a specific list on file at DEQ, is in place and operating...

  14. Speciated OVOC and VOC emission inventories and their implications for reactivity-based ozone control strategy in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Junyu; Li, Rongrong; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhong, Zhuangmin; Zhong, Liuju; Lin, Hui

    2015-10-15

    The increasing ground-ozone (O3) levels, accompanied by decreasing SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations benefited from air pollution control measures implemented in recent years, initiated a serious challenge to control Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. Speciated VOC emission inventory is fundamental for estimating Ozone Formation Potentials (OFPs) to identify key reactive VOC species and sources in order to formulate efficient O3 control strategies. With the use of the latest bulk VOC emission inventory and local source profiles, this study developed the PRD regional speciated Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compound (OVOC) and VOC emission inventories to identify the key emission-based and OFP-based VOC sources and species. Results showed that: (1) Methyl alcohol, acetone and ethyl acetate were the major constituents in the OVOC emissions from industrial solvents, household solvents, architectural paints and biogenic sources; (2) from the emission-based perspective, aromatics, alkanes, OVOCs and alkenes made up 39.2%, 28.2%, 15.9% and 10.9% of anthropogenic VOCs; (3) from the OFP-based perspective, aromatics and alkenes become predominant with contributions of 59.4% and 25.8% respectively; (4) ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and other 24 high OFP-contributing species were the key reactive species that contributed to 52% of anthropogenic emissions and up to 80% of OFPs; and (5) industrial solvents, industrial process, gasoline vehicles and motorcycles were major emission sources of these key reactive species. Policy implications for O3 control strategy were discussed. The OFP cap was proposed to regulate VOC control policies in the PRD region due to its flexibility in reducing the overall OFP of VOC emission sources in practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound emissions from the polyvinyl chloride wallpaper production industry in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Tang; Chiou, Chyow-Shan

    2006-05-01

    This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of control strategies for reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wallpaper production industry. In Taiwan, methyl ethyl ketone, TOL, and cyclohexanone have comprised the major content of solvents, accounting for approximately 113,000 t/yr to avoid excessive viscosity of plasticizer dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and to increase facility in working. Emissions of these VOCs from solvents have caused serious odor and worse air quality problems. In this study, 80 stacks in five factories were tested to evaluate emission characteristics at each VOC source. After examining the VOC concentrations in the flue gases and contents, the VOC emission rate before treatment and from fugitive sources was 93,000 and 800 t/yr, respectively. In this study, the semiwet electrostatic precipitator is recommended for use as cost-effective control equipment.

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  17. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO 2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO 2 emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country

  18. Role of photoexcited nitrogen dioxide chemistry on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new hydroxyl radical formation pathway via photo-excited nitrogen dioxide chemistry is incorporated into a chemistry-only box model as well as a 3D air quality model to examine its potential role on ozone formation and emission control strategy over the Pearl River Delta region...

  19. Energy-related carbon dioxide emissions: control targets and long term policy strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, E.

    1993-01-01

    A number of countries have unilaterally committed themselves to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. Other countries have resisted such commitments; they prefer to engage in further climate research to determine the extent of any emissions reduction that may be necessary before committing themselves to significant costs to implement controls. This paper examines the costs of alternative policies including immediate action to limit emissions and climate research followed by controls if necessary. (Author)

  20. Extreme value analysis for evaluating ozone control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Brian; Cooley, Daniel; Foley, Kristen; Napelenok, Sergey; Shaby, Benjamin

    2013-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of six criteria pollutants regulated by the US EPA, and has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular endpoints and adverse effects on vegetation and ecosystems. Regional photochemical models have been developed to study the impacts of emission reductions on ozone levels. The standard approach is to run the deterministic model under new emission levels and attribute the change in ozone concentration to the emission control strategy. However, running the deterministic model requires substantial computing time, and this approach does not provide a measure of uncertainty for the change in ozone levels. Recently, a reduced form model (RFM) has been proposed to approximate the complex model as a simple function of a few relevant inputs. In this paper, we develop a new statistical approach to make full use of the RFM to study the effects of various control strategies on the probability and magnitude of extreme ozone events. We fuse the model output with monitoring data to calibrate the RFM by modeling the conditional distribution of monitoring data given the RFM using a combination of flexible semiparametric quantile regression for the center of the distribution where data are abundant and a parametric extreme value distribution for the tail where data are sparse. Selected parameters in the conditional distribution are allowed to vary by the RFM value and the spatial location. Also, due to the simplicity of the RFM, we are able to embed the RFM in our Bayesian hierarchical framework to obtain a full posterior for the model input parameters, and propagate this uncertainty to the estimation of the effects of the control strategies. We use the new framework to evaluate three potential control strategies, and find that reducing mobile-source emissions has a larger impact than reducing point-source emissions or a combination of several emission sources.

  1. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key

  2. Control of volatile organic compound emissions: the issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, M.; Marlowe, I.

    1989-11-01

    This review paper outlines the problems caused by the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which are causing increasing concern because of their part in the formation of photochemical oxidation that causes damage to crops and vegetation and because of the toxic and climatic effects. It briefly summarises current knowledge of VOC emissions and their effects and then suggests options for abatement of VOC emissions in the UK and the EEC. A comparison of anthropogenic VOC emission in the UK and the EEC from various sources is given. Further information is needed on current emissions, on the costs and efficiencies of control technologies and on the effects of control on industry before decisions can be made on the suitability, extent and strategy to control VOC emissions in the UK. The report was prepared for the UK Department of Trade and Industry (Headquarters).

  3. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  5. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  6. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: emissions, costs and employment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO 2 emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: (1) accurately models random outages of generating units, 'must-run' constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and (2) runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emission trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable

  7. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  8. Current Status of Air Toxics Management and Its Strategies for Controlling Emissions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics, have been of great concern because they can cause serious human health effects and have adverse effects on the environment. More noticeably, some of them are known to be human carcinogens. The objective of this paper is to investigate the regulatory systems and human health effects of air toxics which have been designated by the Taiwan government under the Air Pollution Control Act. These toxic air pollutants include acutely toxic gas (i.e., ammonia, chlorine, fluorides, hydrochloric acid, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid, gas containing heavy metals, and carcinogenic chemicals (including formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, asbestos and matter containing asbestos, dioxins and furans, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In line with international concern about the carcinogenic risk and environmental persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs and heavy metals in recent years, the current status in monitoring and reducing the emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs from stationary sources was analyzed as a case study in the present study. Furthermore, the control strategies for reducing emissions of air toxics from stationary sources in Taiwan were also addressed.

  9. 40 CFR 52.2585 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2585... strategy: Ozone. (a) Disapproval—On November 6, 1986, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources... would not be necessary to offset growth in emissions. (h) Approval—On November 15, 1993, the Wisconsin...

  10. Making of Croatian Low-Emission Development Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, B.; Herencic, L.; Kordic, Z.; Pasicko, R.; Vlasic, S.

    2012-01-01

    A Low-Emission Development Strategy (LEDS) is a national, high-level, comprehensive, long-term strategy, developed by domestic stakeholders, which aims at decoupling economic growth and social development from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth. Croatia has begun to join the growing list of countries in the world that have already developed a long-term strategy for low-emissions development and thereby take the road of sustainable development. The 16th Conference of the Parties'' (COP), held in Cancun in December 2010, adopted the Cancun Agreements - a historic set of decisions laying the foundation to tackle climate change through a new post-2012 regime. The Cancun Agreements ''encourages governments to prepare low-carbon development strategies in the context of sustainable development.'' and ''realizes that addressing climate change requires a paradigm shift towards building a low-carbon society that offers substantial opportunities and ensures continued high growth and sustainable development''. Recently the European Commission adopted a Roadmap for transforming the European Union into a competitive low carbon economy by 2050. The Roadmap describes the cost-effective pathway to reach the EU's objective of cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% of 1990 levels by 2050. On the domestic level, the LEDS is a country-driven policy instrument for national decision making. The LEDS supports sector transformation through a national, economy-wide approach. On the international level, LEDS support the global goal of GHG emission reduction. The Croatian Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection in cooperation with United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Croatia will design and implement the Low-Emissions Development Strategy (LEDS) under project titled ''Supporting RBEC countries transition to low-emission development''. The LEDS merges climate change action with national sustainable development and helps to identify and prioritize nationally appropriate

  11. Control strategies for reducing consumption and pollutant emission on isolated junctions: field results; Enjeux de la regulation aux carrefours pour reduire la consommation et la polution: resultats experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midenet, S.; Boillot, F.; Pierrelee, J.C. [Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite, INRETS, Lab. Genie des Reseaux de Transports et Informatique Avancee, GRETIA, 94 - Arcueil (France)

    2000-07-01

    We present experimental results dealing with traffic light control strategies for reducing CO{sub 2} emission and fuel consumption on isolated intersection. The experimental site, located near Paris, is a 400 meter area centred on an isolated junction that has been equipped with video sensors (for queue lengths and other spatial traffic measurements). A complete control device enables to actually control the junction traffic lights from our INRETS laboratory. A model has been designed to estimate emission and consumption mean costs based on video traffic measurements. The model's coefficients have been calibrated with real life kinematics profiles and corresponding instantaneous emission measurements, provided by INRETS-LTE; we ended up with coefficients for diesel, catalyst gasoline and non-catalyst gasoline passenger cars. An 8 months experimental period in 1998-1999 led to constitute a large database of one-hour traffic measurement samples, that cover the usual traffic condition ranges for each strategy applied on field. The consumption and emission costs for each strategy, along with comparative benefits have been computed on this basis. We show that the CRONOS adaptive real-time strategy based on waiting time minimization leads to important benefits on the part of the cost that is related to stops and waiting time: 14 % on average for CO{sub 2} emission. This benefit remains significant on the total cost (around 4 % for CO{sub 2}) and noticeable whatever the traffic conditions. (authors)

  12. The role of transportation control measures in California's air pollution control strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guensler, R.; Burmich, P.; Geraghty, A.

    1992-01-01

    In California, significant progress has been made to control emissions from industrial sources as well as from motor vehicles. Nonetheless, policy analysts still debate over whether it makes sense to control motor vehicle emissions through legislated reductions in vehicle use, especially when new vehicle emission standards are becoming even more stringent in California. In this paper, the emission reduction benefits of California's new low-emission vehicles and clean fuels program are reviewed. The air quality management plans of three major metropolitan areas in California are examined, to identify emission reductions needed to meet federal and state air quality standards. For each of these three areas, emission reductions expected from transportation control measure implementation are presented. Then, the extent to which the reductions are open-quotes significantclose quotes and relied upon in each of the local attainment efforts is analyzed. The emission reductions expected from the stringent exhaust emission standards of California's new low-emission vehicles and clean fuels program will not be sufficient to meet mandated clean air standards in the study areas. Based upon our review, transportation control measures appear to be necessary components of the air quality management plans in California's major metropolitan areas. The paper concludes that cost-effective transportation control measures (TCMs) will be needed as a complementary strategy to California's stringent tail-pipe standards in moderate to extreme nonattainment areas

  13. Model-based comparison of strategies for reduction of stormwater micropollutant emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    to improve the recipient quality by reducing the fluxes of heavy metals (copper, zinc) and organic compounds (fluoranthene) to natural waters. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data. When comparing the different control strategies, the integrated model showed the greater benefits......Strategies for reduction of micropollutant (MP) emissions from stormwater systems require the comparison of different scenarios including source control, end-of-pipe treatment, or their combination. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools for this comparison, as they can integrate...... the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns and evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements, was used to evaluate 6 different strategies...

  14. Using satellite data to guide emission control strategies for surface ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Surface ozone (O3) has adverse effects on public health, agriculture and ecosystems. As a secondary pollutant, ozone is not emitted directly. Ozone forms from two classes of precursors: NOx and VOCs. We use satellite observations of formaldehyde (a marker of VOCs) and NO2 (a marker of NOx) to identify areas which would benefit more from reducing NOx emissions (NOx-limited) versus areas where reducing VOC emissions would lead to lower ozone (VOC-limited). We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to develop a set of threshold values that separate the NOx-limited and VOC-limited conditions. Combining these threshold values with a decadal record of satellite observations, we find that U.S. cities (e.g. New York, Chicago) have shifted from VOC-limited to NOx-limited ozone production regimes in the warm season. This transition reflects the NOx emission controls implemented over the past decade. Increasing NOx sensitivity implies that regional NOx emission control programs will improve O3 air quality more now than it would have a decade ago.

  15. Use of the Edmonds-Reilly Model to model energy-sector impacts of greenhouse gas emissions control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barns, D.W.; Edmonds, J.A.; Reilly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the results of our application of the Edmonds-Reilly Model (ERM) using several scenarios provided in connection with the 1991 Energy Modeling Forum (EMF). The purpose of this session of the forum is to compare the efforts of several modeling teams using common assumptions to examine the energy sector impacts of strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions. Because the output of this exercise is data-rich, most of this exposition is in graphical form with the narrative serving mainly as a roadmap for moving from one highlight to the next. The following sessions briefly describe the model and some of the special modifications made for this effort. The case-by-case discussion is contained in Section IV, followed by a summary of the potential pitfalls involved in attempting to assess the cost of emissions reduction from the model data

  16. Effect of different dietary strategies on gas emissions and growth performance in post- weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Montalvo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary strategies in post-weaned piglets on gas emissions and animal performance. Eighty piglets were allotted in ten environmentally-controlled chambers. Piglets were fed with five different isoenergetic diets: control, low protein (LP, inclusion of sugar beet pulp (SBP, addition of benzoic acid (BA and a combination of LP, SBP and BA (LP+SBP+BA. The gases analyzed were ammonia (NH3, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2. For NH3, the most effective treatment was LP, with a reduction of 61%. The LP+SBP+BA reduced NH3 emission by 51%, the inclusion of SBP by 43% and the least effective technique was BA, which decreased by 9.5%, compared to control. The CH4 emission was reduced by 30% for LP, but was increased by 23% for SBP and 24.6% for LP+SBP+BA. Benzoic acid did not differ from control group. The N2O emission did not show statistically differences, and CO2 and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq emission increased with LP+SBP+BA (14 and 15% respectively, but were not affected by other diets. No effect of dietary treatment was observed on the growth performances compared with control group (p >0.05. We can conclude that the best technique to reduce NH3 emission was LP. Inclusion of SBP decreases NH3 emission, but can increase greenhouse gas emissions. It would be interesting to evaluate the effect of higher percentages of BA because the promising results. Combining techniques is not a good strategy to obtain an additive effect in gas emissions reduction.

  17. UK company strategies in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Bentley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a number of large UK companies’ strategies in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 in their supply chain operations. In-depth interviews were conducted with logistics/supply chain (SC managers across different sectors. The research identified the main CO2 reduction strategies, and examined these in the light of existing literature in the research domain. One of the key findings was that there was a strong tension between cost reduction (identified as the major driver for reducing CO2 and lack of resources (the main barrier. It was also found that most CO2 reduction strategies had started only fairly recently, and so far, were mainly operational and tactical in nature. This study makes an empirical contribution to a better understanding of how companies form their CO2 reduction strategies in response to environmental pressures. It has implications for policy makers in terms of how to motivate logistics/SC managers to implement strategies to reduce the environmental impact of CO2 emissions in their business operations. Therefore, it is recommended that logistics/SC managers develop and implement practical initiatives and strategies to reduce CO2 emissions, and to embed these into corporate strategy.

  18. Emissions control of volatile organic compounds in petroleum industry; Controle de emissoes de compostos organicos volateis na industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierres, Ricardo; Moreira, Andrea Cristina de Castro Araujo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). P e D de Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel (PDEDS)

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds are among the most common pollutants emitted by refining processes. The sources of these emissions should be controlled for preserving the ambient air quality. This article outlines the main factors to be considered for defining an effective emissions control strategy and compares the major characteristics of the available control technologies. (author)

  19. Emission operational strategy for combined cooling, heating, and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumo, Nelson; Mago, Pedro J.; Chamra, Louay M.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Energy Systems (IES), as technology that use thermal activated components to recover waste heat, are energy systems that offer key solution to global warming and energy security through high overall energy efficiency and better fuel use. Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP) Systems are IES that use recovered thermal energy from the prime mover to produce heating and cooling for the building. The CCHP operational strategy is critical and it has to be considered in a well designed system since it defines the ultimate goal for the benefits expected from the system. One of the most common operational strategies is the cost-oriented strategy, which allows the system to operate at the lowest cost. A primary energy strategy (PES) optimizes energy consumption instead of cost. However, as a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have gained a lot of interest. Therefore, for a CCHP system, an emission strategy (ES) would be an operational strategy oriented to minimize emission of pollutants. In this study, the use of an ES is proposed for CCHP systems targeted to reduce emission of pollutants. The primary energy consumption (PEC) reduction and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission reduction obtained using the proposed ES are compared with results obtained from the use of a PES. Results show that lower emission of CO 2 is achieved with the ES when compared with the PES, which prove the advantage of the ES for the design of CCHP systems targeted to emissions reduction.

  20. Ozone modeling for compliance planning: A synopsis of ''The Use of Photochemical Air Quality Models for Evaluating Emission Control Strategies: A Synthesis Report''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, C.L.

    1992-12-01

    The 1990 federal Clean Air Act Amendments require that many nonattainment areas use gridded, photochemical air quality models to develop compliance plans for meeting the ambient ozone standard. Both industry and regulatory agencies will need to consider explicitly the strengths and limitations of the models. Photochemical air quality models constitute the principal tool available for evaluating the relative effectiveness of alternative emission control strategies. Limitations in the utility of modeling results stem from the uncertainty and bias of predictions for modeled episodes, possible compensating errors, limitations in the number of modeled episodes, and incompatibility between deterministic model predictions and the statistical form of the air quality standard for ozone. If emissions estimates (including naturally produced ''biogenic'' emissions) are accurate, intensive aerometric data are available, and an evaluation of performance (including diagnostic evaluations) is successfully completed, gridded photochemical airquality models can determine (1) the types of emission controls - VOC, NO x , or both - that would be most effective for reducing ozone concentrations, and (2) the approximate magnitudes - to within about 20--40% - of the estimated ozone reductions

  1. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  2. Characterization of in-use light-duty gasoline vehicle emissions by remote sensing in Beijing: impact of recent control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Fu, Lixin; Cheng, Linglin

    2007-09-01

    China's national government and Beijing city authorities have adopted additional control measures to reduce the negative impact of vehicle emissions on Beijing's air quality. An evaluation of the effectiveness of these measures may provide guidance for future vehicle emission control strategy development. In-use emissions from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) were investigated at five sites in Beijing with remote sensing instrumentation. Distance-based mass emission factors were derived with fuel consumption modeled on real world data. The results show that the recently implemented aggressive control strategies are significantly reducing the emissions of on-road vehicles. Older vehicles are contributing substantially to the total fleet emissions. An earlier program to retrofit pre-Euro cars with three-way catalysts produced little emission reduction. The impact of model year and driving conditions on the average mass emission factors indicates that the durability of vehicles emission controls may be inadequate in Beijing.

  3. Acidification policy - control of acidifying emissions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerer, B.

    1992-01-01

    Since the mid-eighties total annual acidifying emissions have started to decline in West Germany. There was considerable impact on this positive trend in air pollution by the control of SO 2 and NO x emissions from large boilers, which were reduced by more than 80%. Corresponding control programmes have been established for other groups of sources as well as other pollutants and - with unification - for East Germany. The driving force behind this development was and still is first of all the legal principle of anticipatory action or precaution which means in practical terms 'emission minimization'. This cornerstone of German clean air legislation is the most powerful components of Germany's 'acidification policy', as it requires policy-makers to draw up new or review existing regulations for emission reduction based on requirements according to the state of the art and forces operators to apply the most modern ways and means of operation. This paper describes the system used in Germany to deal with air pollution, the emission minimization strategy, and the actions against acidifying emissions based thereon. In addition, an outlook on what might be necessary to cope with the challenges of a sustainable development concerning acidification is given. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Development of predictive control strategies for building climate control

    OpenAIRE

    NAGPAL, HIMANSHU

    2018-01-01

    APPROVED The rapid growth in energy usage and CO2 emissions has become a critical issue for the whole world. It is noteworthy that buildings are a major contributor to global primary energy consumption. Among building services, use of energy in heating-ventilation-air-conditioning (HVAC) system is particularly significant (about 50\\% of the total building energy consumption). Therefore, the development and implementation of effective control strategies to optimize the operation of HVAC sys...

  5. Plant-wide modelling and control of nitrous oxide emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouses gas with a global warming potential three hundred times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2). The IPCC report released in 2014 shows that the CO2 equivalents emitted from the wastewater systems are increasing in the last decades. It was also estimated that 14......% of those CO2 equivalents comes from N2O emissions. It becomes therefore relevant, within the context of reducing the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment (WWT) systems, to develop control strategies aimed at the minimization of the emissions of this gas. Till now, few operation strategies have been....... To avoid poor performance behaviour due to intuitive design, a systematic procedure for the design of fuzzy-logic controllers is developed using a partial nitritation/Anammox system as application case. The same systematic methodology is then adopted to tune the fuzzy-logic controller for low N2O emissions...

  6. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  7. Emission characteristics of plastic syringes sterilized with ethylene oxide--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Su, Po-Chi; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Chen, Chang-Yuh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the emission characteristics of ethylene oxide (EO)-sterilized syringes under various environmental conditions, aiming to develop control strategies to minimize worker exposure. Experiments were performed in a facility in which temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air change rate (ACR) were controlled. Analytical results indicate that the main effects of the four test variables on kinetic parameters were statistically significant (p Plastic content, temperature, RH, and ACR affected EO emissions. ACR is an achievable means of control; however, the aeration area/system should be isolated to ensure adequate ventilation is achieved.

  8. Optimal control applied to the control strategy of a parallel hybrid vehicle; Commande optimale appliquee a la strategie de commande d'un vehicule hybride parallele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delprat, S.; Guerra, T.M. [Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, LAMIH UMR CNRS 8530, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Rimaux, J. [PSA Peugeot Citroen, DRIA/SARA/EEES, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France); Paganelli, G. [Center for Automotive Research, Ohio (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Control strategies are algorithms that calculate the power repartition between the engine and the motor of an hybrid vehicle in order to minimize the fuel consumption and/or emissions. Some algorithms are devoted to real time application whereas others are designed for global optimization in stimulation. The last ones provide solutions which can be used to evaluate the performances of a given hybrid vehicle or a given real time control strategy. The control strategy problem is firstly written into the form of an optimization under constraints problem. A solution based on optimal control is proposed. Results are given for the European Normalized Cycle and a parallel single shaft hybrid vehicle built at the LAMIH (France). (authors)

  9. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  10. Fuzzy logic for plant-wide control of biological wastewater treatment process including greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, I; Barbu, M; Pedret, C; Vilanova, R

    2018-06-01

    The application of control strategies is increasingly used in wastewater treatment plants with the aim of improving effluent quality and reducing operating costs. Due to concerns about the progressive growth of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), these are also currently being evaluated in wastewater treatment plants. The present article proposes a fuzzy controller for plant-wide control of the biological wastewater treatment process. Its design is based on 14 inputs and 6 outputs in order to reduce GHG emissions, nutrient concentration in the effluent and operational costs. The article explains and shows the effect of each one of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller, as well as the relationship between them. Benchmark Simulation Model no 2 Gas is used for testing the proposed control strategy. The results of simulation results show that the fuzzy controller is able to reduce GHG emissions while improving, at the same time, the common criteria of effluent quality and operational costs. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementation of an optimal control energy management strategy in a hybrid truck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullem, D. van; Keulen, T. van; Kessels, J.T.B.A.; Jager, B. de; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Energy Management Strategies for hybrid powertrains control the power split, between the engine and electric motor, of a hybrid vehicle, with fuel consumption or emission minimization as objective. Optimal control theory can be applied to rewrite the optimization problem to an optimization

  12. Ozone and its potential control strategy for Chon Buri city, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabamroong, Thayukorn; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Limpaseni, Wongpun; Sukhapan, Jariya; Bonnet, Sebastien

    2012-12-01

    This work studies O3 pollution for Chon Buri city in the eastern region of Thailand, where O3 has become an increased and serious concern in the last decade. It includes emission estimation and photochemical box modeling in support of investigating the underlying nature of O3 formation over the city and the roles of precursors emitted from sources. The year 2006 was considered and two single-day episodes (January 29 and February 14) were chosen for simulations. It was found that, in the city, the industrial sector is the largest emissions contributor for every O3 precursor (i.e., NO(x), non-methane volatile organic compounds or NMVOC, and CO), followed by on-road mobile group. Fugitive NMVOC is relatively large, emitted mainly from oil refineries and tank farms. Simulated results acceptably agree with observations for daily maximum O3 level in both episodes and evidently indicate the VOC-sensitive regime for O3 formation. This regime is also substantiated by morning NMVOC/NO(x) ratios observed in the city. The corresponding O3 isopleth diagrams suggest NMVOC control alone to lower elevated O3. In seeking a potential O3 control strategy for the city, a combination of brute-force sensitivity tests, an experimental design, statistical modeling, and cost optimization was employed. A number of emission subgroups were found to significantly contribute to O3 formation, based on the February 14 episode, for example, oil refinery (fugitive), tank farm (fugitive), passenger car (gasoline), and motorcycle (gasoline). But the cost-effective strategy suggests control only on the first two subgroups to meet the standard. The cost of implementing the strategy was estimated and found to be small (only 0.2%) compared to the gross provincial product generated by the entire province where the city is located within. These findings could be useful as a needed guideline to support O3 management for the city. Elevated O3 in the urban and industrial city of Chon Buri needs better

  13. The economics of controlling stock pollutants: An efficient strategy for greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, I.; Mendelsohn, R.

    1993-01-01

    Optimal control theory is applied to develop an efficient strategy to control stock pollutants such as greenhouse gases and hazardous waste. The optimal strategy suggests that, at any time, the marginal costs of abatement should be equated with the present value of the marginal damage of timely unabated emission. The optimal strategy calls for increasingly tight abatement over time as the pollutant stock accumulates. The optimal policy applied to greenhouse gases suggest moderate abatement efforts, at present, with the potential for much greater future efforts. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  14. 40 CFR 52.125 - Control strategy and regulations: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to existing fuel burning equipment producing electrical energy will provide for the attainment and...: Sulfur oxides. 52.125 Section 52.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... since the control strategy does not analyze the impact of smelter fugitive emissions on ambient air...

  15. Assessing carbon emission control strategies: the case of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W U

    1988-12-01

    Scientists are now being asked to recommend measures to reduce the risks of climatic change due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Considerably less effort, however, has been allotted to understanding the efficacy of controlling these gases than to their effects. This paper briefly describes and applies an energy-economic model to assess the effectiveness of carbon dioxide control policies that theoretically could be enacted in China, a large, developing nation with an energy inefficient and 'carbon-intensive' economy. The paper also assesses the effectiveness of similar international efforts, as well as the effect of each initiative on Chinese income levels. Carbon dioxide control measures are contained in scenarios drawn to the year 2075 and include family planning, fossil fuel taxes, mandatory or technical energy efficiency improvements, and a combination of these. The results suggest, not surprisingly, that no nation alone, not even China, can decisively affect the global CO/sub 2/ problem. More importantly, however, the potential for energy efficiency improvements in China is found to be both very large and economically attractive. Scenario analysis suggests that energy efficiency measures could both reduce carbon emissions significantly and increase Chinese per capita incomes. Similar conclusions are drawn regarding worldwide energy-efficiency measures. Thus, appropriate public policy measures to capture the existing energy-efficiency potential might both reduce the risk of climatic change and improve economic standards of living. 33 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. International pollution control: Cooperative versus noncooperative strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, E.J.; Van Long, N.

    1993-01-01

    International pollution control involving two neighboring countries is modeled as a simple two-player dynamic game. Each country produces a good that is consumed by domestic households. Production of each consumption good results in emissions of pollutants. Households in each country derive utility from the consumption of the domestically produced good but incur costs through the total stock of pollution (stock externality). In this setting we characterize cooperative as well as noncooperative pollution control strategies of the governments of the two countries that maximize the discounted stream of net benefits of a representative consumer. It turns out that when the governments are restricted to use linear strategies noncooperative behavior results in overall losses for both countries. If, on the contrary, governments use nonlinear Markov-perfect strategies and the discount rate is small enough a Pareto-efficient steady-state pollution stock can be supported as a differentiable subgame-perfect equilibrium. Thus, the emergence of first-best solutions (cooperative outcomes) does not require any institutional arrangements (threats, retaliation, etc.) but can be brought about through the use of nonlinear Markov-perfect equilibrium strategies. 20 refs., 1 tab

  17. Control of mercury emissions: policies, technologies, and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Seung-Whee Rhee Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: Owing to the Minamata Convention on Mercury and the Global Mercury Partnership, policies and regulations on mercury management in advanced countries were intensified by a mercury phaseout program in the mercury control strategy. In developing countries, the legislative or regulatory frameworks on mercury emissions are not established specifically, but mercury management is designed...

  18. A comparison of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) strategies at high load, low speed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavuri, Chaitanya; Paz, Jordan; Kokjohn, Sage L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Targeting high load-low speed, optimizations of RCCI and GCI strategies were performed. • The two strategies were compared in terms of performance, controllability and stability. • The optimum cases had high gross indicated efficiency (∼47%) and low NOx emissions. • RCCI strategy showed better combustion control but had higher soot emissions. • GCI strategy was relatively more sensitive to fluctuations in charge conditions. - Abstract: Past research has shown that Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) and Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) combustion are promising approaches to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions. However, the benefits have generally been confined to mid-load operating conditions. To enable practical application, these approaches must be able to operate over the entire engine map. A particularly challenging area is high load, low speed operation. Accordingly, the present work uses detailed CFD modeling and engine experiments to compare RCCI and GCI combustion strategies at a high load, low speed condition. Computational optimizations of RCCI and GCI combustion were performed at 20 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and 1300 rev/min. The optimum points from the two combustion strategies were verified using engine experiments and were used to make the comparisons between RCCI and GCI combustion. The comparison showed that both the strategies had very similar combustion characteristics with a near top dead center injection initiating combustion. A parametric study was performed to identify the key input parameters that control combustion for the RCCI and GCI strategies. For both strategies, the combustion phasing could be controlled by the start of injection (SOI) timing of the near TDC injection. The short ignition delay of diesel fuel gave the RCCI strategy better control over combustion than the GCI strategy, but also had a simultaneous tradeoff with soot emissions. With the GCI

  19. Factors Affecting Mitigation of Methane Emission from Ruminants: Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshar Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, greenhouse gas emission which results in elevating global temperature is an important subject of worldwide ecological and environmental concern. Among greenhouse gases, methane is considered a potent greenhouse gas with 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Worldwide, ruminant livestock produce about 80 million metric tons of methane each year, accounting for about 28% of global emissions from human related activities. Therefore it is impelling animal scientists to finding solutions to mitigate methane emission from ruminants. It seems that solutions can be discussed in four topics including: nutrition (feeding, biotechnology, microbiology and management strategies. We have already published the first review article on feeding strategies. In the current review, management strategies such as emphasizing on animals - type and individual variability, reducing livestock numbers, improving animal productivity and longevity as well as pasture management; that can be leads to decreasing methane production from ruminant animal production are discussed.

  20. Impact of emission control on regional air quality in the Pearl Delta River region, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Xuejiao, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China has been suffering from air quality issues and the government has implemented a series of strategies in controlling emissions. In an attempt to provide scientific support for improving air quality, the paper investigates the concerning past-to-present air quality data and assesses air quality resulting from emission control. Statistical data revealed that energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 20014 and vehicle usage increased significantly from 2006 to 2014. Due to the effect of control efforts, primary emission of SO2, NOx and PM2.5 decreased resulting in ambient concentrations of SO2, NO2 and PM10 decreased by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively. However, O3 increased 19% because of the increase of VOC emission. A chemical transport model, the Community Multi-scale Air Quality, was employed to evaluate the responses of nitrate, ammonium, SOA, PM2.5 and O3 to changes in NOx, VOC and NH3 emissions. Three scenarios, a baseline scenario, a CAP scenario (control strength followed as past tendency), and a REF scenario (strict control referred to latest policy and plans), were conducted to investigate the responses and mechanisms. NOx controlling scenarios showed that NOx, nitrate and PM2.5 reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2% under CAP and reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3% under REF, respectively. The results indicated that reducing NOx emission caused the increase of atmospheric oxidizability, which might result in a compensation of PM2.5 due to the increase of nitrate or sulfate. NH3 controlling scenarios showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH3 emission in PRD, with nitrate decreased by 0 - 10.6% and 0 - 48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Since controlling NH3 emissions not only reduced ammonium but also significantly reduced nitrate, the implement of NH3 controlling strategy was highly suggested. The VOC scenarios revealed that though SOA was not the major component of PM2.5, controlling VOC emission might take effect in southwestern PRD

  1. Research on Urban Road Congestion Pricing Strategy Considering Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitian Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The objective function of the upper level model is to minimize the sum of travel costs and the carbon dioxide emissions costs. The lower level is a multi-modal transportation network equilibrium model. To solve the model, the method of successive averages (MSA and the shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA are introduced. The proposed method and algorithm are tested through the numerical example. The results show that the proposed congestion pricing strategy can mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon emissions effectively.

  2. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  3. Interactive Control System, Intended Strategy, Implemented Strategy dan Emergent Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubagus Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between management control system (MCS and strategy formation processes, namely: intended strategy, emergent strategy and impelemented strategy. The focus of MCS in this study was interactive control system. The study was based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM as its multivariate analyses instrument. The samples were upper middle managers of manufacturing company in Banten Province, DKI Jakarta Province and West Java Province. AMOS Software 16 program is used as an additional instrument to resolve the problem in SEM modeling. The study found that interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on Intended strategy; interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on implemented strategy; interactive control system brought a positive and significant influence on emergent strategy. The limitation of this study is that our empirical model only used one way relationship between the process of strategy formation and interactive control system.

