WorldWideScience

Sample records for emission boiler design

  1. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  2. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume C. Boiler emission report. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-09-01

    The Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC) test burn program was conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) located in Bruceton, Pa. One of the objectives of the study was to determine the feasibility of burning SRC fuels in boilers set up for fuel oil firing and to characterize emissions. Testing was conducted on the 700-hp oil-fired boiler used for research projects. No. 6 fuel oil was used for baseline data comparison, and the following SRC fuels were tested: SRC Fuel (pulverized SRC), SRC Residual Oil, and SRC-Water Slurry. Uncontrolled particulate emission rates averaged 0.9243 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Fuel, 0.1970 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC Residual Oil, and 0.9085 lb/10/sup 6/ Btu for SRC-Water Slurry. On a lb/10/sup 6/ Btu basis, emissions from SRC Residual Oil averaged 79 and 78%, respectively, lower than the SRC Fuel and SRC-Water Slurry. The lower SRC Residual Oil emissions were due, in part, to the lower ash content of the oil and more efficient combustion. The SRC Fuel had the highest emission rate, but only 2% higher than the SRC-Water Slurry. Each fuel type was tested under variable boiler operating parameters to determine its effect on boiler emissions. The program successfully demonstrated that the SRC fuels could be burned in fuel oil boilers modified to handle SRC fuels. This report details the particulate emission program and results from testing conducted at the boiler outlet located before the mobile precipitator take-off duct. The sampling method was EPA Method 17, which uses an in-stack filter.

  3. Assessment of nitrogen oxide emission for designing boilers fired with coal dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.; Gusev, L.N.; Babii, V.I.

    1983-09-01

    A method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from steam boilers fired with coal is described. The method produces accurate results when nitrogen oxide emission from furnaces with straight-flow burners and turbulent-type burners fired with coal dusts is forecast. Oxides formed by decomposition of chemical compounds in coal (so-called 'fuel' nitrogen oxides) and nitrogen oxides formed by oxidation of molecular nitrogen by atomic oxygen (so-called 'thermal' nitrogen oxides) are evaluated. Zones in which the two types of nitrogen oxide are formed in flames are characterized. Factors which influence formation of nitrogen oxides in a furnace are evaluated: excess air, flue gas recirculation, design of a furnace and burners, movement of air and coal dust mixture in a furnace, temperature, methods for coal dust preparation, coal dust properties. Equations for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces are derived. Nomograms for easy calculation of emission are also given. Examples of using the method for forecasting emission of nitrogen oxides from furnaces fired with coal from the Kuzbass, the Donbass and Ehkibastuz are discussed. Comparisons of emission of nitrogen oxides calculated on the basis of the method and emission determined experimentally show that forecasting accuracy is high and errors do not exceed 10%. 5 references.

  4. Optimizing the Integrated Design of Boilers - Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Karstensen, C.; Condra, T.

    2004-01-01

    Boilers can be considered as consisting of three main components: (i) the pressure part, (ii) the burner and (iii) the control system. To be able to develop the boilers of the future (i.e. the boilers with the lowest emissions, the highest efciency, the best dynamic performance etc.) it is import...

  5. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  6. Circulating fluidized bed boilers design and operations

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Prabir

    1991-01-01

    This book provides practicing engineers and students with insight into the design and operation of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers. Through a combination of theoretical concepts and practical experience, this book gives the reader a basic understanding of the many aspects of this subject.Important environmental considerations, including solid waste disposal and predicted emissions, are addressed individually in separate chapters. This book places an emphasis on combustion, hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and material issues, and illustrates these concepts with numerous examples of pres

  7. Computations of NOx emissions of domestic boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, D. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France). EM2C Lab.; Gicquel, O.; Darabiha, N.

    2001-07-01

    Due to severe regulations concerning pollutant emissions, practical devices using combustion to release energy must be designed from the start using accurate, predictive numerical tools. A partially premixed methane/air flame in a two-dimensional configuration is investigated in this work. This configuration is close to those used in real domestic gas boilers. The flame structure and flow pattern are calculated using complex chemistry and detailed transport models. A post-processing method is then used to predict NO emission. Computations are performed for two configurations. The two cases have the same primary and secondary mass flow-rates and equivalence ratio. The only difference between them is the introduction of an insert inside the primary injector. Both results have been compared to measurements. Calculations are found to be in good agreement with the flame shapes observed experimentally. The classical burner shows a Bunsen-type flame while the one with an insert has a totally different shape (butterfly-type flame). NO emission levels are also well predicted in both configurations. The butterfly flame induces a reduction in NO emission. This reduction seems to be due to the increased mixing between the burnt gases and the secondary air jet, which homogenizes the temperature distribution and reduces the maximum temperature. (orig.)

  8. Systematic Field Study of NO(x) Emission Control Methods for Utility Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartok, William; And Others

    A utility boiler field test program was conducted. The objectives were to determine new or improved NO (x) emission factors by fossil fuel type and boiler design, and to assess the scope of applicability of combustion modification techniques for controlling NO (x) emissions from such installations. A statistically designed test program was…

  9. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, R.

    1995-12-31

    Among the many strategies for improving air quality in Krakow, one possible method is to adapt new and improved emission control technology. This project focuses on such a strategy. In order to reduce dust emissions from coal-fueled boilers, a new device called a Core Separator has been introduced in several boiler house applications. This advanced technology has been successfully demonstrated in Poland and several commercial units are now in operation. Particulate emissions from the Core Separator are typically 3 to 5 times lower than those from the best cyclone collectors. It can easily meet the new standard for dust emissions which will be in effect in Poland after 1997. The Core Separator is a completely inertial collector and is based on a unique recirculation method. It can effectively remove dust particles below 10 microns in diameter, the so-called PM-10 emissions. Its performance approaches that of fabric filters, but without the attendant cost and maintenance. It is well-suited to the industrial size boilers located in Krakow. Core Separators are now being marketed and sold by EcoInstal, one of the leading environmental firms in Poland, through a cooperative agreement with LSR Technologies.

  10. Pirotubular boilers design. Diseno de calderas pirotubulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latre Durso, F. (Geval S.A. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual design of Pirotubular boilers from the valuable thermal point of view, to the dimensional. This topic is a very tool valuable for professionals of design and for maintenance and operation equipment.

  11. Specific Emissions of Harmful Substances from Small Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horák Jiøí

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal is on of the most important energy source and its significance will increase in a future. In Czech republic coal is except else widely used as a fuel for combustion in a small boilers (up to 50 kW. Low efficiency of the small boilers which is often below 50% together with high emissions of the harmful substances into near surroundings cause in average 40 – 70% of total local air pollution. The research was performed in a scope of the Grant no. 101/98/0820 of Grant Agency of Czech Republic was focused on quality of combustion process related to combustion efficiency and creation of harmful substances at combustion of domestic fuels. Experiments were performed to compare combustion of brown coal, clack coal, coke and black coal slurry. Extremely high creation of harmful substances (CO, NOX, solid particles and organic substances was measured when the black coal slurry was used as a fuel, measured in kg of emissions per GJ of burned fuel. Combustion of brown coal produced significant emissions of solid particles which bond harmful substances as metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and others together with high emissions of SO2 . Strong dependence between emissions of CO and low quality of combustion given by low combustion temperature, shortage of combustion air, not suitable design of after-combustion chamber and short duration of fuel presence in a combustion area was found out. Emissions of wide range of metals were investigated. The results of the research grant project describe and explain the combustion process and creation of harmful substances in small boilers plus give suggestions and recommendations leading to rational operation of the small boilers and lowering their negative impact to environment.

  12. Exergy analysis on industrial boiler energy conservation and emission evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan

    2017-06-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipments in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption. Industrial boilers in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment. In recent years, our country in the big scope, long time serious fog weather, with coal-fired industrial boilers is closely related to the regional characteristics of high strength and low emissions [1]. The energy-efficient and emission-reducing of industry boiler is of great significance to improve China’s energy usage efficiency and environmental protection. Difference in thermal equilibrium theory is widely used in boiler design, exergy analysis method is established on the basis of the first law and second law of thermodynamics, by studying the cycle of the effect of energy conversion and utilization, to analyze its influencing factors, to reveal the exergy loss of location, distribution and size, find out the weak links, and a method of mining system of the boiler energy saving potential. Exergy analysis method is used for layer combustion boiler efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics analysis and evaluation, and can more objectively and accurately the energy conserving potential of the mining system of the boiler, find out the weak link of energy consumption, and improve equipment performance to improve the industrial boiler environmental friendliness.

  13. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. Phase II subsystem test design and plan - an addendum to the Phase II RD & T Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Shortly after the year 2000 it is expected that new generating plants will be needed to meet the growing demand for electricity and to replace the aging plants that are nearing the end of their useful service life. The plants of the future will need to be extremely clean, highly efficient and economical. Continuing concerns over acid rain, air toxics, global climate changes, ozone depletion and solid waste disposal are expected to further then regulations. In the late 1980`s it was commonly believed that coal-fired power plants of the future would incorporate either some form of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBS) technologies. However, recent advances In emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements In steam turbine and cycle design have clearly indicated that pulverized coal technology can continue to be competitive In both cost and performance. In recognition of the competitive potential for advanced pulverized coal-fired systems with other emerging advanced coal-fired technologies, DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) began a research and development initiative In late 1990 named, Combustion 2000, with the intention of preserving and expanding coal as a principal fuel In the Generation of electrical power. The project was designed for two stages of commercialization, the nearer-term Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program, and for the future, the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) program. B&W is participating In the LEBS program.

  14. Mercury emissions from polish pulverized coalfired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichliński Michał

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the research results carried out at one of Polish power plants at a pulverized hard coal-fired 225 MW unit. The research was carried out at full load of the boiler (100% MCR and focused on analysis of mercury content in the input fuel and limestone sorbent for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD system, as well as investigation of mercury content in the combustion products, i.e. fly ash, slag, FGD product (gypsum and FGD effluents (waste. Within the framework of the present study the concentration of mercury vapor in the exhaust gas was also investigated. The analysis was performed using Lumex RA-915+ spectrometer with an attachment (RP-91C. The measurements were carried out at three locations, i.e. before the electrostatic precipitator (ESP, downstream the ESP, and downstream the wet FGD plant. Design of the measurement system allowed to determine both forms of mercury in the flue gas (Hg0 and Hg2+ at all measurement locations.Based on the measurement results the balance of mercury for a pulverized coal (PC boiler was calculated and the amount of mercury was assessed both in the input solids (fuel and sorbent, as well as the gaseous and solids products (flue gas, slag, ash, gypsum and FGD waste.

  15. Emission analysis of the best available wood-fired central heating boilers on the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axell, M.; Gustavsson, Lennart; Persson, Henrik; Leckner, B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present project is to study the emissions from some of the best available wood-fired central heating boilers on the market. The aim is to identify the critical factors which determine the emission levels by means of emission measurements as well as temperature measurements in the combustion chamber. Four boilers with different design characteristics have been included in the project. All boilers use reversed combustion and fan-assisted combustion air supply, and have shown low tar emissions in earlier environmental tests. Boiler A is a boiler with a rather large mass of ceramics in the grate and in the burn-out zone, and a large volume of water. Boiler B has a smaller mass in the cast-iron grate and in the burn-out zone and a small water volume. Boiler C is a boiler with tertiary air and an incorporated accumulator tank. Boiler D has a zirconia-cell probe for continuous control of the air-excess ratio. The measurements have been made with the boilers in accumulator operation, i.e. at maximum heat output, since they are intended for this type of operation. Tests have, in addition to normal operating conditions, been made with high fuel moisture contents, high draught and a low boiler temperature at the start of the test. Measurements have been made of excess-air ratios, contents of CO, total hydrocarbons (THC), NO x and a number of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the flue gases as well as of combustion temperatures below the grate

  16. Electrical design requirements for electrode boilers for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempker, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Medium-voltage steam electrode boilers, in the 20- to 50-MW range, have become an attractive alternative to comparable fossil-fueled boilers as a source of auxiliary steam during the startup and normal shutdown of nuclear power plants. The electrode boiler represents a favorable option because of environmental, fire protection, and licensing considerations. However, this electrical option brings some difficult design problems for which solutions are required in order to integrate the electrode boiler into the plant low resistance grounded power system. These considerations include the effects of an unbalanced electrode boiler on the performance of polyphase induction motors, boiler grounding for personnel safety, boiler neutral grounding, and ground relaying

  17. Emissions from Power Plant and Industrial Boiler Sector

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides hourly data on SO2, NOx, and CO2 emissions; gross load, steam load, and heat input; from electricity generation units and industrial boilers from...

  18. Subsystem selection for advanced low emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States). Research and Development Div.; Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States). Fossil Power Div.

    1993-12-31

    In 1992 the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) initiated a new program called Combustion 2000. The purpose of the program was to address the design issues facing new and replacement coal-fired power plants. The work presented in this paper was conducted under the low-emission boiler system (LEBS) portion of the program. LEBS major goals are: NO{sub x} - No more than 0.20 lbs per million Btu of fuel input firing bituminous coal; SO{sub x} -- no more than 0.2 lbs of SO{sub 2} per million Btu firing coal with at least 3 lbs of sulfur per million btu; Particulate -- no more than 0.015 lbs per million Btu of fuel input; Waste and Air Toxics -- reduced; and Plant Efficiency -- no less than 38%. Other objectives include reducing waste generation, producing usable by-products, improving ash disposability, and increasing plant thermal efficiency while keeping the cost of electricity comparable to a state-of-the-art plant. The Babcock and Wilcox Company has completed the first year of work toward the development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The results of this work have led to a preliminary engineering design and a plan to address remaining technical uncertainties. This was accomplished by conducting a thorough technical assessment and performing a concept selection analysis. A summary of the results of this work is presented in this paper.

  19. [Emission characteristics of fine particles from grate firing boilers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Xiao; Zhao, Xiu-Juan; Li, Xing-Hua; Wei, Wei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-04-15

    Grate firing boilers are the main type of Chinese industrial boilers, which accounts for 85% of the industrial boilers and is one of the most important emission sources of primary air pollutants in China. In this study, five boilers in three cities were selected and tested to measure the emission characteristics of PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants were applied by a compact dilution sampling system, which was developed for this field study. Results showed that particles mass size distributions for the five industrial boilers presented single peak or double peak, former peaks near 0.14 microm and the later peaks after 1.0 microm; the cyclone dust remover and wet scrubber dust remover had effective removal efficiencies not only to PM2.5, but also to PM1.0; and under the condition of same control techniques, grate firing boiler with high capacity has less PM2.5 emission than the boiler with low capacity. In the PM2.5 collected from flue gases, SO4(2-) was the most abundant ion, accounted for 20%-40% of the PM2.5; and C was the most abundant element (7.5%-31.8%), followed by S (8.4%-18.7%). Carbon balance method was applied to calculate the emission factors of these pollutants. The emission factors of PM2.5, NO, and SO2 were in the range of 0.046-0.486 g x kg(-1), 1.63-2.47 g x kg(-1), 1.35-9.95 g x kg(-1) respectively. The results are useful for the emission inventory development of industrial boilers and the source analysis of PM2.5 in atmospheric environment.

  20. Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autret, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale ( 2 , NO x , fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

  1. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  2. Emissions from waste combustion. An application of statistical experimental design in a laboratory-scale boiler and an investigation from large-scale incineration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojing, Zhang

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this thesis is a study of the emissions from the combustion of household refuse. The experiments were both on a laboratory-scale boiler and on full-scale incineration plants. In the laboratory, an artificial household refuse with known composition was fed into a pilot boiler with a stationary grate. Combustion was under non-optimum conditions. Direct sampling with a Tenax adsorbent was used to measure a range of VOCs. Measurements were also made of incompletely burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen and flue gas temperature. Combustion and emission parameters were recorded continuously by a multi-point data logger. VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The full-scale tests were on seven Swedish incineration plants. The data were used to evaluate the emissions from large-scale incineration plants with various type of fuels and incinerators, and were also compared with the laboratory results. The response surface model developed from the laboratory experiments was also validated. This thesis also includes studies on the gasification of household refuse pellets, estimations of particulate and soot emissions, and a thermodynamic analysis of PAHs from combustion flue gas. For pellet gasification, experiments were performed on single, well characterised refuse pellets under carefully controlled conditions. The aim was to see if the effects of pellets were different from those of untreated household refuse. The results from both laboratory and full-scale tests showed that the main contributions to emissions from household refuse are plastics and moisture. 142 refs, 82 figs, 51 tabs

  3. Development of combined low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power water boilers are widely used for autonomous heat supply in various industries. Firetube and water-tube boilers of domestic and foreign manufacturers are widely represented on the Russian market. However, even Russian boilers are supplied with licensed foreign burner devices, which reduce their competitiveness and complicate operating conditions. A task of developing efficient domestic low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers is quite acute. A characteristic property of ignition and fuel combustion in such boilers is their flowing in constrained conditions due to small dimensions of combustion chambers and flame tubes. These processes differ significantly from those in open combustion chambers of high-duty power boilers, and they have not been sufficiently studied yet. The goals of this paper are studying the processes of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels, heat and mass transfer and NO x emissions in constrained conditions, and the development of a modern combined low-emissions 2.2 MW burner device that provides efficient fuel combustion. A burner device computer model is developed and numerical studies of its operation on different types of fuel in a working load range from 40 to 100% of the nominal are carried out. The main features of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in constrained conditions of the flame tube at nominal and decreased loads are determined, which differ fundamentally from the similar processes in steam boiler furnaces. The influence of the burner devices design and operating conditions on the fuel underburning and NO x formation is determined. Based on the results of the design studies, a design of the new combined low-emissions burner device is proposed, which has several advantages over the prototype.

  4. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  5. Leak detection evaluation of boiler tube for power plant using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Chung, Min Hwa; Nam, Ki Woo

    2001-01-01

    Main equipment of thermal power plant, such as boiler and turbine, are designed and manufactured by domestic techniques. And also the automatic control facilities controlling the main equipment are at the applying step of the localization. and many parts of BOP(Balance Of Plant) equipment are utilizing, localized. But because the special equipment monitoring the operation status of the main facilities such as boiler and turbine are still dependent upon foreign technology and especially boiler tube leak detection system is under the initial step of first application to newly-constructed plants and the manufacturing and application are done by foreign techniques mostly, fast localization development is required. Therefore, so as to study and develop boiler tube leak detection system, we performed studying on manufacturing, installation in site, acoustic emission(AE) signal analysis and discrimination etc. As a result of studying on boiler tube leak detection using AE, we conformed that diagnosis for boiler tube and computerized their trend management is possible, and also it is expected to contribute to safe operation of power generation facilities.

  6. Emissions Characterisation of residential pellet boilers during start-up and stop periods

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Paavilainen, Janne; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study, gaseous emissions and particles are measured during start-up and stop periods for an over-fed boiler and an under-fed boiler. Both gaseous and particulate matter emissions are continuously measured in the laboratory. The measurement of gaseous emissions includes oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide and (NO). The emissions rates are calculated from measured emissions concentrations and flue gas flow. The behaviours of the boilers during start-u...

  7. Seward CFB boilers will curb water pollution and air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    When Reliant Energy Co's Seward station begins commercial operation in 2004, it will replace an 80-yr-old pulverized-coal plant with a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) facility that more than doubles the capacity while slashing total air emissions. The baseload facility, located in Indiana County, PA, will be fuelled by local low-grade waste coal. Added to the back end of the two 292-MW CFB boilers, selective noncatalytic reduction equipment will lower NOx emissions, and ALSTOM's flash dryer absorber (FDA) system will lower SO{sub 2} emissions whilst using less limestone. 3 photos.

  8. Concept selection for advanced low-emission coal fired boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorrell, R.L. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Barberton, OH (United States); Rodgers, L.W.; Farthing, G.A. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) with subcontract to Physical Sciences, Inc. (PSIT), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and United Engineers and Constructors (UE&C) has begun development of an advanced low-emission boiler system (LEBS). The initial phase of this multi-phase program required a thorough review and assessment of potential advanced technologies and techniques for control of combustion and flue gas emissions. Results of this assessment are presented in this paper.

  9. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysk, S.R.; Surowka, J.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy

  10. Particulate emission abatement for Krakow boiler houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysk, S.R. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States); Surowka, J. [Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency, Katowice (Poland)

    1995-11-01

    Environmental clean-up and pollution control are considered top priorities in Poland. The magnitude of environmental problems and public awareness of it has forced the Polish government to implement more aggressive regulatory controls. The extent of this condition has in fact prompted the government to designate pollution control a a top priority for foreign investment. During the past five years, Poland has also made significant progress in reorienting its central-planned economy to one based on open market principals. Efforts to decentralize has led to the privatization of many government-owned businesses with a concomitant shift in buying decisions to privately-owned enterprises. This movement toward privatizing the economy along with cleaning and protecting the environment has created numerous business opportunities for both Polish and foreign companies. As a result, there has been a drastic downsizing of large formerly state-owned companies. And, new startups and small businesses have become the main hope in reviving the Polish economy.

  11. Electrostatic precipitator performance and trace element emissions from two Kraft recovery boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Hokkinen, Jouni; Jokiniemi, Jorma K; Hillamo, Risto; Makkonen, Ulla; Raukola, Antti; Rintanen, Jaakko; Saviharju, Kari

    2006-01-15

    Fine particle emissions from combustion sources have gained attention recently due to their adverse effects on human health. The emission depends on the combustion process, fuel, and particulate removal technology. Particle concentrations at Kraft recovery boiler exits are very high, and the boilers are typically equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP). However, little data are available on the ESP performance in recovery boilers. Particle concentrations and size distributions were determined at two modern, operating recovery boilers. In addition, we determined the fractional collection efficiency of the ESPs by simultaneous measurements at the ESP inlet and outlet and the particulate emissions of trace metals. The particle mass concentration atthe ESP inlet was 11-24 g/Nm3 at the two boilers. Particle emissions were 30-40 mg/ Nm3 at boiler A and 12-15 mg/Nm3 at boiler B. The particle size distributions had a major particle mode at around 1 microm. These fume particles contained most of the particle mass. The main components in the particles were sodium and sulfate with minor amounts of chloride, potassium, and presumably some carbonate. The ESP collection efficiency was 99.6-99.8% at boiler A and 99.9% at boiler B. The particle penetration through the ESP was below 0.6% in the entire fume particle size range of 0.3-3 microm. Trace element emissions from both boilers were well below the limit values set by EU directive for waste incineration.

  12. Emissions from three wood-fired domestic central heating boilers - heat load dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The flue gases from three wood-fired domestic central heating boilers have been characterized. Measurements were made at three part loads; 3, 7 and 15 kW. Two of the boilers were modern multi-fuel boilers, with inverse firing and natural draught. The third boiler was a single-fuel wood boiler, with inverse firing and combustion air supply through a fan. All boilers were environmentally approved; the tar emissions were below 30 mg/MJ at nominal heat load. The following parameters were measured: - CO, CO 2 , NO x , total hydrocarbons (THC), - tar and particulates, - twelve volatile organic compounds (VOC). The limit value for tar emission was heavily exceeded for all three boilers at the part loads at which they were tested. For the two multi-fuel boilers the tar emissions decreased with increasing load level, while the opposite was found for the wood boiler with a fan. The NO x emissions varied between 20 and 120 mg/MJ. The multi-fuel boilers showed increasing NO x emissions with increasing heat load. The single-fuel wood boiler showed NO x emissions at about 60 mg/MJ, independent of load level. The CO and THC levels in general were high. The CO levels varied between 1000 and 2000 mg/MJ. While the THC levels varied between 300 and 4000 mg/MJ. Broadly speaking, the CO and THC levels decreased with increasing load levels for the multi-fuel boilers. For the single-fuel wood boiler the CO and THC levels were roughly the same at all load levels. Out of the twelve VOC compounds which were measured, the following could be detected and quantified. With FTIR analysis: Methane, ethylene, propene and acetylene. With GC analysis: Methanol, phenol and acetic acid. (1 ref., 31 figs., 7 tabs.)

  13. On the design of residential condensing gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    1997-02-01

    Two main topics are dealt with in this thesis. Firstly, the performance of condensing boilers with finned tube heat exchangers and premix burners is evaluated. Secondly, ways of avoiding condensate formation in the flue system are evaluated. In the first investigation, a transient heat transfer approach is used to predict performance of different boiler configurations connected to different heating systems. The smallest efficiency difference between heat loads and heating systems is obtained when the heat exchanger gives a small temperature difference between flue gases and return water, the heat transfer coefficient is low and the thermostat hysteresis is large. Taking into account heat exchanger size, the best boiler is one with higher heat transfer per unit area which only causes a small efficiency loss. The total heating cost at part load, including gas and electricity, has a maximum at the lowest simulated heat load. The heat supplied by the circulation heat pump is responsible for this. The second investigation evaluates methods of drying the flue gases. Reheating the flue gases in different ways and water removal in an adsorbent bed are evaluated. Reheating is tested in two specially designed boilers. The necessary reheating is calculated to approximately 100-150 deg C if an uninsulated masonry chimney is used. The tested boilers show that it is possible to design a proper boiler. The losses, stand-by and convective/radiative, must be kept at a minimum in order to obtain a high efficiency. 86 refs, 70 figs, 16 tabs

  14. Life cycle analysis of small scale pellet boilers characterized by high efficiency and low emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, B.; Chiesa, M.; Marzuoli, R.; Verma, V.K.; Schwarz, M.; Carlon, E.; Schmidl, C.; Ballarin Denti, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA was performed on innovative small scale pellet boilers. • Pellet boilers impacts were compared to oil and natural gas boilers impacts. • Both literature and experimental data were used for life cycle analysis. • The environmental impact due to all life cycle phases was envisaged. • Sensitivity tests evidenced realistic ways for pellet boilers impact reduction. - Abstract: This study focuses on the environmental impact assessment through Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of two innovative 10 kW pellet boilers. In particular, the second boiler represents a technological evolution of the first one developed to improve its performance in terms of efficiency and environmental impact. For both boilers, emission factors measured during laboratory tests (full load tests and specific load cycle tests representative of real life boiler operation) have been used as input data in the life cycle analysis. The SimaPro software (v.8.0.4.30) was used for the LCA and the ReCiPe Midpoint method (European version H) was chosen to assess the environmental impact of all boilers (according to LCA ISO standards). In addition, the ReCiPe Endpoint method was used to compare the final results of all 5 boilers with literature data. The pelletisation process represented the most relevant share of the overall environmental impact followed by the operational phase, the manufacturing phase and the disposal phase. A sensitivity analysis performed on the most efficient pellet boiler evidenced the variation of the boiler’s environmental impact as a function of PM10 and NO X emission factors with respect to emission factors monitored during boiler full load operation. Moreover, the reduction of the boiler’s weight and the adoption of new electronic components led to a consistent reduction (−18%) of its environmental impact with respect to the previous technology. A second LCA has been carried on for a 15 kW oil boiler, a 15 kW natural gas boiler and a 15 kW pellet boiler

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  16. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  17. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in December 2016, and the report became available in January 2017

  18. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in July 2016, and the report became available in August 2016.

  19. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – June 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  20. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  1. PAH emissions from old and new types of domestic hot water boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Jiri; Kubonova, Lenka; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, Frantisek; Kubesa, Petr; Motyka, Oldrich; Laciok, Vendula; Dej, Milan; Ochodek, Tadeas; Placha, Daniela

    2017-06-01

    Five different domestic heating boilers (automatic, over-fire, with down-draft combustion and gasification) and three types of fuel (lignite, wood and mixed fuel) were examined in 25 combustion tests and correlated with the emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), total organic carbon (TOC) and 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs with MW = 178-278 g/mol) focusing on particle phase. However, the distribution of 12 PAHs in gas phase was considered as well due to the presence mainly of lighter PAHs in gas phase. The PAHs, as well as the CO and TOC, are the indicators of incomplete combustion, and in this study PAH emission increased significantly with increasing emissions of CO and TOC. The PAHs were mainly detected on PM 2.5 , their contents were increasing linearly with increasing PM 2.5 emissions. The highest emission factors of PAHs were measured for boilers of old construction, such as over-fire boiler (5.8-929 mg/kg) and boiler with down-draft combustion (3.1-54.1 mg/kg). Modern types of boilers produced much lower emissions of PAHs, in particular, automatic boiler (0.3-3.3 mg/kg) and gasification boilers (0.2-6.7 mg/kg). In general, the inefficient combustion at reduced output of boilers generated 1.4-17.7 times more emissions of PAHs than the combustion at nominal output of boilers. It is recommended to operate boilers at nominal output with sufficient air supply and to use the proper fuel to minimise PAHs emissions from domestic heating appliances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Start-up emissions from residential down-draught wood log boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, E. (Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden). Energy Technology Centre in Piteaa), Email: esbjorn.pettersson@ltu.se

    2009-07-01

    Start-up emissions can be substantial and even dominating in real use. There are few published investigations regarding the relative importance of different parameters on the start-up emissions. It has though recently been stated that for down-draught boilers, best results are achieved if the wood charge is ignited fairly close to the secondary chamber. The objective of the experimental work was to evaluate the effect of different fuel and design parameters on the start-up emissions, using experimental design which enables a direct comparison between different parameters, using three levels of preheating of secondary air, electric preheating of primary air, different moisture and size of the start wood as well as different amounts of birch bark, which was used to spread the fire during the start. The boiler did not use a bypass damper and the full fuel charge was added before igniting the start wood through an ignition door situated slightly above the grate. The only significant results for the four parameters were that smaller and drier start wood gave lower start-up emissions. Extra amount of birch bark gave the same result. The most important parameters are the fuel parameters, which mean that the result is generally applicable. (orig.)

  3. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  4. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  5. Coal utilization in industrial boilers in China - a prospect for mitigating CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Zeng, T.; Yang, L.I.S.; Oye, K.A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is estimated from GEF statistical data for 1991 that more than 500,000 industrial boilers (mostly stoker-fired) in China consume over 400 million tons of coal per year. Each year, because of low boiler efficiency, 75 million tons of coal is wasted and 130 million tons of excess CO 2 are emitted. An analysis of 250 boiler thermal-balance test certificates and 6 field visits in three provinces have shown that: (1) boilers with efficiencies of less than 70% account for 75% of the total boiler-population; (2) the main causes of the low efficiencies are high excess air and unburned carbon in the slag and fly ash. The effect of unburned carbon on CO 2 emission is a balance of positive and negative contributions: while the unburned carbon does not produce CO 2 emissions, its replacement carbon, burned at a low efficiency, contributes to a net increase in CO 2 emissions. It seems from the analysis that the average boiler efficiency can be raised to 73% by relatively simple means, such as the size grading of the coal, improved boiler operating practice and some inexpensive equipment modifications. This could then result in savings each year of 34 million tons of coal and a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 63 million tons at an estimated cost of $10 per ton of CO 2 . (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  7. 40 CFR 76.5 - NOX emission limitations for Group 1 boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX emission limitations for Group 1 boilers. 76.5 Section 76.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.5 NOX emission limitations...