  4. Emissions trading and firms' strategies. The case of power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, O.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis deals with the impacts of a domestic emissions trading scheme on firms' strategies. As recent experiences of such programs (Acid Rain Program, RECLAIM Program, NOx Budget Program and the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme) concern mainly heat and power producers, we analyze especially strategies of these companies. In context of electricity market deregulation, our study takes two directions: uncertainty and competitive distortions. Concerning uncertainty, we are interested in portfolio management of emission permits, that is choice under uncertainty between buying, selling and banking permits. Concerning competitive distortions, we consider manipulations on the permits and/or products markets. Among others, we investigate interactions between a pollution market and the wholesale electricity market. From a general point of view, we show that a permits market, even competitive, gives to power producers more opportunities to act strategically on wholesale electricity markets. By this way, our study attempts to indicate when these market distortions are more likely to occur and to give some emissions market design instructions. (author)

  5. Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the energy-related components of the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration's commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment. Several themes addressed in this paper include: (1) the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; (2) consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; (3) the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after 2000; and (4) actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ''Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.'' Papers presented there include the utilization of more efficient fossil energy technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management programs, renewable energy and reforestation, and carbon dioxide capture and disposal

  6. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  7. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  8. Self-scheduling and bidding strategies of thermal units with stochastic emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laia, R.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Melíco, R.; Mendes, V.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The management of thermal power plants is considered for different emission allowance levels. • The uncertainty on electricity price is considered by a set of scenarios. • A stochastic MILP approach allows devising the bidding strategies and hedging against price uncertainty and emission allowances. - Abstract: This paper is on the self-scheduling problem for a thermal power producer taking part in a pool-based electricity market as a price-taker, having bilateral contracts and emission-constrained. An approach based on stochastic mixed-integer linear programming approach is proposed for solving the self-scheduling problem. Uncertainty regarding electricity price is considered through a set of scenarios computed by simulation and scenario-reduction. Thermal units are modelled by variable costs, start-up costs and technical operating constraints, such as: forbidden operating zones, ramp up/down limits and minimum up/down time limits. A requirement on emission allowances to mitigate carbon footprint is modelled by a stochastic constraint. Supply functions for different emission allowance levels are accessed in order to establish the optimal bidding strategy. A case study is presented to illustrate the usefulness and the proficiency of the proposed approach in supporting biding strategies

  9. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  10. Air Emissions Factors and Quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions factors are used in developing air emissions inventories for air quality management decisions and in developing emissions control strategies. This area provides technical information on and support for the use of emissions factors.

  11. Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Associated with Worm Control in Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew G. Coulter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently little or no data on the role of endemic disease control in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from livestock. In the present study, we have used an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-compliant model to calculate GHG emissions from naturally grazing lambs under four different anthelmintic drug treatment regimes over a 5-year study period. Treatments were either “monthly” (NST, “strategic” (SPT, “targeted” (TST or based on “clinical signs” (MT. Commercial sheep farming practices were simulated, with lambs reaching a pre-selected target market weight (38 kg removed from the analysis as they would no longer contribute to the GHG budget of the flock. Results showed there was a significant treatment effect over all years, with lambs in the MT group consistently taking longer to reach market weight, and an extra 10% emission of CO2e per kg of weight gain over the other treatments. There were no significant differences between the other three treatment strategies (NST, SPT and TST in terms of production efficiency or cumulated GHG emissions over the experimental period. This study has shown that endemic disease control can contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from animal agriculture and help reduce the carbon footprint of livestock farming.

  12. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Junqing Jing; Yanling Luo [Jiangsu Xuzhou Construction Machinery Research Institute, Jiangsu (China)

    2011-01-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range. (author)

  13. Control strategy of hydraulic/electric synergy system in heavy hybrid vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hui; Yang Lifu; Jing Junqing; Luo Yanling

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid vehicles strongly depend on the energy storage source and the applied control strategy. Heavy vehicles have the characteristics of frequent starts/stops and significant amounts of braking energy, which needs to find a more efficient way to store and use the high power flow. A novel parallel hybrid vehicles configuration consisting of hydraulic/electric synergy system is proposed to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage source in heavy hybrid vehicles. A control strategy combining a logic threshold approach and key parameters optimization algorithm is developed to achieve acceptable vehicle performance while simultaneously maximizing engine fuel economy and maintaining the battery state of charge in its rational operation range at all times. The experimental and simulation results illustrate the potential of the proposed control strategy in terms of fuel economy and in keeping the deviations of SOC at high efficiency range.

  14. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  15. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  16. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  17. Effects of Mixture Stratification on Combustion and Emissions of Boosted Controlled Auto-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hunicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The stratification of in-cylinder mixtures appears to be an effective method for managing the combustion process in controlled auto-ignition (CAI engines. Stratification can be achieved and controlled using various injection strategies such as split fuel injection and the introduction of a portion of fuel directly before the start of combustion. This study investigates the effect of injection timing and the amount of fuel injected for stratification on the combustion and emissions in CAI engine. The experimental research was performed on a single cylinder engine with direct gasoline injection. CAI combustion was achieved using negative valve overlap and exhaust gas trapping. The experiments were performed at constant engine fueling. Intake boost was applied to control the excess air ratio. The results show that the application of the late injection strategy has a significant effect on the heat release process. In general, the later the injection is and the more fuel is injected for stratification, the earlier the auto-ignition occurs. However, the experimental findings reveal that the effect of stratification on combustion duration is much more complex. Changes in combustion are reflected in NOX emissions. The attainable level of stratification is limited by the excessive emission of unburned hydrocarbons, CO and soot.

  18. An experimental study on the effects of high-pressure and multiple injection strategies on DI diesel engine emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2013-03-25

    An experimental study on effects of high-pressure injections in conjunction with split fuel injections were conducted on an AVL single cylinder DI diesel engine. Various injection schemes were studied through the use of an electronically controlled, common rail injection system capable of injection pressures up to 200 MPa and a maximum of six injections per combustion event. Up to 100 MPa of the fuel injection pressure, the higher injection pressures create faster combustion rates that result in the higher in-cylinder gas temperatures as compared to conventional low-pressure fuel injection systems. When applying high-pressure injections, particulate emission reductions of up to 50% were observed with no change in hydrocarbon emissions, reductions of CO emissions and only slightly higher NOx emissions. Over 100 MPa, on the other hand, the higher injection pressures still reduced up to almost zero-level of particulate emission, at the same time that the NO emission is reduced greatly. Under these high-pressure injection conditions, strong correlations between soot and CO emissions were observed, which compete for the oxidizing OH species. Multiple or split high-pressure injections also investigated as a means to decrease particulate emissions. As a result, a four-split injection strategy resulted in a 55% reduction in particulates and with little or no penalty on NOx emissions. The high pressure split injection strategy with EGR was more effective in reducing particulate and CO emissions simultaneously. Copyright © 2013 SAE International and Copyright © 2013 TSAE.

  19. Emission controls and changes in air quality in Guangzhou during the Asian Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Xuemei; Zhang, Jinpu; He, Kebin; Wu, Ye; Xu, Jiayu

    2013-09-01

    With the new air quality standards forthcoming in China, the Pearl River Delta region is facing new challenges to achieve its air quality goal. The success of the emission reduction measures introduced by local authorities in the run-up to the Guangzhou Asian Games demonstrated that the Pearl River Delta air quality can be improved by introducing integrated emission reduction measures. This paper combines observation data, emission reduction measures, and air quality simulations that were applied during the Asian Games (12-27 November 2010) to analyze the relationship between emissions and concentrations of pollutants in Guangzhou. The Asian Games abatement strategy totally reduced emissions of 41.1% SO2, 41.9% NOx, 26.5% PM10, 25.8% PM2.5 and 39.7% VOC. The concentrations of SO2, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were reduced by 66.8%, 51.3%, 21.5% and 17.1%, respectively. In Guangzhou, the main challenge to be overcome with the new air quality daily requirements is mostly for NO2, PM2.5, and hourly ozone maxima. If pollutants maintain the same concentrations before and after the Asian Games, there will be 47.4% and 31.6% non-attainment days for NO2 and PM2.5 respectively as a period average. Although PM10 concentration can meet the daily limits (150 μg m-3), it is quite difficult to meet the annual limit value (70 μg m-3). One important implication is that the long-term, step-by-step integrated measures of the past six years work better than the strict, intensive, short-term measures on SO2, NO2 and VOC control. Dust control by limiting construction sites and watering the roads can further reduce 12.8% of the PM10 concentration. However, to reduce ambient PM2.5, the abatement strategy should be more complex and extensive. On the contrary, ozone pollution was not improved during the Asian Games, indicating that alleviation strategies should be improved by scientific studies to determine the appropriate control ratio of NO2 and VOC in the Pearl River Delta region.

  20. Proceedings of the Emissions trading conference : effective strategies for successful emissions trading in a global market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There is growing interest everywhere in the topic of emissions trading in order to meet the commitments made under the Kyoto Protocol. During this conference, most aspects of emissions trading were discussed, ranging from the need to establish credible emission reduction estimates to the means of achieving those goals, to the trading activities of Ontario Power Generation in the field of emissions trading both at the domestic and the international level. There were presentations that focussed on greenhouse gas policies, markets and strategic plays, and the preparation for the regulation of greenhouse gas. An emissions trading regime for Canada was examined by one of the presenters. This conference provided a useful venue for all stakeholders to discuss various strategies and ideas related to emissions trading. Speakers represented governments, the private sector and utilities, as well as the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. tabs., figs

  1. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized strategies match outcomes in the proposed SO2 State Implementation Plan without the proposed stack parameter modifications or shutdowns. In addition, the lower health impacts estimated for these strategies suggest that FRESH-EST could be used to identify potentially more desirable pollution control alternatives in air quality management planning

  2. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission characteristics and control strategies for a petrochemical industrial area in middle Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chia-Hsien; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated VOC emissions from the largest petrochemical industrial district in Taiwan and recommended some control measures to reduce VOC emissions. In addition to the petrochemical industry, the district encompasses a chemical and fiber industry, a plastics industry and a harbor, which together produce more than 95% of the VOC emissions in the area. The sequence of VOC emission was as follows: components (e.g., valves, flanges, and pumps) (47%) > tanks (29%) > stacks (15%) > wastewater treatment facility (6%) > loading (2%) > flares (1%). Other plants producing high-density polyethylene (HDPE), styrene, ethylene glycol (EG), gas oil, and iso-nonyl-alchol (INA) were measured to determine the VOC leaching in the district. The VOC emissions of these 35 plants (90% of all plants) were less than 100 tons/year. About 74% of the tanks were fixed-roof tanks that leached more VOCs than the other types of tanks. To reduce leaching, the components should be checked periodically, and companies should be required to follow the Taiwan EPA regulations. A VOC emission management system was developed in state implementation plans (SIPs) to inspect and reduce emissions in the industrial district.

  3. Structuring energy supply and demand networks in a general equilibrium model to simulate global warming control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, S.; Veselka, T.D.; Cirillo, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming control strategies which mandate stringent caps on emissions of greenhouse forcing gases can substantially alter a country's demand, production, and imports of energy products. Although there is a large degree of uncertainty when attempting to estimate the potential impact of these strategies, insights into the problem can be acquired through computer model simulations. This paper presents one method of structuring a general equilibrium model, the ENergy and Power Evaluation Program/Global Climate Change (ENPEP/GCC), to simulate changes in a country's energy supply and demand balance in response to global warming control strategies. The equilibrium model presented in this study is based on the principle of decomposition, whereby a large complex problem is divided into a number of smaller submodules. Submodules simulate energy activities and conversion processes such as electricity production. These submodules are linked together to form an energy supply and demand network. Linkages identify energy and fuel flows among various activities. Since global warming control strategies can have wide reaching effects, a complex network was constructed. The network represents all energy production, conversion, transportation, distribution, and utilization activities. The structure of the network depicts interdependencies within and across economic sectors and was constructed such that energy prices and demand responses can be simulated. Global warming control alternatives represented in the network include: (1) conservation measures through increased efficiency; and (2) substitution of fuels that have high greenhouse gas emission rates with fuels that have lower emission rates. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Strategies for enhanced deammonification performance and reduced nitrous oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leix, Carmen; Drewes, Jörg E; Ye, Liu; Koch, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Deammonification's performance and associated nitrous oxide emissions (N 2 O) depend on operational conditions. While studies have investigated factors for high performances and low emissions separately, this study investigated optimizing deammonification performance while simultaneously reducing N 2 O emissions. Using a design of experiment (DoE) method, two models were developed for the prediction of the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions during single-stage deammonification considering three operational factors (i.e., pH value, feeding and aeration strategy). The emission factor varied between 0.7±0.5% and 4.1±1.2% at different DoE-conditions. The nitrogen removal rate was predicted to be maximized at settings of pH 7.46, intermittent feeding and aeration. Conversely, emissions were predicted to be minimized at the design edges at pH 7.80, single feeding, and continuous aeration. Results suggested a weak positive correlation between the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions, thus, a single optimizing operational set-point for maximized performance and minimized emissions did not exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactive Control System, Intended Strategy, Implemented Strategy dan Emergent Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tubagus Ismail; Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between management control system (MCS) and strategy formation processes, namely: intended strategy, emergent strategy and impelemented strategy. The focus of MCS in this study was interactive control system. The study was based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) as its multivariate analyses instrument. The samples were upper middle managers of manufacturing company in Banten Province, DKI Jakarta Province and West Java Province. AM...

  6. Biomass fueled fluidized bed combustion: atmospheric emissions, emission control devices and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, S.W.; Jenkins, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustors have become the technological choice for power generation from biomass fuels in California. Atmospheric emission data obtained during compliance tests are compared for five operating 18 to 32 MW fluidized bed combustion power plants. The discussion focuses on the impact of fuel properties and boiler design criteria on the emission of pollutants, the efficiency of pollution control devices, and regulations affecting atmospheric emissions. Stack NO x emission factors are shown not to vary substantially among the five plants which burn fuels with nitrogen concentrations between 0.3 and 1.1% dry weight. All facilities use at least one particular control device, but not all use limestone injection or other control techniques for sulfur and chlorine. The lack of control for chlorine suggests the potential for emission of toxic species due to favorable temperature conditions existing in the particulate control devices, particularly when burning fuels containing high concentrations of chlorine. (Author)

  7. Impact of low temperature combustion attaining strategies on diesel engine emissions for diesel and biodiesels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtenan, S.; Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Sajjad, H.; Arbab, M.I.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various low-temperature combustion strategies have been discussed briefly. • Effect on emissions has been discussed under low temperature combustion strategies. • Low-temperature combustion reduces NO x and PM simultaneously. • Higher CO, HC emissions with lower performance are the demerits of these strategies. • Biodiesels are also potential to attain low temperature combustion conditions. - Abstract: Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from diesel exhaust is the key to current research activities. Although various technologies have been introduced to reduce emissions from diesel engines, the in-cylinder reduction techniques of PM and NO x like low temperature combustion (LTC) will continue to be an important field in research and development of modern diesel engines. Furthermore, increasing prices and question over the availability of diesel fuel derived from crude oil have introduced a growing interest. Hence it is most likely that future diesel engines will be operated on pure biodiesel and/or blends of biodiesel and crude oil-based diesel. Being a significant technology to reduce emissions, LTC deserves a critical analysis of emission characteristics for both diesel and biodiesel. This paper critically investigates both petroleum diesel and biodiesel emissions from the view point of LTC attaining strategies. Due to a number of differences of physical and chemical properties, petroleum diesel and biodiesel emission characteristics differ a bit under LTC strategies. LTC strategies decrease NO x and PM simultaneously but increase HC and CO emissions. Recent attempts to attain LTC by biodiesel have created a hope for reduced HC and CO emissions. Decreased performance issue during LTC is also being taken care of by latest ideas. However, this paper highlights the emissions separately and analyzes the effects of significant factors thoroughly under LTC regime

  8. Self-organized global control of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Fenn, Daniel J.; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-09-01

    There is much disagreement concerning how best to control global carbon emissions. We explore quantitatively how different control schemes affect the collective emission dynamics of a population of emitting entities. We uncover a complex trade-off which arises between average emissions (affecting the global climate), peak pollution levels (affecting citizens’ everyday health), industrial efficiency (affecting the nation’s economy), frequency of institutional intervention (affecting governmental costs), common information (affecting trading behavior) and market volatility (affecting financial stability). Our findings predict that a self-organized free-market approach at the level of a sector, state, country or continent can provide better control than a top-down regulated scheme in terms of market volatility and monthly pollution peaks. The control of volatility also has important implications for any future derivative carbon emissions market.

  9. Background information on a multimedia nitrogen emission reduction strategy; Hintergrundpapier zu einer multimedialen Stickstoffemissionsminderungsstrategie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geupel; Jering; Frey (and others)

    2009-04-15

    The background information report on a multimedia nitrogen reduction strategy covers the following chapters: 1. Introduction: the nitrogen cascade and the anthropogenic influence, environmental impact of increased nitrogen emissions and effects on human health. 2. Sources and balancing of anthropogenic nitrogen emissions in Germany. 3. Environmental quality targets, activity goals of environmental measures and instruments of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy. 4. Conclusions and perspectives. The attachments include emission sources, nitrogen release and nitrogen transport in Germany; catalogue of measures and instruments according the criteria efficiency and cost-efficacy.

  10. Electrically heated catalysts for cold-start emission control on gasoline- and methanol-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimrich, M.J.; Albu, S.; Ahuja, M.

    1992-01-01

    Cold-start emissions from current technology vehicles equipped with catalytic converters can account for over 80 percent of the emissions produced during the Federal Test Procedure (FTP). Excessive pollutants can be emitted for a period of one to two minutes following cold engine starting, partially because the catalyst has not reached an efficient operating temperature. Electrically heated catalysts, which are heated prior to engine starting, have been identified as a potential strategy for controlling cold-start emissions. This paper summarizes the emission results of three gasoline-fueled and three methanol-fueled vehicles equipped with electrically heated catalyst systems. Results from these vehicles demonstrate that heated catalyst technology can provide FTP emission levels of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) that show promise of meeting the Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards established by the California Air Resources Board

  11. A wolf pack hunting strategy based virtual tribes control for automatic generation control of smart grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Lei; Yu, Tao; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoshun; Qiu, Xuanyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel distributed autonomous virtual tribes control system is proposed. • WPH-VTC strategy is designed to solve the distributed virtual tribes control. • Stochastic consensus game on mixed homogeneous and heterogeneous multi-agent are resolved. • The optimal total power reference and its dispatch are resolved simultaneously in a dynamic way. • The utilization rate of renewable energy is increased with a reduced carbon emissions. - Abstract: This paper proposes a novel electric power autonomy to satisfy the requirement of power generation optimization of smart grid and decentralized energy management system. A decentralized virtual tribes control (VTC) is developed which can effectively coordinate the regional dispatch centre and the distributed energy. Then a wolf pack hunting (WPH) strategy based VTC (WPH-VTC) is designed through combining the multi-agent system stochastic game and multi-agent system collaborative consensus, which is called the multi-agent system stochastic consensus game, to achieve the coordination and optimization of the decentralized VTC, such that different types of renewable energy can be effectively integrated into the electric power autonomy. The proposed scheme is implemented on a flexible and dynamic multi-agent stochastic game-based VTC simulation platform, which control performance is evaluated on a typical two-area load–frequency control power system and a practical Guangdong power grid model in southern China. Simulation results verify that it can improve the closed-loop system performances, increase the utilization rate of the renewable energy, reduce the carbon emissions, and achieve a fast convergence rate with significant robustness compared with those of existing schemes.

  12. Risk-based prioritization among air pollution control strategies in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Fu, Joshua S; Zhuang, Guoshun; Levy, Jonathan I

    2010-09-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China is a densely populated region with recent dramatic increases in energy consumption and atmospheric emissions. We studied how different emission sectors influence population exposures and the corresponding health risks, to inform air pollution control strategy design. We applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System to model the marginal contribution to baseline concentrations from different sectors. We focused on nitrogen oxide (NOx) control while considering other pollutants that affect fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter pollutants, with reductions of primary PM2.5 from the industry sector and mobile sources showing the greatest benefits of 0.1 fewer deaths per year per ton of emission reduction. Combining estimates of health benefits per ton with potential emission reductions, the greatest mortality reduction of 12,000 fewer deaths per year [95% confidence interval (CI), 1,200-24,000] was associated with controlling primary PM2.5 emissions from the industry sector and reducing sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the power sector, respectively. Benefits were lower for reducing NOx emissions given lower consequent reductions in the formation of secondary PM2.5 (compared with SO2) and increases in ozone concentrations that would result in the YRD. Although uncertainties related to C-R functions are significant, the estimated health benefits of emission reductions in the YRD are substantial, especially for sectors and pollutants with both higher health benefits per unit emission reductions and large potential for emission reductions.

  13. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  14. Evaluating the impact of plant-wide WWTP control strategies on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    ) the control of nitrogen rich returns coming from the sludge treatment. Simulation results show the undesirable effects that energy optimization might have on GHG production: Although off-site CO2 emissions may decrease, primarily as a result of: i) reduced aeration energy requirements; and/or ii) increased...

  15. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Modeling for Evaluating Environmental Effectiveness of ITS Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is a major fuel consumer and greenhouse gas emitter. Recently, the intelligent transportation systems (ITSs technologies, which can improve traffic flow and safety, have been developed to reduce the fuel consumption and vehicle emissions. Emission and fuel consumption estimation models play a key role in the evaluation of ITS technologies. Based on the influence analysis of driving parameters on vehicle emissions, this paper establishes a set of mesoscopic vehicle emission and fuel consumption models using the real-world vehicle operation and emission data. The results demonstrate that these models are more appropriate to evaluate the environmental effectiveness of ITS strategies with enough estimation accuracy.

  16. Towards an Integrated Assessment Model for Tropospheric Ozone-Emission Inventories, Scenarios and Emission-control Options

    OpenAIRE

    Olsthoorn, X.

    1994-01-01

    IIASA intends to extend its RAINS model for addressing the issue of transboundary ozone air pollution. This requires the development of a VOC-emissions module, VOCs being precursors in ozone formation. The module should contain a Europe-wide emission inventory, a submodule for developing emission scenarios and a database of measures for VOC-emission control, including data about control effectiveness and control costs. It is recommended to use the forthcoming CORINAIR90 inventory for construc...

  17. Stochastic Lot-Sizing under Carbon Emission Control for Profit Optimisation in MTO Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggravating global warming has heightened the imminent need by the world to step up forceful efforts on curbing emission of greenhouse gases. Although manufacturing is a major resource of carbon emission, few research works have studied the impacts of carbon constraints on manufacturing, leading to environmentally unsustainable production strategies and operations. This paper incorporates carbon emission management into production planning for make-to-order (MTO manufacturing. This paper proposes a model that solves lot-sizing problems to maximise profits under carbon emission caps. The model adopts stochastic interarrival times for customer orders to enhance the practicality of the results for real-world manufacturing. Numerical experiments show that reducing carbon emission undercuts short-term profits of a company. However, it is conducive to the company’s market image as being socially responsible which would attract more customers who concern about environmental protection. Hence, reducing carbon emission in manufacturing is beneficial to long-term profitability and sustainability. The results provide managerial insights into manufacture operations for balancing profitability and carbon control.

  18. NOx and N2O emission control with catalyst's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiltunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the increasingly stringent emission regulations, new technologies are needed to be developed for improving emission control in circulating fluidized-bed boilers. The objective of this project is to test the concept of using catalysts for NO x and N 2 O emission control. N 2 O emission is in the range of 30 - 100 ppm from fluidized bed combustors burning coal. Since it is a greenhouse gas an effective means of controlling N 2 O emission is needed

  19. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  20. Strategies and costs for reducing CO2 emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtilae, A.; Pirilae, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this study cost-efficient measures for the abatement of energy-related CO 2 emissions in Finland are analyzed, and the direct costs of such measures are estimated. The time frame considered is the period up to the year 2010. Furthermore, the probable impacts of an energy/CO 2 -tax on the Finnish energy system are worked out, and an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of a tax scheme as an economic instrument for achieving CO 2 emission targets. The primary methodological tool in the analyses has been the model of the Finnish energy system developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) within the project. The model facilitates the search for cost-efficient emission control strategies over a period of several decades. Structural and technological changes in the energy system, e.g. fuel and technology substitution, new technologies, efficiency improvements, and energy-saving measures have been allowed for in the model. The results of the analyses show that achieving the target of returning the CO 2 emissions to the 1990 level by the year 2000 would be very difficult and costly in Finland. In the case of a nuclear moratorium it would be reasonable to delay the target by ten years. Even in the delayed cases achieving the target would require extensive structural changes and substantial energy-saving measures in the absence of additional nuclear energy. Coal use would have to be severely restricted, whereas the use of biomass and natural gas should be more than doubled compared to the 1990 levels. According to the results, a CO 2 tax would clearly be a more efficient instrument than a tax based on the energy content of a fuel

  1. Strategies to water pollution control in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGWenchao; CHENGJijian; LONGTengrui; HEQiang

    2003-01-01

    Problems of and main limiting factors to Chinese western eco-environment are analyzea firstly and principles of integrating water pollution control with water resources planning and management, with ecological construction and with economic development planning and setting control priorities according to local conditions are proposed. Following strategies for water pollution control are suggested: 1) a master plan for western area need to be established as soon as possible; 2) total emission control should be regarded as the basic policy and measures such as clean production, charging and subsidy need to be implemented; 3) point sources pollution control should be considered the main task in short term and centralized wasteweter treatment plants by using sustainable processes should be constructed primarily for large and medium-size cities with heavier pollution; 4) sound institutional and regulation systems need to be established to create an enabling environment; 5) multiple investment system should be established; and 6) studies of pragmatic theories and methodologies for water pollution control and cost-effective technologies appropriate to western area, and training of local technicians need to be enhanced as well.

  2. VOC emissions control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spessard, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The air pollution control equipment marketplace offers many competing technologies for controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. If any technology was economically and technically superior under all conditions, it would be the only one on the market. In fact, each technology used to control VOCs is superior under some set of conditions. The reasons for choosing one control technology over another are situation-specific. Some general guidelines to VOC control technologies and the situations where each may be appropriate are presented in this article. The control technologies and applications are summarized in a table

  3. Sustainable transport strategy for promoting zero-emission electric scooters in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jenn Jiang [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China)

    2010-06-15

    In Taiwan, the government considers the zero-emission scooters to be a sustainable form of transport like walking, cycling and public transport, which play a vital role to support sustainable urban mobility. Therefore, the development of zero-emission scooters is an important strategy in constructing the sustainable transport network of Taiwan. It is also the government's priorities about the policy of emission-reduction and energy-conservation in the transportation sector. Recently, Taiwan launched a new program for subsidy of purchasing zero-emission scooters, which aimed to shift the petroleum-powered scooters to the electric scooters. The present paper is providing an update review of the promotional programs in developing zero-emission scooters in Taiwan. It introduces the status of the establishment and progress of policy, standards, subsidies to users and manufacturers, practice infrastructure, and technology development. Moreover, the contribution of replacing petrol scooters by zero-emission scooters such as battery-powered electric scooters and fuel cell scooters to reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and improvement in energy efficiency is evaluated. (author)

  4. Study on emission characteristics and reduction strategy of nitrous oxide during wastewater treatment by different processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shichang; Bao, Zhiyuan; Sun, Dezhi

    2015-03-01

    Given the inexorable increase in global wastewater treatment, increasing amounts of nitrous oxide are expected to be emitted from wastewater treatment plants and released to the atmosphere. It has become imperative to study the emission and control of nitrous oxide in the various wastewater treatment processes currently in use. In the present investigation, the emission characteristics and the factors affecting the release of nitrous oxide were studied via full- and pilot-scale experiments in anoxic-oxic, sequencing batch reactor and oxidation ditch processes. We propose an optimal treatment process and relative strategy for nitrous oxide reduction. Our results show that both the bio-nitrifying and bio-denitrifying treatment units in wastewater treatment plants are the predominant sites for nitrous oxide production in each process, while the aerated treatment units are the critical sources for nitrous oxide emission. Compared with the emission of nitrous oxide from the anoxic-oxic (1.37% of N-influent) and sequencing batch reactor (2.69% of N-influent) processes, much less nitrous oxide (0.25% of N-influent) is emitted from the oxidation ditch process, which we determined as the optimal wastewater treatment process for nitrous oxide reduction, given the current technologies. Nitrous oxide emissions differed with various operating parameters. Controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at a proper level during nitrification and denitrification and enhancing the utilization rate of organic carbon in the influent for denitrification are the two critical methods for nitrous oxide reduction in the various processes considered.

  5. Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Semrau; Sung-Woo Lee; Jeongdae Im; Sukhwan Yoon; Michael Barcelona

    2010-09-30

    The overall objective of this project, 'Strategies to Optimize Microbially-Mediated Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils' was to develop effective, efficient, and economic methodologies by which microbial production of nitrous oxide can be minimized while also maximizing microbial consumption of methane in landfill cover soils. A combination of laboratory and field site experiments found that the addition of nitrogen and phenylacetylene stimulated in situ methane oxidation while minimizing nitrous oxide production. Molecular analyses also indicated that methane-oxidizing bacteria may play a significant role in not only removing methane, but in nitrous oxide production as well, although the contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea to nitrous oxide production can not be excluded at this time. Future efforts to control both methane and nitrous oxide emissions from landfills as well as from other environments (e.g., agricultural soils) should consider these issues. Finally, a methanotrophic biofiltration system was designed and modeled for the promotion of methanotrophic activity in local methane 'hotspots' such as landfills. Model results as well as economic analyses of these biofilters indicate that the use of methanotrophic biofilters for controlling methane emissions is technically feasible, and provided either the costs of biofilter construction and operation are reduced or the value of CO{sub 2} credits is increased, can also be economically attractive.

  6. Switching strategy between HP (high pressure)- and LPEGR (low pressure exhaust gas recirculation) systems for reduced fuel consumption and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luján, José Manuel; Guardiola, Carlos; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) plays a major role in current Diesel internal combustion engines as a cost-effective solution to reduce NO_x emissions. EGR systems will suffer a significant evolution with the introduction of NO_x after-treatment and the proliferation of more complex EGR architectures such as low pressure EGR or dual EGR. In this paper the combination of HPEGR (high pressure EGR) LPEGR (low pressure EGR) is presented as a method to minimise fuel consumption with reduced NO_x emissions. Particularly, the paper proposes to switch between HPEGR and LPEGR architectures depending on the engine operating conditions in order to exploit the potential of both systems. In this sense, given a driving cycle, in the case at hand the NEDC, the proposed strategy seeks the EGR layout to use at each instant of the cycle to minimise the fuel consumption such that NO_x emissions are kept below a certain limit. The experimental results obtained show that combining both EGR systems sequentially along the NEDC allows to keep NO_x emission below a much lower limit with minimum fuel consumption. - Highlights: • The combination of HP–LPEGR reduces the NO_x with a small impact on consumption. • The switching strategy between HP – LPEGR is derived from Optimal Control Theory. • The proposed strategy is validated experimentally.

  7. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  8. Management matters: Testing a mitigation strategy of nitrous oxide emissions on managed grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Kathrin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Eugster, Werner; Koller, Patrick; Käslin, Florian; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange between managed grasslands and the atmosphere depends besides climate predominantly on management practices. While natural or extensively managed grasslands are known to function as GHG sinks, intensively managed grasslands are characterized by substantial nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions diminishing their sink function. One potential N2O mitigation strategy is to reduce the required amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer input by using biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via legumes. However, the effect of legumes on nitrous oxide emissions is still not fully understood. In this study we quantify net GHG fluxes from two differently managed grassland parcels (mitigation, control) and relate our results to productivity (yields). In addition, we aim at revealing the influence of various driver variables on N2O exchange. Our experimental setup consisted of an eddy covariance tower that measured the net exchange of the three major anthropogenic GHGs, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both grassland parcels can be covered with this tower due to two prevailing wind directions. GHG flux measurements were accompanied by measurements of commonly known driver variables such as water filled pore space, soil temperature, soil oxygen concentrations and mineral N to disentangle the soil meteorological influence of N2O fluxes from human drivers. Following organic fertilizer application, we measured elevated N2O emissions (>1 nmol m-2 s-1) at the control parcel and unchanged N2O emissions at the treatment parcel. Net annual fluxes were 54% and 50% lower at the experimental parcel in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Annual yields did not significantly differ between parcels, but were slightly lower at the experimental parcel compared to the control parcel. Significantly lower nitrous oxide fluxes under experimental management indicate that nitrous oxide emissions can be effectively reduced at very low costs with a clover

  9. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  10. Emission Inventory Development and Application Based On an Atmospheric Emission Source Priority Control Classification Technology Method, a Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Cheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was the first time to be developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. The emission inventory was proved to be acceptable owing to the atmospheric modeling verification. A classification technology method for atmospheric pollution source priority control was the first time to be introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale. MICAPS (Meteorological Information comprehensive Analysis and Processing System) was applied for the regional meteorological condition and sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-center Urban Agglomerations contributed biggest on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In addition, the cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study provide a valuable preference for policy makers to develop effective air pollution control strategies.

  11. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  12. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  13. Control strategies for demand controlled ventilation in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Drivsholm, Christian

    2011-01-01

    and efficient fans is becoming the standard solution. The building regulation requirement for air change in dwellings is often a constant value that has been chosen to avoid moisture related problems in the indoor environment. This required air change is sometimes sufficient, sometimes too low and sometimes too....... In the studied house two control strategies were tested. A simple strategy where all sensors and controls were located in the air handling unit and only the speed of the fans can be controlled, and a complex strategy where sensors were placed in each room and where individual control of air flow in each room...

  14. Controlling fugitive emissions from mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, W.V.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that enactment of the 1990 Federal Clean Air Amendments will sharply focus efforts in the process industries to reduce fugitive emissions. Moreover, state and local governments may be imposing stricter laws and regulations which will affect allowable fugitive emissions from U.S. refineries and process plants. Plants outside the U.S. have similar concerns. Clearly, mechanical seals for process pumps represent an enormous population and is one category of equipment destined for careful evaluation as a means to control fugitive emissions. Fugitive are unintentional emissions from valves, pumps, flanges, compressors, etc., as opposed to point-source emissions from stacks, vents and flares. Fugitive emissions do not occur as a part of normal plant operations, but result from the effects of: Malfunctions, Age, Lack of proper maintenance, Operator error, Improper equipment specification, Use of inferior technology, and externally caused damage

  15. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  16. Research on urban road congestion pricing strategy considering carbon dioxide emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Peng, Z.; Wang, K.; Song, X.; Yao, B.; Feng, T.

    2015-01-01

    Congestion pricing strategy has been recognized as an effective countermeasure in the practical field of urban traffic congestion mitigation. In this paper, a bi-level programming model considering carbon dioxide emission is proposed to mitigate traffic congestion and reduce carbon dioxide

  17. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  18. Investment Strategy of Emission-Reduction Technology in a Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Xiang Lou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions have serious impacts on the natural environment. Therefore, the restrictions imposed on carbon emission force enterprises to take carbon emission into consideration when making production decisions. In this paper, in the context of allowing emission trading and investment of emission reduction technology, models were presented for a two-stage supply chain to analyze the optimal investment and pricing decisions. The results indicate that manufacturer’s endurance capacity of reduction difficulty is higher in the cooperation model than in the Stackelberg game model, and that perfect coordination of supply chains can be realized by a revenue sharing contract. From the perspective of a consumer, low-carbon products mean higher price, so that subsidies or tax exemptions should be provided to keep low prices. Meanwhile, the government can promote investment in emission-reduction technologies and achieve its emission reduction targets by controlling emission trading price, strengthening emission reduction publicity and providing technology investment subsidies.

  19. Energy use, emissions and air pollution reduction strategies in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.; Green, C.; Amann, M.; Bhattacharya, S.; Carmichael, G.; Chadwick, M.; Cinderby, S.; Haugland, T.; Hettelingh, J.-P.; Hordijk, L.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Shah, J.; Shrestha, R.; Streets, D.; Zhao, D.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to Europe and North America, air pollution in Asia is increasing rapidly, resulting in both local air quality problems and higher acidic depositions. In 1989, an east-west group of scientists initiated a multi-institutional research project on Acid Rain and Emissions Reduction in Asia, funded for the past two years by the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Phase I, covering 23 countries of Asia, focused on the development of PC-based software called the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation Model (RAINS-ASIA). A 94-region Regional Energy Scenario Generator was developed to create alternative energy/emission scenarios through the year 2020. A long-range atmospheric transport model was developed to calculate dispersion and deposition of sulfur, based upon emissions from area and large point sources, on a one-degree grid of Asia. The resulting impacts of acidic deposition on a variety of vegetation types were analyzed using the critical loads approach to test different emissions management strategies, including both energy conservation measures and sulfur abatement technologies. 14 refs., 7 figs

  20. Nitrogen nutrition in cotton and control strategies for greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel Kean Yuen; Munsif, Fazal; Afridi, Muhammad Zahir; Shah, Farooq; Wei, Fan; Fahad, Shah; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2017-10-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirustum L.) is grown globally as a major source of natural fiber. Nitrogen (N) management is cumbersome in cotton production systems; it has more impacts on yield, maturity, and lint quality of a cotton crop than other primary plant nutrient. Application and production of N fertilizers consume large amounts of energy, and excess application can cause environmental concerns, i.e., nitrate in ground water, and the production of nitrous oxide a highly potent greenhouse gas (GHG) to the atmosphere, which is a global concern. Therefore, improving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of cotton plant is critical in this context. Slow-release fertilizers (e.g., polymer-coated urea) have the potential to increase cotton yield and reduce environmental pollution due to more efficient use of nutrients. Limited literature is available on the mitigation of GHG emissions for cotton production. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of N fertilization, in cotton growth and GHG emission management strategies, and will assess, justify, and organize the researchable priorities. Nitrate and ammonium nitrogen are essential nutrients for successful crop production. Ammonia (NH 3 ) is a central intermediate in plant N metabolism. NH 3 is assimilated in cotton by the mediation of glutamine synthetase, glutamine (z-) oxoglutarate amino-transferase enzyme systems in two steps: the first step requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to add NH 3 to glutamate to form glutamine (Gln), and the second step transfers the NH 3 from glutamine (Gln) to α-ketoglutarate to form two glutamates. Once NH 3 has been incorporated into glutamate, it can be transferred to other carbon skeletons by various transaminases to form additional amino acids. The glutamate and glutamine formed can rapidly be used for the synthesis of low-molecular-weight organic N compounds (LMWONCs) such as amides, amino acids, ureides, amines, and peptides that are further synthesized into high-molecular-weight organic

  1. Low Emission Development Strategies: The Role of Networks and Knowledge Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, Ron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bazilian, Morgan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kecman, Ana [United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria); De Simone, Giuseppe [United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria); Kitaoka, Kazuki [United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria); Ploutakhina, Marina [United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna (Austria); Radka, M. [United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya)

    2013-09-01

    Considerable effort has been made to address the transition to low-carbon economy. A key focus of these efforts has been on the development of national low-emissions developments strategies (LEDS). One enabler of these plans is the existence of well-functioning national, regional and international low-emission development networks and knowledge platforms. To better understand the role of LEDS, weexamine this area in relation to network theory. We present a review of strengths and weaknesses of existing LEDS networks that builds on the findings of a study conducted by the Coordinated Low Emission Assistance Network (CLEAN). Based on the insights from theory and a mapping of the climate-related network space, we identify opportunities for further refinement of LEDS networks.

  2. Does Operation Scheduling Make a Difference: Tapping the Potential of Optimized Design for Skipping-Stop Strategy in Reducing Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea of corporate social responsibility has promoted bus operation agencies to rethink how to provide not only efficient but also environmentally friendly services for residents. A study on the potential of using an optimized design of skip-stop services, one of the essential operational strategies in practice, to reduce emissions is conducted in this paper. The underlying scheduling problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem with the primary objective of optimizing the total costs for both passengers and operating agencies, as well as with the secondary objective of minimizing bus emissions. A solution method is developed to solve the problem. A real-world case of Route 16 in Beijing is studied, in which the optimal scheduling strategy that maximizes the cost savings and environmental benefits is determined. The costs and emissions of the proposed scheduling strategy are compared with the optimal scheduling with skip-stop services without considering bus emissions. The results show that the proposed scheduling strategy outperforms the other operating strategy with respect to operational costs and bus emissions. A sensitivity study is then conducted to investigate the impact of the fleet size in operations and passenger demand on the effectiveness of the proposed stop-skipping strategy considering bus emissions.

  3. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Low-Computation Strategies for Extracting CO2 Emission Trends from Surface-Level Mixing Ratio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, A.; Kim, J.; Lieschke, K.; Newman, C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Global momentum is building for drastic, regulated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade. With this increasing regulation comes a clear need for increasingly sophisticated monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) strategies capable of enforcing and optimizing emissions-related policy, particularly as it applies to urban areas. Remote sensing and/or activity-based emission inventories can offer MRV insights for entire sectors or regions, but are not yet sophisticated enough to resolve unexpected trends in specific emitters. Urban surface monitors can offer the desired proximity to individual greenhouse gas sources, but due to the densely-packed nature of typical urban landscapes, surface observations are rarely representative of a single source. Most previous efforts to decompose these complex signals into their contributing emission processes have involved inverse atmospheric modeling techniques, which are computationally intensive and believed to depend heavily on poorly understood a priori estimates of error covariance. Here we present a number of transparent, low-computation approaches for extracting source-specific emissions estimates from signals with a variety of nearfield influences. Using observations from the first several years of the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N), we demonstrate how to exploit strategic pairings of monitoring "nodes," anomalous wind conditions, and well-understood temporal variations to hone in on specific CO2 sources of interest. When evaluated against conventional, activity-based bottom-up emission inventories, these strategies are seen to generate quantitatively rigorous emission estimates. With continued application as the BEACO2N data set grows in time and space, these approaches offer a promising avenue for optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies into the future.

  5. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  6. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  7. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions reduction strategy and effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenox, Carol; Kaplan, P. Ozge

    2016-01-01

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in the availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At higher leakage levels, the additional methane emissions could offset the carbon dioxide emissions reduction benefit of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is required to meet a specific carbon dioxide reduction target across a number of scenarios in which the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with carbon dioxide emissions and a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production along with upstream methane and carbon dioxide emissions associated with production of coal and oil. While the system carbon dioxide emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show an increase in scenarios in which natural gas prices remain low and, simultaneously, methane emissions from natural gas production are higher. - Highlights: • MARKAL analysis of energy system GHG emissions reduction scenarios. • High methane leakage can eliminate the benefit that natural gas brings over coal. • A robust GHG reduction strategy takes into account upstream emissions for all fuels.

  8. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. M.; Ledin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority...... in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations...

  9. A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T.; Leatherman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

  10. Interactive effects of environmental change and management strategies on regional forest carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, Tara W; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Thornton, Peter E; Law, Beverly E

    2013-11-19

    Climate mitigation activities in forests need to be quantified in terms of the long-term effects on forest carbon stocks, accumulation, and emissions. The impacts of future environmental change and bioenergy harvests on regional forest carbon storage have not been quantified. We conducted a comprehensive modeling study and life-cycle assessment of the impacts of projected changes in climate, CO2 concentration, and N deposition, and region-wide forest management policies on regional forest carbon fluxes. By 2100, if current management strategies continue, then the warming and CO2 fertilization effect in the given projections result in a 32-68% increase in net carbon uptake, overshadowing increased carbon emissions from projected increases in fire activity and other forest disturbance factors. To test the response to new harvesting strategies, repeated thinnings were applied in areas susceptible to fire to reduce mortality, and two clear-cut rotations were applied in productive forests to provide biomass for wood products and bioenergy. The management strategies examined here lead to long-term increased carbon emissions over current harvesting practices, although semiarid regions contribute little to the increase. The harvest rates were unsustainable. This comprehensive approach could serve as a foundation for regional place-based assessments of management effects on future carbon sequestration by forests in other locations.

  11. The role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution in Beijing during APEC 2014 and Victory Parade 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pengfei; Zhu, Tong; Fang, Yanhua; Li, Yingruo; Han, Yiqun; Wu, Yusheng; Hu, Min; Wang, Junxia

    2017-11-01

    To control severe air pollution in China, comprehensive pollution control strategies have been implemented throughout the country in recent years. To evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies, the influence of meteorological conditions on levels of air pollution needs to be determined. Using the intensive air pollution control strategies implemented during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum in 2014 (APEC 2014) and the 2015 China Victory Day Parade (Victory Parade 2015) as examples, we estimated the role of meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies in reducing air pollution levels in Beijing. Atmospheric particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) samples were collected and gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO, NOx, and O3) were measured online at a site in Peking University (PKU). To determine the influence of meteorological conditions on the levels of air pollution, we first compared the air pollutant concentrations during days with stable meteorological conditions. However, there were few days with stable meteorological conditions during the Victory Parade. As such, we were unable to estimate the level of emission reduction efforts during this period. Finally, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based only on meteorological parameters was built to predict air pollutant concentrations, which could explain more than 70 % of the variation in air pollutant concentration levels, after incorporating the nonlinear relationships between certain meteorological parameters and the concentrations of air pollutants. Evaluation of the GLM performance revealed that the GLM, even based only on meteorological parameters, could be satisfactory to estimate the contribution of meteorological conditions in reducing air pollution and, hence, the contribution of control strategies in reducing air pollution. Using the GLM, we found that the meteorological conditions and pollution control strategies contributed 30 and 28 % to the reduction

  12. A Power System Optimal Dispatch Strategy Considering the Flow of Carbon Emissions and Large Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The carbon emissions trading market and direct power purchases by large consumers are two promising directions of power system development. To trace the carbon emission flow in the power grid, the theory of carbon emission flow is improved by allocating power loss to the load side. Based on the improved carbon emission flow theory, an optimal dispatch model is proposed to optimize the cost of both large consumers and the power grid, which will benefit from the carbon emissions trading market. Moreover, to better simulate reality, the direct purchase of power by large consumers is also considered in this paper. The OPF (optimal power flow method is applied to solve the problem. To evaluate our proposed optimal dispatch strategy, an IEEE 30-bus system is used to test the performance. The effects of the price of carbon emissions and the price of electricity from normal generators and low-carbon generators with regards to the optimal dispatch are analyzed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can significantly reduce both the operation cost of the power grid and the power utilization cost of large consumers.

  13. A Proportional Resonant Control Strategy for Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The key to control the range extender generation system is to improve the efficiency and reduce the emissions of the electric vehicle (EV. In this paper, based on the purpose of efficiency optimization, both engine and generator are matched to get a public high efficiency region, and a partial power following control strategy was presented. The engine speed is constant in the defined power range, so the output power regulation of the range extender is only realized by the adjustment of the torque of the generator. Engine speed and generator torque were decoupled. An improved proportional resonant (PR controller is adopted to achieve fast output power regulation. In order to ensure the response characteristics of the control system and to improve the robustness, the impacts on system’s characteristics and stability caused by PR controller and parameters in the inner-current loop were analyzed via frequency response characteristics. A pre-Tustin with deviation compensation is proposed for PR controller’s discretization. A stable and robust power following control method is obtained for the range extender control system. Finally, simulation and experiment of the proposed control strategy illustrated its feasibility and correctness.

  14. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  15. Emissions trading in China: A conceptual 'leapfrog' approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufer, Roger; Li, Shaoyi

    2009-01-01

    China is well aware of the advantages of quantity-based economic instruments (i.e., emissions trading) for domestic pollution control, but pilot studies and experimental programs in Taiyuan, Hong Kong/Guangdong, and other locations have not been successful. This paper proposes a very different type of emissions trading program, designed with Chinese implementation concerns in mind. It has three component parts: (1) a real-time intermittent control system (ICS) strategy designed to address public health concerns in the near term; (2) software-oriented Predictive emissions monitoring systems (PEMS) targeting process parameter (rather than emission) reporting from individual emission sources; and (3) real-time emissions markets responding to the ICS constraint. The technical and political difficulties associated with implementing such a system are recognized as daunting. However, such an approach would 'leapfrog' over existing systems, allowing the country to develop a comprehensive air pollution control strategy as economic growth occurs, continuously improving air quality in a cost efficient manner, utilizing both advanced technology and market-based control approaches in a manner consistent with China's unique environmental needs. It would also lay the groundwork for the eventual pricing of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases within China.

  16. Simultaneous control of emission localization and two-photon absorption efficiency in dissymmetrical chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to demonstrate that combined spectral tuning of fluorescence and two-photon absorption (TPA) properties of multipolar chromophores can be achieved by introduction of slight electronic chemical dissymmetry. In that perspective, two novel series of structurally related chromophores have been designed and studied: a first series based on rod-like quadrupolar chromophores bearing different electron-donating (D) end groups and a second series based on three-branched octupolar chromophores built from a trigonal donating moiety and bearing various acceptor (A) peripheral groups. The influence of the electronic dissymmetry is investigated by combined experimental and theoretical studies of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of dissymmetric chromophores compared to their symmetrical counterparts. In both types of systems (i.e. quadrupoles and octupoles) experiments and theory reveal that excitation is essentially delocalized and that excitation involves synchronized charge redistribution between the different D and A moieties within the multipolar structure (i.e. concerted intramolecular charge transfer). In contrast, the emission stems only from a particular dipolar subunit bearing the strongest D or A moieties due to fast excitation localization after excitation prior to emission. Hence control of emission characteristics (polarization and emission spectrum) in addition to localization can be achieved by controlled introduction of electronic dissymmetry (i.e. replacement of one of the D or A end-groups by a slightly stronger D(prime) or A(prime) units). Interestingly dissymmetrical functionalization of both quadrupolar and octupolar compounds does not lead to significant loss in TPA responses and can even be beneficial due to the spectral broadening and peak position tuning that it allows. This study thus reveals an original molecular engineering route strategy allowing major TPA enhancement in multipolar structures due to concerted

  17. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  18. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  19. A Coherence Preservation Control Strategy in Cavity QED Based on Classical Quantum Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For eliminating the unexpected decoherence effect in cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED, the transfer function of Rabi oscillation is derived theoretically using optical Bloch equations. In particular, the decoherence in cavity QED from the atomic spontaneous emission is especially considered. A feedback control strategy is proposed to preserve the coherence through Rabi oscillation stabilization. In the scheme, a classical quantum feedback channel for the quantum information acquisition is constructed via the quantum tomography technology, and a compensation system based on the root locus theory is put forward to suppress the atomic spontaneous emission and the associated decoherence. The simulation results have proved its effectiveness and superiority for the coherence preservation.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1174 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the allowable emissions resulting from the application of the CTG presumptive norm. The State must... Forms, Reference Tables, and General Instructions, along with an implementation strategy for the State's... implement one or more appropriate contingency measure(s) which are contained in the contingency plan...

  1. Emission and thermal performance upgrade through advanced control backfit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K. [Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Reducing emission and improving thermal performance of currently operating power plants is a high priority. A majority of these power plants are over 20 years old with old control systems. Upgrading the existing control systems with the latest technology has many benefits, the most cost beneficial are the reduction of emission and improving thermal performance. The payback period is usually less than two years. Virginia Power is installing Stone & Webster`s NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor and Advanced Steam Temperature Control systems on Possum Point Units 3 and 4 to achieve near term NO{sub x} reductions while maintaining high thermal performance. Testing has demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 20 percent through the application of NO{sub x} Emissions Advisor on these units. The Advanced Steam Temperature Control system which has been operational at Virginia Power`s Mt. Storm Unit 1 has demonstrated a signification improvement in unit thermal performance and controllability. These control systems are being combined at Units 3 and 4 to reduce NO{sub x} emissions and achieve improved unit thermal performance and control response with the existing combustion hardware. Installation has been initiated and is expected to be completed by the spring of 1995. Possum Point Power Station Units 3 and 4 are pulverized coal, tangentially fired boilers producing 107 and 232 MW and have a distributed control system and a PC based performance monitoring system. The installation of the advanced control and automation system will utilize existing control equipment requiring the addition of several PCs and PLC.

  2. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennard, M W [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Pleasantville, NY (United States); Harbottle, J E [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Thornbury, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B{sub 4}C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  3. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  4. On-road vehicle emissions and their control in China: A review and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye; Zhang, Shaojun; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hu, Jingnan; Walsh, Michael P; Wallington, Timothy J; Zhang, K Max; Stevanovic, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    The large (26-fold over the past 25years) increase in the on-road vehicle fleet in China has raised sustainability concerns regarding air pollution prevention, energy conservation, and climate change mitigation. China has established integrated emission control policies and measures since the 1990s, including implementation of emission standards for new vehicles, inspection and maintenance programs for in-use vehicles, improvement in fuel quality, promotion of sustainable transportation and alternative fuel vehicles, and traffic management programs. As a result, emissions of major air pollutants from on-road vehicles in China have peaked and are now declining despite increasing vehicle population. As might be expected, progress in addressing vehicle emissions has not always been smooth and challenges such as the lack of low sulfur fuels, frauds over production conformity and in-use inspection tests, and unreliable retrofit programs have been encountered. Considering the high emission density from vehicles in East China, enhanced vehicle, fuel and transportation strategies will be required to address vehicle emissions in China. We project the total vehicle population in China to reach 400-500 million by 2030. Serious air pollution problems in many cities of China, in particular high ambient PM 2.5 concentration, have led to pressure to accelerate the progress on vehicle emission reduction. A notable example is the draft China 6 emission standard released in May 2016, which contains more stringent emission limits than those in the Euro 6 regulations, and adds a real world emission testing protocol and a 48-h evaporation testing procedure including diurnal and hot soak emissions. A scenario (PC[1]) considered in this study suggests that increasingly stringent standards for vehicle emissions could mitigate total vehicle emissions of HC, CO, NO X and PM 2.5 in 2030 by approximately 39%, 57%, 59% and 79%, respectively, compared with 2013 levels. With additional actions

  5. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.

  6. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimmer, M.; Koenderink, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS).

  7. Impacts of Aging Emission Control Systems on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems have become standard equipment on new trucks. Particle filters can also be installed as a retrofit on older engines. Prior work has shown that exhaust filters and SCR systems effectively reduce BC and NOx emission rates by up to 90 and 80%, respectively (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). There is concern, however, that DPFs may promote the formation of ultrafine particles (UFP) and increase tailpipe emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Additionally, urea-based SCR systems for NOx control may form nitrous oxide (N2O), an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. The effectiveness of these emission controls has been thoroughly evaluated in the laboratory, but the long-term durability of in-use systems and their impacts on co-emitted species have not been well characterized. To evaluate the in-use performance of DPF and SCR systems, pollutant emissions from thousands of diesel trucks were measured over several years at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pollutants present in the exhaust plumes of individual trucks were measured at high time resolution (≥1 Hz) as trucks passed under a mobile lab stationed on an overpass. Fuel-based emission factors (g pollutant emitted per kg fuel burned) were calculated for individual trucks and linked via recorded license plates to vehicle attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control systems. Use of DPFs reduced the BC emission rate by up to 95% at both locations. SCR systems were more effective at reducing NOx emissions under the uphill, highway driving conditions at the Caldecott Tunnel. The emission rates of co-emitted species NO2, UFP, and N2O depended on driving

  8. Strategies for monitoring of priority pollutant emission barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Maria; De Keyser, Webbey; Birch, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of Task 7.5 was to develop tools for model-based planning of sampling campaigns in the design of monitoring strategies for priority pollutant emission barriers. Using integrated urban wastewater system (IUWS) models, measurement campaigns can be designed to improve the calibration...... to be implemented in the IUWS model, as well as the sampling and measuring devices that will be used. The simulation results are presented as a Substance Flow Analysis (SFA). These SFAs can be compared with empirical SFAs and can also be used to set up measurement campaigns aiming at gathering information...

  9. National Drug Control Strategy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In May of 2010, President Obama released the Administration's inaugural "National Drug Control Strategy". Based on the premise that drug use and its consequences pose a threat not just to public safety, but also to public health, the 2010 "Strategy" represented the first comprehensive rebalancing of Federal drug control policy in the nearly 40…

  10. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  11. Controlling spontaneous emission of light by photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Photonic bandgap crystals were proposed almost two decades ago as a unique tool for controlling propagation and emission of light. Since then the research field of photonic crystals has exploded and many beautiful demonstrations of the use of photonic crystals and fibers for molding light...... propagation have appeared that hold great promises for integrated optics. These major achievements solidly demonstrate the ability to control propagation of light. In contrast, an experimental demonstration of the use of photonic crystals for timing the emission of light has so far lacked. In a recent...... publication in Nature, we have demonstrated experimentally that both the direction and time of spontaneous emission can be controlled, thereby confirming the original proposal by Eli Yablonovich that founded the field of photonic crystals. We believe that this work opens new opportunities for solid...

  12. Source Classification Framework for an optimized European wide Emission Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten; Donner, Erica; Ledin, Anna

    2011-01-01

    of the PS environmental emission. The SCF also provides a well structured approach for European pollutant source and release classification and management. With further European wide implementation, the SCF has the potential or an optimized ECS in order to obtain good chemical status of European water...

  13. Optimal Coordination Strategy of Regional Vertical Emission Abatement Collaboration in a Low-Carbon Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daming You

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a time factor into a low-carbon context, and supposes the contamination control state of local government and the ability of polluting enterprise to abate emissions as linear increasing functions in a regional low-carbon emission abatement cooperation chain. The local government effectuates and upholds the low-carbon development within the jurisdiction that is primarily seeking to transform regional economic development modes, while the polluting enterprise abates the amounts of emitted carbon in the entire period of product through simplifying production, facilitating decontamination, and adopting production technology, thus leading to less contamination. On that basis, we infer that the coordinated joint carbon reduction model and two decentralization contracts expound the dynamic coordination strategy for a regional cooperation chain in terms of vertical carbon abatement. Furthermore, feedback equilibrium strategies that are concerned with several diverse conditions are compared and analyzed. The main results show that a collaborative centralized contract is able to promote the regional low-carbon cooperation chain in order to achieve a win–win situation in both economic and environmental performance. Additionally, the optimal profits of the entire regional low-carbon cooperation channel under an integration scenario evidently outstrip that of two non-collaborative decentralization schemes. Eventually, the validity of the conclusions is verified with a case description and numerical simulation, and the sensitivity of the relevant parameters is analyzed in order to lay a theoretical foundation and thus facilitate the sustainable development of a regional low-carbon environment.

  14. 40 CFR 123.46 - Individual control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual control strategies. 123.46... PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Transfer of Information and Permit Review § 123.46 Individual control strategies. (a..., approval, and implementation an individual control strategy for each point source identified by the State...

  15. Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, T.B.; Trainer, M.; Holloway, J.S.; Parrish, D.D.; Huey, L.G.; Sueper, D.T.; Frost, G.J.; Donnelly, S.G.; Schauffler, S.; Atlas, E.L.; Kuster, W.C.; Goldan, P.D.; Huebler, G.; Meagher, J.F.; Fehsenfeld, F.C. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (USA). Aeronomy Lab.

    2001-04-27

    Data taken in aircraft transects of emissions plumes from rural US coal-fired power plants were used to confirm and quantify the nonlinear dependence of tropospheric ozone formation on plume NOx (NO plus NO{sub 2}) concentration, which is determined by plant NOx emission rate and atmospheric dispersion. The ambient availability of reactive volatile organic compounds, principally biogenic isoprene, was also found to modular ozone production rate and yield in these rural plumes. Differences of a factor of 2 or greater in plume ozone formation rates and yields as a function of NOx and volatile organic compound concentrations were consistently observed. These large differences suggest that consideration of power plant NOx emission rates and geographic locations in current and future US ozone control strategies could substantially enhance the efficacy of NOx reductions from these sources. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Emissions inventories and options for control. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swart, R.J.; Van Amstel, A.R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Kroeze, C.

    1995-10-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project `Social causes of the greenhouse effect, emissions inventories and options for control`. The objectives of the project, that started in 1990, were to support the development of a comprehensive Dutch climate policy and to identify gaps in the knowledge about sources of greenhouse gases. The four phases of the project are summarized. In the first phase, a first national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions was made, capturing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and the ozone precursors carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} ) and volatile organic compounds (VOC). In the second phase, the acquired expertise was used to support the development of Guidelines for National Emissions Inventories by the joint OECD/IPCC programme through workshop organization and participation in the international planning group. In the third phase, a detailed analysis was performed of the sources of methane, its current and future emissions and the options for control. Finally, a similar analysis was performed for nitrous oxide. In these studies, it was found that policies not specifically aiming at mitigating climate change, would help to control the emissions of the non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. While for methane, national emissions would even decrease because of measures in the livestock management and waste disposal sectors, for nitrous oxide the reductions in agricultural emissions would be outweighed by increases, especially in the transportation sector. The project shows that the application of more detailed information leads to differences with the Guidelines, both because of the limited number of source categories in the Guidelines and because of different, locally specific emissions factors. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  17. Analysis and control design of sustainable policies for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Bing; Duncan, Stephen; Papachristodoulou, Antonis; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now an urgent priority. Systems control theory, and in particular feedback control, can be helpful in designing policies that achieve sustainable levels of emissions of CO 2 (and other greenhouse gases) while minimizing the impact on the economy, and at the same time explicitly addressing the high levels of uncertainty associated with predictions of future emissions. In this paper, we describe preliminary results for an approach where model predictive control (MPC) is applied to a model of the UK economy (UK 4see model) as a test bed to design sustainable policies for greenhouse gas emissions. Using feedback control, the policies are updated on the basis of the actual emissions, rather than on the predicted level of emissions. The basic structure and principle of the UK 4see model is described and its implementation in Simulink is presented. A linearized state space model is obtained and model predictive control is applied to design policies for CO 2 emissions. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The preliminary results obtained in this paper illustrate the strength of the proposed design approach and form the basis for future research on using systems control theory to design optimal sustainable policies

  18. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  19. Optimal control of anthracnose using mixed strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotsa Mbogne, David Jaures; Thron, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose and study a spatial diffusion model for the control of anthracnose disease in a bounded domain. The model is a generalization of the one previously developed in [15]. We use the model to simulate two different types of control strategies against anthracnose disease. Strategies that employ chemical fungicides are modeled using a continuous control function; while strategies that rely on cultivational practices (such as pruning and removal of mummified fruits) are modeled with a control function which is discrete in time (though not in space). For comparative purposes, we perform our analyses for a spatially-averaged model as well as the space-dependent diffusion model. Under weak smoothness conditions on parameters we demonstrate the well-posedness of both models by verifying existence and uniqueness of the solution for the growth inhibition rate for given initial conditions. We also show that the set [0, 1] is positively invariant. We first study control by impulsive strategies, then analyze the simultaneous use of mixed continuous and pulse strategies. In each case we specify a cost functional to be minimized, and we demonstrate the existence of optimal control strategies. In the case of pulse-only strategies, we provide explicit algorithms for finding the optimal control strategies for both the spatially-averaged model and the space-dependent model. We verify the algorithms for both models via simulation, and discuss properties of the optimal solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows: (1...

  1. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  2. New Possibilities for Technology Development in the Auspices of Low-Emission EU Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Car, S.; Jelavic, V.

    2016-01-01

    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has elevated the level of responsibility of the international community for implementation of measures for climate preservation and CO2 reduction. After the Paris Agreement, the base for carrying out the measures lies in the following: contribution to emissions reduction determined on a national level, establishing new platforms for energy management based on low-emission development, new technological and economy development and technology transfer. European Development Fund is an opportunity for accelerating the technological development of Croatian economy and to coordinate it with EU low-emission strategy, taking into account the advanced specialization economy strategy which was recently approved by the EC and adopted in the Parliament. Technological development, based on available local resources, new technologies, innovations and global market, is a basis of a long-term sustainable development and it is expected that it will be supported not just from the EU funds but also with local fiscal and other measures. Visions for development of some technologies will be shown, as well as examples of new possibilities for Croatian electro industry that is already present on the global market and only confirms the possibility and necessity of such technological development.(author).

  3. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  4. Brushless DC motor speed control strategy of simulation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the brushless DC motor speed regulation problem, an ideal control strategy is designed. Through the model and analysis of Brushless DC motor, the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor is obtained. By comparing three control strategies of PID control strategy, fuzzy control strategy and fuzzy PID control strategy, PID controller, fuzzy controller and fuzzy PID controller are designed respectively for simulation test. The simulation results show that the fuzzy PID controller has good control effect.

  5. Sensitivity of modeled ozone concentrations to uncertainties in biogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roselle, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    The study examines the sensitivity of regional ozone (O3) modeling to uncertainties in biogenic emissions estimates. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) was used to simulate the photochemistry of the northeastern United States for the period July 2-17, 1988. An operational model evaluation showed that ROM had a tendency to underpredict O3 when observed concentrations were above 70-80 ppb and to overpredict O3 when observed values were below this level. On average, the model underpredicted daily maximum O3 by 14 ppb. Spatial patterns of O3, however, were reproduced favorably by the model. Several simulations were performed to analyze the effects of uncertainties in biogenic emissions on predicted O3 and to study the effectiveness of two strategies of controlling anthropogenic emissions for reducing high O3 concentrations. Biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were adjusted by a factor of 3 to account for the existing range of uncertainty in these emissions. The impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on O3 predictions depended upon the availability of NOx. In some extremely NOx-limited areas, increasing the amount of biogenic emissions decreased O3 concentrations. Two control strategies were compared in the simulations: (1) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions, and (2) reduced anthropogenic hydrocarbon and NOx emissions. The simulations showed that hydrocarbon emission controls were more beneficial to the New York City area, but that combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more beneficial to other areas of the Northeast. Hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were reduced, whereas combined NOx and hydrocarbon controls were more effective as biogenic hydrocarbon emissions were increased

  6. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  7. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  8. VOCs emission characteristics and priority control analysis based on VOCs emission inventories and ozone formation potentials in Zhoushan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoli; Li, Sujing; Dong, Minli; Li, Wei; Gao, Xiang; Ye, Rongmin; Zhang, Dongxiao

    2018-06-01

    Zhoushan is an island city with booming tourism and service industry, but also has many developed VOCs and/or NOX emission industries. It is necessary to carry out regional VOCs and O3 pollution control in Zhoushan as the only new area owns the provincial economic and social administration rights. Anthropogenic VOCs emission inventories were built based on emission factor method and main emission sources were identified according to the emission inventories. Then, localized VOCs source profiles were built based on in-site sampling and referring to other studies. Furthermore, ozone formation potentials (OFPs) profiles were built through VOCs source profiles and maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) theory. At last, the priority control analysis results showed that industrial processes, especially surface coating, are the key of VOCs and O3 control. Alkanes were the most emitted group, accounting for 58.67%, while aromatics contributed the most to ozone production accounting for 69.97% in total OFPs. n-butane, m/p-xylene, i-pentane, n-decane, toluene, propane, n-undecane, o-xylene, methyl cyclohexane and ethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that should be preferentially controlled for VOCs emission control. However, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylene, n-butane, toluene, propene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, ethyl benzene and 1,2,3-trimethyl benzene were the top 10 VOC species that required preferential control for O3 pollution control.