  8. 40 CFR 76.6 - NOX emission limitations for Group 2 boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false NOX emission limitations for Group 2 boilers. 76.6 Section 76.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.6 NOX emission limitations...

  9. Particulate emission factor: A case study of a palm oil mill boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, W.C.; Rashid, M.; Ramli, M.; Zainura, Z.N.; NorRuwaida, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study to investigate the particulate emission from a boiler of a palm oil mill plant equipped with a multi-cyclones particulate arrest or was performed and reported in this paper. The particulate emission concentration was measured at the outlet of a 8 mt/ hr capacity water-tube typed boiler of a palm oil mill plant processing 27mt/ hr of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The particulate sample was collected iso-kinetically using the USEPA method 5 sampling train through a sampling port made at the duct of the exiting flue gas between the boiler and a multi-cyclones unit. Results showed that the particulate emission rates exiting the boiler varied from 0.09 to 0.60 g/s with an average of 0.29 + 0.18 g/ s. While the average particulate emission concentration exiting the boiler was 12.1 + 7.36 g/ Nm 3 (corrected to 7 % oxygen concentration), ranging from 3.62 to 25.3 g/ Nm 3 (at 7 % O 2 ) of the flue gas during the measurement. Based on the 27 mt/ hr FFB processed and the capacity of the boiler of 8mt steam/ hr, the calculated particulate emission factor was 39 g particulate/ mt FFB processed or 131 g particulate/ mt boiler capacity, respectively. In addition, based on the finding and in order to comply with the emission limits of 0.4 g/ Nm 3 , the collection efficiency of any given particulate emission pollution control system to consider for the mill will be from 87 to 98 %, which is not easily achievable with the existing multi-cyclones unit. A considerable amount of efforts are still needed pertaining to the particulate emission control problem in the industry. (author)

  10. Assessing the emission factors of low-pour-fuel-oil and diesel in steam boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohijeagbon, I.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the emissions effects resulting from the use of low pour fuel oil (LPFO and diesel fuels in industrial steam boilers operation. The method of ultimate analysis of the products of combustion and emissions of pollutant analysis were used to estimate the annual rate of emissions of boilers. The results shows that the levels of uncontrolled boiler emissions on the environment can lead to increased greenhouse effects, global warming, and pollution and toxilogical impacts on human health. Only carbon monoxide emission was found to vary with the levels of oxygen generation in the products of combustion, while other substances were generally in relation to constituents and rates of consumption of fuel.

  11. Fuel quality and its effect on the design of power boilers in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1984-05-01

    Statistical data, taken from Power, Proceedings of the American Power Conference and others, on developments since the 1950s in boiler design caused by the increasing use of lower quality fuel (subbituminous and lignite coals) are presented. The effect of pollution regulations in the USA on boiler design is discussed. The results of a 16 year study by the TVA on the decrease in coal quality fired in its boilers and its effect on boiler efficiency are presented. Methods of transport are surveyed. Descriptions and characteristics of several modern boilers designed by Babcock and Wilcox, Combustion Engineering, Foster-Wheeler and Riley Stoker are given. 13 references.

  12. Thermal design of horizontal tube boilers: numerical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This work concerns the thermal design of kettle re-boilers. Current methods are highly inaccurate, regarded to the correlations for external heat transfer coefficient at one tube scale, as well as to two-phase flow modelling at boiler scale. The aim of this work is to improve these thermal design methods. It contains an experimental investigation with typical operating conditions of such equipment: an hydrocarbon (n-pentane) with low mass flux. This investigation has lead to characterize the local flow pattern through void fraction measurements and, from this, to develop correlations for void fraction, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The approach is original, since the developed correlations are based on the liquid velocity at minimum cross section area between tubes, as variable characterizing the hydrodynamic effects on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. These correlations are shown to give much better results than those suggested up to now in the literature, which are empirical transpositions from methods developed for inside tube flows. Furthermore, the numerical code MC3D has been applied using the correlations developed in this work, leading to a modelization of the two-phase flow in the boiler, which is a significant progress compared to current simplified methods. (author) [fr

  13. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  14. 1300°F 800 MWe USC CFB Boiler Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Archie; Goidich, Steve; Fan, Zhen

    Concern about air emissions and the effect on global warming is one of the key factors for developing and implementing new advanced energy production solutions today. One state-of-the-art solution is circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology combined with a high efficiency once-through steam cycle. Due to this extremely high efficiency, the proven CFB technology offers a good solution for CO2 reduction. Its excellent fuel flexibility further reduces CO2 emissions by co-firing coal with biomass. Development work is under way to offer CFB technology up to 800MWe capacities with ultra-supercritical (USC) steam parameters. In 2009 a 460MWe once-through supercritical (OTSC) CFB boiler designed and constructed by Foster Wheeler will start up. However, scaling up the technology further to 600-800MWe with net efficiency of 45-50% is needed to meet the future requirements of utility operators. To support the move to these larger sizes, an 800MWe CFB boiler conceptual design study was conducted and is reported on herein. The use of USC conditions (˜11 00°F steam) was studied and then the changes, that would enable the unit to generate 1300°F steam, were identified. The study has shown that by using INTREX™ heat exchangers in a unique internal-external solids circulation arrangement, Foster Wheeler's CFB boiler configuration can easily accommodate 1300°F steam and will not require a major increase in heat transfer surface areas.

  15. Charges on emissions of nitrogen oxides from forest industry boilers. Technical and economic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebscher, P.

    1998-09-01

    The charges on nitrogen oxide emission have been introduced in order to create an incentive for the industry to reduce emissions. A high cost in unproductive investment for monitoring systems, SNCR and gas recirculation systems was paid. However, the economic burden for the industry was less than initially feared, since the NO x emissions were moderate for most of the boilers, and since the potential for reducing NO x by rather simple means could be exploited. Also, the NO x charges have created an objective for industry to optimize their boilers in a way that raises efficiency and availability, which is of greater value to the environment than the reduction of the already low NO x emissions from these boilers

  16. DB Riley-low emission boiler system (LEBS): Superior power for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beittel, R. [DB Riley, Inc., Worcester, MA (United States); Ruth, L.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In conjunction with the US Department of Energy, DB Riley, Inc., is developing a highly advanced coal-fired power-generation plant called the Low Emission Boiler Systems (LEBS). By the year 2000, LEBS will provide the US electric power industry with a reliable, efficient, cost-effective, environmentally superior alternative to current technologies. LEBS incorporates significant advances in coal combustion, supercritical steam boiler design, environmental control, and materials development. The system will include a state-of-the-art steam cycle operating at supercritical steam conditions; a slagging combustor that produces vitrified ash by-products; low nitrogen oxide (NOx) burners; a new, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup system (copper oxide process) for simultaneously capturing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NOx); a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate capture; and a low-temperature heat-recovery system. The copper oxide flue gas cleanup system, which has been under development at DOE`s Pittsburgh field center, removes over 98% of SO{sub 2} and 95% of NOx from flue gas. A new moving-bed design provides efficient sorbent utilization that lowers the cleanup process cost. The captured SO{sub 2} can be converted to valuable by-products such as sulfuric acid and/or element sulfur, and the process generates no waste.

  17. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  18. 40 CFR 76.7 - Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised NOX emission limitations for Group 1, Phase II boilers. 76.7 Section 76.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.7 Revised NOX...

  19. Emission Characteristics of Gas-Fired Boilers based on Category-Specific Emission Factor from Field Measurements in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Yan, X.; Song, G.; Yan, J.; Xue, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-fired boilers will become the main stationary sources of NOx in Beijing. However, the knowledge of gas-fired boilers in Beijing is limited. In the present study, the emission characteristics of NOx, SO2, and CO from gas-fired boilers in Beijing were established using category-specific emission factors (EFs) from field measurements. In order to obtain category-specific EFs, boilers were classified through influence analysis. Factors such as combustion mode, boiler type, and installed capacity were considered critical for establishing EFs because they play significant roles in pollutant formation. The EFs for NOx, CO, and SO2 ranged from 1.42-6.86 g m-3, 0.05-0.67 g m-3 and 0.03-0.48 g m-3. The emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO for gas-fired boilers in Beijing were 11121 t, 468 t, and 222 t in 2014, respectively. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 1 km × 1 km, and the results indicated that top emitters were in central Beijing. The uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated high uncertainties in CO (-157% to 154%) and SO2 (-127% to 182%) emissions, and relatively low uncertainties (-34% to 34%) in NOx emission. Furthermore, approximately 61.2% and 96.8% of the monitored chamber combustion boilers (CCBs) met the standard limits for NOx and SO2, respectively. Concerning NOx, low-NOx burners and NOx emission control measures are urgently needed for implementing of stricter standards. Adopting terminal control measures is unnecessary for SO2, although its concentration occasionally exceeds standard limits, because reduction of its concentration can be achieved thorough control of the sulfur content of natural gas at a stable low level. Furthermore, the atmospheric combustion boilers (ACBs) should be substituted with CCBs, because ACBs have a higher emission despite lower gross installed capacity. The results of this study will enable in understanding and controlling emissions from gas

  20. Improved NOx emissions and combustion characteristics for a retrofitted down-fired 300-MWe utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Ren, Feng; Chen, Zhichao; Liu, Guangkui; Xu, Zhenxing

    2010-05-15

    A new technique combining high boiler efficiency and low-NO(x) emissions was employed in a 300MWe down-fired boiler as an economical means to reduce NO(x) emissions in down-fired boilers burning low-volatile coals. Experiments were conducted on this boiler after the retrofit with measurements taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows and in the furnace, furnace temperatures along the main axis and gas concentrations such as O(2), CO and NO(x) in the near-wall region. Data were compared with those obtained before the retrofit and verified that by applying the combined technique, gas temperature distributions in the furnace become more reasonable. Peak temperatures were lowered from the upper furnace to the lower furnace and flame stability was improved. Despite burning low-volatile coals, NO(x) emissions can be lowered by as much as 50% without increasing the levels of unburnt carbon in fly ash and reducing boiler thermal efficiency.

  1. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (emission of CFB is very low for the new NER due to its innate property.

  2. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US

  3. Novel partial-subsidence tower-type boiler design in an ultra-supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Xu, Cheng; Yang, Yongping; Fang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Luyao; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The two-pass type and tower-type boilers were compared. • A novel partial-subsidence tower-type boiler design was proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses were quantitatively conducted. • The application of the partial-subsidence boiler to a 700 °C stage unit was further analyzed. - Abstract: An increasing number of tower-type boilers have been applied to ultra-supercritical power plants because of the simple design of the membrane walls and the smooth increase in temperature of such boilers. Nevertheless, the significant height and long steam pipelines of this boiler type will expand the power plant investment cost and increase steam-side pressure losses, especially for higher parameters units requiring high costs of nickel-based alloy materials. Thus, a novel partial-subsidence tower-type boiler design was proposed. In this boiler type, nearly 1/2–2/3 of the boiler height was embedded underground to reduce the height of the boiler and the length of the steam pipelines significantly. Thermodynamic and economic analyses were conducted on a state-of-the-art 1000 MW ultra-supercritical power plant and a prospective 700 °C-stage double reheat power plant. Results showed that the proposed tower-type boiler design could result in a 0.1% point increase in net efficiency and a $0.56/MW h reduction in the cost of electricity in a 1000 MW power plant. This economic benefit was enhanced for power plants with higher steam parameters and larger capacity. The concept of the proposed boiler design may provide a promising method for tower-type boiler applications, especially in new-generation double reheat plants with higher parameters

  4. Atmospheric emission of nitrogen oxide from kraft recovery boilers in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjoerk, Anders; Herstad Swaerd, Solvie

    2000-05-01

    Recovery boiler NO x emissions are low compared with those from power boilers. However tighter environmental requirements to decrease the acidic emissions implies that all sources have to be addressed. There are an ongoing evaluation and development of NO x control technologies in the pulp industry. Basically air staging, selective catalytic reduction, SCR, and selective noncatalytic reduction, SNCR, have been discussed. Other NO x control options may be available as a result of ongoing research and development. As a background in the work to reduce the acid rain it has been considered necessary to have a good picture of the NO x emission from recovery boilers, and the Thermal Engineering Research Institute in Sweden have therefore sponsored this study. The intention is to give a good general view and try to explain the reasons for the large differences between boilers. Data from the 30 kraft recovery boilers which were in operation in Sweden during 1999 have been collected. Both NO x levels and specific conditions which could have an influence on the level have been included. The evaluation show a clear correlation between the nitrogen content in the liquor and the NO x level. It seams also that a long retention time in the furnace give an opportunity to reduce the amount of nitrogen oxide. For most boilers in Sweden the NO x levels are reported in mg/MJ and comparison could be done between different types of boilers. However for recovery boilers there could be a large uncertainty in the calculation which gives the amount (mg) of NO x , the definition of the heat input to be used (MJ) is either not clear. As a base for the study the measured concentration in ppm is used instead. The reported values are in the range of 30 - 100 ppm, however the majority of the boilers operate in a more narrow range 60-80 ppm. Air staging and other combustion methods could not reasonably reduce the NO x emission with more than 20% in the next decade. If the goal is higher other

  5. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  6. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  7. VERIFICATION TESTING OF EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF A-55 CLEAN FUELS IN A FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of testing three fuels in a small (732 kW) firetube package boiler to determine emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), particulate matter (PM), and total hydrocarbons (THCs). The tests were part of EPA's Environmental Technology Verificat...

  8. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  9. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  10. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  11. Computational intelligence approach for NOx emissions minimization in a coal-fired utility boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Zheng Ligang; Cen Kefa

    2010-01-01

    The current work presented a computational intelligence approach used for minimizing NO x emissions in a 300 MW dual-furnaces coal-fired utility boiler. The fundamental idea behind this work included NO x emissions characteristics modeling and NO x emissions optimization. First, an objective function aiming at estimating NO x emissions characteristics from nineteen operating parameters of the studied boiler was represented by a support vector regression (SVR) model. Second, four levels of primary air velocities (PA) and six levels of secondary air velocities (SA) were regulated by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) so as to achieve low NO x emissions combustion. To reduce the time demanding, a more flexible stopping condition was used to improve the computational efficiency without the loss of the quality of the optimization results. The results showed that the proposed approach provided an effective way to reduce NO x emissions from 399.7 ppm to 269.3 ppm, which was much better than a genetic algorithm (GA) based method and was slightly better than an ant colony optimization (ACO) based approach reported in the earlier work. The main advantage of PSO was that the computational cost, typical of less than 25 s under a PC system, is much less than those required for ACO. This meant the proposed approach would be more applicable to online and real-time applications for NO x emissions minimization in actual power plant boilers.

  12. Optimal Switching Control of Burner Setting for a Compact Marine Boiler Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Maciejowski, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses optimal control strategies for switching between different burner modes in a novel compact  marine boiler design. The ideal behaviour is defined in a performance index the minimisation of which defines an ideal trade-off between deviations in boiler pressure and water level...... approach is based on a generalisation of hysteresis control. The strategies are verified on a simulation model of the compact marine boiler for control of low/high burner load switches.  ...

  13. Nitrogen oxide emissions - one of the most important characteristics of power generating boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R. (Vsesoyuznyi Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1989-05-01

    Discusses in some detail optimum locations, equipment and sequence for measuring NO{sub x} emissions and, with specific reference to operational factors and structural features, examines ways to achieve efficient and cost effective reduction in emissions. One method for reducing NO{sub x} concentrations with solid fuel combustion, e.g. Kuznetsk black coal combustion, is to alter the proportion of primary air and the output flow rates of the secondary and primary air. Graph demonstrates the successful result of coarsening the pulverized Ekhibastuz coal burnt in the BKZ-420-140 boiler in the Karaganda TEhTs-3 power plant. Suggested structural measures include modifying burners, two- and three-stage combustion, conversion to solid slag removal or to circulating fluidized bed combustion. Also mentions the need to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in unfavorable weather conditions. Finally suggests converting pulverized coal boilers to burn gas, disconnecting or reducing the load of boilers with low exhaust-gas stacks and increasing the number of boilers with high exhaust-gas stacks to reduce ground level NO{sub x} concentrations. 4 refs.

  14. Economic aspects of reducing SO2 emissions of medium power boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of analysis of the economic benefits of five reconstruction variants are presented for a hypothetical industrial heating plant equipped with 3 boilers with a steam output of 120 t/h each, providing a total power of about 355 MW. The reconstruction was aimed at reducing the emission of pollutants to below the regulatory limits. The economic effectiveness was assessed in terms of the specific cost of heat in overheated steam for brown coal, black coal, natural gas, and mazut. The option consisting in reconstruction of the brown coal fired boiler to low-sulfur black coal without desulfurization emerged as the economically optimal alternative. Second to it was the option identical with the first but augmented with a dry additive desulfurization equipment. The brown coal fired boiler equipped with a semidry desulfurization equipment ranked as the third. (J.B.). 3 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Emission of flue gases from industrial boilers and generators and their control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, G.H.; Shareef, A.; Hashmi, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of flue gases in the Stacks was carried out for 17 gas-fired boilers and 19 gas/diesel-fired generators and the concentrations of CO, NO/sub 2/, NO/sub x/ NO/sub 2/ SO/sub 2/ and C/sub x/ H/sub y/ were studied in the stack- emissions. The results have then been discussed with reference to the permissible limits, as per National Environmental Quality Standard. Higher concentration of co was observed in some boilers, and of CO and NO/sub x/ in some generators. Some effects of major air-pollutants have also been discussed as regards the human health, vegetables and materials. Some remedial measures have also been discussed to limit the concentration of air pollutants emitted from boilers and generators. (author)

  16. Effect of kind of solid fuel onto noxious compound emissions in the firing up process of a low output water boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilk, R.; Szymczyk, J.; Zielinski, Z.; Wystemp, E.

    1992-01-01

    NO x , SO 2 , CO and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emission tests were carried out during the firing up process of a low output boiler for three kinds of smokeless solid fuels and boiler coal. It has been stated that the use of low emissive fuels in low output boilers did not protect against noxious compound emissions during firing up the boiler. (author). 13 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control

    OpenAIRE

    Thong-On, Atcharawadi; Boonruang, Chatdanai

    2016-01-01

    Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of F...

  18. Dynamic Boiler Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim

    Traditionally, boilers have been designed mainly focussing on the static operation of the plant. The dynamic capability has been given lower priority and the analysis has typically been limited to assuring that the plant was not over-stressed due to large temperature gradients. New possibilities...... developed. Analyzing boilers for dynamic operation gives rise to a number of opposing aims: shrinking and swelling, steam quality, stress levels, control system/philosophy, pressurization etc. Common for these opposing aims is that an optimum can be found for selected operation conditions. The framework has...... for buying and selling energy has increased the focus on the dynamic operation capability, efciency, emissions etc. For optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation a quantication of the dynamic capability is needed. A framework for optimizing design of boilers for dynamic operation has been...

  19. A novel design for a cheap high temperature solar collector: The rotating solar boiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaer, van J.P.H.; Kroon, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work a novel type of high temperature solar collector is designed: the rotating solar boiler. This rotating solar boiler consists of two concentric tubes. The inner tube, called absorber, absorbs sunlight and boils water. The outer transparent tube, called cover, is filled with air. The

  20. Particle Emission Characteristics of Modern and Old-Type Residential Boilers Fired with Wood Logs and Wood Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.S.; Gustavsson, L.; Tullin, C.; Potter, A.; Leckner, B.

    2005-01-01

    Residential biofuel combustion for heating can be performed in two ways: in a stove heating the surrounding room, or in a boiler heating water to be circulated through a piping system to heat an entire house. In contrast to stoves, wood boilers can be connected to heat storage tanks, which is an advantage from an emission point of view. The present work focuses on comparing emissions from old-type and modern boilers by means of systematic variation of combustion device, fuel quality, firing behaviour, and the influence of heat storage tank. User habits are simulated in a schematic way. The purpose of the comparison is to determine the emission differences between old-type and modern residential biofuel boilers and to quantify emission characteristics of different kind of biofuel combustion

  1. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  2. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  3. CFD simulation of the combustion process of the low-emission vortex boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, A. A.; Maryandyshev, P. A.; Pankratov, E. V.; Lubov, V. K.

    2017-11-01

    Domestic heat and power engineering needs means and methods for optimizing the existing boiler plants in order to increase their technical, economic and environmental work. The development of modern computer technology, methods of numerical modeling and specialized software greatly facilitates the solution of many emerging problems. CFD simulation allows to obtaine precise results of thermochemical and aerodynamic processes taking place in the furnace of boilers in order to optimize their operation modes and develop directions for their modernization. The paper presents the results of simulation of the combustion process of a low-emission vortex coal boiler of the model E-220/100 using the software package Ansys Fluent. A hexahedral grid with a number of 2 million cells was constructed for the chosen boiler model. A stationary problem with a two-phase flow was solved. The gaseous components are air, combustion products and volatile substances. The solid phase is coal particles at different burnup stages. The Euler-Lagrange approach was taken as a basis. Calculation of the coal particles trajectories was carried out using the Discrete Phase Model which distribution of the size particle of coal dust was accounted for using the Rosin-Rammler equation. Partially Premixed combustion model was used as the combustion model which take into account elemental composition of the fuel and heat analysis. To take turbulence into account, a two-parameter k-ε model with a standard wall function was chosen. Heat transfer by radiation was calculated using the P1-approximation of the method of spherical harmonics. The system of spatial equations was numerically solved by the control volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm of Patankar and Spaulding. Comparison of data obtained during the industrial-operational tests of low-emission vortex boilers with the results of mathematical modeling showed acceptable convergence of the tasks of this level, which confirms the adequacy of the

  4. Influence of firebed temperature on inorganic particle emissions in a residential wood pellet boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Matthias; Jaeger, Dirk; Pelz, Stefan K.; Weissinger, Alexander; Groll, Andreas; Thorwarth, Harald; Haslinger, Walter

    2016-07-01

    The temperature-dependent release of inorganic elements is the first step of the main formation pathway of particle emissions in automatically fired biomass burners. To investigate this step, a residential pellet boiler with an underfeed-burner was equipped with a direct firebed cooling. This test setup enabled decreased firebed temperatures without affecting further parameters like air flow rates or oxygen content in the firebed. A reduction of particle emissions in PM1-fraction at activated firebed cooling was found by impactor measurement and by optical particle counter. The affected particles were found in the size range boiler ash showed no statistically significant differences due to the firebed cooling. Therefore, our results indicate that the direct firebed cooling influenced the release of potassium (K) without affecting other chemical reactions.

  5. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007–2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM 10 , PM 2.5 , SO 2 , NO x , CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NO x and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. - Highlights: • A unit-based emission inventory of coal-fired industrial boilers is developed. • Temporal trend of historical period 2007–2013 and the future till 2030 is

  6. The mechanical design and validation of the helical tube boilers for Hartlepool and Heysham AGR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    The 32 helically coiled once-through boiler units at Hartlepool and Heysham represent a major advance in the technologies of boiler design, manufacture and site construction. They are particularly complex in that they incorporate integral reheaters; they employ three different tubing materials and five different structural materials, each with operating temperature limitations; and they must fit compactly into pods in the reactor pressure vessel walls. A general description of the boilers is followed by a review of external factors which influenced the mechanical design and validation programme over 15 years. Against this background selected components are discussed in detail in terms of particular loading conditions and stress analysis. (author)

  7. New fuel air control strategy for reducing NOx emissions from corner-fired utility boilers at medium-low loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sinan; Fang, Qingyan; Yin, Chungen

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapidly growing renewable power, the fossil fuel power plants have to be increasingly operated under large and rapid load change conditions, which can induce various challenges. This work aims to reduce NOx emissions of large-scale corner-fired boilers operated at medium–low loads....... The combustion characteristics and NOx emissions from a 1000 MWe corner-fired tower boiler under different loads are investigated experimentally and numerically. A new control strategy for the annular fuel air is proposed and implemented in the boiler, in which the secondary air admitted to the furnace through...... the air annulus around each coal nozzle tip is controlled by the boiler load, instead of being controlled by the output of the connected mill as commonly used in this kind of power plant. Both the experimental and simulation results show that the new control strategy reduces NOx emissions at the entrance...

  8. Three-dimensional computer simulation for combustion and NO{sub x} emission in a grate fired boiler at Baeckhamars, Sweden. Technical report[(Baeckhammars Bruk)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wei [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-05-01

    bark boiler conclude that the Ecotube system is quite effective for secondary air distribution and improves combustion after retrofitting the combustor in an old boiler. The numerical simulation resulted in the flow pattern, temperature and chemical species distributions of the boiler that could be used to draw the following conclusions: (1) The velocity distribution of the primary air is not significant for the flow pattern and mixing in the boiler. (2) The secondary air jet system 'Ecotube' controls the flow distribution in the boiler. (3) The velocity of the secondary air is much higher than that of the primary air and strongly influences the fuel combustion on the bed. Species can be fully mixed with the injection of secondary air. Therefore, the first or main combustion zone can be considered as a well-stirred reactor, whilst the upper furnace works almost as a 'plug flow reactor' which gives sufficient residence time for CO conversion and low NO{sub x} emission. (4) The Ecotube system is effective for secondary air distribution in the boiler and improves the combustion after retrofitting the combustion chamber in the old boiler. It renders the flame in main combustion zone quite evenly. (5) The results can be used to aid design, retrofit and improve the industrial incinerators.

  9. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  10. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part I-Stack Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Weili; Zhu, Tan; Wang, Tongjian; Qing, Sheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM 10 and PM 2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM 10 , 0.38 for PM 25 , 20.7 for SO 2 , and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM 10 , 0.30 for PM 2 5 , 7.5 for SO 2 , and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM 10 , 0.87 for PM 25 , 46.7 for SO 2 , and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM 10 , 0.79 for PM 2.5 , 19.9 for SO 2 , and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/ steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM 10 , 0.12 for PM 2.5 , 6.4 for SO 2 , and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM 10 , 0.094 for PM 2.5 , 2.4 for SO 2 , and 1.7 for CO. PM 10 and PM 2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  11. A Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a New Technology to Control NO(x) Emissions from Boilers at KSC: Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Boiler Flue Gases Followed by Wet Scrubbing of Acid Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides NO(x) are a significant problem in the United States. NO(x) are formed in any combustion process, therefore it is not surprising that NO(x) are emitted from the boilers at KSC. Research at UCF has shown (in the laboratory) that injecting H2O2 into hot simulated flue gases can oxidize the NO and NO2 to their acid gas forms, HNO2 and HNO3, respectively. These acid gases are much more water soluble than their counterparts, and theoretically can be removed easily by wet scrubbing. This technology was of interest to NASA, both for their boilers at KSC, and for their combustion sources elsewhere. However, it was necessary to field test the technology and to provide pilot-scale data to aid in design of full-scale facilities. Hence this project was initiated in May of 1996.

  12. A dynamic model used for controller design of a coal fired once-through boiler-turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ji-Zhen; Yan, Shu; Zeng, De-Liang; Hu, Yong; Lv, You

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical OTB (once-through boiler) units with high steam temperature and pressure have been widely used in modern power plants due to their high cycle efficiency and less emissions. To ensure the effective operation of such power generation systems, it is necessary to build a model for the design of the overall control system. There are already detailed models of once-through boilers; however, their complexity prevents them from being applied in the controller design. This study describes a lumped parameter dynamic model that has a relatively low complexity while faithfully capturing the essential overall plant dynamics. The model structure was derived by fundamental physical laws utilizing reasonable simplifications and data analysis to avoid the phase transition position problem. Parameter identification for the model structure was completed using operational data from a 1000 MW ultra-supercritical OTB. The model was determined to be reasonable by comparison tests between computed data and measured data for both steady and dynamic states. The simplified model is verified to have appropriate fidelity in control system design to achieve effective and economic operation of the unit. - Highlights: • A simplified dynamic model of once-through boiler-turbine unit is given. • The essential dynamics of active power and throttle pressure is presented. • The change of phase transition position is avoided in modeling process. • The model has appropriate complexity and fidelity for controller design.

  13. Environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB boilers for MSW combustion -- Analysis of gaseous emissions and solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, M.; Hagman, U.; Andersson, B.A.; Olofsson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Kvaerner Pulping AB (formerly Kvaerner EnviroPower AB) has, due to the stringent demands on emissions performance, developed a state-of-the-art bubbling fluidized bed boiler (BFB) designed for waste fuel firing with very low emissions to the air. A complete evaluation of the environmental performance of the Kvaerner BFB technique for MSW combustion is now possible thanks to a thorough characterization study of the solid residues from the Lidkoeping plant. This paper gives an overall mapping of the emissions performance. Data from the operating plants on solid residue characteristics and leachability, heavy metal and dioxin emissions, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, acid gases, and other emissions to air are presented. Comparisons are made with legislative limits and data from the mass burning technique. It is concluded that the emissions are low compared both with data from traditional mass burn incinerators and with legislative limits in the USA and Europe. Furthermore, the bottom and cyclone ash characteristics are shown not to cause any particular problem from an environmental point of view, and that the leachability is well below the existing legislative limits in Europe and the USA. The results show that fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste is a very competitive alternative to the traditional mass burning technique in every respect

  14. Test firing and emissions analysis of densified RDF (d-RDF) in a small power boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.; Chehaske, J.T.; Meadows, F.; Owens, H.J.; Yoest, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    A test program to determine the feasibility of burning densified refuse-derived fuel in a small power boiler has been successfully completed. The first phase of the contract entailed assembly and assessment of information on d-RDF combustion from other studies, compilation of existing and proposed regulations for the seven sponsoring Great Lakes states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin, location of d-RDF and waste paper pellet manufacturers in the region, and fuel supply/test site selection. The second phase entailed conducting test burns with two types of d-RDF composed of municipal solid waste (MSW) and one type of d-RDF composed of waste cardboard. The tests were conducted at a small boiler located at Dordt College in Sioux Center, Iowa. The boiler is not equipped with any pollution control equipment and the emission measurements therefore represent those from an uncontrolled source. Results demonstrated that a particulate control system is required to meet the standard set by Iowa for less than 0.6 lbs particulate matter per million BTU heat input. With the planned addition of a baghouse system for control, the facility should meet all existing State limits for emissions levels. Air toxics concentrations including metals, dioxins, furans, and PCBs were low relative to other municipal waste combustors and will be further reduced after installation of baghouse filter equipment. The key remaining concerns relate to the acceptable level of HCl emissions which are a strong function of the plastic content of fuel raw material and SO 2 which varies widely with fuel raw material composition

  15. Using oily wastewater emulsified fuel in boiler: energy saving and reduction of air pollutant emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy

    2008-01-01

    The limited data for using emulsified oil have demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing flue gas pollutant emissions. The presence of a high concentration of toxic organic compounds in industrial wastewaters always presents significant problems. Therefore, this study was undertaken by using wastewater with COD of 9600 mg/L and total petroleum hydrocarbons-gasoline 440 mg/L for making an emulsified oil (wastewater content 20% with 0.1% surfactant) to evaluate the extent of reductions in both criteria pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For comparison, two other systems (heavy oil fuel and water-emulsified oil) were also conducted. The wastewater-emulsified oil fuel results in significant reductions in particulate matter (PM), NO(x), SO2, and CO as compared to heavy oil fuel and similar to those from water/oil emulsified fuel; for PM, it is better in wastewater-emulsified oil. The reductions of total PAH flue gas emissions are 38 and 30% for wastewater- and water-emulsified fuel, respectively; they are 63 and 44% for total BaP(eq), respectively. In addition to reducing flue gas pollutant emissions, the results also demonstrate that the use of wastewater-emulsified fuel in boiler operation provides several advantages: (1) safe disposal of industrial wastewater; and (2) energy savings of about 13%. Thus, wastewater/oil-emulsified fuel is highly suitable for use in boilers.