  9. Photochemical production of ozone and control strategy for Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Chein-Jung; Liu, Shaw Chen; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Jen-Ping; Chou, Charles C. K.; Lin, Chuan-Yao; Young, Chea-Yuan

    An observation-based method (OBM) is developed to evaluate the ozone (O 3) production efficiency (O 3 molecules produced per NO x molecule consumed) and O 3 production rate ( P(O 3)) during a field campaign in southern Taiwan. The method can also provide an estimate of the concentration of OH. A key step in the method is to use observed concentrations of two aromatic hydrocarbons, namely ethylbenzene and m, p-xylene, to estimate the degree of photochemical processing and amounts of photochemically consumed NO x and NMHCs by OH. In addition, total oxidant (O 3+NO 2) instead of O 3 itself turns out to be very useful for representing ozone production in the OBM approach. The average O 3 production efficiency during the field campaign in Fall (2003) is found to be about 10.2±3.9. The relationship of P(O 3) with NO x is examined and compared with a one-dimensional (1D) photochemical model. Values of P(O 3) derived from the OBM are slightly lower than those calculated in the 1D model. However, OH concentrations estimated by the OBM are about a factor of 2 lower than the 1D model. Fresh emissions, which affect the degree of photochemical processing appear to be a major cause of the underestimate. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) OBM O 3 production diagram that resembles the EKMA ozone isopleth diagram to study the relationship of the total oxidant versus O 3 precursors. The 3D OBM O 3 production diagram suggests that reducing emissions of NMHCs are more effective in controlling O 3 than reducing NO x. However, significant uncertainties remain in the OBM, and considerable more work is required to minimize these uncertainties before a definitive control strategy can be reached. The observation-based approach provides a good alternative to measuring peroxy radicals for evaluating the production of O 3 and formulating O 3 control strategy in urban and suburban environments.

  10. [Aedes aegypti control strategies: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amâncio; Santos, Sandra Maria Dos; Fernandes-Oliveira, Ellen Synthia; Carvalho, Roberta Gomes; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim

    2016-01-01

    to describe the main strategies to control Aedes aegypti, with emphasis on promising technological innovations for use in Brazil. this study is a non-systematic review of the literature. several technologies have been developed as alternatives in the control of Ae. aegypti, using different mechanisms of action, such as selective monitoring of the infestation, social interventions, dispersing insecticides, new biological control agents and molecular techniques for population control of mosquitoes, also considering the combination between them. Evolving technologies require evaluation of the effectiveness, feasibility and costs of implementation strategies as complementary to the actions already recommended by the National Program for Dengue Control. the integration of different compatible and effective vector control strategies, considering the available technologies and regional characteristics, appears to be a viable method to try to reduce the infestation of mosquitoes and the incidence of arbovirus transmitted by them.

  11. Environmental emissions control programs at Lambton TGS [Thermal Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvins, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's air emissions control programs at Lambton thermal generating station, both committed and planned, are reviewed, and their potential impacts on emissions, effluents and wastes are discussed. Control technologies examined include flue gas conditioning, wet limestone scrubbing, combustion process modifications, urea injection, and selective catalytic reduction. The implementation of these technologies has the potential to create new solid and liquid waste disposal problems, the full extent of which is often not realized at the process selection stage. For example, selective noncatalytic reduction using urea injection can lead to increased CO emissions, escape of unreacted ammonia from the stack at levels of 5-50 ppM, increase in N 2 O emissions, contamination of fly ash, gypsum and waste water with ammonia, and an increase in CO 2 emissions of less than 0.4% due to increased power consumption. Optimum performance of the air emissions control systems, with minimum negative impact on the environment, requires consideration of the impact of these systems on all waste streams. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... assurance/quality control program for the unit, required by section 1 in appendix B of this part. To provide...

  13. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  14. Strategies for reducing the emission of carbon dioxide. A study of some Annex 1 countries; Strategier foer att minska koldioxidutslaeppen. En studie av naagra Annex 1 laender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenkvist, M.; Olofsdotter, A.

    2000-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the development of carbon dioxide emissions and the energy systems in a number of countries. The analysis also includes the strategies chosen by the countries to reduce the emissions.

  15. Mercury emission, control and measurement from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering; Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Cao, Yan [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States). Inst. for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology; Zhang, Kai [North China Electric Power Univ., Beijing (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired electric power generation accounts for 65% of U.S. emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), 22% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), and 37% of mercury (Hg). The proposed Clear Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) will attempt to regulate these emissions using a cap-and-trade program to replace a number of existing regulatory requirements that will impact this industry over the next decade. Mercury emissions remain the largest source that has not yet been efficiently controlled, in part because this is one of the most expensive to control. Mercury is a toxic, persistent pollutant that accumulates in the food chain. During the coal combustion process, when both sampling and accurate measurements are challenging, we know that mercury is present in three species: elemental, oxidized and particulate. There are three basic types of mercury measurement methods: Ontario Hydro Method, mercury continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) and sorbent-based monitoring. Particulate mercury is best captured by electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Oxidized mercury is best captured in wet scrubbers. Elemental mercury is the most difficult to capture, but selective catalytic reduction units (SCRs) are able to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury allowing it to be captured by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). This works well for eastern coals with high chlorine contents, but this does not work well on the Wyoming Powder River Basin (PRB) coals. However, no good explanation for its mechanism, correlations of chlorine content in coal with SCR performance, and impacts of higher chlorine content in coal on FGD re-emission are available. The combination of SCR and FGD affords more than an 80% reduction in mercury emissions in the case of high chlorine content coals. The mercury emission results from different coal ranks, boilers, and the air pollution control device (APCD) in power plant will be discussed. Based on this UAEPA new regulation, most power plants

  16. Aeration Strategies To Mitigate Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Single-Stage Nitritation/Anammox Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, A. Gizem; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2014-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal is regarded as a resource efficient process to manage nitrogen-rich residual streams. However, nitrous oxide emissions of these processes are poorly documented and strategies to mitigate emissions unknown. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors performing single...... was noted when the duration of aeration was increased while decreasing air flow rate (10.9 +/- 3.2% Delta N2O/Delta TN). The extant ammonium oxidation activity (mgNH(4)(+)-N/gVSS.min) positively correlated with the specific N2O production rate (mgN(2)O-N/gVSS.min) of the systems. Operating under conditions......-stage nitritation/anammox were operated under different aeration strategies, gradually adjusted over six months. At constant but limiting oxygen loading, synthetic reject water was fed (0.75g-N/L.d) and high nitrogen removal efficiencies (83 +/- 5 and 88 +/- 2%) obtained. Dynamics of liquid phase nitrous (N2O...

  17. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  18. Coherent control of atto-second emission from aligned molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutu, W; Haessler, S; Merdji, H; Breger, P; Monchicourt, P; Carre, B; Salieres, P [CEA Saclay, DSM, Serv Photons Atomes Mol, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Waters, G [Univ Reading, JJ Thomson Phys Lab, Reading RG6 6AF, Berks, (United Kingdom); Stankiewicz, M [Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Phys, PL-30059 Krakow, (Poland); Frasinski, L J [Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol and Med, Blackett Lab, London SW7 2BW, (United Kingdom); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Lab Chim Phys Matiere Rayonnement, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Taieb, R; Caillat, J; Maquet, A [LCPMR, UMR 7614, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Controlling atto-second electron wave packets and soft X-ray pulses represents a formidable challenge of general implication to many areas of science. A strong laser field interacting with atoms or molecules drives ultrafast intra-atomic/molecular electron wave packets on a sub femtosecond timescale, resulting in the emission of atto-second bursts of extreme-ultraviolet light. Controlling the intra-atomic/molecular electron dynamics enables steering of the atto-second emission. Here, we carry out a coherent control in linear molecules, where the interaction of the laser-driven electron wave packet with the core leads to quantum interferences. We demonstrate that these interferences can be finely controlled by turning the molecular axis relative to the laser polarization, that is, changing the electron re-collision angle. The wave-packet coulombic distortion modifies the spectral phase jump measured in the extreme-ultraviolet emission. Our atto-second control of the interference results in atto-second pulse shaping, useful for future applications in ultrafast coherent control of atomic and molecular processes. (authors)

  19. Force Control Strategies in Hydraulically Actuated Legged Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Montes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, several strategies of force control have been proposed to be implemented and evaluated in ROBOCLIMBER, a quadruped robot of large dimensions. A first group of strategies proposed in this paper is based on impedance control, which is intended to adapt the foot-ground contact forces according to the experimentally specified damping ratio and the undamped natural frequency. A second control strategy of interest for many practical cases is called the parallel force/position control, which has one inner loop position control and two external control loops, one of force and another of position. A third group of control strategies is the posture stabilization for ROBOCLIMBER using the feedback of the ZMP calculation and the position of its legs. Finally, a control strategy for the control of a quasi-static gait using ZMP feedback is proposed and tested by simulation.

  20. PM, NOx and butane emissions from on-road vehicle fleets in Hong Kong and their implications on emission control policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Wubulihairen, Maimaitireyimu; Yang, Fenhuan

    2012-12-01

    Vehicular emissions are the major sources of air pollution in urban areas. For metropolitan cities with large population working and living in environments with direct traffic impact, emission control is of great significance to protect public health. Implementation of more stringent emission standards, retrofitting fleet with emission control devices and switching to clearer fuel has been commonly practiced in different cities including Hong Kong. The present study employed a new plume chasing method for effective and quick evaluation of on-road fleet emission factors of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and butane from heavy duty diesel trucks, diesel buses and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles. The results showed distinct profiles of the emissions from different fleets with excessive butane emissions from LPG fleet and contrasting PM and NOx emissions from diesel trucks and buses fleets. A cross comparison was also made with emission data from other cities and from historic local studies. The implications of the observed difference on the effectiveness of emission control measures and policy are discussed with recommendations of direction for future research and policy making.

  1. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  2. The role of meat in strategies to achieve a sustainable diet lower in greenhouse gas emissions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, John J; Henchion, Maeve; McCarthy, Mary; McCarthy, Sinéad N

    2017-10-01

    Food consumption is responsible for a considerable proportion of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Hence, individual food choices have the potential to substantially influence both public health and the environment. Meat and animal products are relatively high in GHGE and therefore targeted in efforts to reduce dietary emissions. This review first highlights the complexities regarding sustainability in terms of meat consumption and thereafter discusses possible strategies that could be implemented to mitigate its climatic impact. It outlines how sustainable diets are possible without the elimination of meat. For instance, overconsumption of food in general, beyond our nutritional requirements, was found to be a significant contributor of emissions. Non-voluntary and voluntary mitigation strategies offer potential to reduce dietary GHGE. All mitigation strategies require careful consideration but on-farm sustainable intensification perhaps offers the most promise. However, a balance between supply and demand approaches is encouraged. Health should remain the overarching principle for policies and strategies concerned with shifting consumer behaviour towards sustainable diets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. 40 CFR 52.2088 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2088... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Rhode Island Department of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 52.2088 Control strategy: Ozone. (c) Determination of Attainment...

  4. Dynamic programming for Integrated Emission Management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, J. van; Donkers, M.C.F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that aims at minimizing the operational costs of diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In previous work on IEM, a suboptimal real-time implementable solution

  5. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  6. A first implementation of an efficient combustion strategy in a multi cylinder two-stage turbo CI-engine producing low emissions while consuming a gasoline/EHN blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornbos, G.; Somhorst, J.; Boot, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    A Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion strategy was developed and showed its capabilities in the heavy duty single cylinder test-cell, resulting in indicated efficiencies up to 50% and low engine out emissions applying to EU VI and US 10 legislations while the soot remained at a controllable 1.5

  7. The Dynamic Evolution of Firms’ Pollution Control Strategy under Graded Reward-Penalty Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The externality of pollution problem makes firms lack enough incentive to reduce pollution emission. Therefore, it is necessary to design a reasonable environmental regulation mechanism so as to effectively urge firms to control pollution. In order to inspire firms to control pollution, we divide firms into different grades according to their pollution level and construct an evolutionary game model to analyze the interaction between government’s regulation and firms’ pollution control under graded reward-penalty mechanism. Then, we discuss stability of firms’ pollution control strategy and derive the condition of inspiring firms to control pollution. Our findings indicate that firms tend to control pollution after long-term repeated games if government’s excitation level and monitoring frequency meet some conditions. Otherwise, firms tend to discharge pollution that exceeds the stipulated standards. As a result, in order to effectively control pollution, a government should adjust its excitation level and monitoring frequency reasonably.

  8. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  9. Attenuation Correction Strategies for Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and 4-Dimensional Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tinsu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses attenuation correction strategies in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and 4 dimensional PET/CT imaging. Average CT scan derived from averaging the high temporal resolution CT images is effective in improving the registration of the CT and the PET images and quantification of the PET data. It underscores list mode data acquisition in 4 dimensional PET and introduces 4 dimensional CT popular in thoracic treatment planning to 4 dimensional PET/CT. ...

  10. Radiochemical syntheses further radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography and new strategies for their production

    CERN Document Server

    Kilbourn, Michael R; Kilbourn, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This book describes methods and procedures for preparing PET radiopharmaceuticals, and highlights new methods for conducting radiochemical reactions with carbon-11 (C11) and fluorine-18 (F18), which are two of the most commonly used radionuclides in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.     Provides reliable methods for radiochemical syntheses and reactions, including all essential information to duplicate the procedure     Eliminates the time-consuming process of searching journal articles and extracting pertinent details from lengthy experimental sections or supporting information     Focuses on an emerging and important area for pharmaceutical and medical applications     Encompasses technical, regulatory, and application aspects     Includes solid-phase radiochemistry, transition-metal catalyzed radiochemistry, microfluidics, click chemistry, green radiochemistry and new strategies for radiopharmaceutical quality control.

  11. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Andy; Ledgard, Stewart

    2013-06-01

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO2-equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO2-equivalent emissions, particularly for CH4. While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH4 and N2O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric.

  12. Impact of greenhouse gas metrics on the quantification of agricultural emissions and farm-scale mitigation strategies: a New Zealand case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, Andy; Ledgard, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture emits a range of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas metrics allow emissions of different gases to be reported in a common unit called CO 2 -equivalent. This enables comparisons of the efficiency of different farms and production systems and of alternative mitigation strategies across all gases. The standard metric is the 100 year global warming potential (GWP), but alternative metrics have been proposed and could result in very different CO 2 -equivalent emissions, particularly for CH 4 . While significant effort has been made to reduce uncertainties in emissions estimates of individual gases, little effort has been spent on evaluating the implications of alternative metrics on overall agricultural emissions profiles and mitigation strategies. Here we assess, for a selection of New Zealand dairy farms, the effect of two alternative metrics (100 yr GWP and global temperature change potentials, GTP) on farm-scale emissions and apparent efficiency and cost effectiveness of alternative mitigation strategies. We find that alternative metrics significantly change the balance between CH 4 and N 2 O; in some cases, alternative metrics even determine whether a specific management option would reduce or increase net farm-level emissions or emissions intensity. However, the relative ranking of different farms by profitability or emissions intensity, and the ranking of the most cost-effective mitigation options for each farm, are relatively unaffected by the metric. We conclude that alternative metrics would change the perceived significance of individual gases from agriculture and the overall cost to farmers if a price were applied to agricultural emissions, but the economically most effective response strategies are unaffected by the choice of metric. (letter)

  13. 40 CFR 1060.102 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.102 What permeation...

  14. 40 CFR 1060.103 - What permeation emission control requirements apply for fuel tanks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What permeation emission control... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD AND STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.103 What permeation...

  15. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  16. New regenerative braking control strategy for rear-driven electrified minivans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junzhi, Zhang; Yutong, Li; Chen, Lv; Ye, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A regenerative braking system is designed for a rear-driven electric minivan. • A new control strategy coordinating energy efficiency and braking feel is proposed. • The control strategy is verified by simulation and hardware-in-loop (HIL) tests. • The proposed control strategy offers higher regeneration efficiency. - Abstract: As of to 2012, minivan ownership stood at 20 million units in China, accounting for 16% of the passenger car market. In this article, comprehensive research is carried out on the design and control of a regenerative braking system for a rear-driven electrified minivan. For improving the regeneration efficiency by as much as possible, a new regenerative braking control strategy called “modified control strategy” is proposed. Additionally, a control strategy called “baseline control strategy” is introduced as a comparative control strategy. Simulations and hardware-in-loop (HIL) tests are carried out. The results of the simulations and the HIL tests show that the modified control strategy offers considerably higher regeneration efficiency than the baseline control strategy. In normal deceleration braking, the regeneration efficiency of the modified control strategy reaches 47%, 15% higher than that of the baseline control strategy. In addition, improvement in the fuel economy of electric vehicles operating on the ECE driving cycle and enhanced with the modified control strategy is greater than 10%, which is 3% higher than that with the baseline control strategy

  17. Revisiting factors controlling methane emissions from high-Arctic tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.

    2013-01-01

    controlling methane emission, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 emissions were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4...... short-term control factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems....

  18. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction or...

  19. Adoption of Emissions Abating Technologies by U.S. Electricity Producing Firms Under the SO2 Emission Allowance Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Gregorio Bernardo

    The objective of this research is to determine the adaptation strategies that coal-based, electricity producing firms in the United States utilize to comply with the emission control regulations imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market created by the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, and the effect of market conditions on the decision making process. In particular, I take into consideration (1) the existence of carbon contracts for the provision of coal that may a affect coal prices at the plant level, and (2) local and geographical conditions, as well as political arrangements that may encourage firms to adopt strategies that appear socially less efficient. As the electricity producing sector is a regulated sector, firms do not necessarily behave in a way that maximizes the welfare of society when reacting to environmental regulations. In other words, profit maximization actions taken by the firm do not necessarily translate into utility maximization for society. Therefore, the environmental regulator has to direct firms into adopting strategies that are socially efficient, i.e., that maximize utility. The SO 2 permit market is an instrument that allows each firm to reduce marginal emissions abatement costs according to their own production conditions and abatement costs. Companies will be driven to opt for a cost-minimizing emissions abatement strategy or a combination of abatement strategies when adapting to new environmental regulations or markets. Firms may adopt one or more of the following strategies to reduce abatement costs while meeting the emission constraints imposed by the SO2 Emissions Allowance Market: (1) continue with business as usual on the production site while buying SO2 permits to comply with environmental regulations, (2) switch to higher quality, lower sulfur coal inputs that will generate less SO2 emissions, or (3) adopting new emissions abating technologies. A utility optimization condition is that the marginal value of each input

  20. Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cassandra L; Woods, Noe C; Bilec, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    To determine the carbon footprint of various sustainability interventions used for laparoscopic hysterectomy. We designed interventions for laparoscopic hysterectomy from approaches that sustainable health care organizations advocate. We used a hybrid environmental life cycle assessment framework to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the proposed interventions. We conducted the study from September 2015 to December 2016 at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The largest carbon footprint savings came from selecting specific anesthetic gases and minimizing the materials used in surgery. Energy-related interventions resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon footprint per case but would result in larger savings for the whole facility. Commonly implemented approaches, such as recycling surgical waste, resulted in less than a 5% reduction in greenhouse gases. To reduce the environmental emissions of surgeries, health care providers need to implement a combination of approaches, including minimizing materials, moving away from certain heat-trapping anesthetic gases, maximizing instrument reuse or single-use device reprocessing, and reducing off-hour energy use in the operating room. These strategies can reduce the carbon footprint of an average laparoscopic hysterectomy by up to 80%. Recycling alone does very little to reduce environmental footprint. Public Health Implications. Health care services are a major source of environmental emissions and reducing their carbon footprint would improve environmental and human health. Facilities seeking to reduce environmental footprint should take a comprehensive systems approach to find safe and effective interventions and should identify and address policy barriers to implementing more sustainable practices.

  1. Swedish biomass strategies to reduce CO2 emission and oil use in an EU context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Jonas; Gustavsson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Swedish energy strategies for transportation, space heating and pulp industries were evaluated with a focus on bioenergy use. The aims were to 1) study trade-offs between reductions in CO 2 emission and oil use and between Swedish reductions and EU reductions, 2) compare the potential contributions of individual reduction measures, 3) quantify the total CO 2 emission and oil use reduction potentials. Swedish energy efficiency measures reduced EU CO 2 emission by 45–59 Mt CO 2 /a, at current biomass use and constant oil use. Doubling Swedish bioenergy use yielded an additional 40 Mt CO 2 /a reduction. Oil use could be reduced, but 36–81 kt of reductions in CO 2 emission would be lost per PJ of oil use reduction. Swedish fossil fuel use within the studied sectors could be nearly eliminated. The expansion of district heating and cogeneration of heat with a high electricity yield were important measures. Plug-in hybrid electric cars reduced CO 2 emission compared with conventional cars, and the difference was larger with increasing oil scarcity. The introduction of black liquor gasification in pulp mills also gave large CO 2 emission reduction. Motor fuel from biomass was found to be a feasible option when coal is the marginal fuel for fossil motor fuel production. -- Highlights: ► Bioenergy is compared to optimized fossil fuel use under different oil availability constraints. ► Swedish strategies are evaluated with respect to CO 2 emission and oil use reduction within Sweden and the EU. ► Efficiency measures give the largest reductions but increased bioenergy use is also important. ► District heating expansion, high electricity yield CHP, increased vehicle efficiency and PHEVs are important options. ► The studied sectors in Sweden could become nearly fossil-fuel free and yield an energy surplus.

  2. The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash; Safi, Sanam; Nielsen, Emil E

    2017-01-01

    by Jakobsen and colleagues. We plan to include all relevant randomised clinical trials assessing the effects of any rhythm control strategy versus any rate control strategy. We plan to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded...... on Web of Science, and BIOSIS to identify relevant trials. Any eligible trial will be assessed and classified as either high risk of bias or low risk of bias, and our conclusions will be based on trials with low risk of bias. The analyses of the extracted data will be performed using Review Manager 5....... This protocol for a systematic review aims at identifying the best overall treatment strategy for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. METHODS: This protocol for a systematic review was performed following the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration and the eight-step assessment procedure suggested...

  3. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  4. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  5. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  6. 40 CFR 52.2332 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.2332 Section 52.2332 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2332 Control Strategy...

  7. 40 CFR 52.1885 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1885 Section 52.1885 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Ohio § 52.1885 Control strategy...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1023 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1023 Section 52.1023 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Maine § 52.1023 Control strategy...

  9. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  10. Coupling of CORINAIR Data to Cost-effective Emission Reduction Strategies Based on Critical Thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, M.; Guardans, R.; Lindstrom, M.

    1999-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a workshop held by the participants in the EU/LIFE project: Coupling of CORINAIR data to cost-effective emission reduction strategies based on critical thresholds. The project participants include FEI, Filand, NERI, Denmark, CIEMAT, Spain, Lund Univ. Sweden. EMEP/MSC-W, UN/ECE/WGE/CCE and IIASA. The main objective of the project is to support national activities in assessing the spatial and temporal details of emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, ammonium and volatile organic compounds and the impacts of acidification, eutrophication and ground level ozone. The reproject workshop enabled participants to report preliminary results of the two main tasks, emissions and impacts and to agree on common solutions for the final results. (Author) 11 refs

  11. An Insight into the Effect of Advanced Injection Strategies on Pollutant Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An advanced numerical investigation has been carried out in order to study the effect of multiple injection strategies on Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Both different injected fuel percentages for each pulse and several dwells between main and post phase were investigated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD and large eddy simulation (LES. Two sets of simulations were taken into account for 10% and 20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR fractions. In the first one, the main injection was split into two identical phases, while in the second one into three pulses. Within each set, three strategies were considered, increasing the amount of fuel injected during the main and concurrently decreasing the post pulse. Overall, 48 simulations were employed, since four different dwells between the last phase of the main and post injection were considered. Results show that the pollutant emissions minimization has been obtained for the Schemes injecting 65% and 70% of fuel for both two and three split strategies, but for different values of dwell. In fact, emissions very close to each other for NOx and particulate matter have been reached for these cases. Reductions of about −30% and −71% were respectively obtained for NOx and soot in comparison with experimental emissions related to the single injection case.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood...

  13. Flicker Mitigation Strategy for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator by Torque Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    induction generator is presented to investigate the flicker mitigation. Taking advantage of the large inertia of the wind turbine rotor, a generator torque control (GTC) strategy is proposed, so that the power oscillation is stored as the kinetic energy of the wind turbine rotor, thus the flicker emission...... is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines during continuous operation.......Owing to the rotational sampling of turbulence, wind shear and tower shadow effects grid connected variable speed wind turbines could lead to the power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. A model of an megawatt (MW)-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed...

  14. Impurity doping: a novel strategy for controllable synthesis of functional lanthanide nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng

    2013-06-07

    Many technological nanomaterials are intentionally 'doped' by introducing appropriate amounts of foreign elements into hosts to impart electronic, magnetic and optical properties. In fact, impurity doping was recently found to have significant influence on nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. In this feature article, we provide an overview of the most recent progresses in doping-induced control of phase structures, sizes, shapes, as well as performances of functional nanomaterials for the first time. Two kinds of impurity doping strategies, including the homo-valence ion doping and hetero-valence ion doping, are discussed in detail. We lay emphases on impurity doping induced modifications of microstructures and optical properties of upconversion (UC) lanthanide (Ln(3+)) NCs, but do not limit to them. In addition, we also illustrate the control of Ln(3+) activator distribution in the core@shell architecture, which has recently provided scientists with new opportunities for designing and tuning the multi-color emissions of Ln(3+)-doped UC NCs. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives of this novel impurity doping strategy are pointed out.

  15. 40 CFR 52.377 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.377 Section 52.377 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.377 Control strategy: Ozone. (a...

  16. 40 CFR 52.66 - Control Strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Ozone. 52.66 Section 52.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.66 Control Strategy: Ozone. (a) The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.582 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.582 Section 52.582 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia> § 52.582 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Approval...

  18. 40 CFR 52.350 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.350 Section 52.350 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.350 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  20. National Drug Control Strategy. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    President Bush's new National Drug Control Strategy for 2003 focuses on three core priorities: stopping drug use before it starts; healing America's drug users; and disrupting the market. The 2003 strategy reports progress toward meeting the President's goals of reducing drug use by 10 percent over 2 years, and 25 percent over 5 years. With regard…

  1. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  2. Performance, profitability and greenhouse gas emissions of alternative finishing strategies for Holstein-Friesian bulls and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B; Crosson, P; Kelly, A K; Prendiville, R

    2018-02-06

    Modifying finishing strategies within established production systems has the potential to increase beef output and farm profit while reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of finishing duration on animal performance of Holstein-Friesian (HF) bulls and steers and evaluate the profitability and GHG emissions of these finishing strategies. A total of 90 HF calves were assigned to a complete randomised block design; three bull and three steer finishing strategies. Calves were rotationally grazed in a paddock system for the first season at pasture, housed and offered grass silage ad libitum plus 1.5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for the first winter and returned to pasture for a second season. Bulls were slaughtered at 19 months of age and either finished indoors on concentrates ad libitum for 100 days (19AL), finished at pasture supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 100 (19SP) or 150 days (19LP). Steers were slaughtered at 21 months of age and finished at pasture, supplemented with 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily for 60 (21SP) and 110 days (21LP) or slaughtered at 24 months of age and finished indoors over the second winter on grass silage ad libitum plus 5 kg DM of concentrate per head daily (24MO). The Grange Dairy Beef Systems Model and the Beef Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model were used to evaluate profitability and GHG emissions, respectively. Average daily gain during the finishing period (Pprofit.

  3. Efficient community-based control strategies in adaptive networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hui; Tang Ming; Zhang Haifeng

    2012-01-01

    Most studies on adaptive networks concentrate on the properties of steady state, but neglect transient dynamics. In this study, we pay attention to the emergence of community structure in the transient process and the effects of community-based control strategies on epidemic spreading. First, by normalizing the modularity, we investigate the evolution of community structure during the transient process, and find that a strong community structure is induced by the rewiring mechanism in the early stage of epidemic dynamics, which, remarkably, delays the outbreak of disease. We then study the effects of control strategies started at different stages on the prevalence. Both immunization and quarantine strategies indicate that it is not ‘the earlier, the better’ for the implementation of control measures. And the optimal control effect is obtained if control measures can be efficiently implemented in the period of a strong community structure. For the immunization strategy, immunizing the susceptible nodes on susceptible–infected links and immunizing susceptible nodes randomly have similar control effects. However, for the quarantine strategy, quarantining the infected nodes on susceptible–infected links can yield a far better result than quarantining infected nodes randomly. More significantly, the community-based quarantine strategy performs better than the community-based immunization strategy. This study may shed new light on the forecast and the prevention of epidemics among humans. (paper)

  4. Environmental management control systems for carbon emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Di Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to focus on a global consulting company and examine how it struggled to establish an effective environmental management control system for carbon emissions for its employees’ air travel. The organisation was motivated to reduce its carbon emissions both to comply with regulation and to enhance or maintain corporate reputation. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes a case study approach, examining internal and external documents as well as conducting interviews with senior staff. Findings – The case study investigates how Beta’s management implemented a system to reduce carbon emissions. The organisation focused on air travel, but the study finds that employee travel preferences did not radically change. Rather than reduction in carbon emissions, as planned by head office, air travel carbon emissions actually increased during the period, and, as a consequence, the reported reduction targets were significantly adjusted downwards to meet the new realities. Practical implications – The study has implications for both policy and practice for organisations seeking to improve their sustainability performance. Originality/value – The study responds to calls in the literature to undertake research to identify how management practices might reduce negative sustainability impacts, as there is little evidence of what management practices and accounting tools are being adopted, particularly in relation to carbon emissions from air travel. The paper adds to the creation of new accounting, giving visibility to carbon emission management through case study analysis.

  5. 40 CFR 52.2236 - Control strategy; lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; lead. 52.2236 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2236 Control strategy; lead... on October 6, 1994. These revisions address the requirements necessary to change a lead nonattainment...

  6. 40 CFR 52.930 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.930 Section 52.930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.930 Control strategy: Ozone. (a) The VOC...

  7. 40 CFR 52.476 - Control strategy: ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: ozone. 52.476 Section 52.476 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS District of Columbia § 52.476 Control strategy: ozone. (a...

  8. Waterbury, Conn., Incinerator to Control Mercury Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emission control equipment to limit the discharge of mercury pollution to the atmosphere will be installed at an incinerator owned by the City of Waterbury, Conn., according to a proposed agreement between the city and federal government.

  9. Controlling the emission current from a plasma cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, S.P.; Gushenets, V.I.; Schanin, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The processes determining the time and amplitude characteristics of the grid-controlled electron emission from the plasma of an arc discharge have been analyzed. It has been shown that by applying to the grid confining the plasma emission boundary of a modulated voltage it is possible to form current pulse of up to 1 kA with nanosecond risetimes and falltimes and a pulse repetitive rate of 100 kHz

  10. Air Pollutant Emissions Projections for the Cement and Steel Industry in China and the Impact of Emissions Control Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Khanna, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    China’s cement and steel industry accounts for approximately half of the world’s total cement and steel production. These two industries are two of the most energy-intensive and highest carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting industries and two of the key industrial contributors to air pollution in China. For example, the cement industry is the largest source of particulate matter (PM) emissions in China, accounting for 40 percent of its industrial PM emissions and 27 percent of its total national PM emissions. The Chinese steel industry contributed to approximately 20 percent of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions and 27 percent of PM emissions for all key manufacturing industries in China in 2013. In this study, we analyzed and projected the total PM and SO2 emissions from the Chinese cement and steel industry from 2010–2050 under three different scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Advanced scenario, and an Advanced EOP (end-of-pipe) scenario. We used bottom-up emissions control technologies data and assumptions to project the emissions. In addition, we conducted an economic analysis to estimate the cost for PM emissions reductions in the Chinese cement industry using EOP control technologies, energy efficiency measures, and product change measures. The results of the emissions projection showed that there is not a substantial difference in PM emissions between the Base Case and Advanced scenarios, for both the cement and steel industries. This is mainly because PM emissions in the cement industry caused mainly by production process and not the fuel use. Since our forecast for the cement production in the Base Case and Advanced scenarios are not too different from each other, this results in only a slight difference in PM emissions forecast for these two scenarios. Also, we assumed a similar share and penetration rate of control technologies from 2010 up to 2050 for these two scenarios for the cement and steel industry. However, the Advanced EOP

  11. GIZ approaches on Low-Emission Development Strategies. The need for support from research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zymia, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    First results of GIZ support on the development of Low-Emission Development Strategy (LED) in Costa Rica are promising and have motivated key ministries to integrate the climate policy into their structures. Awareness of the issue of climate change among the general public is increasing, the competencies of the National Secretariat for Climate Protection have been strengthened: its capability for strategic planning has been improved. The most important challenges still remain, like the manifold “LEDS” documents on national level, weak connection of existing development strategies, weak integration across ministries, the limited financial capacities or the fragmented international support.

  12. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  13. 40 CFR 52.1375 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1375 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1375 Control strategy: Lead. Determination—EPA has determined that the East Helena Lead nonattainment area has attained the lead national...

  14. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide adsorbents for diesel engine emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

    2011-03-15

    Disclosed herein are sorbents and devices for controlling sulfur oxides emissions as well as systems including such sorbents and devices. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the disclosed sorbents, devices and systems. In one embodiment the disclosed sorbents can be conveniently regenerated, such as under normal exhaust stream from a combustion engine, particularly a diesel engine. Accordingly, also disclosed are combustion vehicles equipped with sulfur dioxide emission control devices.

  15. The Feedback Control Strategy of the Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Car-Following Model with Two Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the driver’s sensing the headway and velocity the different time-varying delays exist, respectively, and the sensitivity of drivers changes with headway and speed. Introducing the fuzzy control theory, a new fuzzy car-following model with two delays is presented, and the feedback control strategy of the new fuzzy car-following model is studied. Based on the Lyapunov function theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI approach, the sufficient condition that the existence of the fuzzy controller is given making the closed-loop system is asymptotic, stable; namely, traffic congestion phenomenon can effectively be suppressed, and the controller gain matrix can be obtained via solving linear matrix inequality. Finally, the simulation examples verify that the method which suppresses traffic congestion and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust emissions is effective.

  16. 40 CFR 52.58 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.58 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.58 Control strategy: Lead. The lead plan... the lead standard throughout Alabama. The lead plan submitted by the State on October 7, 1985, and...