  16. Particulate and un burned carbon emissions reduction from oil fired boilers using combustion promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsiger, Andreas; Carvalho, Jose Guilherme de [ACOTEQ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the results obtained in the tests carried out with a combustion promoter on a 530 MW utility boiler, in order to reduce solid particle emissions in steady state and transient operations. Tests have been performed at Unit II of Bahia de Algeciras Power Station, owned by Sevillana de Electricidad. Sevillana de Electricidad activities include the production, transmission and distribution of electric power. The distribution area is 40000 square miles (aprox. 20% of peninsular Spains territory).Companys total capacity is 4400 MW, of which 1476 are fuel-oil fired. The demand for electricity in the market served by Sevillana has been 18345 GWh in 1989. Fuel-oil plants output was only 1,6% of total demand in accordance with Spanish energy policy guidelines. Along tests described in this paper, steady state emission, are expected to be reduced due to depletion of the un burned carbon content in particulates. Transient operation emissions should also be reduced if the boiler is kept clean to eliminating soot blowing requirements. (author) 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits 4 Table 4 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS...

  19. Reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions by boiler construction companies in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1989-11-01

    Explains that in the USA greater emphasis is placed on reducing pollutant emissions by altering the combustion process than by cleaning flue gases. Results of a joint USA/FRG program show that NO{sub x} concentrations may vary greatly according to the type of slag removal (solid or liquid) and the location and type of burners used. Examines variants and demonstrates that the most effective method of reducing NO{sub x} emissions from large-scale pulverized-coal fired boilers is three-stage combustion used in conjunction with a flue gas cleaning method such as selective catalytic reduction (cyclone burners). Trials found that this method results in a 60% drop in NO{sub x} emissions and, if limestone is added to the tertiary air, a 20% drop in SO{sub 2}. Best results from an economic aspect were achieved when gas was burned in the extra burners. 6 refs.

  20. Towards controlling dioxins emissions from power boilers fuelled with salt-laden wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthe, C.; Karidio, I.; Uloth, V.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the dioxins emissions from a power boiler fuelled with salt-laden wood waste has provided insights on potential control technologies. Whereas a reduction in stack particulate levels does not preclude a corresponding reduction in dioxins emissions, good combustion conditions, in combination with an efficient secondary collection device for particulate removal, were found to offer effective control (stack emissions of 0.064 to 0.086 ng TEQ/m 3 ). Regarding minimization of dioxins formation at source, a preliminary assessment of the possible beneficial effect of an attenuated chlorine:sulphur ratio was encouraging. A more accurate assessment requires additional trials, preferably longer in duration, to eliminate any possible memory effects. (author)

  1. Minimization of emissions. (CO and NO) on a 300 kW wood fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The purpose with this investigation was to study a 300 kW power plant in Ed, Dalsland that is using biomass as fuel and to reduce CO and NO-pollutants as much as possible. The experiments were performed according to statistical experimental design and the result was compared with similar studies. The most important results of the present work were: Today, the boiler is using biomass with too much moisture and that's the reason why the smoke contains a great quantity of CO. This could be reduced with a lower quantity of moisture in the biomass or rebuilding of the boiler. Doors and dampers should be fully closed so air can't pass through because that would reduce the energy losses in the smoke. The automatic control should be changed to reduce the time that biomass are not transported in to the boiler. Biomass with low content of moisture (about 15 %) are a good fuel in the boiler. The smoke needs to be measured continuously to reduce the pollutants because it is not possible to detect visually. If a low amount of oxygen in the smoke (7 %) and high amount of primary air (52 % of total air) and the plant is using low power (120 kW), pollutants is reduced. When using middle power (190 kW), a low amount of oxygen in the smoke is also needed (7%) but a smaller amount of air to the bed (40%) will reduce pollutants. The reason for this is probably that too much air in the bed will make it too cool. The result showed that by using statistical experimental design the amount of CO was reduced with 45 % to 263 ppm and the amount of NO reduced with 80 % to 30 ppm (51 mg/MJ NO 2 ) while using biomass with 34 % moisture Examination paper. 28 refs, 13 figs, 9 tabs, appendixes

  2. The performance of oil-fired boilers: The influence of fuel sulfur on emissions and appliance integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    ASHRAE research project RP-757 examined the impact of distillate fuel sulfur content on the energy and emission performance of oil-fired boilers. The project involved construction of a combustion test rig housed in a constant-temperature test room; installation of a 102.5 kW (350,000 Btu/h) capacity, steel hot water boiler equipped with a special test section to simulate boiler heat exchanger surfaces; introduction of continuous emission analyzers and data-acquisition/control systems; and preparation of specific test fuel oils in the 0.01% to 1.2% sulfur range. The combustion experiments provided comprehensive data including flue gas composition, total deposit weight on test heat exchanger surfaces, pH, sulfite and sulfate in the flue gas condensate and soluble deposits, and iron and sulfur in soluble and insoluble deposits. Controlled combustion experiments using the experimental boiler and fuels have provided the following observations for a systematic increase of boiler fuel sulfur: the flue gas SO 2 increased linearly; the acidity and concentrations of sulfite and sulfate in flue gas condensate and the soluble deposits increased; total surface deposits, which are made up of the soluble and insoluble portions, increased linearly; higher amounts of soluble iron sulfates formed with apparent increased corrosion potential of metal surfaces; and the boiler efficiency remained unchanged during the short-term combustion experiments

  3. Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong-On, Atcharawadi; Boonruang, Chatdanai

    2016-11-03

    Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo tube to carbon steel pipe with chromium-containing filler. The cost of production could be reduced by the use of low cost material such as carbon steel pipe for boiler header. The effect of chromium content on corrosion behavior of the weld was greater than that of the microstructure. The lifetime of the welded boiler can be increased by improvement of mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the heat affected zone.

  4. Design of Boiler Welding for Improvement of Lifetime and Cost Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atcharawadi Thong-On

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo a widely used material for headers and steam tubes of boilers. Welding of steam tube to header is required for production of boiler. Heat affected zone of the weld can have poor mechanical properties and poor corrosion behavior leading to weld failure. The cost of material used for steam tube and header of boiler should be controlled. This study propose a new materials design for boiler welding to improve the lifetime and cost control, using tungsten inert gas (TIG welding of Fe-2.25Cr-1Mo tube to carbon steel pipe with chromium-containing filler. The cost of production could be reduced by the use of low cost material such as carbon steel pipe for boiler header. The effect of chromium content on corrosion behavior of the weld was greater than that of the microstructure. The lifetime of the welded boiler can be increased by improvement of mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of the heat affected zone.

  5. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P. [GE-Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Gilmer, L. [Equilon Enterprises, Bellaire, TX (United States); Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Lev-On, M. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO{sub x} emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  6. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P.; Gilmer, L.; Seebold, J.G.; Lev-On, M.; Hunt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO x emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  7. Efficiency assessment of bi-radiated screens and improved convective set of tubes during the modernization of PTVM-100 tower hot-water boiler based on controlled all-mode mathematic models of boilers on Boiler Designer software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orumbayev, R. K.; Kibarin, A. A.; Khodanova, T. V.; Korobkov, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    This work contains analysis of technical values of tower hot-water boiler PTVM-100 when operating on gas and oil residual. After the test it became clear that due to the construction deficiency during the combustion of oil residual, it is not possible to provide long-term production of heat. There is also given a short review on modernization of PTVM-100 hot-water boilers. With the help of calculations based on controlled all-mode mathematic modules of hot-water boilers in BOILER DESIGNER software, it was shown that boiler modernization by use of bi-radiated screens and new convective set of tubes allows decreasing sufficiently the temperature of combustor output gases and increase reliability of boiler operation. Constructive changes of boiler unit suggested by authors of this work, along with increase of boiler’s operation reliability also allow to improve it’s heat production rates and efficiency rate up to 90,5% when operating on fuel oil and outdoor installation option.

  8. Time-resolved analysis of primary volatile emissions and secondary aerosol formation potential from a small-scale pellet boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Pieber, Simone M.; Tiitta, Petri; Sippula, Olli; Kortelainen, Miika; Lamberg, Heikki; Grigonyte, Julija; Streibel, Thorsten; Prévôt, André S. H.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale pellet boilers and stoves became popular as a wood combustion appliance for domestic heating in Europe, North America and Asia due to economic and environmental aspects. Therefore, an increasing contribution of pellet boilers to air pollution is expected despite their general high combustion efficiency. As emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and permanent gases of pellet boilers are well investigated, the scope of this study was to investigate the volatile organic emissions and the formation potential of secondary aerosols for this type of appliance. Fresh and aged emissions were analysed by a soot-particle aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SP-AMS) and the molecular composition of the volatile precursors with single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) at different pellet boiler operation conditions. Organic emissions in the gas phase were dominated by unsaturated hydrocarbons while wood-specific VOCs, e.g. phenolic species or substituted furans, were only detected during the starting phase. Furthermore, organic emissions in the gas phase were found to correlate with fuel grade and combustion technology in terms of secondary air supply. Secondary organic aerosols of optimised pellet boiler conditions (OPT, state-of-the-art combustion appliance) and reduced secondary air supply (RSA, used as a proxy for pellet boilers of older type) were studied by simulating atmospheric ageing in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor. Different increases in OA mass (55% for OPT, 102% for RSA), associated with higher average carbon oxidation state and O:C, could be observed in a PAM chamber experiment. Finally, it was found that derived SOA yields and emission factors were distinctly lower than reported for log wood stoves.

  9. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  10. A novel least squares support vector machine ensemble model for NOx emission prediction of a coal-fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, You; Liu, Jizhen; Yang, Tingting; Zeng, Deliang

    2013-01-01

    Real operation data of power plants are inclined to be concentrated in some local areas because of the operators’ habits and control system design. In this paper, a novel least squares support vector machine (LSSVM)-based ensemble learning paradigm is proposed to predict NO x emission of a coal-fired boiler using real operation data. In view of the plant data characteristics, a soft fuzzy c-means cluster algorithm is proposed to decompose the original data and guarantee the diversity of individual learners. Subsequently the base LSSVM is trained in each individual subset to solve the subtask. Finally, partial least squares (PLS) is applied as the combination strategy to eliminate the collinear and redundant information of the base learners. Considering that the fuzzy membership also has an effect on the ensemble output, the membership degree is added as one of the variables of the combiner. The single LSSVM and other ensemble models using different decomposition and combination strategies are also established to make a comparison. The result shows that the new soft FCM-LSSVM-PLS ensemble method can predict NO x emission accurately. Besides, because of the divide and conquer frame, the total time consumed in the searching the parameters and training also decreases evidently. - Highlights: • A novel LSSVM ensemble model to predict NO x emissions is presented. • LSSVM is used as the base learner and PLS is employed as the combiner. • The model is applied to process data from a 660 MW coal-fired boiler. • The generalization ability of the model is enhanced. • The time consuming in training and searching the parameters decreases sharply

  11. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  12. Design of a small scale boiler package for testing high moisture content biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design a prototype, small-scale boiler (0.88 MWth output) to enable clean and efficient combustion of high moisture content (>30%) biomass fuels. The boiler was based on an open bottom smoke tube design, modified to incorporate water tubes in the combustion chamber running from front to back. These were added to support refractory bricks to create an extra pass in the boiler combustion chamber such that the reflected heat from the refractory increased the rate of evaporation of moisture from the fuel. A chain grate stoker was employed. The combustion tests involved three biofuels: wood pellets with a low moisture content (8-10%) (to provide combustion rates for a commercially proven biofuel); wood chips from forestry waste with a 30-40% moisture content; and spent mushroom compost with 70-75% moisture. The tests on the wood chips required a number of modifications to the fuel feeding system and to the boiler in order to achieve limited success and the tests with the mushroom compost were unsuccessful due to the combination of the high moisture content and the fuel's low calorific value. Experience gained with the wood chips suggested a number of improvements for a future boiler design. As well as describing the experimental work and test results, the report offers an economic analysis (capital costs, fuel costs, running costs) of the scheme.

  13. Adaptive monitoring of emissions in energy boilers using self-organizing maps: An application to a biomass-fired CFB (circulating fluidized bed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liukkonen, M.; Hiltunen, T.

    2014-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency, reduction of operating costs, and reduction of harmful emissions released into the atmosphere are issues of major concern in modern energy plants. While air emissions have to be restricted due to tightening environmental legislation, at the same time it is ever more important to be able to respond quickly to any changes in the load demand or fuel quality. As unpredictability increases with changing fuel quality and more complex operational strategies, undesired phenomena such as increased emission release rates may become more likely. Therefore, it is crucial that emission monitoring systems are able to adapt to varying conditions, and advanced methodologies are needed for monitoring and decision-support. In this paper a novel approach for advanced monitoring of emissions in CFB (circulating fluidized bed) boilers is described. In this approach a model based on SOM (self-organizing maps) is updated regularly to respond to the prevailing condition of the boiler. After creating each model a new set of measurements is input to the system, and the current state of the process is determined using vector distance calculation. Finally, the system evaluates the current condition and may alert if a preset limit defined for each emission component is exceeded. - Highlights: • An adaptive monitoring approach based on self-organizing maps is presented. • The system can monitor the current state of a combustion process and its emissions. • The system is designed to alert when the preset limits defined for emissions are exceeded. • Due to regular updating routine the system is able to adapt to changing conditions. • The application is demonstrated using data from a biomass-fired energy boiler

  14. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  15. Energy and emission aspects of co-combustion solid recovered fuel with coal in a stoker boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Ryszard; Głód, Krzysztof; Telenga-Kopyczyńska, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    The results of industrial research on co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF) with hard coal in a stoker boiler type WR-25 has been presented. The share of SRF in the fuel mixture was 10%. During the co-combustion of SRF, no technological disturbances or significant reduction in energy efficiency of the boiler were noted. Obtained SO2, NOx and CO emissions were comparable with coal combustion but dust emissions increased. During combustion of the coal mixture with a 10% share of SRF in the test boiler WR-25, the emission standards established for the combustion of the dedicated fuel were met. However, comparison of obtained emission results with the emission standards established for co-incineration of waste, revealed the exceedance of permissible levels of HCl, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Additionally, the residence time of flue gases in over 850°C conditions for the test boiler WR-25 was too short (1.3 seconds) in refer to the legislative requirements (2 seconds) for the thermal conversion of waste.

  16. Energy and emission aspects of co-combustion solid recovered fuel with coal in a stoker boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasielewski Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of industrial research on co-combustion of solid recovered fuel (SRF with hard coal in a stoker boiler type WR-25 has been presented. The share of SRF in the fuel mixture was 10%. During the co-combustion of SRF, no technological disturbances or significant reduction in energy efficiency of the boiler were noted. Obtained SO2, NOx and CO emissions were comparable with coal combustion but dust emissions increased. During combustion of the coal mixture with a 10% share of SRF in the test boiler WR-25, the emission standards established for the combustion of the dedicated fuel were met. However, comparison of obtained emission results with the emission standards established for co-incineration of waste, revealed the exceedance of permissible levels of HCl, dust, heavy metals, dioxins and furans. Additionally, the residence time of flue gases in over 850°C conditions for the test boiler WR-25 was too short (1.3 seconds in refer to the legislative requirements (2 seconds for the thermal conversion of waste.

  17. Reduction of NOx and particulate emissions from coal-fired boilers by modification of coal nozzles and combustion tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Mugenstein, A.; Shpon, G.; Vikhansky, A.; Elperin, T.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Bockelie, M.; Eddings, E.; Sarofim, A.F. [Israel Electric Corporation, Haifa (Israel). Engineering Division

    2001-07-01

    In the present paper two issues are discussed: the effect of the burner replacement on boiler performance and NOx emissions and the effect of the burner replacement on performance and efficiency of electrostatic precipitators (ESP). We also have experimented with different coal types and found the coals that together with combustion tuning met commonly accepted emission limits for NOx (less than 600 mg/dNm{sup 3}) and levels of carbon in fly ash (LOI) (approximately 5-6%) for existing boilers without low NOx burners. Our measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion of the combustion process in the boiler. Special attention was paid to detailed simulation of the flow and ignition in the near-burner zone. 7 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Design and implementation of a control system to improve the quality of the combustion gases in the fire-tube boiler of 5 BHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Pérez Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is the design and implementation of a system for controlling the quality of the combustion gases in a fire-tube boiler of 5 BHP. Based on the percentage of O2 present in the combustion gases, measured by a lambda sensor, the percentage of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere is determined. PID proportional control is responsible for the automatic regulation of the entry of air to the boiler by an actuator, according to the percentage of the oxygen concentration in the combustion gases. The control system has an HMI display and a modular PLC. The results achieved ensure pollutant gases emissions within the parameters established by current environmental standards, achieving the required quality of combustion gases and reducing the fuel consumption of the boiler.

  19. Multicell fluidized bed boiler design construction and test program. Quarterly progress status report, January--March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The objective of this program is to design, construct, and test a multicell fluidized-bed boiler as a pollution-free method of burning high-sulfur or highly corrosive coals without excessive maintenance problems. The fluidized-bed boiler will provide approximately 300,000 pounds of steam per hour. Steam pressure and temperature conditions were selected to meet requirements of the site at which the boiler was installed.

  20. A perspective on the design of high-temperature boiler components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, I.J.; Fishburn, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Boiler pressure parts are designed to formalize codes such as the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. These codes employ a 'design-by-rule' approach, which is based on a combination of sound structural mechanics and boiler design and operating experience. These codes have served the industry well, but the need for a number of enhancements has been highlighted by the widespread use of creep strength-enhanced steels, the advent of ultrasupercritical boilers constructed from nickel-based alloys, and the cyclic duty required for some plants. The need for these enhancements is discussed to explain their origin and key challenges that must be tackled to provide robust design methods for the future. In particular, the use of reference stress concepts and design-by-analysis are discussed to highlight some practical issues. Weldments are identified as a particular concern because they are often a life-limiting feature, and since existing code rules do not adequately consider the high-temperature creep failure modes that can arise as a function of geometry, loading and material combination. Associated with the behavior of welds, multiaxial creep rupture is also identified as a topic that requires further study. The discussion illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of design and need for the materials and structural mechanics communities to work together. This should optimize the use of advanced, expensive alloys and reduce component wall thickness, facilitating pressure part manufacture and enhancing operational flexibility without compromising safety

  1. Study on Laws, Regulations and Standards on Energy Efficiency, Energy Conserving and Emission Reduction of Industrial Boilers in EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren; Zhao, Yuejin; Chen, Haihong; Liang, Xiuying; Yang, Ming

    2017-12-01

    Industrial boilers are widely applied in such fields as factory power, building heating, and people’s lives; China is the world’s largest producer and user of industrial boilers, with very high annual energy consumption; clear requirements have been put forward by China on the energy efficiency since the “11th Five-year Plan” with the hope to save energy and reduce emission by means of energy efficiency standards and regulations on the supervision and control of various special equipment. So far, the energy efficiency of industrial boilers in China has been improved significantly but there is still a gap with the EU states. This paper analyzes the policies of energy efficiency, implementation models and methods of supervision and implementation at the EU level from laws, regulations, directives as well as standards; the paper also puts forward suggestions of energy conserving and emission reduction on the improvement of energy conserving capacity of industrial boilers in China through studying the legislations and measures of the developed countries in energy conserving of boilers.

  2. High Efficiency - Reduced Emissions Boiler Systems for Steam, Heat, and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    enable energy saving necessary for obtaining Energy Star certification for the whole boiler system. Widespread boiler control updates could be possible...adaptability to different boiler and oil/gas burner configurations, and extensibility to operation with nonconventional fuels (e.g., biogas and syngas...typically operating below or slightly above 80%. Higher efficiency improvements can certainly be obtained via boiler replacement and adoption of

  3. Hydraulic design of a boiler feed pump to ensure stable operation at reduced flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singal, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    The boiler feed pumps for industrial and power station boilers have to operate often at reduced capacities to meet the changing demand of steam and electricity. The operation of centrifugal pumps at reduced capacities lead to a number of unfavourable results seriously affecting the pump reliability. Some of these, such as internal recirculation of flow inside the pump have been recently studied. The paper discusses these unfavourable results and analyses various design factors which can control unstable operation of the pumps at reduced flows. The commissioning problems of boiler feed pumps faced at Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant at Kota and modifications carried out in the light of the above studies are described in the paper. (author). 2 tabs

  4. Effects of combustion and operating conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Denys; Duo, Wen Li; Vessey, Michelle

    2006-04-01

    This paper discusses the effects of combustion conditions on PCDD/PCDF emissions from pulp and paper power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste. We found no correlation between PCDD/PCDF emissions and carbon monoxide emissions. A good correlation was, however, observed between PCDD/PCDF emissions and the concentration of stack polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the absence of TDF addition. Thus, poor combustion conditions responsible for the formation of products of incomplete combustion (PICs), such as PAHs and PCDD/PCDF precursors, increase PCDD/PCDF emissions. PAH concentrations increased with higher boiler load and/or low oxygen concentrations at the boiler exit, probably because of lower available residence times and insufficient excess air. Our findings are consistent with the current understanding that high ash carbon content generally favours heterogeneous reactions leading to either de novo synthesis of PCDD/PCDFs or their direct formation from precursors. We also found that, in grate-fired boilers, a linear increase in the grate/lower furnace temperature produces an exponential decrease in PCDD/PCDF emissions. Although the extent of this effect appears to be mill-specific, particularly at low temperatures, the results indicate that increasing the combustion temperature may decrease PCDD/PCDF emissions. It must be noted, however, that there are other variables, such as elevated ESP and stack temperatures, a high hog salt content, the presence of large amounts of PICs and a high Cl/S ratio, which contribute to higher PCDD/PCDFs emissions. Therefore, higher combustion temperatures, by themselves, will not necessarily result in low PCDD/PCDFs emissions.

  5. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, J.N.; Larrimore, C.L.; Slatsky, M.D.; Menzies, W.R.; Smouse, S.M.; Stallings, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the technical progress of a US Department of Energy Innovative Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The primary objectives of the demonstration is to determine the long-term NOx reduction performance of advanced overfire air (AOFA), low NOx burners (LNB), and advanced digital control optimization methodologies applied in a stepwise fashion to a 500 MW boiler. The focus of this paper is to report (1) on the installation of three on-line carbon-in-ash monitors and (2) the design and results to date from the advanced digital control/optimization phase of the project.

  6. Flare Temperature and Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction and Heat Transfer in the TGMP-314I Steam Boiler Firebox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver’ State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Asolution is given to the problem of heat transfer in the firebox of a steam boiler, taking account of the radiation from all quadrillions of atoms constituting the flare. An innovative firebox for a steam boiler is proposed: the lower part of the firebox is a rectangular parallelepiped and the upper part a four-sided pyramid. The calculations show that in the proposed firebox the nonuniformity of the heat-flux distribution is diminished along the height and perimeter of the walls and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced.

  7. Emission of PCDD/F, PCB, and HCB from combustion of firewood and pellets in residential stoves and boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Björn; Naslund, Morgan; Marklund, Stellan

    2006-08-15

    To assess potential emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from residential combustion of biofuels, experiments were performed in which various types of pellets and firewood were combusted in four types of stoves and boilers, with both full and reduced rates of air supply. Intermittent combustion of wood pellets resulted in emissions of 11 ng-(WHO-TEQ)/kg combusted fuel (dry weight). A modern, environmentally certified boiler yielded somewhat lower emissions of PCCD/F and PCB than a wood stove. Both gave <0.1 ng(WHO-TEQ)/m3n (1.3-6.5 ng(WHO-TEQ)/kg) and considerably lower emissions than an old boiler (7.0-13 ng(WHO-TEQ)/kg). No positive effect on emissions could be observed in full air combustion (simulating the use of a heat storage tank) compared to combustion with reduced air. Two of the wood combustion experiments included paper and plastic waste fuels. Chlorine-containing plastic waste gave rise to high emissions: ca. 310 ng(WHO-TEQ)/ kg over the whole combustion cycle. The homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs show characteristic differences between ashes and flue gas from combustions with different levels of air supply. These differences do not, however, seem to have any correlation to the relative amount of toxic congeners.

  8. The application of zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system to coal boilers for efficiency improvement and emissions reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Guang; Zhou, Wei; Widmer, Neil C.; Moyeda, David K. [GE Energy, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Coal-fired boilers equipped with Low NO{sub x} Burner (LNB) and Overfire Air (OFA) are challenged with maintaining good combustion conditions. In many cases, the significant increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned carbon levels can be attributed to local poor combustion conditions as a result of poorly controlled fuel-air distribution within the furnace. The Zonal trademark combustion monitoring and tuning system developed by GE is available to detect and correct the furnace air-fuel distribution imbalance. The system monitors the boiler excess oxygen (O{sub 2}) and combustible gases, primarily carbon monoxide (CO), by using spatially distributed multipoint sensors located in the boiler's high temperature upper convective backpass region. At these locations, the furnace flow is still significantly stratified allowing tracing of poor combustion zones to specific burners and OFA ports. Using a model-based tuning system, operators can rapidly respond to poor combustion conditions by redistributing airflows to select burners and OFA ports. By improving combustion at every point within the furnace, the boiler can operate at reduced excess O{sub 2} and reduced furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) while also reducing localized hot spots, corrosive gas conditions, slag formation, and carbon-in-ash. Benefits include improving efficiency, reducing NO{sub X} emissions, increasing output and maximizing availability. This chapter presents the results from implementing the Zonal combustion monitoring and tuning system on a 460 MW tangential-fired coal boiler in the Western United States.

  9. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further

  10. The application of RANS CFD for design of SNCR technology for a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruszak Monika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the technology of NOx emission abatement by SNCR method. The scope of research included CDF simulations as well as design and construction of the pilot plant and tests of NOx reduction by urea in the plant located in industrial pulverized-coal fired boiler. The key step of research was to determine the appropriate temperature window for the SNCR process. The proposed solution of the location of injection lances in the combustion chamber enabled to achieve over a 30% reduction of NOx. It is possible to achieve higher effectiveness of the proposed SNCR technology and meet the required emission standards via providing prior reduction of NOx to the level of 350 mg/um3 using the primary methods.

  11. Low cost combustion tuning and fuel nozzles modification to reduce NOx emission in large coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Chudnovsky; L. Levin; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv; A. Vikhansky; A.F. Sarofim [Israel Electric Corporation (IEC), Haifa (Israel)

    2003-07-01

    This work focuses on low-cost combustion tuning to reduce NOx emission in coal-fired tangential boilers, testing the furnace in various operation modes. We have also experimented different coal nozzle types. The measurements were accompanied by computer simulations of the combustion process. We also used an on-line supervision system. The data obtained from 575 MW boilers show that with tuning and modified nozzles NOx was considerably reduced. The emission of NOx was reduced from 1200 to 570 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2} for South African coal at full load. At partial load NOx emission dropped from 1400 to 750-850 mg/dNm{sup 3} at 6% O{sub 2}. High volatile coal firing led to additional NOx reduction. A series of tests were performed with Colombian and Indonesian coals as well, dropping NOx emission to 400-450 mg/dNm{sup 3} at6% O{sub 2} at full load. Sootblowing optimization using the supervision system enabled us to further reduce NOx emission by approximately 10%. The boiler and unit performance was not influenced by any of the techniques used for NOx reduction. In such a manner, the results presented in this work clearly show that technological methods for reduction NOx are available and capable of obtaining the required NOx emission. We believe that the conclusions of the present study are general and may be applied to other utility boilers as well. 13 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Air emissions of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers. Review of three field tests; Developpement d'un calorimetre a eau pour la dosimetrie au LNE-LNHB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autret, E. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 49 - Angers (France)

    2011-01-15

    Objectives of greenhouse gases emission reduction, which encourages bio-energy development for heat purposes, are compatible with air-quality policies if the concept of clean biomass combustion is applied. This paper presents actual emission levels of atmospheric pollutants of small-scale (< 10 MW) biomass boilers from a review of three field tests carried out between 2007 and 2009. 31 biomass boilers have been audited to cover the large diversity of sites under operation in terms of fuels, power, flue-gas cleaning devices.. Results are compared to actual and forecasted regulations. The review shows that fuel quality and operation are key issues to ensure low emissions of organic pollutants (OC, VOC, CnHm, PCDD/F, PAH, PCB, HCB), SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, fine particulate matters, metallic compounds. Installation design (power, flue-gas cleaning techno logy) also has a major impact on organic pollutants and fine particulate matter emissions. A large majority of boilers have very low emission levels. Guidelines are finally stated to keep on promoting small-scale biomass boilers in order to be air-quality compatible and efficient to fight climate change. (author)

  13. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakac, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  14. Steam boilers : Process models for improved operation and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahnert, F.

    2007-01-01

    Biomass combustion can be an economic way to contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which are a main suspect of the so-called greenhouse effect. In order to promote a widespread utilization of biomass combustion, operational problems like fuel treatment, slagging, fouling and corrosion have

  15. Numerical investigations of combustion and emissions of syngas as compared to methane in a 200 MW package boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Mohamed A.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.; Sanusi, Sofihullahi Y.; Nemitallah, Medhat A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Syngas combustion is numerically investigated in a two-burner 200 MW package boiler. • Different syngas compositions were considered for combustion with air. • The 33% CO:67% H 2 syngas composition was found to have the shortest flame. • The boiler exit temperature was found to increase with the increase of hydrogen contents. • The 50% CO:50% H 2 syngas composition had the best combustion characteristics. - Abstract: During the last decades, focus has been made on the use of syngas instead of conventional hydrocarbon fuels targeting NO x emission reduction in the exhaust gases. With advances in solar-steam methane reforming for the production of synthesis gas, the applicability of syngas at industrial scale becomes imperative. In the present work, syngas combustion and emission characteristics are numerically investigated and compared with the case of pure methane combustion in a two-burner 200 MW package boiler. A detailed reaction kinetics mechanism of 21 steps and 11 species was considered for the modeling of syngas–air combustion. Different syngas compositions were considered for combustion with air including 67% CO:33% H 2 , 50% CO:50% H 2 and 33% CO:67% H 2 . The results showed a combustion delay in case of pure methane combustion as compared to syngas combustion. The case of 33% CO:67% H 2 syngas composition was found to have the shortest flame as compared to that of other syngas compositions. The case of 50% CO:50% H 2 syngas resulted in lowest maximum boiler temperature while 67% CO:33% H 2 syngas resulted in highest maximum boiler temperature. The boiler exit temperature was found to increase with the increase of hydrogen content in the syngas. The excess air factor was found to have a significant effect on both CO and NO x emissions. NO x emission decreases by about 30% when the amount of excess air is increased from 5% to 25%, which is very promising. Among the tested syngas compositions, the 50% CO:50% H 2 syngas composition

  16. Design and study of water supply system for supercritical unit boiler in thermal power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    In order to design and optimize the boiler feed water system of supercritical unit, the establishment of a highly accurate controlled object model and its dynamic characteristics are prerequisites for developing a perfect thermal control system. In this paper, the method of mechanism modeling often leads to large systematic errors. Aiming at the information contained in the historical operation data of the boiler typical thermal system, the modern intelligent identification method to establish a high-precision quantitative model is used. This method avoids the difficulties caused by the disturbance experiment modeling for the actual system in the field, and provides a strong reference for the design and optimization of the thermal automation control system in the thermal power plant.

  17. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a partially-underground tower-type boiler design for advanced double reheat power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Gang; Xu, Cheng; Yang, Yongping; Fang, Yaxiong; Zhou, Luyao; Yang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of tower-type boilers have been selected for advanced double reheat power plants, due to the uniform flue gas profile and the smooth steam temperature increase. The tall height and long steam pipelines lengths will however, result in dramatic increases in the difficulty of construction, as well as increased power plant investment cost. Given these factors, a novel partially-underground tower-type boiler design has been proposed in this study, which has nearly half of the boiler embedded underground, thereby significantly reducing the boiler height and steam pipeline lengths. Thermodynamic and economic analyses were quantitatively conducted on a 1000 MW advanced double reheat steam cycle. Results showed that compared to the reference power plant, the power plant with the proposed tower-type boiler design could reduce the net heat rate by 18.3 kJ/kWh and could reduce the cost of electricity (COE) by $0.60/MWh. The study also investigated the effects of price fluctuations on the cost-effectiveness of the reference power plant, for both the conventional and the proposed tower-type boilers designs, and found that the double reheat power plant with the proposed tower-type boiler design would be even more competitive and price-effective when the coal price and the investment costs increase. The research of this paper may provide a promising tower-type boiler design for advanced double reheat power plants with lower construction complexity and better cost-effectiveness. - Highlights: • A partially-underground tower-type boiler in double reheat power plants is proposed. for double reheat power plants is proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Better energetic efficiency and greater economic benefits are achieved. • The impacts of price fluctuations on the economic feasibility are discussed

  18. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  19. NOx PREDICTION FOR FBC BOILERS USING EMPIRICAL MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štefanica

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable prediction of NOx emissions can provide useful information for boiler design and fuel selection. Recently used kinetic prediction models for FBC boilers are overly complex and require large computing capacity. Even so, there are many uncertainties in the case of FBC boilers. An empirical modeling approach for NOx prediction has been used exclusively for PCC boilers. No reference is available for modifying this method for FBC conditions. This paper presents possible advantages of empirical modeling based prediction of NOx emissions for FBC boilers, together with a discussion of its limitations. Empirical models are reviewed, and are applied to operation data from FBC boilers used for combusting Czech lignite coal or coal-biomass mixtures. Modifications to the model are proposed in accordance with theoretical knowledge and prediction accuracy.

  20. Analysis and design of a nuclear boiler control scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The steam raising plant of a British designed nuclear power station for which the installed control scheme has given rise to performance and stability problems is considered. The lecture is based on studies carried out for the plant which illustrate the way in which multivariable frequency response methods can be used to analyse and identify the source of control problems and further enable alternative control schemes, having improved performance, to be designed. (author)

  1. Catalytic burners in larger boiler appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Persson, Mikael (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    This project focuses on the scale up of a Catator's catalytic burner technology to enable retrofit installation in existing boilers and the design of new innovative combinations of catalytic burners and boilers. Different design approaches are discussed and evaluated in the report and suggestions are made concerning scale-up. Preliminary test data, extracted from a large boiler installation are discussed together with an accurate analysis of technical possibilities following an optimization of the boiler design to benefit from the advantages of catalytic combustion. The experimental work was conducted in close collaboration with ICI Caldaie (ICI), located in Verona, Italy. ICI is a leading European boiler manufacturer in the effect segment ranging from about 20 kWt to several MWt. The study shows that it is possibly to scale up the burner technology and to maintain low emissions. The boilers used in the study were designed around conventional combustion and were consequently not optimized for implementation of catalytic burners. From previous experiences it stands clear that the furnace volume can be dramatically decreased when applying catalytic combustion. In flame combustion, this volume is normally dimensioned to avoid flame impingement on cold surfaces and to facilitate completion of the gas-phase reactions. The emissions of nitrogen oxides can be reduced by decreasing the residence time in the furnace. Even with the over-dimensioned furnace used in this study, we easily reached emission values close to 35 mg/kWh. The emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were negligible (less than 5 ppmv). It is possible to decrease the emissions of nitrogen oxides further by designing the furnace/boiler around the catalytic burner, as suggested in the report. Simultaneously, the size of the boiler installation can be reduced greatly, which also will result in material savings, i.e. the production cost can be reduced. It is suggested to optimize the

  2. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  3. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO(sub x) in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO(sub x) emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames-particularly under low NO(sub x) conditions. A CO/H(sub 2)/O(sub 2)/N(sub 2) flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state(sup 13)C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  4. Result of design and test operation of a coal boiler at Hyogo Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yasuhiko; Sato, Noriyuki

    1987-05-01

    This boiler is the first coal boiler for the oil refineries in Japan (Installed in Oct., 1986 at Idemitsu Petrochemical Co.) Causes for using coal as a fuel are a conversion to less expensive fuel and offering a technical service to the users of coal through the combustion of coal and learning of a handling technique. The type of boiler is Babcock single barrel radiant type and has 150 t/d capacity with single fuel combustion of coal. Auxiliary equipments are a pulverizer, a transportation and storage unit, a denitration unit, a dust collector, a desulfurization unit, and an ash disposal unit. Main considerations in the design are measures for the security of finely pulverized coal, clogging prevention for coal and ash. A test operation revealed 7 % of combustible loss and 160 - 250 ppm of NOx content at a charge inlet of denitration unit. Actual operation exhibited no clogging at the denitration unit of troubles due to scaling. Design for raw materials is to blend 4 imported coals (from Australia and Canada, etc) and 3 Japanese ones. (7 figs, 2 tabs)

  5. MIX DESIGN FOR OIL-PALM-BOILER CLINKER (OPBC) CONCRETE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    concrete and mix design methods as used for lightweight concrete were employed to obtain the target compressive strength at 28-day and was found to be lower than the target strength for. OPBC concrete. ... the OPBC as renewable resource can be high potential as an ..... PhD Thesis, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,. Sabah ...

  6. Design and performance of the helically coiled boilers of two AGR power stations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nagdy, M.; Papa, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Hartlepool and Heysham-I AGR stations have been commissioned and operating since 1983. The main features, of the design of the helical once-through boilers raising the steam for power generation, are outlined. The modifications to the feed inlet flow ferrules, necessary to improve the boiler performance and optimize the power output, have been described. Comparisons between the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of the boilers before and following these alterations are given. The improvements in the computer code predictions of the plant performance have also been presented. (author)

  7. Analysis of emission reduction strategies for power boilers in the US pulp and paper industry

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This paper first presents the background information for UISIS-PNP model by discussing different types of boilers installed throughout the pulp and paper sector, the...

  8. Study of flame combustion of off-design binary coal blends in steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustyanskii, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in the structure of the fuel consumption by the thermal power stations of Ukraine caused by failure in supplying anthracite from the Donets Basin are analyzed and the major tasks of maintaining the functioning of the coal industry are formulated. The possibility of using, in the near future, the flame combustion of off-design solid fuels in the power boilers of the thermal power plants and combined heat and power plants is studied. The article presents results of expert tests of the TPP-210A and TP-15 boilers under flame combustion of mixtures of anthracites, lean coal, and the coal from the RSA in various combinations. When combusting, such mixtures have higher values of the combustibles yield and the ash fusibility temperature. The existence of the synergetic effect in the flame combustion of binary coal blends with different degrees of metamorphism is discussed. A number of top-priority measures have been worked out that allow for switching over the boilers designed to be fired with anthracite to using blends of coals of different ranks. Zoned thermal analysis of the TP-15 boiler furnace was performed for numerical investigation of the temperature distribution between the furnace chamber zones and exploration of the possibility of the liquid slag disposal and the temperature conditions for realization of this process. A positive result was achieved by combusting anthracite culm (AC), the coal from the RSA, and their mixtures with lean coal within the entire range of the working loads of the boilers in question. The problems of normalization of the liquid slag flow were also successfully solved without closing the slag notch. The results obtained by balance experiments suggest that the characteristics of the flame combustion of a binary blend, i.e., the temperature conditions in the furnace, the support flame values, and the degree of the fuel burnout, are similar to the characteristics of the flame of the coal with a higher reactive capacity, which

  9. Electron beam technology for multipollutant emissions control from heavy fuel oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G; Ostapczuk, Anna; Licki, Janusz

    2010-08-01

    The electron beam treatment technology for purification of exhaust gases from the burning of heavy fuel oil (HFO) mazout with sulfur content approximately 3 wt % was tested at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology laboratory plant. The parametric study was conducted to determine the sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal efficiency as a function of temperature and humidity of irradiated gases, absorbed irradiation dose, and ammonia stoichiometry process parameters. In the test performed under optimal conditions with an irradiation dose of 12.4 kGy, simultaneous removal efficiencies of approximately 98% for SO2, and 80% for NO(x) were recorded. The simultaneous decrease of PAH and one-ringed aromatic hydrocarbon (benzene, toluene, and xylenes [BTX]) concentrations was observed in the irradiated flue gas. Overall removal efficiencies of approximately 42% for PAHs and 86% for BTXs were achieved with an irradiation dose 5.3 kGy. The decomposition ratio of these compounds increased with an increase of absorbed dose. The decrease of PAH and BTX concentrations was followed by the increase of oxygen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations. The PAH and BTX decomposition process was initialized through the reaction with hydroxyl radicals that formed in the electron beam irradiated flue gas. Their decomposition process is based on similar principles as the primary reaction concerning SO2 and NO(x) removal; that is, free radicals attack organic compound chains or rings, causing volatile organic compound decomposition. Thus, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) technology ensures simultaneous removal of acid (SO2 and NO(x)) and organic (PAH and BTX) pollutants from flue gas emitted from burning of HFO. This technology is a multipollutant emission control technology that can be applied for treatment of flue gas emitted from coal-, lignite-, and HFO-fired boilers. Other thermal processes such

  10. Boiler water regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavanov, Pavel; Chulenyov, Anatoly

    2017-10-01

    Active development of autonomous heating the past 25 years has led to the widespread use of hot-water boilers of small capacity up to 2.5 MW. Rational use of the design of autonomous sources of heating boilers design features significantly improve their technical, economic and operational performance. This publication reviewed and analyzed a number of features of the design, operation and exploitation of boilers of small capacity, significantly affecting the efficiency and reliability of their application.

  11. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics of a retrofitted down-fired 660 MWe utility boiler at different loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.Q.; Liu, G.K.; Zhu, Q.Y.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F. [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2011-07-15

    Industrial experiments were performed for a retrofitted 660 MWe full-scale down-fired boiler. Measurements of ignition of the primary air/fuel mixture flow, the gas temperature distribution of the furnace and the gas components in the furnace were conducted at loads of 660, 550 and 330 MWe. With decreasing load, the gas temperature decreases and the ignition position of the primary coal/air flow becomes farther along the axis of the fuel-rich pipe in the burner region under the arches. The furnace temperature also decreases with decreasing load, as does the difference between the temperatures in the burning region and the lower position of the burnout region. With decreasing load, the exhaust gas temperature decreases from 129.8{sup o}C to 114.3{sup o}C, while NOx emissions decrease from 2448 to 1610 mg/m{sup 3}. All three loads result in low carbon content in fly ash and great boiler thermal efficiency higher than 92%. Compared with the case of 660 MWe before retrofit, the exhaust gas temperature decreased from 136 to 129.8{sup o}C, the carbon content in the fly ash decreased from 9.55% to 2.43% and the boiler efficiency increased from 84.54% to 93.66%.

  12. The design development and commissioning of two distributed computer based boiler control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, D.; Johnstone, L.R.; Pringle, S.T.; Walker, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The CEBG N.E. Region has recently commissioned two major boiler control schemes using distributed computer control system. Both systems have considerable development potential to allow modifications to meet changing operational requirements. The distributed approach to control was chosen in both instances so as to achieve high control system availability and as a method of easing the commissioning programs. The experience gained with these two projects has reinforced the view that distributed computer systems show advantages over centralised single computers especially if software is designed for the distributed system. (auth)

  13. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  14. WGC Based Robust and Gain Scheduling PI Controller Design for Condensing Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Onat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the water temperature PI control in condensing domestic boilers. The main challenge of this process under the controller design perspective is the fact that the dynamics of condensing boilers are strongly affected by the demanded water flow rate. First, a robust PI controller based on weighted geometrical center method is designed that stabilizes and achieves good performance for closed-loop system for a wide range of the water flow rate. Then, it is shown that if the water flow rate information is used to update the controller gains, through a technique known as gain scheduled control, the performance can be significantly improved. Important characteristics of these PI design approaches are that the resulting parameters are calculated numerically without using any graphical method or iterative optimization process and that it guarantees the stability of the closed-loop. Significantly, simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed tuning techniques can perform better for set point changes and load disturbance than other available methods in the literature.

  15. Model Research of Gas Emissions From Lignite and Biomass Co-Combustion in a Large Scale CFB Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywański Jarosław

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the idea of a combustion modelling of a large-scale circulating fluidised bed boiler (CFB during coal and biomass co-combustion. Numerical computation results for three solid biomass fuels co-combustion with lignite are presented in the paper. The results of the calculation showed that in previously established kinetics equations for coal combustion, some reactions had to be modified as the combustion conditions changed with the fuel blend composition. Obtained CO2, CO, SO2 and NOx emissions are located in borders of ± 20% in the relationship to the experimental data. Experimental data was obtained for forest biomass, sunflower husk, willow and lignite cocombustion tests carried out on the atmospheric 261 MWe COMPACT CFB boiler operated in PGE Turow Power Station in Poland. The energy fraction of biomass in fuel blend was: 7%wt, 10%wt and 15%wt. The measured emissions of CO, SO2 and NOx (i.e. NO + NO2 were also shown in the paper. For all types of biomass added to the fuel blends the emission of the gaseous pollutants was lower than that for coal combustion.

  16. Wood burning stoves and small boilers - particle emissions and reduction initiatives; Braendeovne og smae kedler - partikelemissioner og reduktionstiltag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J B; Capral Henriksen, T; Lundhede, T [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus (Denmark); Breugel, C van; Zoellner Jensen, N [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    Pollution from burning wood in private households, and the environmental and health consequences of this is determined in practice by a complicated interaction between a number of factors, including firing habits, fuel, type of stove/boiler, chimney and location of the chimney in relation to the surroundings. This report maps out the technologies used today for burning wood in private households, how these technologies contribute to particle emissions and which technologies may potentially reduce emissions of particles from burning wood in households in Denmark. Moreover, the possible emissions reductions and the financial costs incurred by consumers from different initiatives have been estimated. This report does not deal with possible initiatives for improvement of firing habits, fuel quality and chimneys. (au)

  17. A genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a boiler-turbine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shizhong; Qian, Chunjiang; Du, Haibo

    2012-05-01

    This paper proposes a genuine nonlinear approach for controller design of a drum-type boiler-turbine system. Based on a second order nonlinear model, a finite-time convergent controller is first designed to drive the states to their setpoints in a finite time. In the case when the state variables are unmeasurable, the system will be regulated using a constant controller or an output feedback controller. An adaptive controller is also designed to stabilize the system since the model parameters may vary under different operating points. The novelty of the proposed controller design approach lies in fully utilizing the system nonlinearities instead of linearizing or canceling them. In addition, the newly developed techniques for finite-time convergent controller are used to guarantee fast convergence of the system. Simulations are conducted under different cases and the results are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed controllers. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuikov, Andrey V.; Feoktistov, Dmitry V.; Koshurnikova, Natalya N.; Zlenko, Lyudmila V.

    2016-02-01

    During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  19. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  20. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuikov Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  1. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, Fabio; Stoppato, Anna; Benato, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen). Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  2. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiro Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen. Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will contribute to achieve the renewable production targets, but the impact on whole fuel gas production-to-consumption chain must be evaluated. In the first part of this study, the Authors present the future scenario of the grid gas composition and the implications on gas fed appliances. Given that the widely used premixed burners are currently designed mainly by trial and error, a broader fuel gas quality range means an additional hitch on this design process. A better understanding and structuring of this process is helpful for future appliance-oriented developments. The Authors present an experimental activity on a premixed condensing boiler setup. A test protocol highlighting the burners' flexibility in terms of mixture composition is adopted and the system fuel flexibility is characterized around multiple reference conditions.

  3. A new conceptual cold-end design of boilers for coal-fired power plants with waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yongping; Xu, Cheng; Xu, Gang; Han, Yu; Fang, Yaxiong; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cold-end design of boilers for CFPPs with waste heat recovery is proposed. • Thermodynamic and economic analyses are quantitatively conducted. • Higher energy efficiency improvement and greater economic benefits are achieved. • Lower exergy destruction and better matched energy level are obtained. - Abstract: After conducting an in-depth analysis of the conventional boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery, this work proposed a new conceptual boiler cold-end design integrated with the steam cycle in a 1000 MW CFPP, in which the preheating of air was divided into high-temperature air preheater (HTAP), main air preheater (MAP) and low-temperature air preheater (LTAP). The HTAP and an economizer were installed in separate flue ducts, and the low temperature economizer (LTE) was situated between the MAP and the LTAP in the main flue duct to heat the condensed water. In the proposed boiler cold-end design, the flue gas waste heat was not only used to heat condensed water, but also to further preheat the combustion air. The air temperature at the air-preheater outlet increases and part of the steam bleeds with high exergy can be saved, resulting in greater energy-savings and better economics. Results showed that, for a typical 1000 MW CFPP in China, using the proposed boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery could produce 13.3 MW e additional net power output with a heat rate reduction of approximately 112.0 kJ/kW h and could yield a net benefit of up to $85.8 M per year, which is much greater than those of the conventional cases. Exergy destruction is also reduced from 49.9 MW th in the conventional boiler cold-end design to 39.6 MW th in the proposed design

  4. A Study on Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Power Plant Boiler with FGR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Myung-whan; Jung, Kwong-ho; Park, Sung-bum [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The effect of recirculated exhaust gas on performance and exhaust emissions with FGR rate are investigated by using a natural circulation, pressurized draft and water tube boiler with FGR system operating at several boiler loads and over fire air damper openings. The purpose of this study is to apply the FGR system to a power plant boiler for reducing NOx emissions. To activate the combustion, the OFA with 0 to 20% is supplied into the flame. When the suction damper of two stage combustion system installed in the upper side of wind box is opened by handling the lever between 0° and 90°, also, the combustion air supplied to burner is changed. It is found that the fuel consumption rate per evaporation rate did not show an obvious tendency to increase or decrease with rising the FGR rate, and NOx emissions at the same OFA damper opening are decreased, as FGR rates are elevated and boiler loads are dropped. While a trace amount of soot is emitted without regard to the operation conditions of boiler load, OFA damper opening and FGR rate, because soot emissions are eliminated by the electrostatic precipitator with a collecting efficiency of 86.7%.

  5. A Study on Effect of Recirculated Exhaust Gas upon Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Power Plant Boiler with FGR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Myung-whan; Jung, Kwong-ho; Park, Sung-bum

    2016-01-01

    The effect of recirculated exhaust gas on performance and exhaust emissions with FGR rate are investigated by using a natural circulation, pressurized draft and water tube boiler with FGR system operating at several boiler loads and over fire air damper openings. The purpose of this study is to apply the FGR system to a power plant boiler for reducing NOx emissions. To activate the combustion, the OFA with 0 to 20% is supplied into the flame. When the suction damper of two stage combustion system installed in the upper side of wind box is opened by handling the lever between 0° and 90°, also, the combustion air supplied to burner is changed. It is found that the fuel consumption rate per evaporation rate did not show an obvious tendency to increase or decrease with rising the FGR rate, and NOx emissions at the same OFA damper opening are decreased, as FGR rates are elevated and boiler loads are dropped. While a trace amount of soot is emitted without regard to the operation conditions of boiler load, OFA damper opening and FGR rate, because soot emissions are eliminated by the electrostatic precipitator with a collecting efficiency of 86.7%.

  6. Electric utility CFB boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbanks, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology which caught the attention of boiler users: first for its technical advantages of reduced air emissions and low grade fuel tolerance, then later for its problems in becoming a reliable process. Refractory longevity and fuel feed reliability plagued a number of new installations. The efficacy of CFB technology is now more assured with the recent success of Texas-New Mexico Power Company's 160 MWe CFB based units, the world's largest operating CFB boilers. Most of the more notable CFB development problems have been successfully addressed by these units. The TNP units have demonstrated that CFB's can reliable produce high capacity factors at low emission rates using a fuel that has traditionally hampered the operation of pulverized coal (PC) boilers and without the attendant problems associated with sulfur scrubbers required by PC boilers

  7. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, J.; Lekov, A.; Chan, P.; Dunham Whitehead, C.; Meyers, S.; McMahon, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    2006-03-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered. (author)

  8. Design and construction of the prestressed concrete boiler closures for the Hartlepool and Heysham pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.; Howells, R.M.; Paton, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    At a relatively late stage in the station design, the boiler closures for the reactor vessels at Hartlepool and Heysham were changed from steel to prestressed concrete. This paper sets out the criteria which were finally evolved for the new style of closure and describes the way in which the prestressed concrete closure's parts were designed to satisfy these criteria. With both the civil and mechanical components of the closure having their own specific requirements, close co-operation was necessary between these disciplines to ensure that a compatible and practical closure design resulted. This close interrelationship has been carried through into the construction stage and a special concreting and prestressing factory has been built adjacent to the works of the mechanical component fabricator. This enabled an optimum manufacturing cycle to be followed and the important aspects of this are described in the paper. (author)

  9. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  10. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    In the present work a framework for optimizing the design of boilers for dynamic operation has been developed. A cost function to be minimized during the optimization has been formulated and for the present design variables related to the Boiler Volume and the Boiler load Gradient (i.e. ring rate...... on the boiler) have been dened. Furthermore a number of constraints related to: minimum and maximum boiler load gradient, minimum boiler size, Shrinking and Swelling and Steam Space Load have been dened. For dening the constraints related to the required boiler volume a dynamic model for simulating the boiler...... performance has been developed. Outputs from the simulations are shrinking and swelling of water level in the drum during for example a start-up of the boiler, these gures combined with the requirements with respect to allowable water level uctuations in the drum denes the requirements with respect to drum...

  11. Numerical investigation on the flow, combustion, and NOX emission characteristics in a 660 MWe tangential firing ultra-supercritical boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to study the pulverized-coal combustion process in a tangentially fired ultra-supercritical boiler. The realizable k-ε model for gas coupled with discrete phase model for coal particles, P-1 radiation model for radiation, two-competing-rates model for devolatilization, and kinetics/diffusion-limited model for combustion process are considered. The characteristics of the flow field, particle motion, temperature distribution, species components, and NOx emissions were numerically investigated. The good agreement of the measurements and predictions implies that the applied simulation models are appropriate for modeling commercial-scale coal boilers. It is found that an ideal turbulent flow and particle trajectory can be observed in this unconventional pulverized-coal furnace. With the application of over-fire air and additional air, lean-oxygen combustion takes place near the burner sets region and higher temperature at furnace exit is acquired for better heat transfer. Within the limits of secondary air, more steady combustion process is achieved as well as the reduction of NOx. Furthermore, the influences of the secondary air, over-fire air, and additional air on the NOx emissions are obtained. The numerical results reveal that NOx formation attenuates with the decrease in the secondary air ratio (γ2nd and the ratio of the additional air to the over-fire air (γAA/γOFA was within the limits.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis and kinetic modelling of dioxin formation and emissions from power boilers firing salt-laden hog fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Wenli; Leclerc, Denys

    2007-04-01

    Both organic chlorine (e.g. PVC) and inorganic chlorides (e.g. NaCl) can be significant chlorine sources for dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) formation in combustion processes. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of high temperature salt chemistry. Its influence on PCDD/F formation in power boilers burning salt-laden wood waste is examined through the relationships between Cl2, HCl, NaCl(g) and NaCl(c). These analyses show that while HCl is a product of combustion of PVC-laden municipal solid waste, NaCl can be converted to HCl in hog fuel boilers by reactions with SO2 or alumino-silicate materials. Cl2 is a strong chlorinating agent for PCDD/F formation. HCl can be oxidized to Cl2 by O2, and Cl2 can be reduced back to HCl by SO2. The presence of sulphur at low concentrations thus enhances PCDD/F formation by increasing HCl concentrations. At high concentrations, sulphur inhibits de novo formation of PCDD/Fs through Cl2 reduction by excess SO2. The effect of NH3, CO and NOx on PCDD/F formation is also discussed. A semi-empirical kinetic model is proposed. This model considers both precursor and de novo formation mechanisms. A simplified version is used as a stack emission model. The kinetic model indicates that stack dioxin emissions will increase linearly with decreasing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency and exponentially with increasing ESP temperature.

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Lllll of... - Initial Compliance With Emission Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... efficiency was at least 95.8 percent. d. Route emissions to a boiler or process heater with a design heat... capacity. e. Introduce the emissions into the flame zone of a boiler or process heater You have a record that shows the emissions are being introduced into the boiler or process heater flame zone. f. Route...

  14. Controlling radiated emissions by design

    CERN Document Server

    Mardiguian, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design has been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field. New to this edition is material related to technical advances, specifically super-fast data rates on wire pairs, with no increase in RF interference. Throughout the book, details are given to control RF emissions using EMC design techniques. This book retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design from the ground up. It describes the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of these into a low emissions package. Also included is how to design an I/O filter, along with connectors and cable considerations. All guidelines are supported throughout with comprehensive calculated examples. Design engineers, EMC specialists, and technicians will benefit from learning about the development of more efficient and economical control of emissions.

  15. Organic emissions from co-combustion of RDF with wood chips and milled peat in a bubbling fluidized bed boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterinen, Raili; Flyktman, Martti

    1996-01-01

    Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been burned with wood chips and milled peat in a 4 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in flue gases expressed as TCDD-equivalents were significantly below the emission limit 0.1 ng/m 3 n I-TEQ (11 % O 2 ). Also the PCDD/F-concentrations of fly ashes separated by an electrostatic precipitator are significantly below the 1 ng/g I-TEQ limit for agricultural soil in Germany. The carbon monoxide content was rather high, but typical for many small district heating plants. The concentrations of other chlorinated aromatic compounds were also low, in some tests below the detection limit. The concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were rather high. The leachable metal content of the fly ash generated were analyzed using U.S. EPA TCLP test (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure). All concentrations fell below boundary levels. (author)

  16. Influence of burner form and pellet type on domestic pellet boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastvorov, D. V.; Osintsev, K. V.; Toropov, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    The study presents combustion and emission results obtained using two serial pellet boilers of the same heating capacity 40 kW. These boilers have been designed by producers for domestic conditions of exploitation. The principal difference between boilers was the type of the burner. The study concerns the efficiency and ecological performance difference between burners of circular and rectangular forms. The features of the combustion process in both types of burners were studied when boiler operated with different sorts of pellets. The results suggest that the burner of circular form excels the rectangular form burner. However, there is some difference of NOx emission between circular and rectangular burners.

  17. Toxic emissions during co-combustion of biomass-waste wood-lignite blends in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, P; Skodras, G; Sakellaropoulos, G P; Blumenstock, M; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to study the PCDD/F emissions during the co-combustion of waste wood/coal co-combustion in an industrial boiler and to determine the relation of the toxic emissions to the fuel properties. Co-combustion experiments were performed in a 13.8 MWthermal industrial moving grate combustor. The fuels which were examined in this study included Greek lignite, natural uncontaminated wood, power poles and medium density fibers (MDFs) which were by-products of the plant production process. Fuel blends were prepared by mixing single components in various concentrations. PCDD/F emissions were collected during experimental runs and were analyzed according to standard methods. Low PCDD/F emissions were obtained during the co-combustion tests, lower than the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm3. The lowest values were observed during the combustion of fuel blends containing MDF, possibly due to the inhibitory action of some of the N-containing MDF ingredients, such as urea. No direct correlation was found between the PCDD/F and the copper emissions, while examination of the PCDD/F homologue patterns revealed the predominance of the lower chlorinated isomers over the higher ones.

  18. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  19. Hybrid model predictive control applied to switching control of burner load for a compact marine boiler design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Andersen, Palle; Maciejowski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of hybrid model predictive control to control switching between different burner modes in a novel compact marine boiler design. A further purpose of the present work is to point out problems with finite horizon model predictive control applied to systems for w...

  20. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Bum [RECTUSON, Co., LTD, Masan (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Seon Man [Samcheonpo Division, Korea South-East Power Co., Samcheonpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB.