  17. An overview of monitoring and reduction strategies for health and climate change related emissions in the Middle East and North Africa region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Rana Alaa; Kumar, Prashant; El-Gendy, Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    This review assesses the current state of air pollution in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Emission types and sources in the region are identified and quantified to understand the monitoring, legislative and reduction needs through a systematic review of available literature. It is found that both health (e.g., particulate matter, PM; and heavy metals) and climate change (e.g., carbon dioxide and methane) emissions are increasing with the time. Regarding health emissions, over 99% of the MENA population is exposed to PM levels that exceed the standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The dominant source of climate change emissions is the energy sector contributing ∼38% of CO2 emissions, followed by the transport sector at ∼25%. Numerous studies have been carried out on air pollution in the region, however, there is a lack of comprehensive regional studies that would provide a holistic assessment. Most countries have air quality monitoring systems in place, however, the data is not effectively evaluated to devise pollution reduction strategies. Moreover, comprehensive emission inventories for the individual countries in the region are also lacking. The legislative and regulatory systems in MENA region follow the standards set by international environmental entities such as the WHO and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency but their effective reinforcement remains a concern. It is concluded that the opportunities for emission reduction and control could be best implemented in the road transportation sector using innovative technologies. One of the potential ways forward is to channel finance flows from fossil fuel subsidies to upgrade road transport with public transportation systems such as buses and trains, as suggested by a 'high shift' scenario for MENA region. Furthermore, emission control programs and technologies are more effective when sponsored and implemented by the private sector; the success of Saudi Aramco in supporting

  18. PM 10 and ozone control strategy to improve visibility in the los angeles basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Robert J.; Welsing, Peter R.; Rozzi, Carlo

    The greater Los Angeles metropolitan area is in violation of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ambient standards for both ozone and PM 10. Accompanying these violations are hazy summer conditions, with current annual median visibility in the inland portions of Los Angeles running about 13 km, and visibilities decreasing to about 3 km on the 90th percentile days (worst days). The USEPA has given the local air pollution control agency until 2010 to bring the area into compliance with these standards. Because of continued population growth, accompanying light industry, dependence on private motor vehicles, and adverse natural meteorological conditions, emission reductions costing billions of dollars will be needed between now and 2010. The combination of emission reductions which will result in the fastest ozone and PM 10 cleanup at the lowest cost are presented. Substantial emission reductions in NO x, reactive hydrocarbons, SO x, ammonia, soot and fugitive dust will result in visibility improvements in the Los Angeles area. However, enactment of this comprehensive control strategy will only improve the annual median visibility to about 20 km and the 90th percentile days to 6.5 km. Significant changes in fine mass will result in relatively small changes in perceived visibility since the human eye is unable to differentiate visual range changes even as large as 40% in an urban landscape typical of Los Angeles.

  19. Feedback control strategies for the Liu chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Congxu; Chen Zhigang

    2008-01-01

    This Letter proposed three strategies of the dislocated feedback control, enhancing feedback control and speed feedback control of the Liu chaotic system to its unstable equilibrium points. It is found that the coefficients of enhancing feedback control and speed feedback control are smaller than those of ordinary feedback control, so, the complexity and cost of the system control are reduced. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are given, revealing the effectiveness of these strategies

  20. Controlling nitrous oxide emissions from grassland livestock production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Gebauer, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Sapek, A.; Jarvis, S.C.; Corré, W.J.; Yamulki, S.

    1998-01-01

    There is growing awareness that grassland livestock production systems are major sources of nitrous oxide (N2O). Controlling these emissions requires a thorough understanding of all sources and controlling factors at the farm level. This paper examines the various controlling factors and proposes

  1. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  2. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables

  3. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  4. 40 CFR 52.1681 - Control strategy: Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Lead. 52.1681 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1681 Control strategy: Lead. As part of the attainment demonstration for lead, the State of New York has committed to rate all sources...

  5. Nonlinear control strategy based on using a shape-tunable neural controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.; Peng, S. [Feng Chia Univ, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Department of chemical Engineering; Chang, W. [Feng Chia Univ, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Department of Automatic Control

    1997-08-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear control strategy based on using a shape-tunable neural network is developed for adaptive control of nonlinear processes. Based on the steepest descent method, a learning algorithm that enables the neural controller to possess the ability of automatic controller output range adjustment is derived. The novel feature of automatic output range adjustment provides the neural controller more flexibility and capability, and therefore the scaling procedure, which is usually unavoidable for the conventional fixed-shape neural controllers, becomes unnecessary. The advantages and effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear control strategy are demonstrated through the challenge problem of controlling an open-loop unstable nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). 14 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Development of a marketing strategy for the Coal Research Establishment`s emissions monitoring database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A.D.; Hughes, I.S.C. [British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment

    1995-06-01

    A summary is presented of the results of work conducted by the UK`s Coal Research Establishment (CRE) between April 1994 and December 1994 following the completion of a project on the utilisation and publication of an emissions monitoring database. The database contains emissions data for most UK combustion plant, gathered over the past 10 years. The aim of this further work was to identify the strengths and weaknesses of CRE`s database, to investigate potential additional sources of data, and to develop a strategy for marketing the information contained within the database to interested parties. 3 figs.

  7. Emission Control Technologies for Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihalani, S. A.; Mishra, Y.; Juremalani, J.

    2018-03-01

    Coal thermal power plants are one of the primary sources of artificial air emissions, particularly in a country like India. Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed draft regulation for emission standards in coal-fired power plants. This includes significant reduction in sulphur-dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and mercury emissions. The first step is to evaluate the technologies which represent the best selection for each power plant based on its configuration, fuel properties, performance requirements, and other site-specific factors. This paper will describe various technology options including: Flue Gas Desulfurization System, Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), Circulating Dry Scrubber (CDS), Limestone-based Wet FGD, Low NOX burners, Selective Non Catalytic Reduction, Electrostatic Precipitator, Bag House Dust Collector, all of which have been evaluated and installed extensively to reduce SO2, NOx, PM and other emissions. Each control technology has its advantages and disadvantages. For each of the technologies considered, major features, potential operating and maintenance cost impacts, as well as key factors that contribute to the selection of one technology over another are discussed here.

  8. Relationship Between Strategy Shaping and Management Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Athayde Moreira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the interactions between strategy shaping and management control systems, having as parameter of analysis the system of levers of control recommended by Simons (1995. A multiple case study was carried out of two companies in the construction sector in Brazil. It was found that these companies use generic niche strategies to sell the properties they have built. One of these companies uses long-term planning while the other is guided by short-term perspectives and perceptions. Both companies employ various formal control tools. It was noted, however, that some of these tools exist for the purpose of meeting the requirements of standards and audits established by certifying bodies and are not being used as tools for decision making. It was thus concluded that the relationship between managerial controls and the shaping of strategy in these organizations occurs in a passive way, with the management control systems serving as guarantors of the accomplishment of organizational strategies and goals, but not being used effectively to identify opportunities or as a source for shaping new strategies.

  9. SP-100 initial startup and restart control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, Frank J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Switick, Dennis M.; Shukla, Jaikaran N.

    Startup control strategies for SP-100 are described. Revised control and operating strategies are discussed which have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model Aries-GFS (Generic Flight System).

  10. A comparison of WEC control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bacelli, Giorgio [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Coe, Ryan Geoffrey [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdelkhalik, Ossama [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Korde, Umesh A. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Robinett, Rush D. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The operation of Wave Energy Converter (WEC) devices can pose many challenging problems to the Water Power Community. A key research question is how to significantly improve the performance of these WEC devices through improving the control system design. This report summarizes an effort to analyze and improve the performance of WEC through the design and implementation of control systems. Controllers were selected to span the WEC control design space with the aim of building a more comprehensive understanding of different controller capabilities and requirements. To design and evaluate these control strategies, a model scale test-bed WEC was designed for both numerical and experimental testing (see Section 1.1). Seven control strategies have been developed and applied on a numerical model of the selected WEC. This model is capable of performing at a range of levels, spanning from a fully-linear realization to varying levels of nonlinearity. The details of this model and its ongoing development are described in Section 1.2.

  11. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Wind farm models and control strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.; Donovan, M.H.

    2005-08-01

    This report describes models and control strategies for 3 different concepts of wind farms. Initially, the potential in improvement of grid integration, structural loads and energy production is investigated in a survey of opportunities. Then simulation models are described, including wind turbine models for a fixed speed wind turbine with active stall control and a variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator. After that, the 3 wind farm concepts and control strategies are described. The 3 concepts are AC connected doubly fed turbines, AC connected active stall turbines and DC connected active stall turbines. Finally, some simulation examples and conclusions are presented. (au)

  13. Numerical Analysis of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Multiple Injection Strategies Using a Modified 2-D Flamelet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyujin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multiple injection strategy has been widely used in diesel engines to reduce engine noise, NOx and soot formation. Fuel injection developments such as the common-rail and piezo-actuator system provide more precise control of the injection quantity and time under higher injection pressures. As various injection strategies become accessible, it is important to understand the interaction of each fuel stream and following combustion process under the multiple injection strategy. To investigate these complex processes quantitatively, numerical analysis using CFD is a good alternative to overcome the limitation of experiments. A modified 2-D flamelet model is further developed from previous work to model multi-fuel streams with higher accuracy. The model was validated under various engine operating conditions and captures the combustion and emissions characteristics as well as several parametric variations. The model is expected to be used to suggest advanced injection strategies in engine development processes.

  14. Supervisory Control Strategy Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick; Bojan Petrovic

    2007-01-01

    Task 4 of this collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focused on the design of the hierarchical supervisory control for multiple-module units. The state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--made developing a detailed hierarchical control difficult at this time. However, other simultaneous and ongoing efforts have contributed to providing the needed information. This report summarizes the results achieved under Task 4 of this Financial Assistance Award. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 discusses the IRIS control functions. Next, it briefly reviews the current control concepts, and then reviews the maneuvering requirements for the IRIS plant. It closes by noting the benefits that automated sequences have in reducing operator workload. Section 3 examines reactor loading in the frequency domain to establish some guidelines for module operation, paying particular attention to strategies for using process steam for desalination and/or district heating. The final subsection discusses the implications for reactor control, and argues that using the envisioned percentage (up to 10%) of the NSSS thermal output for these purposes should not significantly affect the NSSS control strategies. Section 4 uses some very general economic assumptions to suggest how one should approach multi-module operation. It concludes that the well-known algorithms used for economic dispatching could be used to help manage a multi-unit IRIS site. Section 5 addresses the human performance factors of multi-module operation. Section 6 summarizes our conclusions

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF AN ADVANCED INTEGRATED CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SIMULTANEOUS EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzanne Shea; Randhir Sehgal; Ilga Celmins; Andrew Maxson

    2002-02-01

    The primary objective of the project titled ''Demonstration of an Advanced Integrated Control System for Simultaneous Emissions Reduction'' was to demonstrate at proof-of-concept scale the use of an online software package, the ''Plant Environmental and Cost Optimization System'' (PECOS), to optimize the operation of coal-fired power plants by economically controlling all emissions simultaneously. It combines physical models, neural networks, and fuzzy logic control to provide both optimal least-cost boiler setpoints to the boiler operators in the control room, as well as optimal coal blending recommendations designed to reduce fuel costs and fuel-related derates. The goal of the project was to demonstrate that use of PECOS would enable coal-fired power plants to make more economic use of U.S. coals while reducing emissions.

  16. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO₂ were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no

  17. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI, were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined

  18. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  19. Assessment of biodiesel scenarios for Midwest freight transport emission reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    There are trade-offs when attempting to reduce both greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutants for freight transport, as the control : strategies are not necessarily complimentary. While emission controls can remove ozone precursors and particulate f...

  20. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xueying

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  1. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking s...

  2. The importance of addressing methane emissions as part of a comprehensive greenhouse gas management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylin, Carey [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Robinson, Donald; Cacho, Mariella; Russo, Ignacio; Stricklin, Eric [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rortveit, Geir Johan [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Chakraborty, A.B. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India); Pontiff, Mike [Newfield, The Woodlands, TX, (United States); Smith, Reid [British Petroleum (BP), London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Given the climate forcing properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the current state of the global economy, it is imperative to mitigate emissions of GHGs cost-effectively. Typically, CO{sub 2} is the main focus of most companies' and governments' GHG emissions reductions strategies. However, when considering near-term goals, it becomes clear that emissions reductions of other GHGs must be pursued. One such GHG is methane, the primary component of natural gas. Reducing GHG emissions and generating profits are not necessarily a mutually exclusive endeavor as illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program. The Program is a worldwide voluntary, flexible partnership of oil and gas companies which promotes cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations. In an effort to meet environmental goals without sacrificing profitability, Natural Gas STAR partner companies have identified over 60 cost-effective best practices to reduce their methane emissions, which they report to the EPA. This paper discusses: 1) the importance of reducing methane emissions and its economic impact, 2) a comparison of methane emission reduction projects relative to other greenhouse gas reduction projects in the oil and gas industry, 3) the value of source-specific methane emissions inventories, and 4) methane emission reduction opportunities from hydraulically fractured gas well completions and centrifugal compressor wet seals. From the analyses and examples in this paper, it can be concluded that methane emission reduction projects can be readily identified, profitable, and effective in mitigating global climate change. (author)

  3. An Efficient Modal Control Strategy for the Active Vibration Control of a Truss Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carvalhal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient modal control strategy is described for the active vibration control of a truss structure. In this approach, a feedback force is applied to each mode to be controlled according to a weighting factor that is determined by assessing how much each mode is excited by the primary source. The strategy is effective provided that the primary source is at a fixed position on the structure, and that the source is stationary in the statistical sense. To test the effectiveness of the control strategy it is compared with an alternative, established approach namely, Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC. Numerical simulations show that with the new strategy it is possible to significantly reduce the control effort required, with a minimal reduction in control performance.

  4. Super-capacitors fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle optimization and control strategy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paladini, Vanessa; Donateo, Teresa; De Risi, Arturo; Laforgia, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades, due to emissions reduction policies, research focused on alternative powertrains among which hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) powered by fuel cells are becoming an attractive solution. One of the main issues of these vehicles is the energy management in order to improve the overall fuel economy. The present investigation aims at identifying the best hybrid vehicle configuration and control strategy to reduce fuel consumption. The study focuses on a car powered by a fuel cell and equipped with two secondary energy storage devices: batteries and super-capacitors. To model the powertrain behavior an on purpose simulation program called ECoS has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment. The fuel cell model is based on the Amphlett theory. The battery and the super-capacitor models account for charge/discharge efficiency. The analyzed powertrain is also equipped with an energy regeneration system to recover braking energy. The numerical optimization of vehicle configuration and control strategy of the hybrid electric vehicle has been carried out with a multi objective genetic algorithm. The goal of the optimization is the reduction of hydrogen consumption while sustaining the battery state of charge. By applying the algorithm to different driving cycles, several optimized configurations have been identified and discussed

  5. Control of combustion generated emissions from spark ignition engines: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansha, M.; Shahid, E.M.; Qureshi, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    For the past several decades automobiles have been a major source of ground level emissions of various pollutants like CO, HC, NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/ CO/sub 2/, etc. Due to their dangerous effects on human health, vegetation and on climate, various pre combustion, in-cylinder and post. combustion techniques have been tried for their abatement. This paper reviews all of the workable measures taken so far to controlling the combustion generated emissions from 4-stroke Spark Ignition Vehicular Engines ever since the promulgation of emission control legislation/standards and their subsequent enforcement in the late 1960s. (author)

  6. Controlled ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption using passive acoustic emissions monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas D Arvanitis

    Full Text Available The ability of ultrasonically-induced oscillations of circulating microbubbles to permeabilize vascular barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB holds great promise for noninvasive targeted drug delivery. A major issue has been a lack of control over the procedure to ensure both safe and effective treatment. Here, we evaluated the use of passively-recorded acoustic emissions as a means to achieve this control. An acoustic emissions monitoring system was constructed and integrated into a clinical transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound system. Recordings were analyzed using a spectroscopic method that isolates the acoustic emissions caused by the microbubbles during sonication. This analysis characterized and quantified harmonic oscillations that occur when the BBB is disrupted, and broadband emissions that occur when tissue damage occurs. After validating the system's performance in pilot studies that explored a wide range of exposure levels, the measurements were used to control the ultrasound exposure level during transcranial sonications at 104 volumes over 22 weekly sessions in four macaques. We found that increasing the exposure level until a large harmonic emissions signal was observed was an effective means to ensure BBB disruption without broadband emissions. We had a success rate of 96% in inducing BBB disruption as measured by in contrast-enhanced MRI, and we detected broadband emissions in less than 0.2% of the applied bursts. The magnitude of the harmonic emissions signals was significantly (P<0.001 larger for sonications where BBB disruption was detected, and it correlated with BBB permeabilization as indicated by the magnitude of the MRI signal enhancement after MRI contrast administration (R(2 = 0.78. Overall, the results indicate that harmonic emissions can be a used to control focused ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. These results are promising for clinical translation of this technology.

  7. Polarization control of spontaneous emission for rapid quantum-state initialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, C. S.; Rangan, C.

    2017-04-01

    We propose an efficient method to selectively enhance the spontaneous emission rate of a quantum system by changing the polarization of an incident control field, and exploiting the polarization dependence of the system's spontaneous emission rate. This differs from the usual Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission rates as it can be selectively turned on and off. Using a three-level Λ system in a quantum dot placed in between two silver nanoparticles and a linearly polarized, monochromatic driving field, we present a protocol for rapid quantum state initialization, while maintaining long coherence times for control operations. This process increases the overall amount of time that a quantum system can be effectively utilized for quantum operations, and presents a key advance in quantum computing.

  8. Tax Strategy Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, Christian Plesner

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how a functional tax strategy impacts the management control system (MCS) in a multinational enterprise (MNE) facing transfer pricing tax risks. Based on case study findings it is argued that the MCS in a multinational setting is contingent upon the MNE's response to its tax...... environment. Moreover, the paper extends existing contingency-based theory on MCS by illustrating the role of inter-organisational network collaboration across MNE transfer pricing tax experts. This collaboration, caused by a widely dispersed tax knowledge base, fuels the formal interactive control system...... and reduces tax uncertainty. The paper adopts an interdisciplinary approach for explaining findings, using contingency-based theory and network theory at the inter-organisational level....

  9. Industrial strategy for nondestructive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Michaut, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    For Electricite de France, the nondestructive control strategy passes by a responsibility of services, a competition between companies, a clarification of the market access and a dialogue with the companies

  10. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  11. Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use Divisia index approach to identify key factors affecting CO 2 emission changes of industrial sectors in Taiwan. The changes of CO 2 emission are decomposed into emission coefficient, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic growth. Furthermore, comparisons with USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands and South Korea are made to have a better understanding of emission tendency in these countries and to help formulate our CO 2 reduction strategies for responding to the international calls for CO 2 cuts. The results show that economic growth and high energy intensity were two key factors for the rapid increase of industrial CO 2 emission in Taiwan, while adjustment of industrial structure was the main component for the decrease. Although economic development is important, Taiwan must keep pace with the international trends for CO 2 reduction. Among the most important strategies are continuous efforts to improve energy intensity, fuel mix toward lower carbon, setting targets for industrial CO 2 cuts, and advancing green technology through technology transfer. Also, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to play an important role in the future

  12. Implementation strategy for the ITER plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.; Ambrosino, G.; Bauvir, B.; De Tommasi, G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Mattei, M.; Neto, A.; Raupp, G.; Snipes, J.A.; Stephen, A.V.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.L.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the scope and context of the CODAC high-level real-time applications (Supervision and Plasma Control) and presents the strategy and current state of design of the tools to support the implementation. A real-time framework, which is currently under development with strong support of the worldwide fusion community will not only support the implementation of plasma control strategies with the extensive exception handling and forecasting functionality foreseen for ITER, but also integrated commissioning, orchestration and supervision as well as the real-time needs of ITER plant system developers. A second cornerstone in the implementation strategy is the development of a powerful simulation environment (Plasma Control System Simulation Platform – PCSSP) to design and verify control strategies, event handling and orchestration and automation. The development of PCSSP is currently under contract and this paper will also give an overview of its current state of development.

  13. Implementation strategy for the ITER plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A., E-mail: axel.winter@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Ambrosino, G. [CREATE/Università di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione (Italy); Bauvir, B. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); De Tommasi, G. [CREATE/Università di Napoli Federico II, Dip. Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell’Informazione (Italy); Humphreys, D.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Mattei, M. [CREATE/Seconda Università di Napoli, Dip. Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione (Italy); Neto, A. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Raupp, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Snipes, J.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Stephen, A.V. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Treutterer, W. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Walker, M.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    This paper gives an overview of the scope and context of the CODAC high-level real-time applications (Supervision and Plasma Control) and presents the strategy and current state of design of the tools to support the implementation. A real-time framework, which is currently under development with strong support of the worldwide fusion community will not only support the implementation of plasma control strategies with the extensive exception handling and forecasting functionality foreseen for ITER, but also integrated commissioning, orchestration and supervision as well as the real-time needs of ITER plant system developers. A second cornerstone in the implementation strategy is the development of a powerful simulation environment (Plasma Control System Simulation Platform – PCSSP) to design and verify control strategies, event handling and orchestration and automation. The development of PCSSP is currently under contract and this paper will also give an overview of its current state of development.

  14. Anti-tobacco control industry strategies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklik, Seda; Gultekin-Karakas, Derya

    2018-02-26

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) penetrated the Turkish cigarette market due to trade and investment liberalization in the post-1980 period and eventually secured full control. Despite tobacco control policies put in place in reaction to accelerating consumption, TTCs reinforced their market power through a variety of strategies. This paper explores industry strategies that counteract tobacco control policies in Turkey. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore industry strategies in Turkey. Besides the content analyses of industry and market reports, descriptive analyses were conducted for the sub-periods of 1999-2015. The analyses focus on the market strategies of product innovation, advertisement-promotion, cost management and pricing. Rising sales of low tar, ultra-low tar, slim, super-slim and flavoured cigarettes indicate that product innovation served to sustain consumption. Besides, the tobacco industry, using its strong distribution channels, the Internet, and CSR projects, were found to have promoted smoking indirectly. The industry also rationalized manufacturing facilities and reduced the cost of tobacco, making Turkey a cigarette-manufacturing base. Tobacco manufacturers, moreover, offered cigarettes in different price segments and adjusted net prices both up and down according to price categories and market conditions. In response to the successful effect of shifts in price margins, the market share of mid-priced cigarettes expanded while those within the economy category maintained the highest market share. As a result of pricing strategies, net sales revenues increased. Aside from official cigarette sales, the upward trends in the registered and unregistered sales of cigarette substitutes indicate that the demand-side tobacco control efforts remain inadequate. The Turkish case reveals that the resilience of the tobacco industry vis-à-vis mainstream tobacco control efforts necessitates a new policy perspective

  15. Real Time Energy Management Control Strategies for Hybrid Powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Mohamed Hegazi Mohamed

    In order to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions of mobile vehicles, various hybrid power-train concepts have been developed over the years. This thesis focuses on embedded control of hybrid powertrain concepts for mobile vehicle applications. Optimal robust control approach is used to develop a real time energy management strategy for continuous operations. The main idea is to store the normally wasted mechanical regenerative energy in energy storage devices for later usage. The regenerative energy recovery opportunity exists in any condition where the speed of motion is in opposite direction to the applied force or torque. This is the case when the vehicle is braking, decelerating, or the motion is driven by gravitational force, or load driven. There are three main concepts for regernerative energy storing devices in hybrid vehicles: electric, hydraulic, and flywheel. The real time control challenge is to balance the system power demand from the engine and the hybrid storage device, without depleting the energy storage device or stalling the engine in any work cycle, while making optimal use of the energy saving opportunities in a given operational, often repetitive cycle. In the worst case scenario, only engine is used and hybrid system completely disabled. A rule based control is developed and tuned for different work cycles and linked to a gain scheduling algorithm. A gain scheduling algorithm identifies the cycle being performed by the machine and its position via GPS, and maps them to the gains.

  16. Investigations of the Impact of Biodiesel Metal Contaminants on Emissions Control Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookshear, D. W.; Lance, M. J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Toops, T. J.

    2017-02-27

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel with the potential to displace a portion of petroleum use. However, as with any alternative fuel, in order to be a viable choice it must be compatible with the emissions control devices. The finished biodiesel product can contain up to 5 ppm Na+K and 5 ppm Ca+Mg, and these metal impurities can lead to durability issues with the devices used to control emissions in diesel vehicles. Significant work has been performed to understand how the presence of these metals impacts each individual component of diesel emissions control systems, and this chapter summarizes the findings of these research efforts.

  17. 40 CFR 52.65 - Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control Strategy: Nitrogen oxides. 52.65 Section 52.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Alabama § 52.65 Control Strategy: Nitrogen...

  18. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  19. Discrete Current Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A control strategy of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs, which is different from the traditional vector control (VC and direct torque control (DTC, is proposed. Firstly, the circular rotating magnetic field is analyzed on the simplified model and discredited into stepping magnetic field. The stepping magnetomotive force will drive the rotor to run as the stepping motor. Secondly, the stator current orientation is used to build the control model instead of rotor flux orientation. Then, the discrete current control strategy is set and adopted in positioning control. Three methods of the strategy are simulated in computer and tested on the experiment platform of PMSM. The control precision is also verified through the experiment.

  20. Decrease of VOC emissions from vehicular emissions in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2015: Results from a tunnel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Long; Wang, Xiao Liang; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Hang Ho, Steven Sai; Li, Hai Wei; Lee, Shun Cheng; Wang, Xin Ming; Jiang, Bo Qiong; Huang, Yu; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Chen, Lung-Wen

    2018-03-01

    Vehicular emissions are one of major anthropogenic sources of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Hong Kong. During the past twelve years, the government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has undertaken a series of air pollution control measures to reduce vehicular emissions in Hong Kong. Vehicular emissions were characterized by repeated measurement in the same roadway tunnel in 2003 and 2015. The total net concentration of measured VOCs decreased by 44.7% from 2003 to 2015. The fleet-average VOC emission factor decreased from 107.1 ± 44.8 mg veh-1 km-1 in 2003 to 58.8 ± 50.7 mg veh-1 km-1 in 2015, and the total ozone (O3) formation potential of measured VOCs decreased from 474.1 mg O3 veh-1 km-1 to 190.8 mg O3 veh-1 km-1. The emission factor of ethene, which is one of the key tracers for diesel vehicular emissions, decreased by 67.3% from 2003 to 2015 as a result of the strict control measures on diesel vehicular emissions. Total road transport VOC emissions is estimated to be reduced by 40% as compared with 2010 by 2020, which will be an important contributor to achieve the goal of total VOC emission reduction in the Pearl River Delta region. The large decrease of VOC emissions from on-road vehicles demonstrates the effectiveness of past multi-vehicular emission control strategy in Hong Kong.

  1. 40 CFR 52.724 - Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur dioxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.724 Control strategy: Sulfur... Energy Incorporated. This disapproval does not in and of itself result in the growth restrictions of...

  2. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a) Approval...

  3. Air pollutant emissions and their control with the focus on waste incineration facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeschau, Margit [Wandschneider + Gutjahr, Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    This text and practical handbook thoroughly presents the control of air pollutant emissions from combustion processes focusing on waste incinerators. Special characteristics are emphasised and the differences to emission control from combustion processes with other fuels are explained. The author illustrates the origin and effects of air pollutants from incineration processes, the mechanics of their appearance in the incineration process, primary and secondary measures for their reduction, processes of measuring the emissions as well as the methods of disposing the residues. In particular, the pros and cons of procedural steps and their appropriate combination under various conditions are emphasised. Moreover, the book contains information and analyses of the emissions situation, the consumption of operating materials and of backlog quantities as well as of the cost structure of waste incinerators with regard to their applied control system. Furthermore, the author explicates the contemporary legal, scientific and technological developments and their influence on air pollutant emission control. An evaluation of the status quo of air pollutant control at waste incinerators in Germany, practical examples about possible combinations and typical performance data complete the content. Accordingly, this book is a guideline for planing a reasonable overall concept of an air pollutant control that takes the location and the segregation tasks into consideration.

  4. Swedish biomass strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use in an EU context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden); Gustavsson, Leif [Linnaeus University, SE-351 95 Vaexjoe (Sweden)

    2012-07-15

    Swedish energy strategies for transportation, space heating and pulp industries were evaluated with a focus on bioenergy use. The aims were to 1) study trade-offs between reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use and between Swedish reductions and EU reductions, 2) compare the potential contributions of individual reduction measures, 3) quantify the total CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction potentials. Swedish energy efficiency measures reduced EU CO{sub 2} emission by 45-59 Mt CO{sub 2}/a, at current biomass use and constant oil use. Doubling Swedish bioenergy use yielded an additional 40 Mt CO{sub 2}/a reduction. Oil use could be reduced, but 36-81 kt of reductions in CO{sub 2} emission would be lost per PJ of oil use reduction. Swedish fossil fuel use within the studied sectors could be nearly eliminated. The expansion of district heating and cogeneration of heat with a high electricity yield were important measures. Plug-in hybrid electric cars reduced CO{sub 2} emission compared with conventional cars, and the difference was larger with increasing oil scarcity. The introduction of black liquor gasification in pulp mills also gave large CO{sub 2} emission reduction. Motor fuel from biomass was found to be a feasible option when coal is the marginal fuel for fossil motor fuel production. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioenergy is compared to optimized fossil fuel use under different oil availability constraints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swedish strategies are evaluated with respect to CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction within Sweden and the EU. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency measures give the largest reductions but increased bioenergy use is also important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer District heating expansion, high electricity yield CHP, increased vehicle efficiency and PHEVs are important options. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The studied sectors in Sweden could become nearly fossil-fuel free and yield an energy

  5. Control Strategies for Arrays of Wave Energy Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Westphalen, J; Bacelli, G; Balitsky, P; Ringwood, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the differences between two control strategies for a two-device linear array of wave energy converters (WEC) for device spacings of 4 to 80 times the device diameter. The WECs operate in heave only and are controlled in real time. The control strategies, called the independent device and global array control, estimate the excitation forces and calculate the optimum vertical velocity trajectory and reactive power take off force to achieve the ...

  6. Managing Air Quality - Control Strategies to Achieve Air Pollution Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerations in designing an effective control strategy related to air quality, controlling pollution sources, need for regional or national controls, steps to developing a control strategy, and additional EPA resources.

  7. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. PMID:26236772

  8. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  9. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  10. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control information... Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air emission control equipment subject to 40 CFR part 264, subpart CC, you must keep the following information...

  11. Reducing CO2 emissions in temperature-controlled road transportation using the LDVRP model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellingwerf, Helena M.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Vorst, van der Jack G.A.J.; Bloemhof, Jacqueline M.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature-controlled transport is needed to maintain the quality of products such as fresh and frozen foods and pharmaceuticals. Road transportation is responsible for a considerable part of global emissions. Temperature-controlled transportation exhausts even more emissions than ambient

  12. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. The role of emission permits and the uncertainty of a market power on the wholesale electricity markets. The capacity retention strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, O.

    2008-01-01

    The wholesale electricity markets are theoretically inherently incomplete and imperfectly competitive. This aspect is confirmed by the various empirical demonstrations of horizontal market power exercising by the capacity retention strategy. In this article, we focus on the impact of implementing an emission permit market for this type of strategy. We show that under some circumstances, the existence of emission permits can provide additional incentives to electricity producers wanting to withhold capacity. Our thinking relies partly on the concept that uncertain of prices and future needs in terms of emission permits, firms can be encouraged to retain more permits in their portfolio to ensure additional flexibility and achieve high profits in the future. (author)

  14. Control of wastewater N2O emissions by balancing the microbial communities using a fuzzy-logic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boiocchi, Riccardo; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    (approximately 35%). On the other side, this reduction of N2O was accompanied by an increase in the aeration costs. Moreover, a plant performance evaluation under dynamic disturbances shows that the effluent quality is compromised due to higher requirements of organic carbon by denitrifying heterotrophs....... The controller can therefore be considered effective for the reduction of N2O production by AOB but would need to be coupled with a secondary control strategy ensuring a complete oxidation of the nitrogen oxides by heterotrophs to have a good effluent quality.......In this work, a fuzzy-logic controller for minimization of the nitrous oxide emission from wastewater treatment plants is developed and tested in a simulation environment. The controller is designed in order to maintain a balance between production and consumption of nitrite by AOB and NOB...

  15. The effects of rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies for atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sethi, Naqash J; Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil E

    2017-01-01

    -effect meta-analysis and chose the most conservative result as our primary result. We used Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA) to control for random errors. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and by calculating inconsistency (I2) for traditional meta-analyses and diversity...... (D2) for TSA. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the reasons for substantial statistical heterogeneity. We assessed the risk of publication bias in meta-analyses consisting of 10 trials or more with tests for funnel plot asymmetry. We used GRADE to assess the quality...... of the body of evidence. RESULTS: 25 randomized clinical trials (n = 9354 participants) were included, all of which were at high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that rhythm control strategies versus rate control strategies significantly increased the risk of a serious adverse event (risk ratio (RR), 1...

  16. MRICES:一个新的减排方案评价模型及其应用%MRICES: A new model for emission mitigation strategy assessment and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng; WU Jing; ZHU Qianting; WANG Lijuan; GONG Yi; LI Huaqun

    2012-01-01

    @@%Many global emission reduction strategies have been proposed,but few have been assessed quantitatively from the view of equality,efficiency and effectiveness.Integrated assessment models (IAM) is one of the effective ways to make climate policy modeling.So in this paper we developed the MRICES (Multi-regional integrated model of climate and economy with GDP spillovers) model,which is an IAM but extends to include GDP spillover mechanism,to make assessment on several strategies for global emission reduction,including the egalitarianism strategy,the UNDP strategy and the Copenhagen Accord.Using 1990 as a baseline for historical emission levels,the egalitarian strategy argues that developed countries should implement urgent emission reductions,whereas developing countries are allowed relatively higher future emission quotas.The UNDP strategy addresses the issue of substantial changes in global temperature but acknowledges that developing countries are not able to afford more costs for mitigation measures,which is inequitable from the perspective of a country's right to develop.We also simulated the Copenhagen Accord to determine the consequences by the year 2100 if each country continues their current emission mitigation actions,and results indicated that the increase in global temperature will be 2.8℃ by 2100; consequently,much stronger emission reduction efforts must be implemented after 2020.Based on analysis on mitigation strategies,it is recognized that the common but differentiated responsibility principle must be insisted when making global mitigation strategy.To comply with this principle,the emission reduction baseline of developed and developing countries should be discriminated,so 1990 and 2005 can be taken as the base year for developed and developing countries respectively.