  1. Developing an early laekage detection system for thermal power plant boiler tubes by using acoustic emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Bum; Roh, Seon Man

    2016-01-01

    A thermal power plant has a heat exchanger tube to collect and convert the heat generated from the high temperature and pressure steam to energy, but the tubes are arranged in a complex manner. In the event that a leakage occurs in any of these tubes, the high-pressure steam leaks out and may cause the neighboring tubes to rupture. This leakage can finally stop power generation, and hence there is a dire need to establish a suitable technology capable of detecting tube leaks at an early stage even before it occurs. As shown in this paper, by applying acoustic emission (AE) technology in existing boiler tube leak detection equipment (BTLD), we developed a system that detects these leakages early enough and generates an alarm at an early stage to necessitate action; the developed system works better that the existing system used to detect fine leakages. We verified the usability of the system in a 560 MW-class thermal power plant boiler by conducting leak tests by simulating leakages from a variety of hole sizes (⌀2, ⌀5, ⌀10 mm). Results show that while the existing fine leakage detection system does not detect fine leakages of ⌀2 mm and ⌀5 mm, the newly developed system could detect leakages early enough and generate an alarm at an early stage, and it is possible to increase the signal to more than 18 dB

  2. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  3. Characteristics of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from industrial grade biomass boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Geng, Chunmei; Sun, Xuesong; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xinhua; Chen, Jianhua

    2016-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic or mutagenic and are important toxic pollutants in the flue gas of boilers. Two industrial grade biomass boilers were selected to investigate the characteristics of particulate-bound PAHs: one biomass boiler retro-fitted from an oil boiler (BB1) and one specially designed (BB2) biomass boiler. One coal-fired boiler was also selected for comparison. By using a dilution tunnel system, particulate samples from boilers were collected and 10 PAH species were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total emission factors (EFs) of PAHs ranged from 0.0064 to 0.0380 mg/kg, with an average of 0.0225 mg/kg, for the biomass boiler emission samples. The total PAH EFs for the tested coal-fired boiler were 1.8 times lower than the average value of the biomass boilers. The PAH diagnostic ratios for wood pellets and straw pellets were similar. The ratio of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/[indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene+benzo(g,h,i)perylene] for the two biomass boilers was lower than those of the reference data for other burning devices, which can probably be used as an indicator to distinguish the emission of biomass boilers from that of industrial coal-fired boilers and residential stoves. The toxic potential of the emission from wood pellet burning was higher than that from straw pellet burning, however both of them were much lower than residential stove exhausts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Summary of workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and high efficiency coal-fired cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review with experts in the field the materials issues associated with two of the primary coal power systems being developed by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy. The DOE-FE Advanced Power Systems Program includes natural gas-based and coal-based power systems. Major activities in the natural gas-based power systems area include the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, the Fuel Cells Program, and Hybrid Cycles. The coal-based power systems projects include the Low Emissions Boiler Systems (LEBS) Program, the High-Performance Power Systems Program (HIPPS), the Integrated (Coal) Gasification Combined-Cycle Program, and the Fluidized-Bed Combustion Program. This workshop focused on the materials issues associated with the LEBS and HIPPS technologies.

  5. Condensating flue gases of light oil boilers: Influence on emissions and on the efficiency of the heat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, M.; Fogelholm, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the research was to find out the influence of condensating the flue gases on emissions and on the efficiency of the heat production. The installations that were examined were a heat pump - boiler combination. Comparable research has not been done in Finland before. For the measurements the test instrument was installed in a laboratory hall. It consisted of a 45 kW boiler and a 10 kW (heating power) heat pump and a flow controlled room. The test instrument was equipped with thermal and current sensors and flue gas analysators. The fuel used in tests was a typical light fuel oil. Sulphur content of the oil was 0,03 percentage by weight Reduction of the emissions was researched in two ways, analysing the flue gases and the condensation water. Following compounds in the flue gases were measured: NO x , O 2 SO 2 , CO and CO 2 . Sulphur, metals and pH-value were analysed from the condensation water. The content of sulphur and metals in condense water were compared to content of the same components in oil. Reduction of the sulphur was under 30 %. As the balance limit for defining the efficiency was chosen the flow controlled room. Measurements were done with two different heat loads. At the first test drive average heat load was about 19 kW. Therefore the burner was on for about five minutes and off for about 15 minutes. The heat pump was running continuously. At the second test drive the average heat load was about 50 kW, therefore both the burner and the heat pump were on all the time The lower heat value of fuel was used on the efficiency calculation At the first test drive efficiency was 1,364 and at the second test drive efficiency was 1,048. Out door temperature was +12 deg C (author)

  6. Environmental control implications of generating electric power from coal. 1977 technology status report. Appendix D. Assessment of NO/sub x/ control technology for coal fired utility boilers. [Low-excess-air, staged combustion, flu gas recirculation and burner design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    An NOx control technology assessment study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of low-excess-air firing, staged combustion, flue gas recirculation, and current burner/boiler designs as applied to coal-fired utility boilers. Significant variations in NOx emissions exist with boiler type, firing method, and coal type, but a relative comparison of emissions control performance, cost, and operational considerations is presented for each method. The study emphasized the numerous operational factors that are of major importance to the user in selecting and implementing a combustion modification technique. Staged combustion and low-excess-air operation were identified as the most cost-effective methods for existing units. Close control of local air/fuel ratios and rigorous combustion equipment maintenance are essential to the success of both methods. Flue gas recirculation is relatively ineffective and has the added concern of tube erosion. More research is needed to resolve potential corrosion concerns with low-NOx operating modes. Low-NOx burners in conjunction with a compartmentalized windbox are capable of meeting a 0.6-lb/million Btu emission level on new units. Advanced burner designs are being developed to meet research emission goals of approximately 0.25 lb/MBtu.

  7. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  8. Utility boiler computer modeling experience in the USA for practical furnace air port and low NOx burner field design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Urich, J.A.; Krippene, B.C. [ESA, Inc. (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents several examples of where effective furnace and low NOx burner modeling has produced substantial advantages to the low NOx combustion system designer. Using practical boiler furnace air injection port and low NOx burner maths modeling as an integral part of the design process has often made the difference between a successful low NOx combustion system field conversion project and an unsuccessful one.

  9. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  10. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  11. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers - Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this July 2012 document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule.

  12. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  13. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  14. A study on the leak monitoring of boiler tube in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk

    2002-01-01

    Main equipment of thermal power plant, such as boiler and turbine, are designed and manufactured by domestic techniques. But the special equipments monitoring the operation status of these main facilities are still dependent upon foreign technology. Therefore, so as to develop boiler tube leak detection system, we performed studying on manufacturing, installation in site, Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis and discrimination etc. As result of studying on boiler tube leak detection using AE, we conformed that diagnosis for boiler tube and computerized their trend management is possible, and also it is expected to contribute to safe operation of power plant facilities

  15. Numerical analysis of loads effect on combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Yang, Weihong; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Energy and Furnace Technology; Jankowski, Radoslaw; Kotecki, Michal; Szewczyk, Dariusz [Industrial Combustion Systems (ICS) Company, Poznan (Poland); Brzdekiewicz, Artur [Remak-Rozruch SA, Opole (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents numerical study on the combustion performance and NO{sub x} emissions of a 220 MW pulverized coal boiler. Three different loads have been simulated with combusting coal, 200, 170 and 140 MW, respectively. In order to get as precise as possible numerical analysis results, two-step simulation method has been adopted in this work, namely, air supply system simulation and furnace simulation. After air supply system simulation, the results have been taken as the initial and boundary conditions for furnace simulation. The comparison between the measured values and predicted results from 200 MW case shows much better agreement. According to the simulation results, the adopted two-step simulation method is reasonable and suitable for predicting the characters of the flow and combustion process. It is concluded that the distributions of temperature, O{sub 2} and CO concentration inside furnace with different loads shows good similarly. The total NOx emissions decreased with the boiler load reducing, and fuel NO{sub x} has the same trend as total NO{sub x}, and fuel NO{sub x} account for about 66% in total NO{sub x} in all the three cases. More important, thermal NO{sub x} slowly decreased with the rise of boiler load. More detailed results presented in this paper enhance the understanding of combustion processes and complex flow patterns of front-wall pulverized coal boilers.

  16. Overall evaluation of combustion and NO(x) emissions for a down-fired 600 MW(e) supercritical boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi

    2013-05-07

    To achieve significant reductions in NOx emissions and to eliminate strongly asymmetric combustion found in down-fired boilers, a deep-air-staging combustion technology was trialed in a down-fired 600 MWe supercritical utility boiler. By performing industrial-sized measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the near wing-wall region, carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions at various settings, effects of overfire air (OFA) and staged-air damper openings on combustion characteristics, and NOx emissions within the furnace were experimentally determined. With increasing the OFA damper opening, both fluctuations in NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash were initially slightly over OFA damper openings of 0-40% but then lengthened dramatically in openings of 40-70% (i.e., NOx emissions reduced sharply accompanied by an apparent increase in carbon in fly ash). Decreasing the staged-air declination angle clearly increased the combustible loss but slightly influenced NOx emissions. In comparison with OFA, the staged-air influence on combustion and NOx emissions was clearly weaker. Only at a high OFA damper opening of 50%, the staged-air effect was relatively clear, i.e., enlarging the staged-air damper opening decreased carbon in fly ash and slightly raised NOx emissions. By sharply opening the OFA damper to deepen the air-staging conditions, although NOx emissions could finally reduce to 503 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 (i.e., an ultralow NOx level for down-fired furnaces), carbon in fly ash jumped sharply to 15.10%. For economical and environment-friendly boiler operations, an optimal damper opening combination (i.e., 60%, 50%, and 50% for secondary air, staged-air, and OFA damper openings, respectively) was recommended for the furnace, at which carbon in fly ash and NOx emissions attained levels of about 10% and 850 mg/m(3) at 6% O2, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  18. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  19. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  20. Impact of FCC regenerator design in the NOx emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Hugo Borges; Sandes, Emanuel Freire; Gilbert, William Richard; Roncolatto, Rodolfo Eugenio; Gobbo, Rodrigo; Casavechia, Luiz Carlos; Candido, William Victor Carlos [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bridi, Patricia Elaine [Possebon Engenharia, Sao Mateus do Sul, PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is the main point source of NOx in the refinery and it is responsible for at least 20% of the total NOx emissions from the refineries. The thermal NOx formation in the FCC regenerator is negligible. However, half of the feed nitrogen is converted to coke, and is burned in the regenerator. The majority of coke nitrogen is reduced to N2 and less than 10% is converted to NOx. This number may vary significantly with the oxygen excess in the flue gas and other operational conditions. With the purpose of evaluating the impact of different regenerator designs in NOx formation, several tests were carried out in the PETROBRAS FCC prototype unit. The test unit is equipped with adiabatic insulation and a CO boiler, allowing it to reproduce the heat balance of a commercial FCC and to operate either in full combustion or partial combustion. Two different designs of FCC regenerators were evaluated: single stage regenerator (the existing configuration) and two stage regenerator, with the catalyst bed divided into two sections by a structured packing baffle. It was observed in the tests that the combustion regime had a very strong effect on NOx formation. In full combustion, the effect of the FCC operating variables: excess oxygen, combustion promoter content in catalyst and regenerator design could be identified. The two stage configuration was capable of decreasing NOx emissions by 30%. In partial combustion, the effect of the CO-boiler variables on NOx emissions was overwhelming, but the use of the structured packing baffle was able to improve the catalyst regeneration.(author)

  1. A collaborative project on the effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, H.A.; O`Connor, M.; Stephenson, P.L.; Whitehouse, M.; Richards, D.G.; Hesselmann, G.; MacPhail, J.; Lockwood, F.C.; Williamson, J.; Williams, A.; Pourkashanian, M. [ETSU, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a UK Department of Trade and Industry-supported collaborative project entitled `The Effects of Coal Quality on Emission of Oxides of Nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and Carbon Burnout in Pulverised Coal-fired Utility Boilers`. The project involved extensive collaboration between the UK power generators, boiler and burner manufacturers and research groups in both industry and academia, together with several of the world`s leading computational fluid dynamics (CFD) `software houses`. The prime objectives of the project were to assess the relationship between NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout and to develop and validate predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon-in-ash. Results showed good correlations for NO{sub x} and carbon burnout when comparing data from full-scale and large-scale rig trials. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be useful but the influence of burner aerodynamics was more difficult to quantify. Modelling showed that predicted NO{sub x} emissions were encouragingly close to measured emissions but predicting carbon burnout was less successful. 24 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Water-pirotube boiler: influence of its design in fabrication cost. Calderas de vapor pirotubulares: influencia del diseo en el coste de fabricacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latre Durso, F.

    1993-01-01

    Design of water-tube boiler and its cost is analyzed. Adequated combination of gases velocity, size of tubes, gases temperature, geometric configuration, etc will give a best product with quality prize relation. (Author)

  3. The influence of the furnace design on emissions from small wood pellet burners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspfors, Jonas; Larfeldt, Jenny

    1999-01-01

    Two pellet burners have been installed and tested in a small scale boiler for house heating. The boiler is representative for the Swedish households and the burners, upwards and forward burning, are commercially available on the Swedish market. This work focuses on the boiler operation and particularly the potential of improved emissions by changing the furnace design. An insulation of the fireplace lowered the emission of CO by 50% and the emission of OGC by 60% for the upwards burning burner at low load. Modifying the furnace using baffles did not have any influence on the emissions. It is concluded that an increased temperature in the furnace is more important than an increased residence time of the combustible gases to decrease the emissions. At full load both burners emit approximately 300 mg CO per nm 3 gas and the emission of OGC are negligible. At half load the emissions of CO increased to 1000 mg/m n 3 and OGC to 125 mg/m n 3 in the upward burning burner. The forwards burning burner had a small increase in OGC to about 10 mg/m n 3 at half load while the emission of CO increased to 800 mg/m n 3 . The forward burning burner is less influenced on the furnace design compared to the upward burning burner. The comparatively high emissions of OGC for the upward burning burner is explained by the intermittent operation. However, it was possible to reduce the emissions from this burner by ceramic insulation of the furnace Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 3 refs, 12 figs, 2 tab, 1 appendix with 33 figs and 12 tabs

  4. The effects of coal quality on NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout in pulverised coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, M. [National Power plc, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    A comprehensive study is reported on the impact of coal quality on nitrogen oxides emissions and carbon burnout in utility boilers, with the aim of assessing their relationship and developing predictive tools for assessing coals. Experimental work was carried out on various laboratory-scale apparatus and on single burner test facilities ranging from 160 kW{sub th} to 40 MW{sub th} in size and measurements were obtained from full-scale 500 MW{sub e} utility boiler trials. This data and basic coal data were then used to develop mathematical models to predict full-scale boiler performance with respect to NO{sub x} emissions and carbon burnout. Power station trials demonstrated that coal quality effects nitrogen oxides and burnout. The variability in boiler conditions also impacted on these factors. Lower nitrogen and higher volatile coals generally produced less NO{sub x}. Volatile content was the most important generic coal property for predicting burnout. Modelling rig tests, using data from advanced laboratory-scale tests, were found to be just as successful as using rig tests for predicting NO{sub x} performance of different coals. Laboratory-scale tests were found to be successful in providing accurate predictions of burnout for the coals studied. Mathematical models, however, were found to be less successful in this area and further work to develop this is required. A major achievement was CFD solutions of full-scale utility boiler furnaces in a single mesh. 32 refs., 15 figs., 33 tabs., 2 apps.

  5. CECIL lances Bruce's boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaugh, J.; Monaghan, D.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past few years Ontario Hydro has become increasingly concerned about accumulations of sludge in its nuclear plant boilers, so a comprehensive sludge management programme has been instituted to combat build-up. This included developing the tele-operated robot CECIL (Consolidated Edison Combined Inspection and Lancing) equipment, originally designed for work in PWRs, for CANDU boilers. This required a significantly reconfigured robotic system as well as modifications to the boilers themselves. Work on the Bruce A reactor is described. (4 figures). (author)

  6. Experimental verification of the scaling laws for CFB boilers of different designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirek Paweł

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper flow dynamic similarity criteria have been presented to reflect the macroscopic flow pattern in the combustion chamber of large-scale circulating fluidised bed boilers. The proposed scaling rules have been verified on two cold models of CFB boilers operating in Tauron Wytwarzanie S.A. - El. Lagisza division (scale factor 1/20 and Fortum Power and Heat Poland Sp. z o. o. Czestochowa division (scale factor 1/10 – working with the power of 966 MWth and 120 MWth, respectively. As follows from the results of measurements, regardless of CFB boiler’s geometry the use of a defined set of criterial numbers allows to obtain satisfactory agreement between the suspension density distributions registered in the CFB boilers and scaling models.

  7. Clean heating with wood. An electrostatic separator reduces particulate matter emissions from biomass boilers; Sauber heizen mit Holz. Ein elektrostatischer Abscheider senkt die Feinstaub-Emissionen von Biomassekesseln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2016-08-01

    Despite considerable advances in firing technology, harmful particulate matter is produced when wood is combusted. Electrostatic precipitators, however, filter up to 90 per cent of particulate emissions from biomass boilers. These therefore enable wood burners to use a wider range of fuel and still meet the tightened requirements of Germany's 1st Ordinance on the Implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act. The major advantage: Both new and old heating plants can benefit from the new system.

  8. Analysis of Flue Gas Emissions Using a Semi-industrial Boiler Fueled by Biodiesel Produced from Two-stage Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mansourpoor, M.; Shariati, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, waste cooking oil and methanol as feedstock together with sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts were used to produce biodiesel. The physical properties of the waste cooking oil, the produced biodiesel and the purchased petrodiesel were measured using specified ASTM standards. To examine their performance and their flue gases emissions, biodiesel and petrodiesel were burnt in a wet base semi-industrial boiler. The emitted combustion gases, including CO, NOx, SO2 and ...

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 15, April 15 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-19

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering; Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quote} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis.

  10. Coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagiela, A.S.; Maringo, G.J.; Newell, R.J.; Farzan, H.

    1990-01-01

    Babcock and Wilcox has obtained encouraging results from engineering feasibility and pilot-scale proof-of-concept studies of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO x control. Accordingly, B and W completed negotiations for a clean coal cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to demonstrate coal reburning technology for cyclone boilers. The host site for the demonstration is the Wisconsin Power and Light (WP and L) Company's 100MWe Nelson Dewey Station. Reburning involves the injection of a supplemental fuel (natural gas, oil, or coal) into the main furnace to produce locally reducing stoichiometric conditions which convert the NO x produced therein to molecular nitrogen, thereby reducing overall NO x emissions. There are currently no commercially-demonstrated combustion modification techniques for cyclone boilers which reduce NO x emissions. The emerging reburning technology offers cyclone boiler operators a promising alternative to expensive flue gas cleanup techniques for NO x emission reduction. This paper reviews baseline testing results at the Nelson Dewey Station and pilot-scale results simulating Nelson Dewey operation using pulverized coal (PC) as the reburning fuel. Outcomes of the model studies as well as the full-scale demonstration preliminary design are discussed

  11. Influence of the overfire air ratio on the NO(x) emission and combustion characteristics of a down-fired 300-MW(e) utility boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; Li, Zhengqi; Chen, Zhichao; Fan, Subo; Liu, Guangkui

    2010-08-15

    Down-fired boilers used to burn low-volatile coals have high NO(x) emissions. To find a way of solving this problem, an overfire air (OFA) system was introduced on a 300 MW(e) down-fired boiler. Full-scale experiments were performed on this retrofitted boiler to explore the influence of the OFA ratio (the mass flux ratio of OFA to the total combustion air) on the combustion and NO(x) emission characteristics in the furnace. Measurements were taken of gas temperature distributions along the primary air and coal mixture flows, average gas temperatures along the furnace height, concentrations of gases such as O(2), CO, and NO(x) in the near-wall region and carbon content in the fly ash. Data were compared for five different OFA ratios. The results show that as the OFA ratio increases from 12% to 35%, the NO(x) emission decreases from 1308 to 966 mg/Nm(3) (at 6% O(2) dry) and the carbon content in the fly ash increases from 6.53% to 15.86%. Considering both the environmental and economic effect, 25% was chosen as the optimized OFA ratio.

  12. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Steve [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Knapp, David [Burns & McDonnell, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a biomass-fired boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using carbon neutral fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO2 emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO2 emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO2. The boiler does require auxiliary functions, however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO2 emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO2 per year.

  13. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  14. Emission of nitrogen oxides from small biomass-fired grate boilers - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Daniel

    1999-05-01

    A literature study has been carried out to find mechanisms for control of nitrogen oxide emissions from small-scale biomass fired combustion devices. The underlying nitrogen chemistry has been studied. Three paths of nitrogen oxide formation has been identified: 1. Thermal NO x , 2, Prompt NO x , and, 3. Fuel NO x . Out of these three mechanisms only fuel NO x is of interest, and the others are neglected at the temperature level concerned. The results from this study have been used to identify limitations and possibilities for NO x and CO abatement. A beacon has been to find efficient methods for NO x abatement at the same time as complete burn-out of the fuel is of greatest importance. The NO x abatement work of many of the Swedish manufacturers of small-scale combustion devices is described. This gives valuable insight in the practical possibilities and limitations in strive for low NOx emissions. From the literature and the contacts with manufacturers some factors of great importance for NO x emission control have been identified. These are: * The fuel (nitrogen content, shape, size, the height of the fuel layer and the tendency of the fuel to stick), * The stoichiometry in the volume above the fuel bed (should be 0.6 - 0.8), * The mixing of the gases above the fuel bed, * The mixing of tertiary air into the main gas flow, and * The thermal load of the combustion chamber (residence time). All the secondary measures studied but selective catalytic reduction have been rejected. Selective catalytic reduction could be a possible solution to the NO x emission problem if it is necessary to further lower the emissions from these small-scale biomass combustion devices despite the cost Project report from the program: Small scale combustion of biofuels. 22 refs, 30 figs, 4 tabs

  15. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G. [Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  16. EMISSIONS FROM CO-COMBUSTION OF COAL AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN DOMESTIC CENTRAL HEATING BOILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Maria Cieślik

    2017-04-01

    The results were analyzed in terms of combustion efficiency, emissions of major pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2 and fly ash with adsorbed of PAHs on its surface. The average concentration of emitted particulate matter was 764 mg m-3, and CO - 1944, SO2 - 1256 NOx - 555 mg m-3 (STP, 3% O2, dry gas. The flue gases contain fly ash, with a significant carbon content EC (average 31% and a high proportion of PM10 and PM2.5 - respectively 100 and 75% by volume.

  17. Mathematical modeling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kær, Søren K.

    2008-01-01

    Grate boilers are widely used to fire biomass for heat and power production. However grate-firing systems are often reported to have relatively high un-burnout, low efficiency and high emissions, and need to be optimized and modernized. This paper presents the efforts towards a reliable baseline...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization of the grate boiler as well as design of new grate boilers. First, based on the design conditions, a thorough sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the relative importance...... of different factors in CFD analysis of the grate boiler. In a late stage, a two-day measuring campaign is carried out to measure the gas temperatures and gas concentrations in the boiler using a fiber optic probe connected to a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A baseline model is then defined...

  18. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H 2 O and CO 2 concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O 2 . Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected metals... applicable emission limits for mercury and/or total selected metals. 2. Fabric filter control a. Install and... applicable emission limits for mercury and/or total selected metals. 4. Dry scrubber or carbon injection...

  20. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K.; Andersson, Lars

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO x reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO 2 /MJ fuel input and the NO x reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Mod increases AGR boiler output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.K.C.; Rider, G.; Taylor, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    During the commissioning runs of the first reactor units at Heysham I and Hartlepool Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGRs), non-uniform temperature distributions were observed across individual boiler units which were more severe than those predicted from the design analysis. This article describes the re-orificing (referruling) of the boilers to overcome this problem. The referruling has reduced boiler sensitivity and resulted in an increase of load of 7 or 8%. (U.K.)

  2. Gas fired boilers: Perspective for near future fuel composition and impact on burner design process

    OpenAIRE

    Schiro Fabio; Stoppato Anna; Benato Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The advancements on gas boiler technology run in parallel with the growth of renewable energy production. The renewable production will impact on the fuel gas quality, since the gas grid will face an increasing injection of alternative fuels (biogas, biomethane, hydrogen). Biogas allows producing energy with a lower CO2 impact; hydrogen production by electrolysis can mitigate the issues related to the mismatch between energy production by renewable and energy request. These technologies will ...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1316 - PET and polystyrene affected sources-emissions control provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintain the daily average outlet gas stream temperature from each final condenser in a material recovery... combust the emissions; (B) Combust the emissions in a boiler or process heater with a design heat input...) Combust the emissions in a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 150 million Btu...

  4. Survey of radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants and examination of impacts from a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, C.P.; Militana, L.M.; Harvey, K.A.; Kinsey, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature survey that examined radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants. Literature references from both the US and foreign countries are presented. Emphasis is placed on references from the US because the radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants are related to radionuclide concentrations in the coal, which vary widely throughout the world. The radionuclides were identified and quantified for various existing power plants reported in the literature. Applicable radionuclide emissions criteria discovered in the literature search were then applied to a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant. Based upon the derived radionuclide emission rates applied to the proposed power plant, an air quality modeling analysis was performed. The estimated ambient concentrations were compared to the most relevant existing regulatory ambient levels for radionuclides

  5. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  6. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K. [Babcock & Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W. [Babcock & Wilcox, Alliance, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  7. HR boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-08-01

    A number of manufacturers of central heating boilers in the Netherlands have produced high-efficiency boilers, all carrying the GIVEG-HR seal of approval (GIVEG is the manufacturers' association in the Netherlands, and HR stands for 'hoog rendement': high efficiency). Efficiences were considerably improved by reducing flue, idling and radiation losses. Control and safety, discharges of flue gases and condensate need special attention. Whether installation of a GIVEG-HR boiler is profitable in view of the cost/profit ratio, will have to be determined from case to case. N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie felt it was time to present the facts so far in a way specially aimed at the construction industry. This special edition of 'Gas and Architecture' answers a number of questions which the architect or consultant engineer might have in particular before advising on the installation of the new boiler in houses and other buildings in the interests of energy saving. A technical description of the HR boiler covers the backgrounds of its development and considers the role of the Netherlands government as regards to the introduction of the boiler.

  8. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzell, R N [Wylfa Power Station, Central Electricity Generating Board, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    1988-07-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  9. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzell, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  10. Improving combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired 350 MW(e) utility boiler with multiple injection and multiple staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Xu, Shantian; Zhu, Qunyi

    2011-04-15

    Within a Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited down-fired pulverized-coal 350 MW(e) utility boiler, in situ experiments were performed, with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner and near the right-wall regions, and of gas concentrations (O(2) and NO) from the near-wall region. Large combustion differences between zones near the front and rear walls and particularly high NO(x) emissions were found in the boiler. With focus on minimizing these problems, a new technology based on multiple-injection and multiple-staging has been developed. Combustion improvements and NO(x) reductions were validated by investigating three aspects. First, numerical simulations of the pulverized-coal combustion process and NO(x) emissions were compared in both the original and new technologies. Good agreement was found between simulations and in situ measurements with the original technology. Second, with the new technology, gas temperature and concentration distributions were found to be symmetric near the front and rear walls. A relatively low-temperature and high-oxygen-concentration zone formed in the near-wall region that helps mitigate slagging in the lower furnace. Third, NO(x) emissions were found to have decreased by as much as 50%, yielding a slight decrease in the levels of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.

  11. Condensing boiler applications in the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qun; Finney, Karen; Li, Hanning; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Jue; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Major challenging issues such as climate change, energy prices and fuel security have focussed the attention of process industries on their energy efficiency and opportunities for improvement. The main objective of this research study was to investigate technologies needed to exploit the large amount of low grade heat available from a flue gas condensing system through industrial condensing boilers. The technology and application of industrial condensing boilers in various heating systems were extensively reviewed. As the condensers require site-specific engineering design, a case study was carried out to investigate the feasibility (technically and economically) of applying condensing boilers in a large scale district heating system (40 MW). The study showed that by recovering the latent heat of water vapour in the flue gas through condensing boilers, the whole heating system could achieve significantly higher efficiency levels than conventional boilers. In addition to waste heat recovery, condensing boilers can also be optimised for emission abatement, especially for particle removal. Two technical barriers for the condensing boiler application are corrosion and return water temperatures. Highly corrosion-resistant material is required for condensing boiler manufacture. The thermal design of a 'case study' single pass shell-and-tube condensing heat exchanger/condenser showed that a considerable amount of thermal resistance was on the shell-side. Based on the case study calculations, approximately 4900 m 2 of total heat transfer area was required, if stainless steel was used as a construction material. If the heat transfer area was made of carbon steel, then polypropylene could be used as the corrosion-resistant coating material outside the tubes. The addition of polypropylene coating increased the tube wall thermal resistance, hence the required heat transfer area was approximately 5800 m 2 . Net Present Value (NPV) calculations showed that the choice of a carbon

  12. Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youcheng; Woodin, Mark A; Smith, Thomas J; Herrick, Robert F; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C

    2005-09-01

    The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500 microg/m(3). As part of a larger occupational epidemiologic study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals, and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (referents) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Ash particles < 10 microm in diameter (PM(10), mg/m(3)) were sampled over full work shifts using a one-stage personal size selective sampler containing a polytetrafluoroethylene filter. Filters were digested using the Parr bomb method and analyzed for the metals vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) was measured with an Ogawa passive badge-type sampler and ozone (O(3)) with a personal active pump sampler.Time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for boilermakers than for utility workers for PM(10) (geometric mean: 0.47 vs. 0.13 mg/m(3)), V (8.9 vs. 1.4 microg/m(3)), Ni (7.4 vs. 1.8 microg/m(3)) and Fe (56.2 vs. 11.2 microg/m(3)). Exposures were affected by overhaul time periods, tasks, and work locations. No significant increases were found for O(3) or NO(2) for boilermakers or utility workers regardless of overhaul period or task group. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure to PM(10) and metals. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value.

  13. Final stage of first supercritical 460MW{sub e} CFB boiler construction. First experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goral, Damian [Foster Wheeler Energia Polska (Poland); Ostrowski, Waldemar [PKE (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler technology has been growing in size and number over the past two decades and it has established its position as utility scale boiler technology. Plant sizes up to 300 MW{sub e} are in operation today and designs for larger boilers are being developed. The next natural step for CFB technology is to go for supercritical steam parameters and larger boiler sizes. A Polish utility company Poludniowy Koncern Energetyczny SA (PKE) placed an order to Foster Wheeler Energia Oy for a 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler for their Lagisza power plant. Contract was signed at the end of year 2002 and the engineering work is now ongoing. This will be the first supercritical once-through CFB boiler in the world. A modern power plant is designed for high efficiency not only for economical reasons but also for enhanced environmental performance in terms of reduced emissions and quantity of ash generated due to lower fuel consumption. Cutting CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the main drivers. To achieve these goals, supercritical steam parameters have been applied. Now this technology is available also for CFB technology. This combines a high plant efficiency with the other well known benefits of CFB technology, such as: fuel flexibility, low emissions and high availability. The boiler design for 460 MW{sub e} Lagisza power plant utilizes low mass flux BENSON Vertical once-through technology developed and licensed by Siemens AG, Germany. CFB boiler with low and uniform furnace heat flux is extremely well suited for the Benson technology providing a stable operation of the boiler also during load changes and abnormal operation conditions. The paper describes the 460 MW{sub e} supercritical CFB boiler concept and presents the technical solutions of the boiler design with auxiliary equipment, as well as first experiences from boiler erection period and commissioning. In spite of achieving this remarkable milestone the development of the CFB

  14. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  15. Area Source Boiler National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This October 2016 question and answer (Q&A) document is in response to a number of questions the EPA has received from delegated state and local agencies and the regulated community regarding the NESHAP for Area source boilers. Document updates 4/2014 PDF.

  16. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  17. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  18. Innovative clean coal technology: 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Final report, Phases 1 - 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project was conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 located near Rome, Georgia. The technologies demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NOx burner. The primary objective of the demonstration at Hammond Unit 4 was to determine the long-term effects of commercially available wall-fired low NOx combustion technologies on NOx emissions and boiler performance. Short-term tests of each technology were also performed to provide engineering information about emissions and performance trends. A target of achieving fifty percent NOx reduction using combustion modifications was established for the project. Short-term and long-term baseline testing was conducted in an {open_quotes}as-found{close_quotes} condition from November 1989 through March 1990. Following retrofit of the AOFA system during a four-week outage in spring 1990, the AOFA configuration was tested from August 1990 through March 1991. The FWEC CF/SF low NOx burners were then installed during a seven-week outage starting on March 8, 1991 and continuing to May 5, 1991. Following optimization of the LNBs and ancillary combustion equipment by FWEC personnel, LNB testing commenced during July 1991 and continued until January 1992. Testing in the LNB+AOFA configuration was completed during August 1993. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NOx burners and advanced overfire systems.

  19. Environmental performance assessment of utility boiler energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changchun; Gillum, Craig; Toupin, Kevin; Park, Young Ho; Donaldson, Burl

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sustainability analyses of utility boilers are performed. • Natural gas fired boilers have the least CO_2 emissions in fossil fueled boilers. • Solar boilers rank last with an emergy yield ratio of 1.2. • Biomass boilers have the best emergy sustainability index. - Abstract: A significant amount of global electric power generation is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels. Steam boilers are one of the most important components for steam and electricity production. The objective of this paper is to establish a theoretical framework for the sustainability analysis of a utility boiler. These analyses can be used by decision-makers to diagnose and optimize the sustainability of a utility boiler. Seven utility boiler systems are analyzed using energy and embodied solar energy (emergy) principles in order to evaluate their environmental efficiencies. They include a subcritical coal fired boiler, a supercritical coal fired boiler, an oil fired boiler, a natural gas fired boiler, a concentrating solar power boiler utilizing a tower configuration, a biomass boiler, and a refuse derived fuel boiler. Their relative environmental impacts were compared. The results show that the natural gas boiler has significantly lower CO_2 emission than an equivalent coal or oil fired boiler. The refuse derived fuel boiler has about the same CO_2 emissions as the natural gas boiler. The emergy sustainability index of a utility boiler system is determined as the measure of its sustainability from an environmental perspective. Our analyses results indicate that the natural gas boiler has a relatively high emergy sustainability index compared to other fossil fuel boilers. Converting existing coal boilers to natural gas boilers is a feasible option to achieve better sustainability. The results also show that the biomass boiler has the best emergy sustainability index and it will remain a means to utilize the renewable energy within the Rankine steam cycle. Before

  20. Simulation of Working Processes in the Water-Tube Boiler Furnace with the Purpose of Reducing Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko A.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of domestic and industrial boilers are in operation in Ukraine. Nitrogen oxides are the most dangerous among all combustion products that pollute the atmosphere, therefore, one should take some measures for decreasing the formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion. The studies were carried out at the boilers of low power (100 kW with a tubular radiator and an open end. The studies in the furnaces of industrial steam boilers having a tubular radiator with a closed end have not been done. The numerical study results of the gaseous fuel combustion processes in the furnace of a DE-10/14 steam water-tube boiler are presented. The fuel-air mixture is formed by premixing the 15% part of the air with a primary burner twist factor n=2.4 and a secondary burner twist factor n=1.6, and an air excess factor αв=10. As a result of the studies, the temperature and velocity distributions of gases in the combustion chamber, the density of heat flows on the screen tubular surfaces, and the concentrations of the combustion components were determined. Flue gas recirculation in the volume of 80-100% is provided, and the reversible movement of combustion products towards the combustion front provides a reduction in the concentration of nitrogen oxides up to 123-125 mg/m3 at the furnace outlet. Disadvantages are the following: the formation of stagnant zones near the end of the secondary radiator. The optimum diameter of the tubular radiator equals to two burners diameters and tubular radiator is located at a distance of one meter from the burner cutoff.

  1. Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yukun; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-coal and oxy-coal combustion in an industrial scale PF boiler were simulated in ANSYS FLUENT. • The O 2 concentration of 33 vol% in the oxy-coal combustion case matches the air-coal combustion case most closely. • The moisture in the flue gas has little impact on flame temperature, but positive impact on surface incident radiation. - Abstract: Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33 vol% of effective O 2 concentration ([O 2 ] effective ) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33 vol% of [O 2 ] effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O 2 ] effective , to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  2. CFB boilers in multifuel application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goral, D.; Krzton, B.

    2007-01-01

    Fuel flexibility characteristic for CFB boilers plays an important rule in industrial and utility size applications. Possibility to use wider range of fuels that has been long time considered as by-products or wastes and possibility to design boilers able to operate with alternative fuels is an important factor that improves fuel delivery security and plant economy. Presented article is based on similar publications that present Foster Wheeler's experience in design and delivery of the CFB boilers for wide range of coals and cofiring by- products of crude oil refining and coal processing. Aspects of biomass cofiring will be also presented. (author)

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  4. Review of biomass fired space heating/domestic hot water boilers' application, operation and design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring exercises have been carried out for ETSU, by a number of contractors, on a number of wood fired heating schemes; feasibility studies on proposed schemes have also been carried out. Monitoring reports and feasibility studies have been reviewed to try and establish the suitability and economic viability of the various types of plant used (or proposed) and their application. Of the sixteen schemes reviewed just over 30% showed a reasonable return on the incremental capital cost of plant compared to gas oil fired plant. These schemes had one or more of the following attributes: - Low wood fuel cost -Long operating hours -Relatively low incremental capital cost of wood plant over gas oil plant. Small systems with low operating hours (e.g. short weekday occupancy premises, like schools) and relatively high incremental operating and maintenance costs and capital costs exhibited no advantage over equivalent fossil fuel fired plant. The unit fuel cost advantage to wood, in these cases, was insufficient to outweigh the increased O and M and capital costs, because of the comparatively low annual fuel consumption. Most of the plants reviewed had low thermal efficiencies due to the simplicity of the fuel to air control systems and the wide range of heating demand over which they had to operate. The former can be increased by improved combustion control systems and the latter by correct sizing of boilers and/or the installation of hybrid systems. (Author)

  5. Increased combustion stability in modulating biomass boilers for district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hermansson, Roger (eds.) [Lulea Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    One of the problems in small district heating systems is the large load variation that must be handled by the system. If the boiler is designed to cover the needs during the coldest day in winter time in northern Europe it would have to run at loads as low as 10% of full load during summer time, when heat is needed only for tap water production. Load variations in small networks are quite fast and earlier investigations have shown that existing biomass boilers give rise to large amounts of harmful emissions at fast load variations and at low loads. The problem has been addressed in different ways: Three new boiler concepts have been realized and tested: A prototype of a 500 kW boiler with partitioned primary combustion chamber and supplied with a water heat store. A 10 kW bench scale combustor and a 500 kW prototype boiler based on pulsating combustion. Bench scale boilers to test the influence from applied sound on emissions and a 150 kW prototype boiler with a two-stage secondary vortex combustion chamber. Development of control and regulating equipment: Glow Guard, a control system using infra-red sensors to detect glowing char on the grate, has been constructed and tested. A fast prediction model that can be used in control systems has been developed. Simulation of the combustion process: Code to simulate pyrolysis/gasification of fuel on the grate has been developed. Combustion of the gas phase inside the combustion chamber has been simulated. The two models have been combined to describe the combustion process inside the primary chamber of a prototype boiler. A fast simulation code based on statistical methods that can predict the environmental performance of boilers has been developed. One of the boiler concepts matches the desired load span from 10 to 100% of full load with emissions far below the set limits for CO and THC and close to the set limits for NO{sub x}. The other boilers had a bit more narrow load range, one with very low emissions except for NO

  6. Physico-chemical characteristics of eight different biomass fuels and comparison of combustion and emission results in a small scale multi-fuel boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, E.G.A.; Easson, D.L.; Lyons, G.A.; McRoberts, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Physical parameters of the eight biomass fuels examined were all different. • Significant differences were found in Proximate, Ultimate and TGA results. • Energy outputs were not proportionate to dry matter energy content. • Highest flue ash production from fuels with highest fines content. • Flue gas emissions varied significantly, NOx levels correlated with fuel N content. - Abstract: This study describes the results from the investigation of 7 different biomass fuel types produced on a farm, and a commercial grade wood pellet, for their physical, chemical, thermo-gravimetric and combustion properties. Three types of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, two species of conifers, forest residues (brash), commercially produced wood-pellets and a chop harvested energy grass crop Miscanthus giganteus spp., (elephant grass) were investigated. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in most of the raw fuel parameters examined using particle distribution, Thermogravimetric, Ultimate and Proximate analysis. Combustion tests in a 120 kW multi-fuel boiler revealed differences, some significant, in the maximum output, energy conversion efficiency, gaseous emission profiles and ash residues produced from the fuels. It was concluded that some of the combustion results could be directly correlated with the inherent properties of the different fuels. Ash production and gaseous emissions were the aspects of performance that were clearly and significantly different though effects on energy outputs were more varied and less consistent. The standard wood pellet fuel returned the best overall performance and miscanthus produced the largest amount of total ash and clinker after combustion in the boiler

  7. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Numerical study of flow, combustion and emissions characteristics in a 625 MWe tangentially fired boiler with composition of coal 70% LRC and 30% MRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'adiyah, Devy; Bangga, Galih; Widodo, Wawan; Ikhwan, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Tangential fired boiler is one of the methods that can produce more complete combustion. This method applied in Suralaya Power Plant, Indonesia. However, the boiler where supposed to use low rank coal (LRC), but at a given time must be mixed with medium rank coal (MRC) from another unit because of lack of LRC coal. Accordingly to the situation, the study about choosing the right position of LRC and MRC in the burner elevation must be investigated. The composition of coal is 70%LRC / 30%MRC where MRC will be placed at the lower (A & C - Case I)) or higher (E & G - Case II) elevation as the cases in this study. The study is carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The simulation with original case (100%LRC) has a good agreement with the measurement data. As the results, MRC is more recommended at the burner elevation A & C rather than burner elevation E & G because it has closer temperature (880 K) compared with 100%LRC and has smaller local heating area between upper side wall and front wall with the range of temperature 1900 - 2000 K. For emissions, case I has smaller NOx and higher CO2 with 104 ppm and 15,6%. Moreover, it has samller O2 residue with 5,8% due to more complete combustion.

  9. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  10. Regulation of hazardous air pollutants emitted from fossil-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Daellenbach, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The changes made in section 112 of the Clean Air Act by the 1990 Amendments to the Act will affect the regulation of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by fossil-fired boilers. The 1990 Amendments designated 189 chemicals/compounds as HAPS. Major and area sources of these pollutants in categories designated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be subject to emission standards set by EPA. Industrial and institutional/commercial boilers are two such categories of HAPs designated by EPA for which emission standards will be issued. Fossil-fired boilers can emit a variety of HAPS. All or a portion of such emissions that exceed designated thresholds are likely to be regulated. This paper discusses how the 1990 amendments impact fossil-fired boilers. The steps are outlined which can be taken by owners of industrial and institutional/commercial boilers before the final emission standards are issued. These steps include participation in EPA's standard setting process, participation in EPA's early reduction program to delay the time when compliance with the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standard is required, and consideration of any planned modifications to a facility which might subject that facility to a MACT standard set in advance of the EPA-set standard

  11. Experimental investigation on a 0.35 MWth coal-fired horizontal circulating fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Zhang, Yanguo; Wang, Zhaojun; Dang, Wenda [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The capacities of industrial coal-fired boilers are normally less than 20-30 MWe. And these coal-fired boilers of low capacity are facing the severe situation of low efficiency and heavy environmental pollution. Hence, an innovative horizontal circulating fluidized bed (HCFB) boiler was developed to enhance heat efficiency and reduce pollutant emission of industrial boilers in China. The chamber in the HCFB boiler consists of primary combustion chamber, secondary combustion chamber and burnout chamber, which were combined horizontally side by side. To verify the conception of horizontal fluidized circulation and to obtain the characteristic data, a 0.35 MWth coal-combustion HCFB boiler was designed and installed to perform some experiments of combustion and mass circulation. In the boiler there were two mass circulating paths, one is inner circulating through the inertia separator and another was external circulating through the cyclone separator. The connection bottom of the secondary chamber and the burnout chamber was designed as an inertia separator, in which separated and collected solid materials were returned to the primary combustion. In fact the secondary separator was a small cyclone separator connecting to the exit of the burnout chamber. Heat efficiency and separating efficiency of the experimental boiler were measured and analyzed. Furthermore, mass and temperature distribution along the chambers height were also investigated. The results showed that the heat efficiency of the bare boiler was 82%. The mass balance based on ash content was measured and analyzed. Separating efficiency of the inertia separator and cyclone separator was 60 and 99.9%, respectively. It showed that the two stage material separation and circulation enhanced coal combustion in the HCFB boiler and help to minimize the height of the furnace.

  12. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  13. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  14. Large Scale Screening of Low Cost Ferritic Steel Designs For Advanced Ultra Supercritical Boiler Using First Principles Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Lizhi [Tennessee State Univ. Nashville, TN (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Advanced Ultra Supercritical Boiler (AUSC) requires materials that can operate in corrosive environment at temperature and pressure as high as 760°C (or 1400°F) and 5000psi, respectively, while at the same time maintain good ductility at low temperature. We develop automated simulation software tools to enable fast large scale screening studies of candidate designs. While direct evaluation of creep rupture strength and ductility are currently not feasible, properties such as energy, elastic constants, surface energy, interface energy, and stack fault energy can be used to assess their relative ductility and creeping strength. We implemented software to automate the complex calculations to minimize human inputs in the tedious screening studies which involve model structures generation, settings for first principles calculations, results analysis and reporting. The software developed in the project and library of computed mechanical properties of phases found in ferritic steels, many are complex solid solutions estimated for the first time, will certainly help the development of low cost ferritic steel for AUSC.

  15. Research into properties of dust from domestic central heating boiler fired with coal and solid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konieczyński Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to assess the content and composition of the pollutants emitted by domestic central heating boilers equipped with an automatic underfeed fuel delivery system for the combustion chamber. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned fuel properties, flue gas parameters, contents of dust (fl y ash and gaseous substances polluting the air in the flue gases emitted from a domestic CH boiler burning bituminous coal, pellets from coniferous wood, cereal straw, miscanthus, and sunflower husks, coniferous tree bark, and oats and barley grain. The emission factors for dust and gaseous air pollutants were established as they are helpful to assess the contribution of such boilers in the atmospheric air pollution. When assessing the researched boiler, it was found out that despite the development in design and construction, flue gases contained fly ash with a significant EC content, which affected the air quality.

  16. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM_1_0- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM_1_0 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM_1_0 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM_1_0 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM_1_0 and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM_1_0- and gas-phases. • People in workshop suffer greater cancer

  17. Variations of emission characterization of PAHs emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710075, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle and the Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric PAHs, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM{sub 10}- and gas-phase PAHs in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne PAHs from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne PAHs at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on PAH concentrations in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on PAH distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of PAH in both PM{sub 10} and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile PAHs. PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM{sub 10} surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual PAHs, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office. - Highlights: • PAH distribution in PM{sub 10} and gas phases primarily depend on the vapor pressure. • Combustion conditions and WFGD show typical effects on PAH level and profile. • PAH partitioning is dominated by absorption and also accompanied by adsorption. • Individual PAHs show different partitioning mechanisms in PM{sub 10}- and gas-phases. • People in

  18. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  19. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  20. Mechanism design for refunding emissions payment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagem, Cathrine; Holtsmark, Bjart; Sterner, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    We analyze two mechanism designs for refunding emission payments to polluting firms; Output Based (OB) and Expenditure Based (EB) refunding. In both instruments, emissions fees are returned to the polluting industry, possibly making the policy more easily accepted by policymakers than a standard tax. The crucial difference between OB and EB is that the fees are refunded in proportion to output in the former, but in proportion to the firms' expenditure on abatement equipment in the latter. We show that to achieve a given abatement target, the fee level in the OB design exceeds the standard tax rate, whereas the fee level in the EB design is lower. Furthermore, the use of OB and EB refunding may lead to large differences in the distribution of costs across firms. Both designs do, strictly speaking, imply a cost-ineffective provision of abatement as firms put relatively too much effort into reducing emissions through abatement technology compared with emission reductions through reduced output. However, this may be seen as an advantage by policymakers if they seek to avoid activity reduction in the regulated sector. We provide some numerical illustrations based on abatement cost information from the Norwegian NOx fund.(Author)

  1. 40 CFR 63.7499 - What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the subcategories of boilers..., and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards § 63.7499 What are the subcategories of boilers and process heaters? The subcategories of boilers and process...

  2. Combustion tests in a solid fuel boiler to clarify the emissions when co-firing refuse; Proveldning i fastbraenslepanna foer att kartlaegga emissioner vid inblandning av olika avfallsfraktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Elisabet; Lundborg, Rickard; Wrangensten, Lars

    2002-04-01

    In this Vaermeforsk-project tests have been performed in a 60 MW moving grate steam boiler at Tekniska Verken in Linkoeping. The boiler plant has an electrostatic filter for dust reduction and also a flue gas condensing plant with heat recovery. Vaermeforsk has financed the project. During the tests the following fuel fractions have been injected into the reference fuel, a mix of recovered wood chips (70 %) and bark (30 %): Paper/plastic/wood fuel (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Meat powder (10 % and 25 % injection on an energy basis); Napkin waste (10 % injection on an energy basis); Leather waste (10 % injection on an energy basis). The highest lower heating value was noted for meat powder, approx. 24 MJ/kg with a moisture content of 3,4 %. The heating values for the other fuel fractions were on the same level or just beneath the corresponding heating value for the reference fuel. The highest chlorine content was found in the paper/plastic/wood fraction respectively the leather waste fraction with 1,2 and 1,4 % (weight) of chlorine. The meat powder had the highest nitrogen content but all the fuel mixes had a quite high content of nitrogen with values over 1 % (weight). Analyses of sulphur in the fuels showed that leather waste had the lowest content just over 0, 1 %, considered as a low sulphur level for fuels in general. However, there are problems to get balance between in- and output for sulphur and chlorine based on fuel analysis. Difficulties to take representative fuel samples, especially when it comes to chlorine, can be an explanation. Video camera recordings and flue gas analysis in the furnace showed that the injection of refuse fractions seems to improve the combustion conditions with better local combustion of CO and hydrocarbons. The results from the emission measurements in the chimney can be summarised as follows (emission values at 11 % O{sub 2}): the lowest CO emission was noted with 25 % meat powder injection (<50 mg/nm{sup 3

  3. Installations of SNCR on bark-fired boilers; Uppfoeljning av SNCR-installationer paa barkpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjalmarsson, A.K.; Hedin, K. [AaF-Energikonsult, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Lars [AaF-IPK (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Experience has been collected from the twelve bark-fired boilers in Sweden with selective non catalytic reduction (SNCR) installations to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides. Most of the boilers have slope grates, but there are also two boilers with cyclone ovens and two fluidized bed boilers. In addition to oil there are also possibilities to burn other fuel types in most boilers, such as sludge from different parts of the pulp and paper mills, saw dust and wood chips. The SNCR installations seems in general to be of simple design. In most installations the injection nozzles are located in existing holes in the boiler walls. The availability is reported to be good from several of the SNCR installations. There has been tube leakage in several boilers. The urea system has resulted in corrosion and in clogging of one oil burner. This incident has resulted in a decision not to use SNCR system with the present design of the system. The fuel has also caused operational problems with the SNCR system in several of the installations due to variations in the moisture content and often high moisture content in bark and sludge, causing temperature variations. The availability is presented to be high for the SNCR system at several of the plants, in two of them about 90 %. The results in NO{sub x} reduction vary between the installations depending on boiler, fuel and operation. The emissions are between 45 and 100 mg NO{sub 2}/MJ fuel input and the NO{sub x} reduction rates are in most installations between 30 and 40 %, the lowest 20 and the highest 70 %. 13 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Energy recovery and emissions of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from cocombustion of woodchip and wastewater sludge in an industrial boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang Chang; Lee, Wen-Jhy Lee; Wang, Lin-Chi Wang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping Chang-Chien; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    The emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-pdioxins,dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from trial combustion of 10 wt % dried industrial wastewater-treatment sludge (IWTS) and 90 wt % woodchip in an industrial boiler were investigated and compared to that from woodchip combustion. The PBDD/F toxic equivalent (TEQ) andPBDE emissions increased from 0.121 pg TEQ Nm−3 and 2260 pgNm−3, respectively, of the woodchip combustion to 0.211 pg TEQNm−3 and 4200 pg Nm−3, respectively, of the trial combustion.PBDD/F and PBDE congener profiles of inputs and outputs of the same type of combustion were similar; they also show similarity between woodchip and trial combustions, revealing that the destruction pathway was little affected by the introduction of the IWTS. The fates of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs show that the indigenous pollutants in the feed were effectively depleted (>93.5%). The dominant releasing route of PBDD/F and PBDE shifted from the stack flue gas of woodchip combustion to the ashes of trial combustion. This study demonstrates that co-combustion not only handles the fast growing sludge stream but also yields a saving of 26.3% in the fuel cost and treatment fees of sludge and ashes.

  5. CFD Simulation On CFBC Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol S. Kinkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy industrialization amp modernization of society demands in increasing of power cause to research amp develop new technology amp efficient utilization of existing power units. Variety of sources are available for power generation such as conventional sources like thermal hydro nuclear and renewable sources like wind tidal biomass geothermal amp solar. Out of these most common amp economical way for producing the power is by thermal power stations. Various industrial boilers plays an important role to complete the power generation cycle such as CFBC Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion FBC Fluidized Bed Combustion AFBC Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler CO Boiler RG amp WHR Boiler Waster heat recovery Boiler. This paper is intended to comprehensively give an account of knowledge related to refractory amp its failure in CFBC boiler with due effect of flue gas flow during operation on refractory by using latest technology of CAD Computer aided Design amp CAE Computer aided Engineering. By conceptual application of these technology the full scale model is able to analyze in regards the flow of flue gas amp bed material flow inside the CFBC loop via CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics software. The results obtained are helpful to understand the impact of gas amp particles on refractory in different areas amp also helped to choose suitable refractory material in different regions.

  6. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  7. Boiler plants completed in record time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) combustion has steadily increased its share of the boiler market in recent years, particularly in the Nordic region, where it is particularly well-suited to handling the high moisture content biofuels produced and used by the forest products industry. Foster Wheeler is the world's leading supplier of fluidised bed combustion technology. Over 200 of the more than 300 fluidised bed boilers supplied by the company are circulating fluidised bed (CFB) designs, a market in which Foster Wheeler has more than a 40% share. Foster Wheeler Energia Oy supplied the Myllykoski project at Anjalankoski with a fluidised bed boiler, auxiliary steam boilers, and flue gas scrubber systems

  8. Reduction of greenhouse gas emission on a medium-pressure boiler using hydrogen-rich fuel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.-C.; Jou, Chih-Ju G.

    2007-01-01

    The increasing emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuel is believed to be responsible for global warming. A study was carried out to probe the influence of replacing fuel gas with hydrogen-rich refinery gas (R.G.) on the reduction of gas emission (CO 2 and NO x ) and energy saving. Test results show that the emission of CO 2 can be reduced by 16.4% annually (or 21,500 tons per year). The NO x emission can be 8.2% lower, or 75 tons less per year. Furthermore, the use of refinery gas leads to a saving of NT$57 million (approximately US$1.73 million) on fuel costs each year. There are no CO 2 , CO, SO x , unburned hydrocarbon, or particles generated from the combustion of added hydrogen. The hydrogen content in R.G. employed in this study was between 50 and 80 mol%, so the C/H ratio of the feeding fuel was reduced. Therefore, the use of hydrogen-rich fuel has practical benefits for both energy saving and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission

  9. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  10. Protection of atmosphere from harmful emissions of stationary fuelburn installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Еvgeniya А.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes domestic and foreign researches in the field of combustion gas cleaning from harmful matters. The drawbacks of the existing methods of cleaning emissions of small-capacity boilers are revealed. The results of the researches conducted by the authors are presented. Complex schemes of cleaning emissions of the industrial boilers of the DKVR series are considered. The results of the tests of afterburning devices installed in the industrial boilers are presented. The simplest design of an afterburning device by the example of an industrial boiler of the DKVR series is considered. It is shown that the application of the afterburning devices prevents emissions of the incomplete burning products (CO, carbon black, benzpyrene and reduces the nitric oxide content by (50-80%, depending on the scheme of cleaning. The usage of the afterburning devices improves boiler performance owing to the increase of the radiant component in a furnace chamber, reduction of heat losses, increase of efficiency.

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted with...

  12. Experimental investigation on flue gas emissions of a domestic biomass boiler under normal and idle combustion conditions-super-†

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Liu; Guoquan Qiu; Yingjuan Shao; Saffa B. Riffat

    2010-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role in the world primary energy supplies, currently providing ∼14% of the world's primary energy needs and being the fourth largest contributor following coal, oil and natural gas. Over the past decade, domestic biomass heating has received more governmental and public supports than ever before in many developed countries, such as the UK. Although biomass combustion releases some combustion pollutants, biomass is renewable and produces little net CO 2 emissions to ...

  13. Application of GPRS and GIS in Boiler Remote Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchao Wang; Yifeng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Application of GPRS and GIS in boiler remote monitoring system was designed in this paper by combining the advantage of GPRS and GIS in remote data transmission with configuration monitoring technology. The detail information of the operating conditions of the industrial boiler can be viewed by marking the location of boiler on the electronic map dynamically which can realize the unified management for industrial boiler of a region or city conveniently. Experimental application show that the ...

  14. 46 CFR 52.01-2 - Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS General Requirements § 52.01-2 Adoption of section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Main power boilers and auxiliary boilers shall be designed, constructed...

  15. Multi-pressure boiler thermodynamics analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzoni, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new method and the relative FORTRAN program for the thermodynamics design analysis of a multipressure boiler are reported. This method permits the thermodynamics design optimization with regard to total exergy production and a preliminary costs

  16. THREE-STAGE COMBUSTION (REBURNING) ON A FULL SCALE OPERATING BOILER IN THE U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a program to complete preliminary design of a three- stage combustion (reburn) system for nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions control on an operating boiler in the U. S.S. R. he program to design the reburn system consisted of five tasks: visiting the Ladyz...

  17. Advanced CFD modelling of air and recycled flue gas staging in a waste wood-fired grate boiler for higher combustion efficiency and greater environmental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajh, Boštjan; Yin, Chungen; Samec, Niko; Hriberšek, Matjaž; Kokalj, Filip; Zadravec, Matej

    2018-07-15

    Grate-fired boilers are commonly used to burn biomass/wastes for heat and power production. In spite of the recent breakthrough in integration of advanced secondary air systems in grate boilers, grate-firing technology needs to be advanced for higher efficiency and lower emissions. In this paper, innovative staging of combustion air and recycled flue gas in a 13 MW th waste wood-fired grate boiler is comprehensively studied based on a numerical model that has been previously validated. In particular, the effects of the jet momentum, position and orientation of the combustion air and recycled flue gas streams on in-furnace mixing, combustion and pollutant emissions from the boiler are examined. It is found that the optimized air and recycled flue gas jets remarkably enhance mixing and heat transfer, result in a more uniform temperature and velocity distribution, extend the residence time of the combustibles in the hot zone and improve burnout in the boiler. Optimizing the air and recycled flue gas jet configuration can reduce carbon monoxide emission from the boiler by up to 86%, from the current 41.0 ppm to 5.7 ppm. The findings of this study can serve as useful guidelines for novel design and optimization of the combustion air supply and flue gas recycling for grate boilers of this type. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Part-load operation of the boiler feedwater pumps for the new French PWR 1400 MW nuclear plants - a challenge for the designer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Canavelis, R.; Guilloiseau, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Boiler feedwater pumps in Electricite de France Power Stations have to work reliably for all flow rates between 33% and 134% of the flow corresponding to the best efficiency point (Q BEP ). Under transient conditions associated with load changing these limits increase to 33% to 147% Q BEP . Due to the high specific power of these pumps, the operating conditions heavily influence the hydraulic and mechanical dimensioning. This paper presents some particular aspects of their design and test results obtained on a pump model as well as on a full scale prototype concerning suction performance, head capacity curve stability, pressure pulsations and structural excitations. (author)

  19. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  20. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  2. Co-firing of Coal with Biomass and Waste in Full-scale Suspension-fired Boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools....... The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This paper provides...... research has provided results with implications for operation of milling and burner equipment, appropriate fuel mixing strategies, minimization of ash deposit formation and corrosion, minimization of NO formation, appropriate operation of SCR catalyst equipment and utilization of residual products...

  3. Backstepping-based nonlinear adaptive control for coal-fired utility boiler-turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Le

    2011-01-01

    The control system of boiler-turbine unit plays an important role in improving efficiency and reducing emissions of power generation unit. The nonlinear, coupling and uncertainty of the unit caused by varying working conditions should be fully considered during the control system design. This paper presents an efficient control scheme based on backstepping theory for improving load adaptability of boiler-turbines in wide operation range. The design process of the scheme includes model preprocessing, control Lyapunov functions selection, interlaced computation of adaptive control laws, etc. For simplification and accuracy, differential of steam pipe inlet pressure and integral terms of target errors are adopted. Also, to enhance practicality, implementation steps of the scheme are proposed. A practical nonlinear model of a 500 MW coal-fired boiler-turbine unit is used to test the efficiency of the proposed scheme in different conditions.