  17. Optimal control of greenhouse gas emissions and system cost for integrated municipal solid waste management with considering a hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Fan, Xing; Chen, Yizhong; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests. GHG emission control is placed at the leader level could emphasize the significant environmental concern in MSW management. A bi-level decision-making process based on satisfactory degree is then suitable for solving highly nonlinear problems with computationally effectiveness. The capabilities and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level programming are illustrated by an application of a MSW management problem in Canada. Results show that the obtained optimal management strategy can bring considerable revenues, approximately from 76 to 97 million dollars. Considering control of GHG emissions, it would give priority to the development of the recycling facility throughout the whole period, especially in latter periods. In terms of capacity, the existing landfill is enough in the future 30 years without development of new landfills, while expansion to the composting and recycling facilities should be paid more attention.

  18. Car firms and low-emission vehicles: The evolution of incumbents’ strategies in relation to policy developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnsack, R.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the developments in the international car industry from 1997 to 2010 in relation to low-emission vehicles, with specific attention to electric vehicles. More specifically, the study seeks to better understand strategies of car manufacturers and the interplay of

  19. Effect of feeding strategies and cropping systems on greenhouse gas emission from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Sun, F; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Hedtcke, J L; Silva, E M

    2017-07-01

    Organic agriculture continues to expand in the United States, both in total hectares and market share. However, management practices used by dairy organic producers, and their resulting environmental impacts, vary across farms. This study used a partial life cycle assessment approach to estimate the effect of different feeding strategies and associated crop production on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from Wisconsin certified organic dairy farms. Field and livestock-driven emissions were calculated using 2 data sets. One was a 20-yr data set from the Wisconsin Integrated Cropping System Trial documenting management inputs, crop and pasture yields, and soil characteristics, used to estimate field-level emissions from land associated with feed production (row crop and pasture), including N 2 O and soil carbon sequestration. The other was a data set summarizing organic farm management in Wisconsin, which was used to estimate replacement heifer emission (CO 2 equivalents), enteric methane (CH 4 ), and manure management (N 2 O and CH 4 ). Three combinations of corn grain (CG) and soybean (SB) as concentrate (all corn = 100% CG; baseline = 75% CG + 25% SB; half corn = 50% CG + 50% SB) were assigned to each of 4 representative management strategies as determined by survey data. Overall, GHG emissions associated with crop production was 1,297 ± 136 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM without accounting for soil carbon changes (ΔSC), and GHG emission with ΔSC was 1,457 ± 111 kg of CO 2 equivalents/t of ECM, with greater reliance on pasture resulting in less ΔSC. Higher levels of milk production were a major driver associated with reduction in GHG emission per metric tonne of ECM. Emissions per metric tonne of ECM increased with increasing proportion of SB in the ration; however, including SB in the crop rotation decreased N 2 O emission per metric tonne of ECM from cropland due to lower applications of organically approved N fertility inputs. More SB at the expense of CG

  20. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining

  1. Novel Strategy for Photopatterning Emissive Polymer Brushes for Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zachariah A; Narupai, Benjaporn; Pester, Christian W; Bou Zerdan, Raghida; Sokolov, Anatoliy; Laitar, David S; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Sprague, Scott; McGrath, Alaina J; Kramer, John W; Trefonas, Peter; Hawker, Craig J

    2017-06-28

    A light-mediated methodology to grow patterned, emissive polymer brushes with micron feature resolution is reported and applied to organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Light is used for both initiator functionalization of indium tin oxide and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization of methacrylate-based fluorescent and phosphorescent iridium monomers. The iridium centers play key roles in photocatalyzing and mediating polymer growth while also emitting light in the final OLED structure. The scope of the presented procedure enables the synthesis of a library of polymers with emissive colors spanning the visible spectrum where the dopant incorporation, position of brush growth, and brush thickness are readily controlled. The chain-ends of the polymer brushes remain intact, affording subsequent chain extension and formation of well-defined diblock architectures. This high level of structure and function control allows for the facile preparation of random ternary copolymers and red-green-blue arrays to yield white emission.

  2. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  3. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  4. Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid (EHH Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel electric-hydraulic hybrid drivetrain incorporating a set of hydraulic systems is proposed for application in a pure electric vehicle. Models of the electric and hydraulic components are constructed. Two control strategies, which are based on two separate rules, are developed; the maximum energy recovery rate strategy adheres to the rule of the maximization of the braking energy recovery rate, while the minimum current impact strategy adheres to the rule of the minimization of the charge current to the battery. The simulation models were established to verify the effects of these two control strategies. An ABS (Anti-lock Braking System fuzzy control strategy is also developed and simulated. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed control strategy can effectively absorb the braking energy, suppress the current impact, and assure braking safety.

  5. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  6. Role of management strategies and environmental factors in determining the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds from urban greenspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Ge, Ying; Gu, Baojing; Min, Yong; Tani, Akira; Chang, Jie

    2014-06-03

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from urban greenspace have recently become a global concern. To identify key factors affecting the dynamics of urban BVOC emissions, we built an estimation model and utilized the city of Hangzhou in southeastern China as an example. A series of single-factor scenarios were first developed, and then nine multifactor scenarios using a combination of different single-factor scenarios were built to quantify the effects of environmental changes and urban management strategies on urban BVOC emissions. Results of our model simulations showed that (1) annual total BVOC emissions from the metropolitan area of Hangzhou were 4.7×10(8) g of C in 2010 and were predicted to be 1.2-3.2 Gg of C (1 Gg=10(9) g) in our various scenarios in 2050, (2) urban management played a more important role in determining future urban BVOC emissions than environmental changes, and (3) a high ecosystem service value (e.g., lowest BVOC/leaf mass ratio) could be achieved through positive coping in confronting environmental changes and adopting proactive urban management strategies on a local scale, that is, to moderately increase tree density while restricting excessive greenspace expansion and optimizing the species composition of existing and newly planted trees.

  7. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  8. Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP, under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+ in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP, the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However

  9. Effectiveness evaluation of temporary emission control action in 2016 in winter in Shijiazhuang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoshuang; Cheng, Yuan; Zhou, Ming; Liang, Danni; Dai, Qili; Wang, Lu; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Lingzhi; Ren, Yibin; Zhou, Jingbo; Dai, Chunling; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Jiao; Feng, Yinchang; Zhang, Yufen

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the environmental effectiveness of the control measures for atmospheric pollution in Shijiazhuang, China, a large-scale controlling experiment for emission sources of atmospheric pollutants (i.e. a temporary emission control action, TECA) was designed and implemented during 1 November 2016 to 9 January 2017. Compared to the no-control action and heating period (NCAHP), under unfavourable meteorological conditions, the mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and chemical species (Si, Al, Ca2+, Mg2+) in PM2.5 during the control action and heating period (CAHP) still decreased by 8, 8, 5, 19, 30.3, 4.5, 47.0, and 45.2 %, respectively, indicating that the control measures for atmospheric pollution were effective. The effects of control measures in suburbs were better than those in urban area, especially for the control effects of particulate matter sources. The control effects for emission sources of carbon monoxide (CO) were not apparent during the TECA period, especially in suburbs, likely due to the increasing usage of domestic coal in suburbs along with the temperature decreasing.The results of positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis showed that crustal dust, secondary sources, vehicle emissions, coal combustion and industrial emissions were main PM2.5 sources. Compared to the whole year (WY) and the no-control action and no-heating period (NCANHP), the contribution concentrations and proportions of coal combustion to PM2.5 increased significantly during other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of crustal dust and vehicle emissions to PM2.5 decreased noticeably during the CAHP compared to other stages of the TECA period. The contribution concentrations and proportions of industrial emissions to PM2.5 during the CAHP decreased noticeably compared to the NCAHP. The pollutants' emission sources during the CAHP were in effective control, especially for crustal dust and vehicles. However, the necessary coal

  10. The economic impact of emission peaking control policies and China's sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the goals of national sustainable development, the peaking control of CO2 emissions is pivotal, as well as other pollutants. In this paper, we build a Chinese inter-regional CGE model and simulate 13 policies and their combinations. By analyzing the energy consumptions, coal consumptions, relating emissions and their impacts on GDP, we found that with the structure adjustment policy, the proportion of coal in primary fossil fuels in 2030 will decrease from 53% to 48% and CO2 emissions will decrease by 11.3%–22.8% compared to the baseline scenario. With the energy intensity reduction policy, CO2 emissions will decrease by 33.3% in 2030 and 47.8% in 2050 than baseline scenario. Other pollutants will also be controlled as synergetic effects. In this study we also find that although the earlier the peaking time the better for emission amounts control, the economic costs can not be ignored. The GDP will decrease by 2.96%–8.23% under different scenarios. Therefore, integrated policy solutions are needed for realizing the peaks package and more targeted measures are required to achieve the peaks of other pollutants earlier.

  11. Aerodynamic load control strategy of wind turbine in microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangming; Liu, Heshun; Chen, Yanfei

    2017-12-01

    A control strategy is proposed in the paper to optimize the aerodynamic load of the wind turbine in micro-grid. In grid-connection mode, the wind turbine adopts a new individual variable pitch control strategy. The pitch angle of the blade is rapidly given by the controller, and the pitch angle of each blade is fine tuned by the weight coefficient distributor. In islanding mode, according to the requirements of energy storage system, a given power tracking control method based on fuzzy PID control is proposed. Simulation result shows that this control strategy can effectively improve the axial aerodynamic load of the blade under rated wind speed in grid-connection mode, and ensure the smooth operation of the micro-grid in islanding mode.

  12. Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M

    2017-10-11

    One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.

  13. 40 CFR 52.1129 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1129 Section 52.1129 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the Massachusetts Department...

  14. Control strategies for VSC-based HVDC transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Silva, Rodrigo Da

    2011-01-01

    Throughout this paper the modeling and control of the VSC-based HVDC systems are investigated and described. Two different control methods capable of controlling such systems are proposed. Both developed control strategies are implemented in the dq synchronous reference frame. In order to analyze...... the behavior of the developed VSC-based HVDC transmission system two study cases are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained from simulations show acceptable performances, of the proposed strategies, when changes in the reference parameters are considered. The active power flow between...

  15. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  16. Presentation of the Results from the Project of Making Base Documents for Low-Emission Development Strategy for Croatia Until 2030 with an Outlook to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelavic, V.; Delija, V.; Herencic, L.

    2016-01-01

    Paris Climate Agreement is United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change way of encouraging countries to prepare Low-Emission development strategies and shows that climate change require long-term development strategies that support sustainable development, with the purpose of limiting the increase of global temperature to the maximal 2 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. The starting point of EU's policy towards low-emission economy is a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95 percent by 2050. In accordance with that goal, The European Council adopted a climate-energy framework 2030 in October 2014, which sets a goal of reducing emissions - 40 percent by 2030. It also sets a goal of renewable energy sources share of up to 27 percent and an indicative goal of reducing energy consumption - 27 percent. At this moment, a process of accepting and consultations for regulatory climate-energy framework is taking part, as well as a change of greenhouse gas market directive, distribution of load on countries regulation and calculations of emissions from the sector of Land use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) regulation. In 2015, The Ministry of Environment and Energy has started a project of making base documents for Low-Emission Development Strategy until 2030 with an outlook to 2050. This strategy applies to every economy and human activity sector and is especially linked to energy sector, industrial, transport, agriculture, forestry and waste management sectors. In the process of making base documents for the Strategy, a number of scenarios were analysed, models for simulations and optimisation were applied and an integral model for national greenhouse gas projections was developed. The Strategy outlines three scenarios: Reference scenario represents the application of the existing legislation while the other two scenarios present a transition towards low-emission economy: Gradual Transition Scenario (NU1) and Strong Transition Scenario

  17. A strategy for reducing CO_2 emissions from buildings with the Kaya identity – A Swiss energy system analysis and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Richner, Peter; Carmeliet, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Within the general context of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions reduction, decomposition analysis allows the quantification of the contribution of different factors to changes in emissions as well as the assessment of the effectiveness of policy and technology measures. The Kaya identity has been widely used for that purpose in order to disaggregate carbon emissions into various driving forces. In this paper, it is applied for the analysis of emissions resulting from energy use at three different scales. First, a decomposition analysis of the carbon emissions for the complete Swiss energy system is presented using the future projections from the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. The Kaya identity is then applied to the Swiss building sector after it is adapted with factors that are more relatable to building parameters, such as floor area instead of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Finally, the last level of analysis is a small scale community energy system for a unique Swiss village that aims to significantly reduce its emissions. An energy strategy is developed and its effectiveness is assessed with the adapted Kaya identity and benchmarked against the Swiss average values. The presented method demonstrates how the performance of buildings under various retrofitting scenarios can be benchmarked against future emission targets. - Highlights: • The Kaya identity is used to perform multi-scale emission decomposition analysis. • The original Kaya identity is updated with building-related parameters. • The main drivers of emissions reduction of the Swiss building stock are determined. • An energy strategy to transform the building stock of a Swiss village is developed. • The performance of efficiency measures are benchmarked using the Kaya identity.

  18. Emerging trends in vibration control of wind turbines: a focus on a dual control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staino, Andrea; Basu, Biswajit

    2015-02-28

    The paper discusses some of the recent developments in vibration control strategies for wind turbines, and in this context proposes a new dual control strategy based on the combination and modification of two recently proposed control schemes. Emerging trends in the vibration control of both onshore and offshore wind turbines are presented. Passive, active and semi-active structural vibration control algorithms have been reviewed. Of the existing controllers, two control schemes, active pitch control and active tendon control, have been discussed in detail. The proposed new control scheme is a merger of active tendon control with passive pitch control, and is designed using a Pareto-optimal problem formulation. This combination of controllers is the cornerstone of a dual strategy with the feature of decoupling vibration control from optimal power control as one of its main advantages, in addition to reducing the burden on the pitch demand. This dual control strategy will bring in major benefits to the design of modern wind turbines and is expected to play a significant role in the advancement of offshore wind turbine technologies. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancing policy to manage and minimise Australian greenhouse emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, Ros

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The development of climate change policy in Australia is at an important stage in its evolution. Australia, as a ratifying nation of 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, has obligations as a party including development and implementation of national policy. In 2004, Australia announced a Climate Change Strategy updating the 1997 National Greenhouse Strategy which set out the framework for a coordinated and collaborative approach by all levels of government in Australia. The 2004 Climate Change Strategy is directed toward the achievement of three overarching goals: 'international engagement - pursuing an effective global response to climate change', 'emissions management...', and 'providing the foundations for Australia's climate change response...'. Despite not ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, Australia has committed to informally meet its 108% Kyoto Protocol target by taking on the role of an 'as if Party. Development and implementation a broad range of greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies, policies and programs, at the Commonwealth, state and territory, and local government levels, has occurred. Notably, the recent 2007-08 Australian Government Budget brought its total commitment to its climate change strategy to A$2.8 billion. Combined government action and industry investment in climate change mitigation via implementation of greenhouse gas emission reduction schemes are thus well underway. The Commonwealth's programs for greenhouse emission reduction are significant, and in particular, the Greenhouse Challenge Plus program certainly is a key industry motivator. Both state and local government actions have been drivers in policy development, supporting reduction of greenhouse emissions. Several states have implemented their own climate change strategies and the states have been proactive in their interest in emissions trading. Local councils' roles, in particular, have been and will increase in significance in the future

  1. 40 CFR 52.1534 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.1534 Section 52.1534 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Revisions to the State Implementation Plan submitted by the New Hampshire Department...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2235 - Control strategy: Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Ozone. 52.2235 Section 52.2235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Ozone. (a) Determination—EPA is determining that, as of August 8, 1995, the Nashville ozone...

  3. Control and Protection Cooperation Strategy for Voltage Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2012-01-01

    Most cascaded blackouts are caused by unexpected backup relay operations due to low voltage or overload state caused by post fault load restoration dynamics. If such state can be sensed and adjusted appropriately prior to those relay actions, system stability might be sustained. This paper proposed...... a control and protection cooperation strategy to prevent post fault voltage instability. The multi-agent technology is applied for the strategy implementation; the criteria based on wide area measured apparent impedances are defined to choose the control strategy, such as tap changer adjusting or load...

  4. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Loukil, T.; Bareille, O.; Chamberland, G.; Qiu, J.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings.

  5. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichchou, M N; Loukil, T; Bareille, O; Chamberland, G; Qiu, J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  6. Control strategies for friction dampers: numerical assessment and experimental investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of friction dampers has been proposed in a wide variety of mechanical systems for which it is not possible to apply viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or others viscous dampers. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive way, however, a significant improvement can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the dampers. The aim of this paper is to study three control strategies for friction dampers based on the hysteresis cycle. The first control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle, by calculating the optimum normal force based on the last displacement peak. The second control strategy combines the first one with the maximum energy removal strategy used in the smart spring devices. Finally, is presented the strategy which homogenously modulates the friction force. Numerical studies were performed with these three strategies defining the performance metrics. The best control strategy was applied experimentally. The experimental test rig was fully identified and its parameters were used for the numerical simulations. The obtained results show the good performance for the friction damper and the selected strategy.

  7. Development strategies to satisfy corporate average CO_2 emission regulations of light duty vehicles (LDVs) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yunjung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Jong Tae; Seo, Jigu; Park, Sungwook

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we generated vehicle dynamic based light-duty vehicle (LDV) models and investigated some technical strategies in order to meet the corporate average CO_2 emission (CACE) regulations of Korea, which will be applied from 2016 to 2020. Seven types of LDV simulation models (including gasoline, diesel, and hybrid cars) were generated based on the AVL CRUISE program and the LDV sales ratio was used to estimate the CACE value of five companies in Korea. The prediction accuracy of the LDV models was validated using chassis dynamometer test data. Then, the effectiveness of the CACE reduction strategies was investigated based on the developed LDV simulation models. From the results of this study, it was revealed that all of the companies cannot satisfy the 2020 CACE regulation by just adopting a single strategy. In order to solve this problem, two types of CACE plans that combined several strategies (reducing the mass drag and fuel consumption rate, and adding a hybrid module, etc.) were proposed. After implementing the two types of CACE plan, it was predicted that five companies will be able to satisfy the 2020 CACE regulation. - Highlights: • Seven types of LDV models were generated to predict CO_2 emission. • Five companies were selected as the major car makers in Korea. • Diverse of strategies were considered to meet the future CO_2 standards in Korea. • All of the companies cannot satisfy the 2020 regulation by adopting a single item. • Two types of plans that combined several strategies were proposed.

  8. Emissions inventories and options for control SUMMARY REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ; Amstel AR van; Born GJ van den; Kroeze C; MTV; LAE

    1994-01-01

    This report is the final summary report of the project "Social causes of the greenhouse effect ; emissions inventories and options for control", funded by the National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and the Environment Directorate of the Ministry of Housing,

  9. The '333' integrated strategy for effective pollution control and its application to the heavily polluted Jialu River in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Sun, Jie; Li, Aimin; Xie, Xianchuan

    2018-05-01

    In this study, an integrated approach named the '333' strategy was applied to pollution control in the Jialu River, in northern China, which is heavily burdened with anthropogenic pollution. Due to a deficiency of the natural ecological inflow, the Jialu River receives predominantly industrial and municipal effluent. The '333' strategy is composed of three steps of pollution control including industrial point-source pollution control, advanced treatment of municipal wastewater, and ecological restoration; three increased stringency emission standards; and three stages of reclamation. Phase 1 of the '333' strategy focuses on industrial point-source pollution control; phase 2 aims to harness municipal wastewater and minimize sewage effluents using novel techniques for advanced water purification; phase 3 of the '333' strategy focuses on the further purification of effluents flowing into Jialu River with the employment of an engineering-based ecological restoration project. The application of the '333' strategy resulted in the development of novel techniques for water purification including modified magnetic resins (NDMP resin), a two-stage internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC reactor) and an ecological restoration system. The results indicate that water quality in the river was significantly improved, with increased concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO), as well as reduction of COD by 42.8% and NH 3 -N by 61.4%. In addition, it was observed that the total population of phytoplankton in treated river water notably increased from only one prior to restoration to 8 following restoration. This system also provides a tool for pollution control of other similar industrial and anthropogenic source polluted rivers.

  10. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An examination is offered of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions. Principal pieces of legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  11. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  12. 40 CFR 93.120 - Consequences of control strategy implementation plan failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Consequences of control strategy implementation plan failures. (a) Disapprovals. (1) If EPA disapproves any submitted control strategy implementation plan revision (with or without a protective finding), the... is determined. (2) If EPA disapproves a submitted control strategy implementation plan revision...

  13. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. Agricultural emissions. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus; Hahne, Jochen; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Grimm, Ewald; Doehler, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The German agricultural emission inventory is designed as an instrument of policy advice. The essential aim is to describe the emitting processes so that options for reducing emissions can be quantified. The German agricultural emission model GAS-EM uses in the field of NH 3 emissions from soils and plants in the EMEP / CORINAIR Guidebook (EMEP / CORINAIR, 2002) proposed methods. These differ in emission factors between several types of fertilizers and their application to acre or grassland in function of the average spring temperature. In the field of emissions from animal husbandry GAS-EM follows a material flow approach, where initially the energy and nutrient requirements for a given power (here are weight, weight gain, milk yield, number of piglets, etc. involved) the excretion of metabolizable carbon compounds and the N excretion can be calculated with feces and urine. Subsequently, for all animal species emissions of nitrogen species NH 3 , NO, N 2 O and N 2 from the grazing, indoor housing, storage and distribution of farm fertilizers calculated. [de

  14. A Techno-Economic Analysis of Emission Controls on Hydrocarbon Biofuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Davis, Ryan; Eberle, Annika; Heath, Garvin

    2016-06-23

    Biofuels have the potential to reduce our dependency on petroleum-derived transportation fuels and decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Although the overall GHG emissions from biofuels are expected to be lower when compared to those of petroleum fuels, the process of converting biomass feedstocks into biofuels emits various air pollutants, which may be subject to federal air quality regulation or emission limits. While prior research has evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of biofuel technologies, gaps still exist in understanding the regulatory issues associated with the biorefineries and their economic implications on biofuel production costs (referred to as minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) in this study). The aim of our research is to evaluate the economic impact of implementing emission reduction technologies at biorefineries and estimate the cost effectiveness of two primary control technologies that may be required for air permitting purposes. We analyze a lignocellulosic sugars-to-hydrocarbon biofuel production pathway developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and implement air emission controls in Aspen Plus to evaluate how they affect the MFSP. Results from this analysis can help inform decisions about biorefinery siting and sizing, as well as mitigate the risks associated with air permitting.

  15. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  16. A Control Strategy with Tactile Perception Feedback for EMG Prosthetic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changcheng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the control effectiveness and make the prosthetic hand not only controllable but also perceivable, an EMG prosthetic hand control strategy was proposed in this paper. The control strategy consists of EMG self-learning motion recognition, backstepping controller with stiffness fuzzy observation, and force tactile representation. EMG self-learning motion recognition is used to reduce the influence on EMG signals caused by the uncertainty of the contacting position of the EMG sensors. Backstepping controller with stiffness fuzzy observation is used to realize the position control and grasp force control. Velocity proportional control in free space and grasp force tracking control in restricted space can be realized by the same controller. The force tactile representation helps the user perceive the states of the prosthetic hand. Several experiments were implemented to verify the effect of the proposed control strategy. The results indicate that the proposed strategy has effectiveness. During the experiments, the comments of the participants show that the proposed strategy is a better choice for amputees because of the improved controllability and perceptibility.

  17. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  18. A robust model predictive control strategy for improving the control performance of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gongsheng; Wang Shengwei; Xu Xinhua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a robust model predictive control strategy for improving the supply air temperature control of air-handling units by dealing with the associated uncertainties and constraints directly. This strategy uses a first-order plus time-delay model with uncertain time-delay and system gain to describe air-conditioning process of an air-handling unit usually operating at various weather conditions. The uncertainties of the time-delay and system gain, which imply the nonlinearities and the variable dynamic characteristics, are formulated using an uncertainty polytope. Based on this uncertainty formulation, an offline LMI-based robust model predictive control algorithm is employed to design a robust controller for air-handling units which can guarantee a good robustness subject to uncertainties and constraints. The proposed robust strategy is evaluated in a dynamic simulation environment of a variable air volume air-conditioning system in various operation conditions by comparing with a conventional PI control strategy. The robustness analysis of both strategies under different weather conditions is also presented.

  19. Control strategies used in the control software for the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong [College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Postdoctoral Station, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang, Yan-Yu [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Pan, Liang-Ming [College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Tu, Sheng-Pan [State Grid Chongqing Maintenance Company, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Automation control systems are important for the operation of an accelerator. To ensure the reliable, stable and flexible operation of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), several control systems are developed. The developed control systems are the SECRAL control system, the LECR3 control system, the LAPECR1 control system and the Electro-Static septum control system. The corresponding control software systems are developed using Visual C++. To ensure the accuracy, stability and flexibility of the control systems, some special control strategies are developed in the control software systems. This paper provides a detailed description of the main control strategies used in the control software systems. The main control strategies are composed of a reliable communication mechanism, a correct data/command transmission mechanism, an efficient data storage mechanism and an interlock protection mechanism. To guarantee a reliable communication between the devices for the commercially purchased devices and the built in-house ones, a modified heartbeat method is developed. To provide flexible reconstitution function for the control systems, the command queue and the state machine are combined. The message mechanism and the multiple windows mechanism are also used for the module mechanism. The relevant control systems are introduced as examples of these control strategies. These systems have been running stably for several years.

  20. Control strategies used in the control software for the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Wang, Yan-Yu; Pan, Liang-Ming; Tu, Sheng-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Automation control systems are important for the operation of an accelerator. To ensure the reliable, stable and flexible operation of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), several control systems are developed. The developed control systems are the SECRAL control system, the LECR3 control system, the LAPECR1 control system and the Electro-Static septum control system. The corresponding control software systems are developed using Visual C++. To ensure the accuracy, stability and flexibility of the control systems, some special control strategies are developed in the control software systems. This paper provides a detailed description of the main control strategies used in the control software systems. The main control strategies are composed of a reliable communication mechanism, a correct data/command transmission mechanism, an efficient data storage mechanism and an interlock protection mechanism. To guarantee a reliable communication between the devices for the commercially purchased devices and the built in-house ones, a modified heartbeat method is developed. To provide flexible reconstitution function for the control systems, the command queue and the state machine are combined. The message mechanism and the multiple windows mechanism are also used for the module mechanism. The relevant control systems are introduced as examples of these control strategies. These systems have been running stably for several years.

  1. Control Strategy of Active Power Filter Based on Modular Multilevel Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xifeng

    2018-03-01

    To improve the capacity, pressure resistance and the equivalent switching frequency of active power filter (APF), a control strategy of APF based on Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is presented. In this Control Strategy, the indirect current control method is used to achieve active current and reactive current decoupling control; Voltage Balance Control Strategy is to stabilize sub-module capacitor voltage, the predictive current control method is used to Track and control of harmonic currents. As a result, the harmonic current is restrained, and power quality is improved. Finally, the simulation model of active power filter controller based on MMC is established in Matlab/Simulink, the simulation proves that the proposed strategy is feasible and correct.

  2. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  3. 40 CFR 91.113 - Requirement of certification-emission control information label and engine identification number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control information label and engine identification number. 91.113 Section 91.113 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM... certification—emission control information label and engine identification number. (a) The engine manufacturer...

  4. Novel deadbeat power control strategy for grid connected systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry Atia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach for power control of three phase voltage source inverter (VSI in grid connected distribution generation system. In this approach, the control of active and reactive power is based on deadbeat control strategy. First, the difference between the reference and actual currents are introduced in different approach. Then current to power substitutions are carried out to obtain direct relationship between the required inverter voltage and instantaneous power errors. There is no need for coordinate transformation or PLL, where the required inverter voltage vector calculations carried out in α–β stationary reference frame. The proposed technique introduces two cross coupling components in the control function. Including these two components, the controller can achieve nearly zero steady-state tracking error of the controlled variables. To obtain fixed switching frequency operations, space vector modulation (SVM is used to synthesize the required inverter voltage vector and to generate the switching pulses for the VSI. The proposed strategy has the simplicity of the direct power control (DPC technique and doesn’t require any current control loops. The proposed strategy is experimentally implemented using fixed-point microcontroller. Simulation and experimental results are presented to confirm the superiority of the proposed strategy.

  5. Control of Atmospheric Emissions in the Wood Pulping Industry, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, E. R.; And Others

    Volume 3 contains chapters 9 through 13 of the final report on the control of atmospheric emissions in the wood pulping industry. These chapters deal with the following topics: sampling and analytical techniques; on-going research related to reduction of emissions; research and development recommendations; current industry investment and operating…

  6. Advancing Understanding of Emissions from Oil and Natural ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary Environmentally responsible development of oil and gas assets requires well-developed emissions inventories and measurement techniques to verify emissions and the effectiveness of control strategies. To accurately model the oil and gas sector impacts on air quality, it is critical to have accurate activity data, emission factors and chemical speciation profiles for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). This report describes a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Region 8 Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) effort executed in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 to FY 2016 that aimed to improve information on upstream oil and production emissions and identify areas where future work is needed. The project involved both field activities and data analysis and synthesis work with emphasis on product-related VOC emissions from well pads. In oil and gas basins with significant condensate and oil production, VOC emissions from well pads primarily arise from the separation of gas and liquid products and the storage process, with the control of emissions usually accomplished by enclosed combustion devices (ECDs), such as flares. Fugitive emissions of VOCs can originate from leaks and from potentially ineffective control systems. In the case of ECDs, byproducts of incomplete combustion may produce more highly reactive ozone precursor species. For both compliance and scientific purposes, the abili

  7. Controlling fugitive dust emissions in material handling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, G E

    1992-05-01

    The primary mechanism of fugitive dust generation in bulk material handling transfer operations is by dispersion of dust in turbulent air induced to flow with falling or projected material streams. This paper returns to basic theories of particle dynamics and fluid mechanics to quantify the dust generating mechanism by rational analysis. Calculations involving fluid mechanisms are made easier by the availability of the personal computer and the many math manipulating programs. Rational analysis is much more cost effective when estimating collection air volumes to control fugitive emissions; especially in enclosed material handling transfers transporting large volumes of dusty material. Example calculations, using a typical enclosed conveyor-to-conveyor transfer operation are presented to illustrate and highlight the key parameters that determine the magnitude of induced air flow that must be controlled. The methods presented in this paper for estimating collection air volumes apply only enclosed material handling transfers, exhausted to a dust collector. Since some assistance to the control of dust emissions must be given by the material handling transfer chute design, a discussion of good transfer chute design practice is presented. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei Taoyuan

    2005-01-01

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO 2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO 2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO 2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  9. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-08-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim data report summarizes results as of August, 1999, on the status of the test programs being conducted on three technologies: lean-NO{sub x} catalysts, diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts.

  10. Control strategies for bovine dermatophilosis with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various control strategies for Dermatophilosis are discussed in this paper. Recommendations for control of Dermatophilosis in Nigeria on short term include ecto-parasite control by regular use of insecticide/acaricide in dips with added 0.03% copper sulphate or 1% solution of alum (potassium aluminium sulphate) ...

  11. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wurtenberger, L. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  12. Mercury emission to the atmosphere from municipal solid waste landfills: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Dai, Shijin; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill is regarded as an important emission source of atmospheric mercury (Hg), which is associated with potential health and environmental risks, as outlined by the Minamata Convention on Hg. This review presents the current state of knowledge with regards to landfill Hg sources, Hg levels in MSW and cover soils, Hg emission to the atmosphere, available Hg biogeochemical transformations, research methods for Hg emission, and important areas for future research. In addition, strategies for controlling landfill Hg emissions are considered, including reducing the Hg load in landfill and in situ controls. These approaches mainly focus on Hg source reduction, Hg recycling programs, public education, and in situ technology such as timely soil cover, vegetation, and end-of-pipe technology for controlling Hg emission from landfill gas.