  4. Mechanism study on the influence of in situ SO{sub x} removal on N{sub 2}O emission in CFB boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lingnan, E-mail: wulingnan@126.com [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Qin, Wu, E-mail: qinwugx@126.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Hu, Xiaoying, E-mail: huxy@ncepu.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Dong, Changqing, E-mail: cqdong1@163.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Power Generation Equipment, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China); Yang, Yongping, E-mail: yypncepu@163.com [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, 102206 Beijing (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • The presence of SO{sub 2} would hinder N{sub 2}O decomposition on CaO (1 0 0) surface. • N{sub 2}O decomposition pathway on deSO{sub x} intermediate was proposed. • Temperature dependence of the reaction pathway was considered. • Surface recovery process was the rate-determining step for N{sub 2}O catalytic decomposition. - Abstract: The influence of in situ deSO{sub x} process on N{sub 2}O emission in CFB boiler was studied using density functional theory calculations. The competitive adsorption of SO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O on pure CaO (1 0 0) surface was first studied and the reaction priority was determined. Results showed that SO{sub 2} was more likely to adsorb on CaO (1 0 0) surface O anion site, which hindered the catalytic decomposition of N{sub 2}O on CaO (1 0 0) surface and sulfurized the CaO (1 0 0) surface under reducing atmosphere. Then a partially sulfurized CaO (1 0 0) surface was established to study the catalytic activity of deSO{sub x} reaction intermediate on N{sub 2}O decomposition. The O atom transfer process and the surface recovery process were two key steps for N{sub 2}O decomposition and the rate-determining step was the latter one. The sulfurization of the surface could deactivate its catalytic activity on N{sub 2}O decomposition compared with pure CaO (1 0 0) surface but it was still better than that of pure CaS (1 0 0) surface. The free Gibbs energy was calculated to incorporate the temperature dependence of respective reactions. When temperature was higher than 373 K, the surface recovery was more likely to proceed via the LH route.

  5. Fuel oil-water emulsions to reduce unburned particle emissions from boilers; Emulsiones agua en combustoleo para reducir las emisiones de particulas inquemadas en calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Marin, Antonio; Ocampo Barrera, Rene; Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Tamayo Flores, Gustavo Adolfo; Alarcon Quiroz, Ernesto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    To diminish the problems caused by fuels in boilers such as abnormal soiling of heat interchange surfaces, decrease of thermal and combustion efficiencies and increment of pollutants it is proposed the utilization of fuel oil water emulsions. This technology process is described, its development and application in other countries is shown and mention is made of the experiences in this regard at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), as well as the perspectives this technology has in Mexico. In conclusion, the fuel oil water emulsion is an alternative that can help burning efficiently the fuel oil and so to contribute to fulfill with the limits established by the environmental regulations on pollutant emissions. The development of this technology is economical and of simple application, compared with others, such as the installation of new burners, the utilization of a commercial technology for flue gas conditioning, etcetera [Espanol] Para disminuir los problemas ocacionados por el combustoleo en las calderas como: ensuciamientos anormales de las superficies de intercambio de calor, disminucion de eficiencias termicas y de combustion e incremento de las emisiones, se propone la utilizacion de la emulsion de agua en combustoleo. Se describe el proceso de esta tecnologia, se muestra su desarrollo y aplicacion en otros paises y se mencionan las experiencias a este respecto en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como las perspectivas que tiene esta tecnologia en Mexico. En conclusion, la emulsion de agua en combustoleo es una alternativa que puede ayudar a quemar eficientemente al combustoleo y asi contribuir a cumplir con los limites de emisiones que establecen normas ambientales. El desarrollo de esta tecnologia es economica y de aplicacion sencilla, comparada con otras como: la instalacion de nuevos quemadores, la utilizacion de una tecnologia comercial para acondicionar los gases de combustion, etcetera

  6. Fuel oil-water emulsions to reduce unburned particle emissions from boilers; Emulsiones agua en combustoleo para reducir las emisiones de particulas inquemadas en calderas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diego Marin, Antonio; Ocampo Barrera, Rene; Martinez Flores, Marco Antonio; Tamayo Flores, Gustavo Adolfo; Alarcon Quiroz, Ernesto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    To diminish the problems caused by fuels in boilers such as abnormal soiling of heat interchange surfaces, decrease of thermal and combustion efficiencies and increment of pollutants it is proposed the utilization of fuel oil water emulsions. This technology process is described, its development and application in other countries is shown and mention is made of the experiences in this regard at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), as well as the perspectives this technology has in Mexico. In conclusion, the fuel oil water emulsion is an alternative that can help burning efficiently the fuel oil and so to contribute to fulfill with the limits established by the environmental regulations on pollutant emissions. The development of this technology is economical and of simple application, compared with others, such as the installation of new burners, the utilization of a commercial technology for flue gas conditioning, etcetera [Espanol] Para disminuir los problemas ocacionados por el combustoleo en las calderas como: ensuciamientos anormales de las superficies de intercambio de calor, disminucion de eficiencias termicas y de combustion e incremento de las emisiones, se propone la utilizacion de la emulsion de agua en combustoleo. Se describe el proceso de esta tecnologia, se muestra su desarrollo y aplicacion en otros paises y se mencionan las experiencias a este respecto en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), asi como las perspectivas que tiene esta tecnologia en Mexico. En conclusion, la emulsion de agua en combustoleo es una alternativa que puede ayudar a quemar eficientemente al combustoleo y asi contribuir a cumplir con los limites de emisiones que establecen normas ambientales. El desarrollo de esta tecnologia es economica y de aplicacion sencilla, comparada con otras como: la instalacion de nuevos quemadores, la utilizacion de una tecnologia comercial para acondicionar los gases de combustion, etcetera

  7. Performance of casting aluminum-silicon alloy condensing heating exchanger for gas-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weixue; Liu, Fengguo; You, Xue-yi

    2018-01-01

    Condensing gas boilers are widely used due to their high heat efficiency, which comes from their ability to use the recoverable sensible heat and latent heat in flue gas. The condensed water of the boiler exhaust has strong corrosion effect on the heat exchanger, which restricts the further application of the condensing gas boiler. In recent years, a casting aluminum-silicon alloy (CASA), which boasts good anti-corrosion properties, has been introduced to condensing hot water boilers. In this paper, the heat transfer performance, CO and NOx emission concentrations and CASA corrosion resistance of a heat exchanger are studied by an efficiency bench test of the gas-fired boiler. The experimental results are compared with heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka. The results show that the excess air coefficient has a significant effect on the heat efficiency and CO and NOx emission of the CASA water heater. When the excess air coefficient of the CASA gas boiler is 1.3, the CO and NOx emission concentration of the flue gas satisfies the design requirements, and the heat efficiency of water heater is 90.8%. In addition, with the increase of heat load rate, the heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger and the heat efficiency of the water heater are increased. However, when the heat load rate is at 90%, the NOx emission in the exhaust gas is the highest. Furthermore, when the temperature of flue gas is below 57 °C, the condensation of water vapor occurs, and the pH of condensed water is in the 2.5 5.5 range. The study shows that CASA water heater has good corrosion resistance and a high heat efficiency of 88%. Compared with the heat exchangers produced by Honeywell and Beka, there is still much work to do in optimizing and improving the water heater.

  8. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  9. Thermal design of horizontal tube boilers. Numerical and experimental investigation; Modelisation thermique de bouilleurs a tubes horizontaux. Etude numerique et validation experimentale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R.

    1999-11-26

    This work concerns the thermal design of kettle reboilers. Current methods are highly inaccurate, regarded to the correlations for external heat transfer coefficient at one tube scale, as well as to two-phase flow modelling at boiler scale. The aim of this work is to improve these thermal design methods. It contains an experimental investigation with typical operating conditions of such equipment: an hydrocarbon (n-pentane) with low mass flux. This investigation has lead to characterize the local flow pattern through void fraction measurements and, from this, to develop correlations for void fraction, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The approach is original, since the developed correlations are based on the liquid velocity at minimum cross section area between tubes, as variable characterizing the hydrodynamic effects on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. These correlations are shown to give much better results than those suggested up to now in the literature, which are empirical transpositions from methods developed for inside tube flows. Furthermore, the numerical code MC3D has been applied using the correlations developed in this work, leading to a modeling of the two-phase flow in the boiler, which is a significant progress compared to current simplified methods. (author)

  10. Dynamic model of a natural water circulation boiler suitable for on-line monitoring of fossil/alternative fuel plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedić, Almir; Katulić, Stjepko; Pavković, Danijel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Derivation of dynamic model of a natural water circulation boiler is presented. • Model is derived by employing basic laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum. • Thus obtained boiler model does not include empirical relationships. • Model is validated against experimental data related to an external disturbance event. • The final model is used for simulation analysis/assessment of key boiler quantities. - Abstract: The environmental protection policies and legal obligations motivate process industries to implement new low-emission and high-efficiency technologies. For the purpose of production process optimization and related control system design it is worthwhile to first build an appropriate process model. Apart from favorable execution speed, accuracy, and reliability features, the model also needs to be straightforward and only include the physical and design characteristics of the overall plant and its individual components, instead of relying on empirical relationships. To this end, this paper presents a nonlinear dynamic model of the single-drum natural-circulation steam boiler evaporator circuit, based exclusively on the fundamental physical laws of conservation of mass, energy and momentum, wherein the reliance upon empirical relationships has been entirely avoided. The presented boiler system modeling approach is based on the analysis of the physical phenomena within the boiler drum, as well as within downcomer and furnace tubes, and it also takes into account the boiler system design-specific features such as cyclone steam separators, thus facilitating the derivation of a fully-physical process model. Due to the straightforwardness of the derived process model, it should also be useful for the analysis of similar steam boiler facilities, requiring only adjustments of key operational and design parameters such as operating pressure, temperature, steam capacity and characteristics of ancillary equipment such as pumps. To

  11. Emission characteristics for gaseous- and size-segregated particulate PAHs in coal combustion flue gas from circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Yousaf, Balal; Wang, Jizhong; Liu, Rongqiong; Zhang, Hong

    2018-07-01

    The partitioning behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between gaseous and particulate phases from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) is critically important to predict PAH removal by dust control devices. In this study, 16 US-EPA priority PAHs in gaseous and size-segregated particulate phases at the inlet and outlet of the fabric filter unit (FFs) of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler were analyzed. The partitioning mechanisms of PAHs between gaseous and particulate phases and in particles of different size classes were investigated. We found that the removal efficiencies of PAHs are 45.59% and 70.67-89.06% for gaseous and particulate phases, respectively. The gaseous phase mainly contains low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2- and 3-ring PAHs), which is quite different from the particulate phase that mainly contains medium and high molecular weight (MMW and HMW) PAHs (4- to 6-ring PAHs). The fractions of LMW PAHs show a declining trend with the decrease of particle size. The gas-particle partitioning of PAHs is primarily controlled by organic carbon absorption, in addition, it has a clear dependence on the particle sizes. Plot of log (TPAH/PM) against logD p shows that all slope values were below -1, suggesting that PAHs were mainly adsorbed to particulates. The adsorption effect of PAHs in size-segregated PMs for HMW PAHs is more evident than LMW PAHs. The particle size distributions (PSDs) of individual PAHs show that most of PAHs exhibit bi-model structures, with one mode peaking in the accumulation size range (2.1-1.1 μm) and another mode peaking in coarse size range (5.8-4.7 μm). The intensities of these two peaks vary in function of ring number of PAHs, which is likely attributed to Kelvin effect that the less volatile HMW PAH species preferentially condense onto the finer particulates. The emission factor of PAHs was calculated as 3.53 mg/kg of coal burned, with overall mean EF PAH of 0.55 and 2.98 mg/kg for gaseous and particulate

  12. New thinking for the boiler room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Wayne

    2008-09-01

    Wayne Rose, marketing manager at integrated plant room manufacturer Armstrong Integrated Systems, explains how increasing use of off-site manufacture, the latest 3D modelling technology, and advances in control technology, are revolutionising boiler room design and construction.

  13. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  14. Multi-objective Optimization of Coal-fired Boiler Combustion Based on NSGA-II

    OpenAIRE

    Tingfang Yu; Hongzhen Zhu; Chunhua Peng

    2013-01-01

    NOx emission characteristics and overall heat loss model for a 300MW coal-fired boiler were established by Back Propagation (BP) neural network, by which the the functional relationship between outputs (NOx emissions & overall heat loss of the boiler) and inputs (operational parameters of the boiler) of a coal-fired boiler can be predicted. A number of field test data from a full-scale operating 300MWe boiler were used to train and verify the BP model. The NOx emissions & heat loss pr...

  15. Investigation of the flow, combustion, heat-transfer and emissions from a 609MW utility tangentially fired pulverized-coal boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Caillat, Sébastien; Harion, Jean-Luc.

    2002-01-01

    , some different strategies with the existing researches are used. Good agreement of simulation results with global design parameters and site operation records indicates this simulation is pretty reasonable and thus the conclusions of the gas flow deviation, emissions, combustion and heat transfer...

  16. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Coal combustion by-product quality at two stoker boilers: Coal source vs. fly ash collection system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardon, Sarah M. [Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Division of Water, Frankfort, KY 40601 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Department of Physical Sciences, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States); Marks, Maria N. [Environmental Consulting Services, Lexington, KY 40508 (United States); Hedges, Daniel H. [University of Kentucky, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Fly ashes from two stoker boilers burning Pennsylvanian Eastern Kentucky high volatile A bituminous coal blends were examined for their petrology and chemistry. The source coals have similar trace element contents. One of the ash collection systems was retrofitted with a baghouse (fabric filter) system, collecting a finer fly ash at a cooler flue gas temperature than the plant that has not been reconfigured. The baghouse ash has a markedly higher trace element content than the coarser fly ash from the other plant. The enhanced trace element content is most notable in the As concentration, reaching nearly 9000 ppm (ash basis) for one of the collection units. Differences in the ash chemistry are not due to any substantial differences in the coal source, even though the coal sources were from different counties and from different coal beds, but rather to the improved pollution control system in the steam plant with the higher trace element contents. (author)

  18. Boiler house modernization through shared savings program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W. [Tecogen, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Throughout Poland as well as the rest of Eastern Europe, communities and industries rely on small heat only boilers to provide district and process heat. Together these two sectors produce about 85,000 MW from boilers in the 2 to 35 MW size range. The bulk of these units were installed prior to 1992 and must be completely overhauled to meet the emission regulations which will be coming into effect on January 1, 1998. Since the only practical fuel is coal in most cases, these boilers must be either retrofit with emission control technology or be replaced entirely. The question that arises is how to accomplish this given the current tight control of capital in Poland and other East European countries. A solution that we have for this problem is shared savings. These boilers are typically operating with a quiet low efficiency as compared to western standards and with excessive manual labor. Installing modernization equipment to improve the efficiency and to automate the process provides savings. ECOGY provides the funds for the modernization to improve the efficiency, add automation and install emission control equipment. The savings that are generated during the operation of the modernized boiler system are split between the client company and ECOGY for a number of years and then the system is turned over in entirety to the client. Depending on the operating capacity, the shared savings agreement will usually span 6 to 10 years.

  19. Shielding design for positron emission tomography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    With the recent advent of readily available tracer isotopes, there has been marked increase in the number of hospital-based and free-standing positron emission tomography (PET) clinics. PET facilities employ relatively large activities of high-energy photon emitting isotopes, which can be dangerous to the health of humans and animals. This coupled with the current dose limits for radiation worker and members of the public can result in shielding requirements. This research contributes to the calculation of the appropriate shielding to keep the level of radiation within an acceptable recommended limit. Two different methods were used including measurements made at selected points of an operating PET facility and computer simulations by using Monte Carlo Transport Code. The measurements mainly concerned the radiation exposure at different points around facility using the survey meter detectors and Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD). Then the set of manual calculation procedures were used to estimate the shielding requirements for a newly built PEF facility. The results from the measurement and the computer simulation were compared to the results obtained from the set manual calculation procedure. In general, the estimated weekly dose at the points of interest is lower than the regulatory limits for the little company of Mary Hospital. Furthermore, the density and the HVL for normal strength concrete and clay bricks are almost similar. In conclusion, PET facilities present somewhat different design requirements and are more likely to require additional radiation shielding. Therefore, existing shields at the little Company of Mary Hospital are in general found to be adequate and satisfactory and additional shielding was found necessary at the new PET facility in the department of Nuclear Medicine of the Dr. George Mukhari Hospital. By use of appropriate design, by implying specific shielding requirements and by maintaining good operating practices, radiation doses to

  20. Characterizing Emissions from the Combustion of Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from two biofuels, a soy-based biodiesel and an animal-based biodiesel, were measured and compared to emissions from a distillate petroleum fuel oil. The three fuels were burned in a small fire tube boiler designed for use in institutional, commercial, and light industr...

  1. Analysis of proposed eco-design requirements for boilers and water heaters. Paper within the framwork of the ''Material Efficiency and Resource Conservation'' (MaRess) Project - Task 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthel, Klaus; Franke, Moritz [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In 2005, the European Union released the EuP Directive focusing on ecodesign requirements for energy-using products (2005/32/EC: EU Parliament and Council of the EU 2005). This directive, also called Ecodesign Directive, is a framework directive establishing a structure in which so-called implementing measures define specific requirements for placing products on the market and/or putting them into service within the internal European market. These requirements can be environmental performance standards (e.g. minimum energy efficiency or emission standards) and labelling or information requirements. Some existing European directives are already declared as being implementing measures of the Ecodesign Directive. Additionally, new implementing measures have been and will further be developed. Product-specific preparatory studies on behalf of the European Commission provide the basis for this. The preparatory studies for boilers (Lot 1) and water heaters (Lot 2) have been conducted from February 2006 to October 2007 by Van Holsteijn en Kemna (VHK). Based on the preparatory studies, the EU Commission has released several working documents (WD) on possible ecodesign requirements for boilers and water heaters at the beginning of 2008. Following these documents, boilers and water heaters comprise gas-fired, oil-fired and electric central heating (CH) (combi-) boilers / dedicated water heaters in combination with capturing solar thermal energy or ambient heat1. The requirements contain basically energy labelling measures, minimum efficiency performance standards and limits on NOx emissions. An ''Ecoboiler Model'' resp. an ''Eco Hot Water Model'' has been elaborated within the preparatory studies. These models are a crucial part of the requirements and allow for calculation of the efficiencies of boilers and water heaters. Since the models have a high degree of complexity, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) has asked Wuppertal

  2. Biomass boiler still best choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The City of Mount Gambier upgraded its boiler in September after analysis showed that biomass was still the optimal energy option. The Mount Gambier Aquatic Centre was built by the local city council in the 1980s as an outdoor pool facility for the public. The complex has three pools — an Olympic-sized, toddler and a learner pool — for a total volume of 1.38ML (including balance tanks). The large pool is heated to 27-28°C, the smaller one 30-32°C. From the very beginning, the pool water was heated by a biomass boiler, and via two heat exchangers whose combined capacity is 520 kW. The original biomass boiler ran on fresh sawdust from a local timber mill. After thirty years of dedicated service the original boiler had become unreliable and difficult to operate. Replacement options were investigated and included a straight gas boiler, a combined solar hot water and gas option, and biomass boilers. The boiler only produces heat, not electricity. All options were subjected to a triple bottom line assessment, which included potential capital costs, operating costs, community and environmental benefits and costs. The project was also assessed using a tool developed by Mount Gambier City Council that considers the holistic benefits — the CHAT Tool, which stands for Comprehensive Holistic Assessment Tool. “Basically it is a survey that covers environmental, social, economic and governance factors,” the council's environmental sustainability officer, Aaron Izzard told WME. In relation to environmental considerations, the kinds of questions explored by the CHAT Tool included: Sustainable use of resources — objective is to reduce council's dependence on non-renewable resources; Greenhouse emissions — objective is to reduce council's contribution of GHG into the atmosphere; Air quality — objective is to improve local air quality. The conclusion of these analyses was that while a biomass boiler would have a higher capital cost than a straight gas

  3. The impact of co-combustion of polyethylene plastics and wood in a small residential boiler on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, PAHs and 1,3,5- triphenylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsej, Tomas; Horak, Jiri; Tomsejova, Sarka; Krpec, Kamil; Klanova, Jana; Dej, Milan; Hopan, Frantisek

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate a banned but widely spread practice of co-combustion of plastic with wood in a small residential boiler and to quantify its impact on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (135TPB), a new tracer of polyethylene plastic combustion. Supermarket polyethylene shopping bags (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) were burnt as supplementary fuels with beech logs (BL) in an old-type 20 kW over-fire boiler both at a nominal and reduced heat output. An impact of co-combustion was more pronounced at the nominal heat output: an increase in emissions of PM, total organic carbon (TOC), toxic equivalent (TEQ) of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) and a higher ratio of c-PAHs TEQ in particulate phase was observed during co-combustion of both plastics. 135TPB was found in emissions from both plastics both at a nominal and reduced output. In contrast to findings reported in the literature, 135TPB was a dominant compound detected by mass spectrometry on m/z 306 exclusively in emissions from co-combustion of PE. Surprisingly, six other even more abundant compounds of unknown identity were found on this m/z in emissions from co-combustion of PET. One of these unknown compounds was identified as p-quaterphenyl (pQ). Principal component analysis revealed strong correlation among 135TPB, pQ and five unknown compounds. pQ seems to be suitable tracers of polyethylene terephthalate plastic co-combustion, while 135TPB proved its suitability to be an all-purpose tracer of polyethylene plastics combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Test of a small domestic boiler using different pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, J.; Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a 13 kW th commercial domestic boiler using pellets as fuel. Four different types of pellets were used and, for each one, the boiler was tested as a function of its capacity and the fan regulation affecting excess air. Measurements were performed for boiler heat load, pellet consumption rate, flue-gas temperature and composition. Mass balances allowed the calculation of the flue-gas flow rate and associated heat losses. Losses from incomplete combustion have also been quantified. Under boiler steady-state conditions the flue-gas O 2 concentration changes with boiler load and ventilation due to the regulation scheme of the boiler. Flue-gas CO shows a minimum for values of O 2 in the flue-gases of about 13%. NO x emissions are independent of excess air for low values of nitrogen in the fuel whereas, for larger values, NO x emissions increase with the O 2 present in the combustion products. The fractional conversion of the pellet nitrogen into NO x is in line with literature data. The boiler start-up was characterised by the temperature evolution inside and above the bed showing the propagation of combustion in the bed during about 10 min. During boiler start-up, a maximum in CO emissions was observed which is associated with the maximum combustion intensity, as typified by the flue-gas O 2 concentration and temperature, regardless the pellet type. (Author)

  5. Control of the Bed Temperature of a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler by using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYGUN, H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Circulating fluidized bed boilers are increasingly used in the power generation due to their higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Such boilers require an effective control of the bed temperature, because it influences the boiler combustion efficiency and the rate of harmful emissions. A Particle-Swarm-Optimization-Proportional-Integrative-Derivative (PSO-PID controller for the bed temperature of a circulating fluidized bed boiler is presented. In order to prove the capability of the proposed controller, its performances are compared at different boiler loads with those of a Fuzzy Logic (FL controller. The simulation results demonstrate some advantages of the proposed controller.

  6. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Basic research for promoting joint implementation, etc. (master plan for changing district heating boilers, Nizhniy Novgorod province); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Nizhniy Novgorod shu chiiki danboyo boiler tenkan master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The above-named plan aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy efficiency. The above-named Russian system for supplying heat and hot water is operated by the 51 local governments in the province, with boiler houses sited at 4047 locations. Almost all of them are approximately 30 years old, low in thermal efficiency because of their obsolete design and structure, costly because of their old parts and components wanting repair, and higher in fuel cost than those fired by natural gas. It is indispensable to replace the existing boilers with natural gas-fired boilers, and it is estimated that there are 4511 boilers that require such replacement. When the heat supply business operated by the local governments is modernized, the CO2 gas emission will be reduced by approximately 2.675-million tons/year. As for energy efficiency, it is found that replacement by heavy oil-fired boilers is the highest in terms of the effect of investment. (NEDO)

  8. Steam generators and waste heat boilers for process and plant engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ganapathy, V

    2014-01-01

    Incorporates Worked-Out Real-World ProblemsSteam Generators and Waste Heat Boilers: For Process and Plant Engineers focuses on the thermal design and performance aspects of steam generators, HRSGs and fire tube, water tube waste heat boilers including air heaters, and condensing economizers. Over 120 real-life problems are fully worked out which will help plant engineers in evaluating new boilers or making modifications to existing boiler components without assistance from boiler suppliers. The book examines recent trends and developments in boiler design and technology and presents novel idea

  9. 46 CFR 53.01-3 - Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure...) MARINE ENGINEERING HEATING BOILERS General Requirements § 53.01-3 Adoption of section IV of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Heating boilers shall be designed, constructed, inspected, tested...

  10. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial

  11. Modelling, simulating and optimizing boiler heating surfaces and evaporator circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    A model for optimizing the dynamic performance of boiler have been developed. Design variables related to the size of the boiler and its dynamic performance have been defined. The object function to be optimized takes the weight of the boiler and its dynamic capability into account. As constraints...... for the optimization a dynamic model for the boiler is applied. Furthermore a function for the value of the dynamic performance is included in the model. The dynamic models for simulating boiler performance consists of a model for the flue gas side, a model for the evaporator circuit and a model for the drum....... The dynamic model has been developed for the purpose of determining boiler material temperatures and heat transfer from the flue gas side to the water-/steam side in order to simulate the circulation in the evaporator circuit and hereby the water level fluctuations in the drum. The dynamic model has been...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Boilers that are effective as of October 1,...

  13. Charting the boiler market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The ''boiler market'' of electricity, sometimes called unsecured transmission, is electric power consumption that in public statistics is restricted by the obligation of the customers to cut their consumption at short notice and therefore are granted some discount on the network lease. The present document is part of a project that aims to provide a better understanding of the flexibility in the Norwegian power market, limited by the power-intensive industry and the boiler market. It discusses the boiler market. It begins with a discusses of the available statistics, where different sources show very dissimilar consumption figures. Then it examines how the consumption in the boiler market developed during the winter 2002/2003. Finally, there is a description of the regulations of unsecured transmission and how the various network owners adapt to the regulations.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF MODERNIZATION OF HIGH POWER WATER-HEATING BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Glamazdin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Boilers of KVGM and PTVM series are characterized by high values of NOx and CO content in the combustion products. Reduction of NOx and CO content can be achieved by two ways: by installing the condensing heat recovery unit at the boiler outlet and by improving the heat and mass transfer processes in boiler furnaces. Application of the condensing heat recovery units causes pollution of resulting condensate by low-concentration acids. The authors conducted a study in order to determine the effectiveness of the previously applied methods of suppressing the emission of nitrogen oxides in the boilers of these types. Equalization of the temperature field and, consequently, enhancement of heat transfer in the furnace by substitution the used burners by the more advanced ones, the design of which facilitates reduction the emission of nitrogen oxides, were applied to all the upgraded facilities. The studies fulfilled demonstrate that a reduction of NOx emissions in water-heating high power boilers is fairly possible by means of modernization of the latter. The authors have developed the project of the PTVM-30 boiler modernization, which was implemented at a large boiler plant in the city of Vinnitsa (Ukraine. The project included a number of technical solutions. Six burners were replaced by the two ones that were located in the hearth; also the hearth screen was dismantled. At the same time, reducing the total surface area of the heating caused by the exclusion of hearth screen was compensated by filling the locations of the six embrasures of staff burners on the side screens with straightened furnace tubes. Installing the burners separate from the screen made it possible to eliminate the transfer of vibration to the furnace tubes, and – via them – to the boilers setting. Automation provided “associated regulations”. Draught machines were equipped with frequency regulators. During commissioning of the boiler the studies were carried out that

  15. Experience of implementation of in-furnace methods of decreasing NO x in E-320-13.8-560GM boilers: Problems and ways for their solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Supranov, V. M.; Izyumov, M. A.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Usman, Yu. M.; Natal'in, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    During natural gas combustion, the content of nitrogen oxides in combustion products is approximately 450 mg/m3 in many E-320-13.8-560GM boilers in service, which is more than 3.5 times higher than the established maximum NO x concentrations in flue gases for such boilers. Estimates according to the existing techniques have shown that gas combustion on the basis of in-furnace techniques (the feeding of combustion products to burners together with air in the volume of 15% and two-stage combustion with 20% air feeding through the nozzles upstream of the burners) enables one to decrease NO x emissions to the level of concentrations of less than 100 mg/m3, which is lower than the maximum allowable values. However, the application of any of the proposed measures with respect to a boiler makes its operation under normal load significantly difficult, since the thermal capacity of the superheater is higher in both cases, which leads to an increase in the temperature of superheated steam above the maximum allowable temperature. On the basis of the developed adapted boiler model, which was created using the Boiler Designer software, we performed numerical studies to determine the required boiler reconstruction volume; the implementation of this reconstruction will provide reliable boiler operation at all working loads and ensure the normative values of NO x emissions. According to the results of thermal calculations, it was proposed to reduce the surface of the cold stage of the superheater circuit and increase the size of the economizer. It is noted that the implementation of environmental protection measures usually decreases the boiler efficiency. At the same time, it has been established that the technical and economic performance of the E-320-13.8-560GM boiler does not decrease owing to an increase in the economizer surface and a decrease in air inflows and overflows in regenerative air heaters and remains at the same level if the air inflow volume decreases from the

  16. Design and operating experience of the first commercial 0.4-5.0 MW fluidized bed boilers in Belarus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodulya, V.A.; Dobkin, S.M.; Telegin, E.M. [Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus). A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute

    1995-12-31

    The present paper describes the development of AFBC systems for industrial and district heating in the range of capacities less than 5 MWth. The main goal is a plant which can be operated automatically and which meets the severe emission standards burning various kinds of coals including combustible wastes. First operating results of a 0.4 MWth plant are presented and demonstrate the basic feasibility of the concept. 6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (S......, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices....

  18. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Lllll of... - Emission Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... efficiency of 99.5 percent; c. Route the emissions to a combustion device that does not use auxiliary fuel achieving a total hydrocarbon (THC) destruction efficiency of 95.8 percent; d. Route the emissions to a boiler or process heater with a design heat input capacity of 44 megawatts (MW) or greater; e. Introduce...

  20. Assessment of Some Performance Characteristics of Refuse Boiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pioneer palm oil boiler unit, in an immense power self-contained oil mill, impaired by many years of accumulated depreciation, was rebuilt in the pattern of a design-out scheme aimed primarily at rehabilitating the entire boiler system to a state of functionality. The research work studied the pre-maintenance and post ...