  13. Impacts of temporary traffic control measures on vehicular emissions during the Asian games in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Yingzhi; Shen, Xianbao; Wang, Xintong; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee good traffic and air quality during the 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou, China, the government carried out two traffic control Drills before the Games and adopted traffic control measures during the Games. Vehicle activities before and during the first and second Drills, and during the Games, were surveyed. Based on the data under investigation, the impacts of control measures on traffic volumes and driving characteristics were analyzed during the first and second Drills, and the Games. The emission reduction of traffic control measures was also evaluated during the three stages using the MOBILE-China model. The results show that there were significant effects of implementing temporary traffic control measures on transportation activity and vehicular emissions. During the first and second Drills, and the Games, the average traffic volumes in monitored roads decreased, and the average speed of vehicles increased significantly The co-effects of traffic flow reduction, traffic congestion improvement, and the banning of high-emitting vehicles helped to greatly reduce the estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Guangzhou during the first and second Drills, and the Games. Estimated vehicular emissions were reduced by 38-52% during the first Drill and 28-36% for the second Drill. During the Asian Games, vehicular emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NO), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter vehicular emissions of CO, HC, NOx, and PM10. Motor vehicles have become the most prevalent source of emissions and subsequently air pollution within Chinese cities. Understanding the impacts that different control measures have on vehicular emissions is very important in order to be able to control vehicle emissions. The results of this study will be very helpful for the further control of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou in the future. In addition, the effects of temporary transportation control measures will provide

  14. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R; Smith, Richard D; Chalabi, Zaid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Mike; Edwards, Phil; Garnett, Tara; Givoni, Moshe; Griffiths, Ulla; Hamilton, Ian; Jarrett, James; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Haines, Andy

    We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change. In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits additional to those from reduced local air pollution. We employ a conservative cost-effectiveness methodology with a zero net cost threshold. Our urban transport strategy (with cleaner vehicles and increased active travel) brings important health co-benefits and is likely to be strongly cost-effective; our food and agriculture strategy (based on abatement technologies and reduction in livestock production) brings worthwhile health co-benefits, but is unlikely to eliminate net costs unless new technological measures are included; our household energy efficiency strategy is likely to breakeven only over the long term after the investment programme has ceased (beyond our 20 year time horizon). We conclude that UK policy makers will, most likely, have to adopt elements which involve initial net societal costs in order to achieve future emission targets and longer-term benefits from GHG reduction. Cost-effectiveness of GHG strategies is likely to require technological mitigation interventions and/or demand-constraining interventions with important health co-benefits and other efficiency-enhancing policies that promote internalization of externalities. Health co-benefits can play a crucial role in bringing down net costs, but our results also suggest the need for adopting holistic assessment methodologies which give proper consideration to welfare-improving health co-benefits with potentially negative economic repercussions (such as increased longevity).

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions and controls as influenced by tillage and crop residue management strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutegi, James; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Petersen, Bjørn Molt

    2010-01-01

    (RT) or conventional tillage (CT). Each of these tillage treatments further varied in respect to whether the resulting plot crop residues were retained (+Res) or removed (-Res). Sampling took place from autumn 2007 to the end of spring 2008. Overall N2O emissions were 27 and 26% lower in DD and RT...

  16. Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røseth Karlsen, Line; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated.......Highlights •Solar shading control strategy for office buildings in cold climate is developed. •Satisfying energy and indoor environmental performance is confirmed. •Importance of integrated evaluations when selecting shading strategy is illustrated....

  17. National action strategy on global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    A document prepared by a committee of Canadian environmental ministries proposes a strategic framework for a national action plan concerning global warming. The strategy would be carried out jointly by governments and all other sectors of the economy, taking into account the present state of scientific knowledge on global warming. Within this framework, the governments in cooperation with interested parties would take certain measures in their respective areas of competence. The main recommendations of the document include the following. The action strategy should comprise 3 elements: limiting emissions of greenhouse gases; forecasting climatic changes which Canada could undergo due to global warming and preparing for such changes; and improving scientific knowledge and the capacity to predict climatic changes. Limitations on this strategy should take into account such matters as the interaction of greenhouse gases with other pollutants, the importance of the international context, the need to adapt to new discoveries, and the importance of regional differences. Implementation of the strategy should incorporate widespread consultation of all affected sectors, sustained work on establishing international conventions and protocols on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, objectives and schedules for such reductions, and stepwise actions to control emissions in order to enable an adequate evaluation of the consequences and effectiveness of such measures. 10 figs., 2 tabs

  18. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  19. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Internal quality control: planning and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O

    2003-11-01

    The first essential in setting up internal quality control (IQC) of a test procedure in the clinical laboratory is to select the proper IQC procedure to implement, i.e. choosing the statistical criteria or control rules, and the number of control measurements, according to the quality required for the test and the observed performance of the method. Then the right IQC procedure must be properly implemented. This review focuses on strategies for planning and implementing IQC procedures in order to improve the quality of the IQC. A quantitative planning process is described that can be implemented with graphical tools such as power function or critical-error graphs and charts of operating specifications. Finally, a total QC strategy is formulated to minimize cost and maximize quality. A general strategy for IQC implementation is recommended that employs a three-stage design in which the first stage provides high error detection, the second stage low false rejection and the third stage prescribes the length of the analytical run, making use of an algorithm involving the average of normal patients' data.

  1. A compound control strategy combining velocity compensation with ADRC of electro-hydraulic position servo control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingwei; Shao, Junpeng; Yang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    In order to enhance the anti-jamming ability of electro-hydraulic position servo control system at the same time improve the control precision of the system, a compound control strategy that combines velocity compensation with Active Disturbance Rejection Controller (ADRC) is proposed, and the working principle of the compound control strategy is given. ADRC controller is designed, and the extended state observer is used for observing internal parameters uncertainties and external disturbances, so that the disturbances of the system are suppressed effectively. Velocity compensation controller is designed and the compensation model is derived to further improve the positioning accuracy of the system and to achieve the velocity compensation without disturbance. The compound control strategy is verified by the simulation and experiment respectively, and the simulation and experimental results show that the electro-hydraulic position servo control system with ADRC controller can effectively inhibit the external disturbances, the precise positioning control is realized after introducing the velocity compensation controller, and verify that the compound control strategy is effective. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 40 CFR 52.379 - Control strategy: PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM2.5. 52.379 Section 52.379 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.379 Control strategy: PM2.5. Approval...

  3. [Bibliometric analysis of literature regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi-Li; Wang, Wei; Hong, Qing-Biao; Liang, You-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the outcomes of implementation of integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control using a bibliometric method. The literature pertaining to integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control was retrieved from CNKI, Wanfangdata, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS and Google Scholar, and a bibliometric analysis of literature captured was performed. During the period from January 1, 2004 through September 30, 2014, a total of 94 publications regarding integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control were captured, including 78 Chinese articles (82.98%) and 16 English papers (17.02%). The Chinese literature was published in 21 national journals, and Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control had the largest number of publications, consisting of 37.23% of total publications; 16 English papers were published in 12 international journals, and PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases had the largest number of publications (3 publications). There were 37 affiliations publishing these 94 articles, and National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (16 publications), Anhui Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (12 publications) and Hunan Institute of Schistosomiasis Control (9 publications) ranked top three affiliations in number of publications. A total of 157 persons were co-authored in these 94 publications, and Wang, Zhou and Zhang ranked top 3 authors in number of publications. The integrated schistosomiasis control strategy with emphasis on infectious source control has been widely implemented in China, and the achievements obtained from the implementation of this strategy should be summarized and transmitted internationally.

  4. Emissions control for sensitive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The Gorgon project needs almost no introduction. Located off the north-west coast of Western Australia, it is one of the world's largest natural gas projects, set on the environmentally sensitive Barrow Island. To protect the island's unique habitats, stringent environmental conditions have been imposed in terms of air, noise and light emissions, making the emission control system critical to the project's viability. Luhr Filter, specialists in dust and fume control solutions, were chosen by KMH Environmental to supply an emission control system for a waste incinerator facility serving the LNG processing plant on Barrow Island. KMH's preference was for a 'one stop' supplier of the entire pollution control system. This included a heat exchanger which had the added benefit of a compact build to fit in the limited real estate. The solution put forward was tailored to the unique environmental requirements of the Gorgon project. It was very much about collaboration and innovation to achieve the requisite results. KMH were also keen to limit the number of sub-contractors they had to deal with, and Luhr offered them a turn-key plant for the gas cleaning, integrating design and supply of all the equipment. Among the environmental requirements was that all putrescible waste created on-site - from the accommodation camps during the construction and, eventually, production phases - had to be incinerated rather than sent to landfill. The flue gas from the incinerators had to be treated in order to meet world-class environmental standards for emission of particulate, acid gases, metals and dioxins. KMH designed an incinerator system with primary and secondary combustion chambers in modular units to minimise labour requirements on site. The dry absorption system integrates Luhr's unique technologies for heat exchangers, absorption reactors, utilisation of the absorbent and the baghouse style filters with reverse pulse bag cleaning

  5. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  6. An analysis of energy strategies for CO2 emission reduction in China. Case studies by MARKAL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangya

    1994-12-01

    The China's energy system has been analyzed by using the MARKAL model in this study and the time period is from the year 1990 to 2050. The MARKAL model is applied here to evaluate the cost effective energy strategies for CO 2 emission reduction in China. Firstly the Reference Energy System (RES) of China and its database were established, and the useful energy demand was projected on the basis of China's economic target and demographic forecasting. Four scenarios, BASE1-BASE4 were defined with different assumptions of crude oil and natural uranium availability. Analytical results show that without CO 2 emission constrains coal consumption will continue to hold a dominant position in primary energy supply, and CO 2 emissions in 2050 will be 9.55 BtCO 2 and 10.28 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Under the CO 2 emission constraints, nuclear and renewable energy will play important roles in CO 2 emission reduction, and feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction estimated by this study is 3.16 BtCO 2 in 2050. The cumulative CO 2 emission from 1990 to 2050 will be 418.25 BtCO 2 and 429.16 BtCO 2 with different natural uranium availability. Total feasible maximum CO 2 emission reduction from 1990 to 2050 is 95.97 BtCO 2 . (author)

  7. Switched Control Strategies of Aggregated Commercial HVAC Systems for Demand Response in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes three switched control strategies for aggregated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC systems in commercial buildings to track the automatic generation control (AGC signal in smart grid. The existing control strategies include the direct load control strategy and the setpoint regulation strategy. The direct load control strategy cannot track the AGC signal when the state of charge (SOC of the aggregated thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs exceeds their regulation capacity, while the setpoint regulation strategy provides flexible regulation capacity, but causes larger tracking errors. To improve the tracking performance, we took the advantages of the two control modes and developed three switched control strategies. The control strategies switch between the direct load control mode and the setpoint regulation mode according to different switching indices. Specifically, we design a discrete-time controller and optimize the controller parameter for the setpoint regulation strategy using the Fibonacci optimization algorithm, enabling us to propose two switched control strategies across multiple time steps. Furthermore, we extend the switched control strategies by introducing a two-stage regulation in a single time step. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed switched control strategies can reduce the tracking errors for frequency regulation.

  8. Emission Sectoral Contributions of Foreign Emissions to Particulate Matter Concentrations over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.; Cho, J. H.; Woo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the contributions of major emission source categories located upwind of South Korea to Particulate Matter (PM) in South Korea. In general, air quality in South Korea is affected by anthropogenic air pollutants emitted from foreign countries including China. Some studies reported that foreign emissions contributed 50 % of annual surface PM total mass concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea in 2014. Previous studies examined PM contributions of foreign emissions from all sectors considering meteorological variations. However, little studies conducted to assess contributions of specific foreign source categories. Therefore, we attempted to estimate sectoral contributions of foreign emissions from China to South Korea PM using our air quality forecasting system. We used Model Inter-Comparison Study in Asia 2010 for foreign emissions and Clean Air Policy Support System 2010 emission inventories for domestic emissions. To quantify contributions of major emission sectors to South Korea PM, we applied the Community Multi-scale Air Quality system with brute force method by perturbing emissions from industrial, residential, fossil-fuel power plants, transportation, and agriculture sectors in China. We noted that industrial sector was pre-dominant over the region except during cold season for primary PMs when residential emissions drastically increase due to heating demand. This study will benefit ensemble air quality forecasting and refined control strategy design by providing quantitative assessment on seasonal contributions of foreign emissions from major source categories.

  9. The blue skies in Beijing during APEC 2014: A quantitative assessment of emission control efficiency and meteorological influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongli; He, Jing; Guo, Jianping; Miao, Yucong; Yin, Jinfang; Wang, Yuan; Xu, Hui; Liu, Huan; Yan, Yan; Li, Yuan; Zhai, Panmao

    2017-10-01

    Most previous studies attributed the alleviation of aerosol pollution to either emission control measures or favorable meteorological conditions. However, our understanding of their quantitative contribution is far from complete. In this study, based on model simulation using the CMA (China Meteorological Administration) Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment for aerosols (CUACE/Aero), in combination with simultaneous ground-based hourly PM2.5 observations, we aim to quantify the relative contributions of the emission control measures and meteorology to the blue-skies seen in Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in November of 2014. A series of model simulations have been performed over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region by implementing nine different emission control schemes. To investigate the relative contributions of the emission control measures and meteorology, the study period has been divided into five episodes. Overall, the CUACE/Aero model can reasonably well reproduce the temporal and spatial evolution of PM2.5 during APEC 2014, although the model performance varies by different time periods and regions of interest. Model results show the emission control measures on average reduced the PM2.5 concentration by 41.3% in urban areas of Beijing and 39.7% in Huairou district, respectively, indicating emission control plays a significant role for the blue skies observed. Among all the emission control measures under investigation, local emission control in Beijing contributed the largest to the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations with a reduction of 35.5% in urban area of Beijing and 34.8% in Huairou, in contrast with the vehicle emission control in Hebei that contributed the least with a reduction of less than 1%. The emission control efficiency in five episodes has been assessed quantitatively, which falls in the range of 36.2%-41.2% in urban area of Beijing and 34.9%-40.7% in Huairou, indicative of no significant episode

  10. Multi-lateral emission trading: lessons from inter-state NOx control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, A.

    2001-01-01

    Marketable emission permit mechanisms are increasingly proposed as efficient means of managing environmental pollution problems such as greenhouse gas emissions. Existing examples of emissions trading in the literature have so far been limited to domestic efforts put in place through the action of a national legislature, which has no parallel in international politics. This paper examines two efforts to establish multi-lateral emissions trading for nitrogen oxides among various states with the US. One, the Ozone Transport Commission's NO x Budget program is a success. The other, the Ozone Transport Assessment Group and the federal government's subsequent NO x SIP Call has not resulted in a multi-lateral emissions control program, let alone an efficient, market-based one. Due to the relative similarities of the states (compared to highly heterogeneous nations of the world) these are ''best case'' examples, and explaining the vast differences in outcomes will help explain the potential and the challenges in developing an international emission trading program to control greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  11. Shipping emission forecasts and cost-benefit analysis of China ports and key regions' control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Zhi-Hang; Shang, Yi; Lv, Zhao-Feng; Jin, Xin-Xin; Fu, Ming-Liang; He, Ke-Bin

    2018-05-01

    China established Domestic Emission Control Area (DECA) for sulphur since 2015 to constrain the increasing shipping emissions. However, future DECA policy-makings are not supported due to a lack of quantitive evaluations. To investigate the effects of current and possible Chinese DECAs policies, a model is presented for the forecast of shipping emissions and evaluation of potential costs and benefits of an DECA policy package set in 2020. It includes a port-level and regional-level projection accounting for shipping trade volume growth, share of ship types, and fuel consumption. The results show that without control measures, both SO 2 and particulate matter (PM) emissions are expected to increase by 15.3-61.2% in Jing-Jin-Ji, the Yangtze River Delta, and the Pearl River Delta from 2013 to 2020. However, most emissions can be reduced annually by the establishment of a DECA that depends on the size of the control area and the fuel sulphur content limit. Costs range from 0.667 to 1.561 billion dollars (control regional shipping emissions) based on current fuel price. A social cost method shows the regional control scenarios benefit-cost ratios vary from 4.3 to 5.1 with large uncertainty. Chemical transportation model combined with health model method is used to get the monetary health benefits and then compared with the results from social cost method. This study suggests that Chinese DECAs will reduce the projected emissions at a favorable benefit-cost ratio, and furthermore proposes policy combinations that provide high cost-effective benefits as a reference for future policy-making. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of Carbon Dots with Multiple Color Emission by Controlled Graphitization and Surface Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiang; Qu, Dan; Yang, Dongxue; Nie, Bing; Zhao, Yikang; Fan, Hongyou; Sun, Zaicheng

    2018-01-01

    Multiple-color-emissive carbon dots (CDots) have potential applications in various fields such as bioimaging, light-emitting devices, and photocatalysis. The majority of the current CDots to date exhibit excitation-wavelength-dependent emissions with their maximum emission limited at the blue-light region. Here, a synthesis of multiple-color-emission CDots by controlled graphitization and surface function is reported. The CDots are synthesized through controlled thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and urea. By regulating the thermal-pyrolysis temperature and ratio of reactants, the maximum emission of the resulting CDots gradually shifts from blue to red light, covering the entire light spectrum. Specifically, the emission position of the CDots can be tuned from 430 to 630 nm through controlling the extent of graphitization and the amount of surface functional groups, COOH. The relative photoluminescence quantum yields of the CDots with blue, green, and red emission reach up to 52.6%, 35.1%, and 12.9%, respectively. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the CDots can be uniformly dispersed into epoxy resins and be fabricated as transparent CDots/epoxy composites for multiple-color- and white-light-emitting devices. This research opens a door for developing low-cost CDots as alternative phosphors for light-emitting devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  14. A note on cooperative versus non-cooperative strategies in international pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, Santiago J.; Casino, Begona [Department of Economic Analysis, University of Valencia, Avda. de los Naranjos s/n, Edificio Departamental Oriental, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    In this note, we evaluate the scope of Dockner and Long's [Journal of Environment Economics and Management 24 (1993) 13] conclusion on the efficiency of the non-cooperative outcome in a differential game of international pollution control. We also complete the study of the different equilibria the differential game can present. Our results show that their conclusion requires that the initial value of the stock of pollution be higher than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock so that the equilibrium path of emissions involves a decreasing stock of pollution. Our results also show that the application of the procedure proposed by Tsutsui and Mino [Journal of Economic Theory 52 (1990) 136] to construct a Markov-perfect equilibrium using non-linear strategies is problematic when the initial pollution stock is lower than the Pareto-efficient pollution stock.

  15. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategies for reactive power control in wind farms with STATCOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Gonzalez, Francisco [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Barcelona (Spain); Martinez-Rojas, Marcela [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Electrica; Sumper, Andreas; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Barcelona (Spain); Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Electrica

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents two strategies for reactive current control in wind farms with STATCOM under fault ride-through (FRT) situations. First, the technical requirements of the Spanish and German grid codes related to the reactive current under FRT situations are presented. Second, STATCOM and its control system are introduced. Third, the modeling done of the wind farm, the STATCOM, and the network are presented. Finally, control strategies for reactive current delivered by the park to the network under FRT situations are shown. The result of the implementation of each control strategy is shown by simulation. (orig.)

  17. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this project is to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by exploration and production (E&P) operators to significantly lower the cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. The project team takes considerable advantage of the emissions control research and development efforts and practices that have been underway in the gas pipeline industry for the last 12 years. These efforts and practices are expected to closely interface with the E&P industry to develop cost-effective options that apply to widely-used field and gathering engines, and which can be readily commercialized. The project is separated into two phases. Phase 1 work establishes an E&P industry liaison group, develops a frequency distribution of installed E&P field engines, and identifies and assesses commercially available and emerging engine emissions control and monitoring technologies. Current and expected E&P engine emissions and monitoring requirements are reviewed, and priority technologies are identified for further development. The identified promising technologies are tested on a laboratory engine to confirm their generic viability. In addition, a full-scale field test of prototype emissions controls will be conducted on at least ten representative field engine models with challenging emissions profiles. Emissions monitoring systems that are integrated with existing controls packages will be developed. Technology transfer/commercialization is expected to be implemented through compressor fleet leasing operators, engine component suppliers, the industry liaison group, and the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. This topical report discusses work completed during Phase 1 of the project Cost Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines. In this report information, data, and results are compiled and summarized from quarterly

  18. Inventory control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, D.

    1998-01-01

    Finning International Inc. is in the business of selling, financing and servicing Caterpillar and complementary equipment. Its main markets are in western Canada, Britain and Chile. This paper discusses the parts inventory strategies system for Finning (Canada). The company's territory covers British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Finning's parts inventory consists of 80,000 component units valued at more than $150 M. Distribution centres are located in Langley, British Columbia and Edmonton, Alberta. To make inventory and orders easier to control, Finning has designed a computer-based system, with software written exclusively for Caterpillar dealers. The system makes use of a real time electronic interface with all Finning locations, plus all Caterpillar facilities and other dealers in North America. Details of the system are discussed, including territorial stocking procedures, addition to stock, exhaustion of stock, automatic/suggest order controls, surplus inventory management, and procedures for jointly managed inventory. 3 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology for Controlling/Recycling Chromium Electroplating Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hay, K

    1999-01-01

    ...) above the plating tank. Venturi/Vortex Scrubber Technology (VVST) was designed to control chromium electroplating emissions by collecting the gas bubbles before they burst at the solution's surface...

  20. A DC Microgrid Coordinated Control Strategy Based on Integrator Current-Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Liyuan; Liu, Yao; Ren, Huisong

    2017-01-01

    The DC microgrid has become a new trend for microgrid study with the advantages of high reliability, simple control and low losses. With regard to the drawbacks of the traditional droop control strategies, an improved DC droop control strategy based on integrator current-sharing is introduced....... In the strategy, the principle of eliminating deviation through an integrator is used, constructing the current-sharing term in order to make the power-sharing between different distributed generation (DG) units uniform and reasonable, which can reduce the circulating current between DG units. Furthermore......, at the system coordinated control level, a hierarchical/droop control strategy based on the DC bus voltage is proposed. In the strategy, the operation modes of the AC main network and micro-sources are determined through detecting the DC voltage variation, which can ensure the power balance of the DC microgrid...

  1. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Albert H.; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  2. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Albert H., E-mail: Albert.H.Baur@campus.tu-berlin.de; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  3. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms-the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  4. Neural PID Control Strategy for Networked Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method with a two-layer hierarchy is presented based on a neural proportional-integral-derivative (PID iterative learning method over the communication network for the closed-loop automatic tuning of a PID controller. It can enhance the performance of the well-known simple PID feedback control loop in the local field when real networked process control applied to systems with uncertain factors, such as external disturbance or randomly delayed measurements. The proposed PID iterative learning method is implemented by backpropagation neural networks whose weights are updated via minimizing tracking error entropy of closed-loop systems. The convergence in the mean square sense is analysed for closed-loop networked control systems. To demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed strategies, a pressure-tank experiment is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed design method in network process control systems.

  5. Technology for controlling emissions from power plants fired with fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, A V

    1981-04-01

    Emission control technologies for fossil-fuel-fired power plants are examined. Acid rain, impaired visibility, and health effects of respirable particulates have combined to raise concerns from the local to the regional level. This report discusses advantages, disadvantages, and costs of technologies associated with emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter. Coal, oil and natural gas fuels are discussed. 7 refs.

  6. Improved Droop Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abusara, Mohammad; Sharkh, Suleiman; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    An improved control strategy for grid-connected inverters within microgrids is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the classical P-ω and Q-V droop method. The improvement in the proposed control strategy is twofold: Firstly, the transient response of the droop controller is improved...... by replacing the traditional method of measuring average power, which is based on using a first order low pass filter, by a real time integration filter. This is shown to reduce the imported transient energy when connecting to the grid. Secondly, the steady state output current quality is improved by utilising...... a virtual inductance, which is shown to reject grid voltage harmonics disturbance and thus improve the output current THD. A small signal model of the inverter based on the transfer function approach is developed to analyse is stability and determine droop gains. Simulation and experimental results...

  7. Value of travel-time reliability, part II : a study of tradeoffs between travel reliability, congestion-mitigation strategies and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Capacity, demand, and vehicle based emissions reduction strategies are compared for several pollutants employing aggregate US : congestion and vehicle fleet condition data. We find that congestion mitigation does not inevitably lead to reduced emissi...

  8. A study on environmental pollution control in energy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B.M.; Son, J.E.; Lee, H.K.; Choi, W.K.; Baek, I.H.; Lee, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This report is contained such as following contents; Preparation of the stepwise pollution control strategies to reduce pollutants in energy field, which will be satisfy to tightened emission standard in the future. Analysis of the environmental pollution control technologies level, which related to energy field in domestic and other countries. Visualization of the reduction strategies of domestic carbon dioxide emission in energy field. And, discussion and proposal of the R and D program to improve the domestic environmental pollution control technologies in energy field. (author). 99 refs., 67 figs., 73 tabs.

  9. Taxonomy for Evaluation of Distributed Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Heussen, Kai; Gehrke, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Distributed control strategies applied to power distribution control problems are meant to offer robust and scalable integration of distributed energy resources (DER). However, the term “distributed control” is often loosely applied to a variety of very different control strategies. In particular....... For such comparison, a classification is required that is consistent across the different aspects mentioned above. This paper develops systematic categories of control strategies that accounts for communication, control and physical distribution aspects of the problem, and provides a set of criteria that can...

  10. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  11. A Compatible Control Algorithm for Greenhouse Environment Control Based on MOCC Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingkun Zhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system.

  12. A compatible control algorithm for greenhouse environment control based on MOCC strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Zhu, Bingkun; Wei, Ruihua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC) strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system.

  13. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  14. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  15. Comparison of Power Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Luna, A.; Rodríguez, P.

    2008-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame...... VOC strategy able to control the operation of a DFIG in the αβ reference frame, with no need of flux position estimation, something that conducts to a more simple and robust algorithm. In order to evaluate the advantages of this new control proposal, namely VOC-RRF, their performance will be compared...

  16. Control Strategies for DFIG Wind Turbines Under Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Alvara; Rolan, A.; Medeiros, G.

    2009-01-01

    The classical control techniques for regulating the active and reactive power delivery in doubly fed induction generators (DFIG), for wind power applications, are normally based on voltage oriented control (VOC) strategies. Among these algorithms, those that work in a synchronous reference frame...... VOC strategy able to control the operation of a DFIG in the αβ reference frame, with no need of flux position estimation, something that conducts to a more simple and robust algorithm. In order to evaluate the advantages of this new control proposal, namely VOC-RRF, their performance will be compared...

  17. Can rewiring strategy control the epidemic spreading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chao; Yin, Qiuju; Liu, Wenyang; Yan, Zhijun; Shi, Tianyu

    2015-11-01

    Relation existed in the social contact network can affect individuals' behaviors greatly. Considering the diversity of relation intimacy among network nodes, an epidemic propagation model is proposed by incorporating the link-breaking threshold, which is normally neglected in the rewiring strategy. The impact of rewiring strategy on the epidemic spreading in the weighted adaptive network is explored. The results show that the rewiring strategy cannot always control the epidemic prevalence, especially when the link-breaking threshold is low. Meanwhile, as well as strong links, weak links also play a significant role on epidemic spreading.

  18. Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategy including energy storage losses

    OpenAIRE

    Avula, Chinni Venkata Ramana R.; Oechtering, Tobias J.; Månsson, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Privacy-preserving smart meter control strategies proposed in the literature so far make some ideal assumptions such as instantaneous control without delay, lossless energy storage systems etc. In this paper, we present a one-step-ahead predictive control strategy using Bayesian risk to measure and control privacy leakage with an energy storage system. The controller estimates energy state using a three-circuit energy storage model to account for steady-state energy losses. With numerical exp...

  19. Mitigation strategies for methane emissions from agricultural sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxbury, J.M. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} account for 70% of total global emissions of this greenhouse gas. Current anthropogenic emissions of CH{sub 4} in the US are estimated to be between 24-30 Tg CH{sub 4} or 7-9% of the global anthropogenic total. By comparison the US is responsible for 27% of anthropogenic emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel use. Table 1 shows that the major anthropogenic sources of CH{sub 4} in the US are landfills (37%), domestic livestock and livestock waste (31%) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries (28%). On a global basis it is estimated that US landfills contribute 30% to the global landfill total, whereas livestock (including waste) and the coal mining/natural gas/petroleum industries each contribute about 8% to their respective global totals. The US is an insignificant contributor (< 1%) to global emissions of CH{sub 4} from rice paddies.

  20. Investigating the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy in a natural gas/diesel fueled engine with a pre-chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahi, Mohammad Mahdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Gharehghani, Ayatallah; Mirsalim, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combustion strategy, RCCI with a pre-chamber, is proposed and investigated. • The proposed strategy extends the RCCI operating range to use less intake air temperatures. • The new concept extends the RCCI operating range to use lower portions of the active fuel. • The proposed strategy is sensitive to engine load and is more efficient for high loads. - Abstract: Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) concept has been proven to be a promising combustion mode for the next generations of internal combustion engines. This strategy is still subject of extensive studies to overcome its operational limitations. In the present work, the effect of using a pre-chamber to extend some operating ranges in a RCCI engine is investigated using coupled multidimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms. To accomplish this, the combustion and flow field in a single cylinder engine with a pre-chamber, working in RCCI mode and fueled with natural gas/diesel are numerically modeled. Experimental data is used to validate the simulation results and then, combustion characteristics and engine emissions in some various operating regions, in terms of initial temperature, fuel equivalence ratio and portions of the two fuels are discussed. The results reveal that the proposed strategy provides the ability to extend the engine operating ranges to use lower intake temperatures, even to 50 K lower for some cases, and also using a larger portion of natural gas instead of diesel fuel. On the other hand, the new strategy could result in incomplete combustion and formation of related emissions in low loads, but for higher engine loads it shows better combustion characteristics.

  1. Some thoughts on separation control strategies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow separation generally leads to increased energy losses, instability and so ... Separation control strategy often refers to a clever (or intelligent) fluid ... bubble will have a certain influence, directly or indirectly, on the development of the shear.

  2. Subjective well-being in times of social change: congruence of control strategies and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümer, Sebastian; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the association between perceptions of broader changes in the social-ecological context and individuals' subjective well-being (SWB). Macro-level societal changes such as globalization or demographic change give rise to new demands for individual functioning at work and/or in the family. Such new demands associated with social change are stressful and likely to be related to lower levels of SWB. Being active agents, individuals attempt to deal with social change and its increasing demands to protect their SWB. The present study investigates which kinds of control strategies are most effective in protecting one's SWB. Specifically, we predicted that control strategies of goal engagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived high control, and control strategies of goal disengagement will be most effective under conditions of perceived low control. In a large sample of 2537 German adults, work- and family-related demands associated with social change were found to be negatively linked to SWB. Moreover and in line with the motivational theory of lifespan development, control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement were beneficial for SWB to the extent that they matched the perceived control of the demands associated with social change.

  3. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  4. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  5. The Natural Gas Vehicle Challenge 1992: Exhaust emissions testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkus, W. A.; Larsen, R. P.; Zammit, M. G.; Davies, J. G.; Salmon, G. S.; Bruetsch, R. I.

    The Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge '92, was organized by Argonne National Laboratory. The main sponsors were the U.S. Department of Energy the Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada, and the Society of Automotive Engineers. It resulted in 20 varied approaches to the conversion of a gasoline-fueled, spark-ignited, internal combustion engine to dedicated natural gas use. Starting with a GMC Sierra 2500 pickup truck donated by General Motors, teams of college and university student engineers worked to optimize Chevrolet V-8 engines operating on natural gas for improved emissions, fuel economy, performance, and advanced design features. This paper focuses on the results of the emission event, and compares engine mechanical configurations, engine management systems, catalyst configurations and locations, and approaches to fuel control and the relationship of these parameters to engine-out and tailpipe emissions of regulated exhaust constituents. Nine of the student modified trucks passed the current levels of exhaust emission standards, and some exceeded the strictest future emissions standards envisioned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Factors contributing to good emissions control using natural gas are summarized, and observations concerning necessary components of a successful emissions control strategy are presented.

  6. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  7. Economic restructuring in Eastern Europe and acid rain abatement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, Markus; Klaassen, Ger; Schoepp, Wolfgang; Soerensen, Lene; Hordijk, Leen

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain abatement strategies in Europe are currently being discussed in view of the expiration of the Helsinki Protocol on SO 2 emission reduction. The changing energy situation in Eastern European countries is expected to have an influence on the deposition pattern in Europe. The paper presents a consistent energy scenario for Eastern European countries and compares optimal strategies to reduce SO 2 emissions. These strategies are based on runs with the RAINS model in which environmental targets have been set based on critical loads for sulphur. The analysis shows that economic restructuring and efficiency improvements in Eastern European countries, as well as in Western Europe, may result in significantly lower sulphur abatement costs. Potential assistance to Eastern Europe to guarantee desired environmental standards in Western countries should therefore focus not only on providing emission control devices but also on the success of the economic transition process. (author)

  8. Effect of automatic control technologies on emission reduction in small-scale combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M. [Control Engineering Laboratory, University of Oulu (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    Automatic control can be regarded as a primary measure for preventing combustion emissions. In this view, the control technology covers broadly the control methods, sensors and actuators for monitoring and controlling combustion. In addition to direct control of combustion process, it can also give tools for condition monitoring and optimisation of total heat consumption by system integration thus reducing the need for excess conversion of energy. Automatic control has already shown its potential in small-scale combustion. The potential, but still unrealised advantages of automatic control in this scale are the adaptation to changes in combustion conditions (fuel, environment, device, user) and the continuous optimisation of the air/fuel ratio. Modem control technology also covers combustion condition monitoring, diagnostics, and the higher level optimisation of the energy consumption with system integration. In theory, these primary measures maximise the overall efficiency, enabling a significant reduction in fuel consumption and thus total emissions per small-scale combustion unit, specifically at the annual level.

  9. Post combustion methods for control of NOx emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, H S; Curran, L M; Slack, A V; Ando, J; Oxley, J H

    1980-01-01

    Review of stack gas treatment methods for the control of NOx emissions. Particular emphasis is placed on status of development and factors affecting the performance of the processes. Catalytic, noncatalytic, and scrubbing processes are compared on a uniform engineering basis. Most of the active process development work is taking place in Japan. The three leading stack gas treatment techniques for NOx control are catalytic reduction with ammonia, noncatalytic reduction with ammonia, and direct scrubbing of NO with simultaneous absorption of SO2. The wet processes are much less developed than the dry processes.

  10. Effect of solvent-controlled aggregation on the intrinsic emission properties of PAMAM dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmine, Maria J.; Kavitha, Manniledam; Prasad, Edamana

    2009-01-01

    Solvent-induced aggregation and its effect on the intrinsic emission properties of amine, hydroxy and carboxylate terminated, poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been investigated in glycerol, ethylene glycol, methanol, ethylene diamine and water. Altering the solvent medium induces remarkable changes in the intrinsic emission properties of the PAMAM dendrimers at identical concentration. Upon excitation at 370 nm, amine terminated PAMAM dendrimer exhibits an intense emission at 470 nm in glycerol, ethylene glycol as well as glycerol-water mixtures. Conversely, weak luminescence is observed for hydroxy and carboxylate terminated PAMAM dendrimers in the same solvent systems. When the solvent is changed to ethylene diamine, hydroxy terminated PAMAM exhibits intense blue emission at 425 nm. While the emission intensity is varied when the solvent milieu is changed, excited state lifetime values of PAMAM dendrimers remain independent of the solvent used. UV-visible absorption and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments confirm the formation of solvent-controlled dendrimer aggregates in the systems. Comparison of the fluorescence and DLS data reveals that the size distribution of the dendrimer aggregates in each solvent system is distinct, which control the intrinsic emission intensity from PAMAM dendrimers. The experimental results suggest that intrinsic emission intensity from PAMAM dendrimers can be regulated by proper selection of solvents at neutral conditions and room temperature

  11. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  12. Pinning Control Strategy of Multicommunity Structure Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of community structure on synchronization, a pinning control strategy is researched in a class of complex networks with community structure in this paper. A feedback control law is designed based on the network community structure information. The stability condition is given and proved by using Lyapunov stability theory. Our research shows that as to community structure networks, there being a threshold hT≈5, when coupling strength bellows this threshold, the stronger coupling strength corresponds to higher synchronizability; vice versa, the stronger coupling strength brings lower synchronizability. In addition the synchronizability of overlapping and nonoverlapping community structure networks was simulated and analyzed; while the nodes were controlled randomly and intensively, the results show that intensive control strategy is better than the random one. The network will reach synchronization easily when the node with largest betweenness was controlled. Furthermore, four difference networks’ synchronizability, such as Barabási-Albert network, Watts-Strogatz network, Erdös-Rényi network, and community structure network, are simulated; the research shows that the community structure network is more easily synchronized under the same control strength.

  13. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  14. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A; Parray, Hilal A; Lone, Jameel B; Paek, Woon K; Lim, Jeongheui; Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  15. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R.; Smith, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    . In contrast to previous assessment studies, our main focus is on health co-benefits additional to those from reduced local air pollution. We employ a conservative cost-effectiveness methodology with a zero net cost threshold. Our urban transport strategy (with cleaner vehicles and increased active travel......) brings important health co-benefits and is likely to be strongly cost-effective; our food and agriculture strategy (based on abatement technologies and reduction in livestock production) brings worthwhile health co-benefits, but is unlikely to eliminate net costs unless new technological measures...... to achieve future emission targets and longer-term benefits from GHG reduction. Cost-effectiveness of GHG strategies is likely to require technological mitigation interventions and/or demand-constraining interventions with important health co-benefits and other efficiency-enhancing policies that promote...

  16. An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.

  17. Three-decade changes in chemical composition of precipitation in Guangzhou city, southern China: has precipitation recovered from acidification following sulphur dioxide emission control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunting Fang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined if precipitation had recovered from acidification in Guangzhou, the third biggest city in China, and if sulphur deposition in precipitation had decreased, and to what extent if yes, following abatement strategies in sulphur dioxide (SO2 emission and energy use implemented since 2001. SO2 emissions were decreasing steadily since 2001, but a marked recovery of precipitation acidity occurred only since 2005; precipitation pH values decreased from 4.65 in 2001 to 4.34 in 2005 and then increased to 5.08 in 2010, while in the same period acid rain (pH<5.6 frequency increased from 70% to 81% and then decreased to 48%. During this period, the change in pH value and sulphate concentration more reflected the patterns of SO2 emission at provincial and national scales than at the local scale, suggesting that precipitation chemical composition was largely controlled by the emissions of pollutants from surrounding areas of the study city. Since 2001, sulphate deposition in precipitation decreased significantly (by 40% but nitrogen deposition remained unaltered. More importantly, the current sulphur (43 kg S ha−1 yr−1 as sulphate and nitrogen depositions (35 kg N ha−1 yr−1 as ammonium plus nitrate in 2010 were still among the highest in China. These results highlight the fact that ambient sulphur and nitrogen deposition still pose a threat to the health of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Precipitation may become more acidified in the future because the deposition of alkaline dusts containing calcium is also likely to decrease with stricter SO2 emission control policy and reduced construction activities. Additionally, we recommend that a reduction of emissions of nitrogen and chlorine bearing pollutants is urgently required for complete control on acid deposition.

  18. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m -2 yr -1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of CMAC Neural Network Coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control Strategy on Three-motor Synchronization Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three-motor synchronous coordination system is a MI-MO nonlinear and complex control system. And it often works in poor working condition. Advanced control strategies are required to improve the control performance of the system and to achieve the decoupling between main motor speed and tension. Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller coupled with Active Disturbance Rejection Control (CMAC-ADRC control strategy is proposed. The speed of the main motor and tensions between two motors is decoupled by extended state observer (ESO in ADRC. ESO in ADRC is used to compensate internal and external disturbances of the system online. And the anti interference of the system is improved by ESO. And the same time the control model is optimized. Feedforward control is implemented by the adoption of CMAC neural network controller. And control precision of the system is improved in reason of CMAC. The overshoot of the system can be reduced without affecting the dynamic response of the system by the use of CMAC-ADRC. The simulation results show that: the CMAC- ADRC control strategy is better than the traditional PID control strategy. And CMAC-ADRC control strategy can achieve the decoupling between speed and tension. The control system using CMAC-ADRC have strong anti-interference ability and small regulate time and small overshoot. The magnitude of the system response incited by the interference using CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system using conventional PID control 6.43 %. And the recovery time of the system with CMAC-ADRC is shorter than the system with traditional PID control 0.18 seconds. And the triangular wave tracking error of the system with CMAC-ADRC is smaller than the system with conventional PID control 0.24 rad/min. Thus the CMAC-ADRC control strategy is a good control strategy and is able to fit three-motor synchronous coordinated control.

  20. A Free-Piston Linear Generator Control Strategy for Improving Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control strategy to improve the output power for a single-cylinder two-stroke free-piston linear generator (FPLG. The comprehensive simulation model of this FPLG is established and the operation principle is introduced. The factors that affect the output power are analyzed theoretically. The characteristics of the piston motion are studied. Considering the different features of the piston motion respectively in acceleration and deceleration phases, a ladder-like electromagnetic force control strategy is proposed. According to the status of the linear electric machine, the reference profile of the electromagnetic force is divided into four ladder-like stages during one motion cycle. The piston motions, especially the dead center errors, are controlled by regulating the profile of the electromagnetic force. The feasibility and advantage of the proposed control strategy are verified through comparison analyses with two conventional control strategies via MatLab/Simulink. The results state that the proposed control strategy can improve the output power by around 7–10% with the same fuel cycle mass.

  1. Model predictive control-based efficient energy recovery control strategy for regenerative braking system of hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Marina Martinez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 7-degree-of-freedom model of hybrid electric vehicle with regenerative braking system is built. • A modified nonlinear model predictive control strategy is developed. • The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. • The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and hardware-in-loop tests. • Test results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. - Abstract: As one of the main working modes, the energy recovered with regenerative braking system provides an effective approach so as to greatly improve fuel economy of hybrid electric bus. However, it is still a challenging issue to ensure braking stability while maximizing braking energy recovery. To solve this problem, an efficient energy recovery control strategy is proposed based on the modified nonlinear model predictive control method. Firstly, combined with the characteristics of the compound braking process of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus, a 7 degrees of freedom model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics is built. Secondly, considering nonlinear characteristic of the vehicle model and the efficiency of regenerative braking system, the particle swarm optimization algorithm within the modified nonlinear model predictive control is adopted to optimize the torque distribution between regenerative braking system and pneumatic braking system at the wheels. So as to reduce the computational time of modified nonlinear model predictive control, a nearest point method is employed during the braking process. Finally, the simulation and hardware-in-loop test are carried out on road conditions with different tire–road adhesion coefficients, and the proposed control strategy is verified by comparing it with the conventional control method employed in the baseline vehicle controller. The simulation and hardware-in-loop test results show that the proposed strategy can ensure vehicle safety during emergency braking

  2. Speed control of switched reluctance motor using sliding mode control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, G. [Kenetech Windpower, Livermore, CA (United States); Eastham, A.R. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    A robust speed drive system for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) using sliding mode control strategy (SLMC) is presented. After reviewing the operation of an SRM drive, a SLMC based scheme is formulated to control the drive speed. The scheme is implemented using a micro-controller and a high resolution position sensor. The parameter insensitive characteristics are demonstrated through computer simulations and experimental verification.

  3. Characterization of the emissions impacts of hybrid excavators with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS)-based methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tanfeng; Russell, Robert L; Durbin, Thomas D; Cocker, David R; Burnette, Andrew; Calavita, Joseph; Maldonado, Hector; Johnson, Kent C

    2018-04-13

    Hybrid engine technology is a potentially important strategy for reduction of tailpipe greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other pollutants that is now being implemented for off-road construction equipment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the emissions and fuel consumption impacts of electric-hybrid excavators using a Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS)-based methodology. In this study, three hybrid and four conventional excavators were studied for both real world activity patterns and tailpipe emissions. Activity data was obtained using engine control module (ECM) and global positioning system (GPS) logged data, coupled with interviews, historical records, and video. This activity data was used to develop a test cycle with seven modes representing different types of excavator work. Emissions data were collected over this test cycle using a PEMS. The results indicated the HB215 hybrid excavator provided a significant reduction in tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions (from -13 to -26%), but increased diesel particulate matter (PM) (+26 to +27%) when compared to a similar model conventional excavator over the same duty cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A task-based usage strategy for control centre wall displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from an exploratory definition of a usage strategy for multiple control centre wall displays in CANDU nuclear power plants. Wall displays are defined as large sized, vertically oriented display surfaces that may be positioned in various locations about a control room to support user information needs. The paper begins by discussing the need for a usage strategy for all control room information resources, and then reviews the history in wall display implementation and usage in nuclear power plant control rooms. The balance of the paper discusses the approach used in characterization and review of control room task information needs and definition of a wall display usage strategy. The paper concludes by outlining some of the possible impacts on future control room design and operations that the introduction of wall displays may imply. (author)

  5. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  6. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  8. Regulatory controls for NORM contamination: Emerging issues and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennerberg, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material (NORM) faces the increasing likelihood of federal or state regulatory control. Public concern and limited preliminary survey data fuel the debate over the necessity, approach, and jurisdiction of a NORM regulatory strategy. This debate requires the resolution of technical controversies and potentially competing state and federal agency interests. An additional facet of the debate is the impact of regulation upon traditionally non-nuclear industries, such as oil and gas production. Regulatory response has been initiated in several states, such as Louisiana's controls on equipment used in oil and gas production, to control specific industrial activities which generate NORM. A more comprehensive, generic federal strategy to control NORM contamination is also under review by the Environmental Protection Agency. This paper will detail the emerging technical issues, federal and state regulatory strategies under consideration, and evaluate the efficacy of selected regulatory approaches. (author)

  9. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  10. [Research advances in control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuan-Yu; Li, Bo; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2012-05-01

    Landfill is one of the main approaches for municipal solid waste treatment, and landfill site is a main emission source of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). As a high-efficient trace greenhouse gas, N2O has a very high warming potential, with a warming capacity 296 times of CO2, and has a long-term stability in atmosphere, giving greater damage to the ozone layer. Aiming at the researches in the control of N2O emission from municipal solid waste landfill sites, this paper summarized the characteristics and related affecting factors of the N2O emission from the landfill sites, and put forward a series of the measures adaptable to the N2O emission control of present municipal solid waste landfill sites in China. Some further research focuses on the control of N2O emission from the landfill sites were also presented.

  11. A DC Microgrid Coordinated Control Strategy Based on Integrator Current-Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Gao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The DC microgrid has become a new trend for microgrid study with the advantages of high reliability, simple control and low losses. With regard to the drawbacks of the traditional droop control strategies, an improved DC droop control strategy based on integrator current-sharing is introduced. In the strategy, the principle of eliminating deviation through an integrator is used, constructing the current-sharing term in order to make the power-sharing between different distributed generation (DG units uniform and reasonable, which can reduce the circulating current between DG units. Furthermore, at the system coordinated control level, a hierarchical/droop control strategy based on the DC bus voltage is proposed. In the strategy, the operation modes of the AC main network and micro-sources are determined through detecting the DC voltage variation, which can ensure the power balance of the DC microgrid under different operating conditions. Meanwhile, communication is not needed between different DG units, while each DG unit needs to sample the DC bus voltage, which retains the plug-and-play feature of the DC microgrid. The proposed control strategy is validated by simulation on a DC microgrid with permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbines, solar arrays and energy storage batteries, which can be applied to small commercial or residential buildings.

  12. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  13. Control strategies and sensitivity analysis of anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a mathematical model of Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis epidemic with saturated infection rate and recommends different control strategies to manage the spread of this disease in the community. To do this, first, a model formulation is presented to support these strategies, with quantifications of transmission and intervention parameters. To understand the nature of the initial transmission of the disease, the reproduction number [Formula: see text] is obtained by using the next-generation method. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number [Formula: see text], four different control strategies are proposed for managing disease transmission. For quantification of the prevalence period of the disease, a numerical simulation for each strategy is performed and a detailed summary is presented. Disease-free state is obtained with the help of control strategies. The threshold condition for globally asymptotic stability of the disease-free state is found, and it is ascertained that the state is globally stable. On the basis of sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number, it is shown that the disease can be eradicated by using the proposed strategies.

  14. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  15. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy Based on Power Loss Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Steven J

    2006-01-01

    Defining an operation strategy for a Split Parallel Architecture (SPA) Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is accomplished through calculating powertrain component losses. The results of these calculations define how the vehicle can decrease fuel consumption while maintaining low vehicle emissions. For a HEV, simply operating the vehicle's engine in its regions of high efficiency does not guarantee the most efficient vehicle operation. The results presented are meant only to define a literal str...

  16. 40 CFR 52.230 - Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.230 Section 52.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Control strategy and regulations: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter...

  17. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments

  18. Towards controlling dioxins emissions from power boilers fuelled with salt-laden wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthe, C.; Karidio, I.; Uloth, V.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the dioxins emissions from a power boiler fuelled with salt-laden wood waste has provided insights on potential control technologies. Whereas a reduction in stack particulate levels does not preclude a corresponding reduction in dioxins emissions, good combustion conditions, in combination with an efficient secondary collection device for particulate removal, were found to offer effective control (stack emissions of 0.064 to 0.086 ng TEQ/m 3 ). Regarding minimization of dioxins formation at source, a preliminary assessment of the possible beneficial effect of an attenuated chlorine:sulphur ratio was encouraging. A more accurate assessment requires additional trials, preferably longer in duration, to eliminate any possible memory effects. (author)

  19. Control of Maillard Reactions in Foods: Strategies and Chemical Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Marianne N; Ray, Colin A

    2017-06-14

    Maillard reactions lead to changes in food color, organoleptic properties, protein functionality, and protein digestibility. Numerous different strategies for controlling Maillard reactions in foods have been attempted during the past decades. In this paper, recent advances in strategies for controlling the Maillard reaction and subsequent downstream reaction products in food systems are critically reviewed. The underlying mechanisms at play are presented, strengths and weaknesses of each strategy are discussed, and reasonable reaction mechanisms are proposed to reinforce the evaluations. The review includes strategies involving addition of functional ingredients, such as plant polyphenols and vitamins, as well as enzymes. The resulting trapping or modification of Maillard targets, reactive intermediates, and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are presented with their potential unwanted side effects. Finally, recent advances in processing for control of Maillard reactions are discussed.

  20. Characterization of particle bound organic carbon from diesel vehicles equipped with advanced emission control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbin, Payam; Ning, Zhi; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-07-01

    A chassis dynamometer study was carried out by the University of Southern California in collaboration with the Air Resources Board (CARB) to investigate the physical, chemical, and toxicological characteristics of diesel emissions of particulate matter (PM) from heavy-duty vehicles. These heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDV) were equipped with advanced emission control technologies, designed to meet CARB retrofit regulations. A HDDV without any emission control devices was used as the baseline vehicle. Three advanced emission control technologies; continuously regenerating technology (CRT), zeolite- and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction technologies (Z-SCRT and V-SCRT), were tested under transient (UDDS) (1) and cruise (80 kmph) driving cycles to simulate real-world driving conditions. This paper focuses on the characterization of the particle bound organic species from the vehicle exhaust. Physical and chemical properties of PM emissions have been reported by Biswas et al. Atmos. Environ. 2008, 42, 5622-5634) and Hu et al. (Atmos. Environ. 2008, submitted) Significant reductions in the emission factors (microg/mile) of particle bound organic compounds were observed in HDDV equipped with advanced emission control technologies. V-SCRT and Z-SCRT effectively reduced PAHs, hopanes and steranes, n-alkanes and acids by more than 99%, and often to levels below detection limits for both cruise and UDDS cycles. The CRT technology also showed similar reductions with SCRT for medium and high molecular weight PAHs, acids, but with slightly lower removal efficiencies for other organic compounds. Ratios of particle bound organics-to-OC mass (microg/g) from the baseline exhaust were compared with their respective ratios in diesel fuel and lubricating oil, which revealed that hopanes and steranes originate from lubricating oil, whereas PAHs can either form during the combustion process or originate from diesel fuel itself. With the introduction of emission control

  1. Secondary Restoration Control of Islanded Microgrids With Decentralized Event-triggered Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Meng; Xiao, Xiangning

    2018-01-01

    in the feedback control laws, the proposed control strategies just require the communication between distributed secondary controllers at some particular instants while having frequency and voltage restoration function and accurate active power sharing. The stability and inter-event interval are also analyzed......Distributed cooperative control methods attract more and more attention in microgrid secondary control because they are more reliable and flexible. However, the traditional methods rely on the periodic communication, which is neither economic nor efficient due to its large communication burden...... in this paper. An islanded microgrid test system is built in PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the proposed control strategies. It shows that the proposed secondary control strategies based on event-triggered approach can highly reduce the inter-agent communication....

  2. Carbon Emission Impact for Energy Strategy in which All Non-CSS Coal Power Plants Are Replaced by Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, V.; Matijevic, M.; Pevec, D.; Lale, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Paris climate conference recognized the urgency of measures to mitigate climate changes and achieved an agreement on the targets for future decades. We wish to show that advanced LWR initiated nuclear strategy can offer us long term carbon free energy future. Human action is putting carbon dioxide into atmosphere where it resides effectively for hundreds of years. We are forced to look ahead on the same time scale but we have much shorter time to act as we almost used up the quota of emission of carbon before disaster would be unavoidable, as shown in paper by Meinshausen et al. and IPCC report. We have to change our ways of relying on fossil fuel dramatically in the next few decades. It would be a change in use of fossil fuel which cannot be achieved with usual business practices. Arising awareness of reality and threat of global warming in parallel with fading promise of nuclear fusion and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology, should convince the public to accept nuclear fission contribution to climate change mitigation, at least for the climate critical years up to 2065. Nuclear fission has the additional value of supporting intermittent sources by covering the base load consumption. It can be available now, with proven reactors, such as advanced LWR reactors. Nuclear strategy in this paper outlines a proposal to replace all non-CCS coal power plants with nuclear power plants in the period 2025-2065. Assuming once through advanced LWR technology, one would need nuclear capacity of 1600 GW to replace coal power plants in the period 2025-2065. Corresponding reduction of emission would amount to 11.8 Gt of CO2. This energy strategy would reduce carbon emission by approximately 22 percent in the year 2065. The annual uranium requirements and the cumulative uranium requirements, as well as the annual plutonium production and cumulative plutonium production for the proposed nuclear strategy are determined. A possibility of larger reduction of carbon

  3. Coal cleaning: A viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: China is a dominant energy consumer in a global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China’s future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal pr...

  4. Trends in trace element emission legislation - an international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloss, L.L.

    2003-07-01

    Emissions of trace elements have decreased for a variety of reasons in many developed countries. However, the application of more successful control strategies in other industry sectors means that coal combustion is still a relatively important source of some trace elements, especially mercury. International and national legislation is increasingly being applied to trace element emissions. International programmes for trace element reduction are generally in the form of voluntary action plans with recommendations and targets for reduction. National legislation in Europe is commonly in the form of emission limits for specific sources. New legislation in the USA may take the form of best available technology or a minimum emission reduction requirement. It is also possible that mercury could be included in multi-pollutant emissions trading schemes. 52 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi M El-Helw

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB converter for Photovoltaic (PV arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  6. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  7. Smart Transportation CO2 Emission Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulescu, S.; Tarulescu, R.; Soica, A.; Leahu, C. I.

    2017-10-01

    Transport represents the sector with the fastest growing greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The main global objective is to reduce energy usage and associated greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. For this study it was analyzed the road transportation system from Brasov Metropolitan area. The study was made for the transportation route that connects Ghimbav city to the main surrounding objectives. In this study ware considered four optimization measures: vehicle fleet renewal; building the detour belt for the city; road increasing the average travel speed; making bicycle lanes; and implementing an urban public transport system for Ghimbav. For each measure it was used a mathematical model to calculate the energy consumption and carbon emissions from the road transportation sector. After all four measures was analyzed is calculated the general energy consumption and CO2 reduction if this are applied from year 2017 to 2020.

  8. Analyzing the driving forces behind CO2 emissions and reduction strategies for energy-intensive sectors in Taiwan, 1996–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, CO 2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO 2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input–output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO 2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO 2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO 2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions is important. • This study uses two-tier KLEM I-O SDA to analyze the changes in CO 2 emissions. • Three issues are identified to achieve future CO 2 emissions reduction in Taiwan

  9. 40 CFR 52.1576 - Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. 52.1576 Section 52.1576 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... strategy: Nitrogen dioxide. (a) The requirements of § 52.14(c)(3) of this chapter as of May 8, 1974 (39 FR...

  10. Organic matter and water management strategies to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Arjun; Mai, Van Trinh; Duong, Quynh Vu

    2014-01-01

    with the safe alternate wetting and drying (AWD) has the potential to suppress both CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies while maintaining the rice yield. The study compared the proposed strategies with local farmers' practice of permanent flooding (PF) and farmyard manure (FYM) incorporation, respectively...

  11. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  12. Measurement of air pollutant emissions from Lome, Cotonou and Accra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James; Vaughan, Adam; Nelson, Bethany; Young, Stuart; Evans, Mathew; Morris, Eleanor; Ladkin, Russel

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of airborne pollutants (e.g. the oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide) in existing and evolving cities along the Guinea Coast cause respiratory diseases with potentially large costs to human health and the economic capacity of the local workforce. It is important to understand the rate of emission of such pollutants in order to model current and future air quality and provide guidance to the potential outcomes of air pollution abatement strategies. Often dated technologies and poor emission control strategies lead to substantial uncertainties in emission estimates calculated from vehicle and population number density statistics. The unreliable electrical supply in cities in the area has led to an increased reliance on small-scale diesel powered generators and these potentially present a significant source of emissions. The uncontrolled open incineration of waste adds a further very poorly constrained emission source within the cities. The DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) project involved a field campaign which used highly instrumented aircraft capable of in situ measurements of a range of air pollutants. Seven flights using the UK British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft specifically targeted air pollution emissions from cities in West Africa (4 x Accra, Ghana; 2 x Lome, Togo and 1 x Cotonou, Benin). Measurements of NO, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4 and CO2 were made at multiple altitudes upwind and downwind of the cities, with the mass balance technique used to calculate emission rates. These are then compared to the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) estimates. Ultimately the data will be used to inform on and potentially improve the emission estimates, which in turn should lead to better forecasting of air pollution in West African cities and help guide future air pollution abatement strategy.

  13. Game Analysis and Simulation of the River Basin Sustainable Development Strategy Integrating Water Emission Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water emission trading (WET is promising in sustainable development strategy. However, low participation impedes its development. We develop an evolutionary game model of two enterprise populations’ dynamics and stability in the decision-making behavior process. Due to the different perceived value of certain permits, enterprises choose H strategy (bidding for permit or D strategy (not bidding. External factors are simplified according to three categories: rH-bidding related cost, G-price and F-penalty. Participation increase equals reaching point (H,H in the model and is treated as an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS. We build a system dynamics model on AnyLogic 7.1.1 to simulate the aforementioned game and draw four conclusions: (1 to reach ESS more quickly, we need to minimize the bidding related cost rH and price G, but regulate the heavy penalty F; (2 an ESS can be significantly transformed, such as from (D,D to (H,H by regulating rH, G and F accordingly; (3 the initial choice of strategy is essential to the final result; (4 if participation seems stable but unsatisfying, it is important to check whether it is a saddle point and adjust external factors accordingly. The findings benefit both water management practice and further research.

  14. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  15. Control Systems Cyber Security:Defense in Depth Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Kuipers; Mark Fabro

    2006-05-01

    Information infrastructures across many public and private domains share several common attributes regarding IT deployments and data communications. This is particularly true in the control systems domain. A majority of the systems use robust architectures to enhance business and reduce costs by increasing the integration of external, business, and control system networks. However, multi-network integration strategies often lead to vulnerabilities that greatly reduce the security of an organization, and can expose mission-critical control systems to cyber threats. This document provides guidance and direction for developing ‘defense-in-depth’ strategies for organizations that use control system networks while maintaining a multi-tier information architecture that requires: Maintenance of various field devices, telemetry collection, and/or industrial-level process systems Access to facilities via remote data link or modem Public facing services for customer or corporate operations A robust business environment that requires connections among the control system domain, the external Internet, and other peer organizations.

  16. Assessment of regional air quality resulting from emission control in the Pearl River Delta region, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Lyu, X P; Deng, X J; Guo, H; Deng, T; Li, Y; Yin, C Q; Li, F; Wang, S Q

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the impact of emission control measures on the air quality in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of South China, statistic data including atmospheric observations, emissions and energy consumptions during 2006-2014 were analyzed, and a Weather Research and Forecasting - Community Multi-scale Air Quality (WRF-CMAQ) model was used for various scenario simulations. Although energy consumption doubled from 2004 to 2014 and vehicle number significantly increased from 2006 to 2014, ambient SO 2 , NO 2 and PM 10 were reduced by 66%, 20% and 24%, respectively, mainly due to emissions control efforts. In contrast, O 3 increased by 19%. Model simulations of three emission control scenarios, including a baseline (a case in 2010), a CAP (a case in 2020 assuming control strength followed past control tendency) and a REF (a case in 2020 referring to the strict control measures based on recent policy/plans) were conducted to investigate the variations of air pollutants to the changes in NO x , VOCs and NH 3 emissions. Although the area mean concentrations of NO x , nitrate and PM 2.5 decreased under both NO x CAP (reduced by 1.8%, 0.7% and 0.2%, respectively) and NO x REF (reduced by 7.2%, 1.8% and 0.3%, respectively), a rising of PM 2.5 was found in certain areas as reducing NO x emissions elevated the atmospheric oxidizability. Furthermore, scenarios with NH 3 emission reductions showed that nitrate was sensitive to NH 3 emissions, with decreasing percentages of 0-10.6% and 0-48% under CAP and REF, respectively. Controlling emissions of VOCs reduced PM 2.5 in the southwestern PRD where severe photochemical pollution frequently occurred. It was also found that O 3 formation in PRD was generally VOCs-limited while turned to be NO x -limited in the afternoon (13:00-17:00), suggesting that cutting VOCs emissions would reduce the overall O 3 concentrations while mitigating NO x emissions in the afternoon could reduce the peak O 3 levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  17. Mobil emission reduction credits for natural gas vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, there has been increasing interest among regulators and business interests alike in innovative, market-based strategies to air quality control. In particular, larger metropolitan areas have begun to examine marketable emission reduction credit (ERC) programs. These programs limit the total allowable emissions in a non-attainment area, allocate these emission open-quotes creditsclose quotes among sources in the region, and allow the sources to redistribute their allowances through trading. This approach provides for the most cost-effective distribution of control burdens among affected sources, taking advantage of the differences in marginal control costs. Some control measures applied to mobile sources may be significantly less expensive than those applied to stationary sources, making mobile sources an excellent candidate for inclusion in an ERC program. However, there are several potential problems involving quantification, enforcement, and credit trading issues that hinder the development of mobile source ERC programs. This paper will evaluate those obstacles and discuss how they are being addressed in a Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) program currently under development for the Houston ozone non-attainment area. Specifically, the study will outline the credit validation (i.e., quantification) procedure, including baseline emission determination and emission testing for each NGV in the program. In addition, the study will describe the vehicle/fuel consumption tracking system, and discuss issues related to credit trading with stationary sources. Finally, observations are made concerning the applicability of mobile ERC programs for other emission control measures such as old vehicle scrappage and vehicle Inspection and Maintenance programs

  18. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate if it is eective to switch strategies for elevators during one day in an oce building. This essay describes some of the strategies in use today, followed by a comparison and analysis of two of the strategies described. We have also implemented optimizations to one of these strategies. From our test results we can conclude that our optimized strategy worked and produced better results on average waiting time and total traveling time than the two stra...

  19. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  20. Chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control strategy for uncertain chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.; Chen, C.-L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a chattering-free fuzzy sliding-mode control (FSMC) strategy for uncertain chaotic systems. A fuzzy logic control is used to replace the discontinuous sign function of the reaching law in traditional sliding-mode control (SMC), and hence a control input without chattering is obtained in the chaotic systems with uncertainties. Base on the Lyapunov stability theory, we address the design schemes of integration fuzzy sliding-mode control, where the reaching law is proposed by a set of linguistic rules and the control input is chattering free. The Genesio chaotic system is used to test the proposed control strategy and the simulation results show the FSMC not only can control the uncertain chaotic behaviors to a desired state without oscillator very fast, but also the switching function is smooth without chattering. This result implies that this strategy is feasible and effective for chaos control

  1. Comparison among nonlinear excitation control strategies used for damping power system oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.E.; Solsona, J.A.; Valla, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A description and comparison of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generators are presented. ► Advantages of using nonlinear controllers are emphasized against the use of classical PSSs. ► We find that a particular selection of IDA gains achieve the same performance that FL controllers. - Abstract: This work is focused on the problem of power system stability. A thorough description of nonlinear control strategies for synchronous generator excitation, which are designed for damping oscillations and improving transient stability on power systems, is presented along with a detailed comparison among these modern strategies and current solutions based on power system stabilizers. The performance related to damping injection in each controller, critical time enhancement, robustness against parametric uncertainties, and control signal energy consumption is analyzed. Several tests are presented to validate discussions on various advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy.

  2. Adaptive Control Based Harvesting Strategy for a Predator-Prey Dynamical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Moitri; Simha, Ashutosh; Raha, Soumyendu

    2018-04-23

    This paper deals with designing a harvesting control strategy for a predator-prey dynamical system, with parametric uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. A feedback control law for the harvesting rate of the predator is formulated such that the population dynamics is asymptotically stabilized at a positive operating point, while maintaining a positive, steady state harvesting rate. The hierarchical block strict feedback structure of the dynamics is exploited in designing a backstepping control law, based on Lyapunov theory. In order to account for unknown parameters, an adaptive control strategy has been proposed in which the control law depends on an adaptive variable which tracks the unknown parameter. Further, a switching component has been incorporated to robustify the control performance against bounded disturbances. Proofs have been provided to show that the proposed adaptive control strategy ensures asymptotic stability of the dynamics at a desired operating point, as well as exact parameter learning in the disturbance-free case and learning with bounded error in the disturbance prone case. The dynamics, with uncertainty in the death rate of the predator, subjected to a bounded disturbance has been simulated with the proposed control strategy.

  3. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  4. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  5. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  6. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  7. 40 CFR 52.1126 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Department of Environmental Quality Engineering.). Gardner State Hospital, Gardner. Grafton State Hospital... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Sulfur oxides. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1126 Control...

  8. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  9. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m −2 yr −1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. - Highlights: • Urban core is the hotspot of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. • Neglecting BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces leads to a 62% underestimation of the related health damage. • BVOCs contribute significantly to ozone pollution while make limited contribution to PM 2.5 pollution. • BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces will triple by 2050, and 61% of these emissions can be reduced through management. - Although BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces make limited contribution to regional emissions, their health impacts could be significant in urban areas.

  10. Strategies for the plasma position and shape control in IGNITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramogida, G.; Alladio, F.; Albanese, R.

    2006-01-01

    The control of the plasma position and shape is a crucial issue in IGNITOR as in every compact, high field, elongated tokamak. The capability of the Poloidal Field Coil system, as presently designed, to provide an effective vertical stabilization of the plasma has been investigated using the CREATE L response model [R. Albanese, F. Villone, '' The Linearized CREATE L Plasma Response Model for the Control of Current, Position and Shape in Tokamaks '', Nucl. Fus., vol. 38, p. 723 (1998)]. This linearized MHD model assumes an axisymmetric deformable plasma described by few global parameters. An optimization of the vertical position control strategy has been carried out and the most effective coil combination has been selected to stabilize the plasma while fulfilling engineering constraints on the coils and minimizing the required power and voltage. The two pairs of coils selected for the vertical control will be fed up with up-down anti-symmetric currents provided by a dedicated supply and overlapped to the scenario currents. The growth rate of the vertical instability and the power required by the active stabilization system have been estimated with this model, indicating that it is possible to design a control system able to guarantee a stability region that includes the most interesting operation conditions. An assessment of the requirements for the plasma cross section shape control has been carried out considering independent perturbations of the plasma global parameters as disturbances and showing that the undesired shape modification rejection is possible with the present PFC and power supply system. The PF coils have been ranked with respect to their capability to restore the shape modifications due to different plasma disturbances and the most effective coil combination, that minimizes recovery time and voltage required, has been selected. In order to have additional means to monitor and control the centre of the plasma column, under demanding conditions

  11. Probe-Hole Field Emission Microscope System Controlled by Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yunming; Zeng, Haishan

    1991-09-01

    A probe-hole field emission microscope system, controlled by an Apple II computer, has been developed and operated successfully for measuring the work function of a single crystal plane. The work functions on the clean W(100) and W(111) planes are measured to be 4.67 eV and 4.45 eV, respectively.