  1. Hybrid system for fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacin de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Mareda de Luna, 3, Zaragoza 50018, (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Renewable energy sources are essential paths towards sustainable development and CO{sub 2} emission reduction. For example, the European Union has set the target of achieving 22% of electricity generation from renewable sources by 2010. However, the extensive use of this energy source is being avoided by some technical problems as fouling and slagging in the surfaces of boiler heat exchangers. Although these phenomena were extensively studied in the last decades in order to optimize the behaviour of large coal power boilers, a simple, general and effective method for fouling control has not been developed. For biomass boilers, the feedstock variability and the presence of new components in ash chemistry increase the fouling influence in boiler performance. In particular, heat transfer is widely affected and the boiler capacity becomes dramatically reduced. Unfortunately, the classical approach of regular sootblowing cycles becomes clearly insufficient for them. Artificial Intelligence (AI) provides new means to undertake this problem. This paper illustrates a methodology based on Neural Networks (NNs) and Fuzzy-Logic Expert Systems to select the moment for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The main aim is to minimize the boiler energy and efficiency losses with a proper sootblowing activation. Although the NN type used in this work is well-known and the Hybrid Systems had been extensively used in the last decade, the excellent results obtained in the use of AI in industrial biomass boilers control with regard to previous approaches makes this work a novelty. (Author)

  2. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  3. Increasing the efficiency of the condensing boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytsev, ON; Lapina, EA

    2017-11-01

    Analysis of existing designs of boilers with low power consumption showed that the low efficiency of the latter is due to the fact that they work in most cases when the heating period in the power range is significantly less than the nominal power. At the same time, condensing boilers do not work in the most optimal mode (in condensing mode) in the central part of Russia, a significant part of their total operating time during the heating season. This is due to existing methods of equipment selection and joint operation with heating systems with quantitative control of the coolant. It was also revealed that for the efficient operation of the heating system, it is necessary to reduce the inertia of the heat generating equipment. Theoretical patterns of thermal processes in the furnace during combustion gas at different radiating surfaces location schemes considering the influence of the very furnace configuration, characterized in that to reduce the work condensing boiler in conventional gas boiler operation is necessary to maintain a higher temperature in the furnace (in the part where spiral heat exchangers are disposed), which is possible when redistributing heat flow - increase the proportion of radiant heat from the secondary burner emitter allow Perey For the operation of the condensing boiler in the design (condensation) mode practically the entire heating period.

  4. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

  5. Project recovers free wasted energy from an OSB dryer while eliminating a hog boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normandin, A.; Levesque, S.; Laflamme, Y.; Charron, R. [Mesar-Environair Inc., Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    This article described how a mill producing oriented strand board (OSB) in Quebec optimized its energy balance with the installation of a flue gas heat recovery (FGHR) system developed by Mesar-Environair Inc. Many OSB mills produce enough wood waste heat to supply their hog boilers with valuable, yet inexpensive, fuel. The objective of this project was to recover waste heat and to find an application in the milling process to re-valorize it. The plant was using 3 hog boilers to heat thermal oil for their process, but only the newest hog boiler was in compliance for particulate emissions levels. The solution involved the use of a direct contact heat exchanger to meet the mill's requirements. The process consisted of pumping the log pond water in a counter-current direction to the humid OSB dryer flue gas. The energy was transferred from the gas to the water via vapor condensation. The customized equipment recovered most of the wasted heat and transferred it to the plant's log ponds. Cool process water from the log ponds was then recirculated through the condenser to trap the wasted energy. The efficiency of the main hog boiler and the chip dry was about 80 per cent. The FGHR process was designed to recover 85 per cent of the wasted energy that was directed to the atmosphere. The heat recovery unit can typically generate temperatures of 70 to 80 degrees C. In addition to fewer emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides going out the stack, the FGHR system offers the advantages of heating the process water without additional fuel, and shutting down an old hog boiler. 1 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Boiler corrosion (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964-Jul 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1976-07-01

    Research on design, improved efficiency, materials, cathodic protection, corrosion inhibiting additives and combustion in coal and fuel oil fired boilers are cited. Corrosion from limestone injection for pollution control, magnetohydrodynamics, ship boilers, and nuclear power plant boilers are included. (This updated bibliography contains 86 abstracts, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  8. Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design for Reduced-Emission Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher; Johnson, Wayne; Solis, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Python-based wrappers for OpenMDAO are used to integrate disparate software for practical conceptual design of rotorcraft. The suite of tools which are connected thus far include aircraft sizing, comprehensive analysis, and parametric geometry. The tools are exercised to design aircraft with aggressive goals for emission reductions relative to fielded state-of-the-art rotorcraft. Several advanced reduced-emission rotorcraft are designed and analyzed, demonstrating the flexibility of the tools to consider a wide variety of potentially transformative vertical flight vehicles. To explore scale effects, aircraft have been sized for 5, 24, or 76 passengers in their design missions. Aircraft types evaluated include tiltrotor, single-main-rotor, coaxial, and side-by-side helicopters. Energy and drive systems modeled include Lithium-ion battery, hydrogen fuel cell, turboelectric hybrid, and turboshaft drive systems. Observations include the complex nature of the trade space for this simple problem, with many potential aircraft design and operational solutions for achieving significant emission reductions. Also interesting is that achieving greatly reduced emissions may not require exotic component technologies, but may be achieved with a dedicated design objective of reducing emissions.

  9. Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortz, Charlene L.; Huang, Chi-Chien N.; Ravich, Joshua A.; Steiner, Carl N.

    2013-01-01

    This packaging design approach can help heritage hardware meet a flight project's stringent EMC radiated emissions requirement. The approach requires only minor modifications to a hardware's chassis and mainly concentrates on its connector interfaces. The solution is to raise the surface area where the connector is mounted by a few millimeters using a pedestal, and then wrapping with conductive tape from the cable backshell down to the surface-mounted connector. This design approach has been applied to JPL flight project subsystems. The EMC radiated emissions requirements for flight projects can vary from benign to mission critical. If the project's EMC requirements are stringent, the best approach to meet EMC requirements would be to design an EMC control program for the project early on and implement EMC design techniques starting with the circuit board layout. This is the ideal scenario for hardware that is built from scratch. Implementation of EMC radiated emissions mitigation techniques can mature as the design progresses, with minimal impact to the design cycle. The real challenge exists for hardware that is planned to be flown following a built-to-print approach, in which heritage hardware from a past project with a different set of requirements is expected to perform satisfactorily for a new project. With acceptance of heritage, the design would already be established (circuit board layout and components have already been pre-determined), and hence any radiated emissions mitigation techniques would only be applicable at the packaging level. The key is to take a heritage design with its known radiated emissions spectrum and repackage, or modify its chassis design so that it would have a better chance of meeting the new project s radiated emissions requirements.

  10. Numerical modelling of a straw-fired grate boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a 33 MW straw-fired grate boiler. Combustion on the grate plays akey-role in the analysis of these boilers and in this work a stand-alone code was used to provide inlet conditions for the CFD analysis. Modelpredictions were...... compared with available gas temperature and species concentration measurements showing good agreement. Combustionof biomass in grate-based boilers is often associated with high emission levels and relatively high amounts of unburnt carbon in the fly ash.Based on the CFD analysis, it is suggested that poor...

  11. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskinazi, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Tavoulareas, E.S. [Energy Technologies Enterprises Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  12. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  13. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  14. BPACK -- A computer model package for boiler reburning/co-firing performance evaluations. User`s manual, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, K.T.; Li, B.; Payne, R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual presents and describes a package of computer models uniquely developed for boiler thermal performance and emissions evaluations by the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The model package permits boiler heat transfer, fuels combustion, and pollutant emissions predictions related to a number of practical boiler operations such as fuel-switching, fuels co-firing, and reburning NO{sub x} reductions. The models are adaptable to most boiler/combustor designs and can handle burner fuels in solid, liquid, gaseous, and slurried forms. The models are also capable of performing predictions for combustion applications involving gaseous-fuel reburning, and co-firing of solid/gas, liquid/gas, gas/gas, slurry/gas fuels. The model package is conveniently named as BPACK (Boiler Package) and consists of six computer codes, of which three of them are main computational codes and the other three are input codes. The three main codes are: (a) a two-dimensional furnace heat-transfer and combustion code: (b) a detailed chemical-kinetics code; and (c) a boiler convective passage code. This user`s manual presents the computer model package in two volumes. Volume 1 describes in detail a number of topics which are of general users` interest, including the physical and chemical basis of the models, a complete description of the model applicability, options, input/output, and the default inputs. Volume 2 contains a detailed record of the worked examples to assist users in applying the models, and to illustrate the versatility of the codes.

  15. A Multiperiod Supply Chain Network Design Considering Carbon Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a mixed integer linear programming formulation for modeling and solving a multiperiod one-stage supply chain distribution network design problem. The model is aimed to minimize two objectives, the total supply chain cost and the greenhouse gas emissions generated mainly by transportation and warehousing operations. The demand forecast is known for the planning horizon and shortage of demand is allowed at a penalty cost. This scenario must satisfy a minimum service level. Two carbon emission regulatory policies are investigated, the tax or carbon credit and the carbon emission cap. Computational experiments are performed to analyze the trade-offs between the total cost of the supply chain, the carbon emission quantity, and both carbon emission regulatory policies. Results demonstrate that for a certain range the carbon credit price incentivizes the reduction of carbon emissions to the environment. On the other hand, modifying the carbon emission cap inside a certain range could lead to significant reductions of carbon emission while not significantly compromising the total cost of the supply chain.

  16. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Mamoru

    2000-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m 3 , and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m 2 . This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  17. Reconstruction actions carried out in order to achieve nominal design heat capacity of hot water boilers type VKSM 40; A product of TPK-Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica

    2000-01-01

    Hot water boilers with a steep turbines membranous produced by TPK-Zagreb in 1979 are projected for nominal capacity of 46.52 MW. But it was demonstrated in practice, according the performed measurements, that during the exploitation they do not give declared thermal power. In this article the chronological review of all successful performed reconstructive operations by engineering staff from Toplifikacija Joint-Stock Co. for district heating -Skopje (Macedonia) on the hot water boilers type VKSM40 with nominal capacity of 46.52 MW is given. (Authors)

  18. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  19. THE DETERMINATION THE POLLUTION EMISSIONS OF SO2, NOX, CO, CO2 AND O2 FROM THE CHANNELS OF BURNT GAS ON BOILER OF 420 T/H - STEAM, IN THE SIGHT APPLICATION PROCEEDING TO REDUCE OF THESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Nedeff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The work present the results obtained after dynamic analyze the pollution emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, CO2 and O2 on evacuation channels of burnt gas on boiler of 420 t/h steam, having right the basic combustible the lignite, and auxiliary combustible the fuel oil and the natural gas. The values of pollution emission was analyze beside the admissible maxims values required by European legislation for Romania in the year 2005. The conclusion elaborated it adverted to: the values of oxides azoth, carry they frame in the limits provide in Environmental Authorization, under 60 mg/Nmc on 6% oxygen, the concentration values of SO2 which was bigger in report with one authorized comprised between 3500-3900 mg/Nmc confronted by 3400 mg/Nm. For integration in the foresee Government Decision 541/2003 aren't sufficient just proceeding of below reduce SO2, must take and another measures such as: get the fuel with quantity of sulphur 0.5% and with a content of ash below 35%.

  20. Optimising boiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoh, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Soaring fuel costs continue to put the squeeze on already tight health service budgets. Yet it is estimated that combining established good practice with improved technologies could save between 10% and 30% of fuel costs for boilers. Paul Mayoh, UK technical manager at Spirax Sarco, examines some of the practical measures that healthcare organisations can take to gain their share of these potential savings.

  1. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  2. Design of H2/H∞ RMPC for Boiler Superheated Steam Temperature Based on Memoryless Feedback Multistep Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The collection of superheated steam temperature models of a thermal power plant under different loads can be approximated to “multimodel” linear uncertain systems. After transformation, the tracking system was obtained from “multimodel” linear uncertain systems. For this tracking uncertain system, a mixed H2/H∞ robust model predictive control (HRMPC based on a memoryless feedback multistep strategy is proposed. A multistep control strategy combines the advantages of predictive control rolling optimization with memoryless feedback control thoughts. It could effectively decrease the controller optimization parameter and ensure closed-loop system stability, and, at the same time, it also achieved acceptable control performance. Successful application to the superheated steam temperature system of a 300 MW thermal power plant verified the study of the HRMPC-P cascade controller design scheme in terms of feasibility and effectiveness.

  3. The influence of design and fuel parameters on the particle emissions from wood pellets combustion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiinikka, Henrik; Gebart, Rikard [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Combustion of solid biomass under fixed bed conditions is a common technique to generate heat and power in both small and large scale grate furnaces (domestic boilers, stoves, district heating plants). Unfortunately, combustion of biomass will generate particle emissions containing both large fly ash particles and fine particles that consist of fly ash and soot. The large fly ash particles have been produced from fusion of non-volatile ash-forming species in burning char particle. The inorganic fine particles have been produced from nucleation of volatilised ash elements (K, Na, S, Cl and Zn). If the combustion is incomplete, soot particles are also produced from secondary reaction of tar. The particles in the fine fraction grows by coagulation and coalescence to a particle diameter around 0.1 pm. Since the smallest particles are very hard to collect in ordinary cleaning devices they contribute to the ambient air pollution. Furthermore, fine airborne particles have been correlated to adverse effects on the human health. It is therefore essential to minimize particle formation from the combustion process and thereby reduce the emissions of particulates to the ambient air. The aim with this project is to study particle emissions from small scale combustion of wood pellets and to investigate the impact of different operating, construction and fuel parameters on the amount and characteristic of the combustion generated particles. To address these issues, experiments were carried out in a 10 kW updraft fired wood pellets reactor that has been custom designed for systematic investigations of particle emissions. In the flue gas stack, particle emissions were sampled on a filter. The particle mass and number size distributions were analysed by a low pressure cascade impactor and a SMPS (Scanning Electron Mobility Particle Sizer). The results showed that the temperature and the flow pattern in the combustion zone affect the particle emissions. Increasing combustion

  4. Design of a hybrid emissivity domestic electric oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Ozgur; Onbasioglu, Seyhan Uygur

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the radiative properties of the surfaces of an electric oven were investigated. Using experimental data related to an oven-like enclosure, a novel combination of surface properties was developed. Three different surface emissivity combinations were analysed experimentally: low-emissivity, high emissivity (black-coated), and hybrid emissivity. The term "hybrid emissivity design" here corresponds to an enclosure with some high emissive and some low-emissive surfaces. The experiments were carried out according to the EN 50304 standard. When a brick (load) was placed in the enclosure, the view factors between its surfaces were calculated with the Monte Carlo method. These and the measured surface temperatures were then used to calculate the radiative heat fluxes on the surfaces of the load. The three different models were compared with respect to energy consumption and baking time. The hybrid model performed best, with the highest radiative heat transfer between the surfaces of the enclosure and the load and minimum heat loss from the cavity. Thus, it was the most efficient model with the lowest energy consumption and the shortest baking time. The recent European Union regulation regarding the energy labelling of domestic ovens was used.

  5. Cofiring of rice straw and coal in a coal-fired utility boiler: thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia, Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Cofiring combustion of biomass and coal is a near-term, low cost alternative for reduction fossil greenhouse gas emissions in coal fired power plants. Recent reviews identified over 288 applications in over 16 countries with promising results for different coal and biomass combinations. In Brazil, there is no previous experience of cofiring biomass and coal, resulting in new challenges to fuel handling and boiler operation. A first experience is now proposed into an existing coal power plant, using rice straw as biomass fuel. A thermodynamic model was developed in order to predict operating and emissions data, which should be used in cofiring system design. For 10% of biomass input, the total CO{sub 2} emission is expected to slightly increase. However, considering only the coal CO{sub 2} emission, it is expected to decrease in about 10%. Also, the corresponding SO{sub 2} emission decreases in about 8%. (author)

  6. Optimisation of Marine Boilers using Model-based Multivariable Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian

    Traditionally, marine boilers have been controlled using classical single loop controllers. To optimise marine boiler performance, reduce new installation time and minimise the physical dimensions of these large steel constructions, a more comprehensive and coherent control strategy is needed....... This research deals with the application of advanced control to a specific class of marine boilers combining well-known design methods for multivariable systems. This thesis presents contributions for modelling and control of the one-pass smoke tube marine boilers as well as for hybrid systems control. Much...... of the focus has been directed towards water level control which is complicated by the nature of the disturbances acting on the system as well as by low frequency sensor noise. This focus was motivated by an estimated large potential to minimise the boiler geometry by reducing water level fluctuations...

  7. Development of newly designed wood burning systems with low emissions and high efficiency; Tehokkaan ja vaehaepaeaestoeisen puulaemmitysjaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyytiaeinen, H [Tulisydaen Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The investigations in the project will focus on the combustion behaviour of wood burning systems of untreated wood fuels with batch-wise and quasi-continuous mechanical feeding. The objectives will be to minimise the pollutant release of these combustion systems during the different operational phases by a consequent optimisation of the fuel burning technique and to reduce the CO release by increasing the efficiency of the combustion. To reduce the pollutant release during the operation phases and to increase the efficiency, products of incomplete combustion i.e. carbon monoxide, toxic organic compounds like benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot have to be minimised in a further extent. For that the following goals will be attained: improvement of the mixing process of combustion gases in the reaction zones, averaging the residence time spectrum in the burnout zone reduction, of emissions during initial and burnout phase in firings with batch-wise feeding reduction of emissions under partial-load conditions in firings with quasi-continuous feeding, higher combustion stability even in case of changing fuel qualities, defining guidelines for the design of stoves and boilers with low emissions and high efficiency. By the foreseen reduction of the pollutant release and improved efficiency the environmental acceptance of wood combustion firings can be increased and for instance local restrictions can be removed. The project is funded in part by The European Commission in the framework of The Non Nuclear Energy Programme. (orig.)

  8. Development of High-Powered Steam Turbines by OAO NPO Central Research and Design Institute for Boilers and Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Kovalev, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the developments by OAO NPO TsKTI aimed at improvement of components and assemblies of new-generation turbine plants for ultra-supercritical steam parameters to be installed at the power-generating facilities in service. The list of the assemblies under development includes cylinder shells, the cylinder's flow paths and rotors, seals, bearings, and rotor cooling systems. The authors consider variants of the shafting-cylinder configurations for which advanced high-pressure and intermediate-pressure cylinders with reactive blading and low-pressure cylinders of conventional design and with counter-current steam flows are proposed and high-pressure rotors, which can increase the economic efficiency and reduce the overall turbine plant dimensions. Materials intended for the equipment components that operate at high temperatures and a steam cooling technique that allows the use of cheaper steel grades owing to the reduction in the metal's working temperature are proposed. A new promising material for the bearing surfaces is described that enables the operation at higher unit pressures. The material was tested on a full-scale test bench at OAO NPO TsKTI and a turbine in operation. Ways of controlling the erosion of the blades in the moisture-steam turbine compartments by the steam heating of the hollow guide blades are considered. To ensure the dynamic stability of the shafting, shroud and diaphragm seals that prevent the development of the destabilizing circulatory forces of the steam flow were devised and trialed. Advanced instrumentation and software are proposed to monitor the condition of the blading and thermal stresses under transient conditions, to diagnose the vibration processes, and to archive the obtained data. Attention is paid to the normalization of the electromagnetic state of the plant in order to prevent the electrolytic erosion of the plant components. The instrumentation intended for monitoring the relevant electric

  9. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  11. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  12. Model-based Control of a Bottom Fired Marine Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, Brian; Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Andersen, Palle

    This paper focuses on applying model based MIMO control to minimize variations in water level for a specific boiler type. A first principles model is put up. The model is linearized and an LQG controller is designed. Furthermore the benefit of using a steam °ow measurement is compared to a strategy...... relying on estimates of the disturbance. Preliminary tests at the boiler system show that the designed controller is able to control the boiler process. Furthermore it can be concluded that relying on estimates of the steam flow in the control strategy does not decrease the controller performance...

  13. STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF A STEAM BOILER BENSON ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racoceanu Cristinel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on the influence of the energy efficiency of a steam boiler of 330 MW energy group on the environment. The Benson boiler works with powdered lignite. We present the results of experimental measurements on immission and emissions of pollutants resulting from burning lignite: SO2, NOx, PM10, PM2,5, TSP. Experimental measurements were performed on the boilers of 330MW power units of the thermoelectric plant of Rovinari.

  14. Co-firing of coal with biomass and waste in full-scale suspension-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frandsen, Flemming J.; Jensen, Peter A.; Jensen, Anker D. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The energy policy in Denmark has for many years focused on lowering the net CO{sub 2} emission from heat and power production by replacing fossil fuels by renewable resources. This has been done by developing dedicated grate-fired boilers for biomass and waste fuels but also by developing coal-based suspension-fired boilers to accept still higher fractions of biomass or waste material as fuels. This last development has been challenging of many reasons, including pre-treatment of fuels, and solving potential emission and operational problems during the simultaneous development of supercritical steam cycles with steam temperatures close to 600 C, providing power efficiencies close to 50% (Hein KRG, Sustainable energy supply and environment protection - strategies, resources and technologies. In: Gupta R, Wall T, Hupa M, Wigley F, Tillman D, Frandsen FJ (eds) Proceedings of international conference on impact of fuel quality on power production and the environment, Banff Conference Centre, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 29 Sept-4 Oct, 2008). For 25 years the CHEC (Combustion and Harmful Emission Control) Research Centre at DTU Chemical Engineering, has attained a leading role in research, supporting power producing industry, plant owners and boiler manufacturers to optimize design and operation and minimize cost and environmental impact using alternative fuels in suspension fired boilers. Our contribution has been made via a combination of full-scale measuring campaigns, pilot-scale studies, lab-scale measurements and modeling tools. The research conducted has addressed many issues important for co-firing, i.e. fuel processing, ash induced boiler deposit formation and corrosion, boiler chamber fuel conversion and emission formation, influence on flue gas cleaning equipment and the utilization of residual products. This chapter provides an overview of research activities, aiming at increasing biomass shares during co-firing in suspension, conducted in close collaboration with

  15. Boiler for combustion fuel in a fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laković Mirjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel combustion in fluidized bed combustion is a process that is current and which every day gives more attention and there are many studies that have been closely associated with this technology. This combustion technology is widespread and constantly improving the range of benefits it provides primarily due to reduced emissions. This paper presents the boilers for combustion in a fluidized bed, whit characteristics and advantages. Also is shown the development of this type of boilers in Republic of Serbia. In this paper is explained the concept of fluidized bed combustion. Boilers for this type of combustion can be improved and thereby increase their efficiency level. More detailed characteristics are given for boilers with bubbling and circulating fluidized bed as well as their mutual comparison.

  16. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  17. Up-date on cyclone combustion and cyclone boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Felipe Alfaia do; Nogueira, Manoel Fernandes Martins; Rocha, Rodrigo Carnera Castro da; Gazel, Hussein Felix; Martins, Diego Henrique dos Reis [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Campus Universitario Jose da Silveira Netto], E-mails: mfmn@ufpa.br, mfmn@ufpa.br

    2010-07-01

    The boiler concept has been around for more than 70 years, and there are many types available. Boilers provide steam or hot water for industrial and commercial use. The Federal University of Para (UFPA) through the research group EBMA (Energy,Biomass and Environment) has been developing cyclonic furnace with a water wall, a boiler, aiming to use regional timbers (sawdust) and agro-industries residues as fuel to produce steam to be used in industrial processes as well as in power generation,. The use of cyclonic combustion for burning waste instead of burning in a fixed bed is mainly due to two factors efficiency improvement causing a more compact boiler and less risk of explosion, since their process does not generate an accumulation of volatile. Present state-of-art for commercial cyclone boilers has as set up a cyclone combustor with two combustion chambers, in fluid communication, where there ducts for supplying air and fuel directly into the first chamber and for forming a cyclonic flow pattern and a heat exchanger surrounding the second chamber for keeping low combustion temperature in both chambers. This paper shows the results of a literature review about design, construction and operation of cyclonic boilers using solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. This information has been used for the design of a cyclone boiler to be constructed at UFPA for research purposes and its basic concept is presented at the end of this article. (author)

  18. Design of acoustic emission monitoring system based on VC++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; He, Wei

    2015-12-01

    At present, a lot of companies at home and abroad have researched and produced a batch of specialized monitoring instruments for acoustic emission (AE). Most of them cost highly and the system function exists in less stable and less portability for the testing environment and transmission distance and other aspects. Depending on the research background and the status quo, a dual channel intelligent acoustic emission monitoring system was designed based on Microsoft Foundation Classes in Visual Studio C++ to solve some of the problems in the acoustic emission research and meet the needs of actual monitoring task. It contains several modules such as main module, acquisition module, signal parameters setting module and so on. It could give out corrosion AE waveform and signal parameters results according to the main menu selected parameters. So the needed information could be extracted from the experiments datum to solve the problem deeply. This soft system is the important part of AE detection g system.

  19. Recovery boiler model; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Ylitalo, M.; Sundstroem, K.; Helke, R.; Heinola, M. [Kvaerner Pulping Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recovery boiler model was further tested and developed. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. During 1996 the formation of CH{sub 4} during pyrolysis and release of sulfur was included to the model. Further the formation of NO from fuel nitrogen and formation of thermal- NO were included to the model using Arrhenius type reaction rate equations. The calculated results are realistic and the model is used as a tool to find out methods to increase the efficiency and availability and decrease the emissions. Analysing the results of the earlier field study of 8 boilers showed that the furnace heat load, fuming rate, find the black liquor composition have influence on the enrichment of the potassium to the fly ash. (orig.)

  20. Biomass Cofiring in Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-06-01

    Cofiring biomass-for example, forestry residues such as wood chips-with coal in existing boilers is one of the easiest biomass technologies to implement in a federal facility. The current practice is to substitute biomass for up to 20% of the coal in the boiler. Cofiring has many benefits: it helps to reduce fuel costs as well as the use of landfills, and it curbs emissions of sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, and the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels. This Federal Technology Alert was prepared by the Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program to give federal facility managers the information they need to decide whether they should pursue biomass cofiring at their facilities.

  1. Fouling control in biomass boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Luis M.; Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    One of the important challenges for biomass combustion in industrial applications is the fouling tendency and how it affects to the boiler performance. The classical approach for this question is to activate sootblowing cycles with different strategies to clean the boiler (one per shift, one each six hours..). Nevertheless, it has been often reported no effect on boiler fouling or an excessive steam consumption for sootblowing. This paper illustrates the methodology and the application to select the adequate time for activating sootblowing in an industrial biomass boiler. The outcome is a control strategy developed with artificial intelligence (Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic Expert System) for optimizing the biomass boiler cleaning and maximizing heat transfer along the time. Results from an optimize sootblowing schedule show savings up to 12 GWh/year in the case-study biomass boiler. Extra steam generation produces an average increase of turbine power output of 3.5%. (author)

  2. Economical analyses of construction of a biomass boiler house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normak, A.

    2002-01-01

    To reduce the energy costs we can use cheaper fuel to fire our boiler. One of the cheapest fuels is wood biomass. It is very actual issue how to use cheaper wood biomass in heat generation to decrease energy costs and to increase biomass share in our energy balance. Before we decide to build biomass boiler house it is recommendable to analyse the economical situation and work out most profitable, efficient, reliable and ecological boiler plant design on particular conditions. The best way to perform the analyses is to use the economical model presented. It saves our time and gives objective evaluation to the project. (author)

  3. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  4. Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Lara; Wopienka, Elisabeth; Pointner, Christian; Lundgren, Joakim; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance evaluation of a pellet boiler operated with different agricultural fuels. ► Agricultural fuels could be burn in the tested boiler for a certain period of time. ► All the fuels (except straw and Sorghum) satisfied the European legal requirements. ► Boilers for burning agricultural fuels should have a flexible control system. - Abstract: The increasing demand for woody biomass increases the price of this limited resource, motivating the growing interest in using woody materials of lower quality as well as non-woody biomass fuels for heat production in Europe. The challenges in using non-woody biomass as fuels are related to the variability of the chemical composition and in certain fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of a 15 kW pellet boiler when operated with different pelletized biomass fuels, namely straw (Triticum aestivum), Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), maize (Zea mays), wheat bran, vineyard pruning (from Vitis vinifera), hay, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wood (from Picea abies) with 5% rye flour. The gaseous and dust emissions as well as the boiler efficiency were investigated and compared with the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5 (final draft of the European standard 303-5). It was found that the boiler control should be improved to better adapt the combustion conditions to the different properties of the agricultural fuels. Additionally, there is a need for a frequent cleaning of the heat exchangers in boilers operated with agricultural fuels to avoid efficiency drops after short term operation. All the agricultural fuels satisfied the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5, with the exception of dust emissions during combustion of straw and Sorghum. Miscanthus and vineyard pruning were the best fuels tested showing comparable emission values to wood combustion

  5. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  6. Engine design optimization for running on ethanol with low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjirja, S [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden). Dept. of Thermo- and Fluid Dynamics

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this project was to optimize the Volvo AH10A245 engine design parameters for ethanol fuel with Beraid (Trade mark of the ignition improver manufactured by the Akzo Nobel Surface Chemistry AB). The method used was engine testing with variation of design, performance, and other functional parameters, which affect the engine thermodynamics, and exhaust gas composition. The first design parameter, which was tested and optimized was the compression ratio, which was optimized at the ratio of 23:1. In order to prevail the fuel spray impingement, which might affect the unburned or partially burned emissions (CO), the combustion chamber was redesigned to a straight-side wall bowl in piston. Furthermore, the injector position was optimized by means of lifting or descending it few millimeters. The best emission levels was achieved with the injector lift of 1.00 mm. The inlet air temperature was optimized for lower emissions by removing the intercooler thermostat. Injector nozzles with different cross section areas of holes were tested, and the 6 holes injector nozzles with smaller cross sectional area, compared with base nozzles, were selected. The engine performance was maintained for lower engine rated speed 2000 (instead of 2200 rpm for conventional engine) and lower intermediate speed 1250 (instead of 1320 rpm for conventional engine). Such engine performance optimization was followed by the improved specific fuel consumption, and lower emissions compared with conventional speeds. The backpressure governor, desperately needed during the first phase of engine design optimization was, finally avoided. It can only be used as in the conventional diesel engine. 7 refs, 26 figs, 18 tabs, 7 appendices

  7. A novel direct-fired porous-medium boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, power and heat generation systems pay an important role in all economic sectors. These systems are mainly based on combustion reaction and operated under the second law of thermodynamics. A conventional boilers, a main component of heat and power generators, have thermal efficiency in the range of 70 to 85%, mainly owing to they have flue gas heat loss. This paper proposes a novel type of boiler, called a Direct-fired Porous-medium Boiler (DPB). Due to being operated without flue gas heat loss, its thermal efficiency cloud be approximately close to 100%. The steam produced from the proposed boiler; however, is not pure water steam. It is the composite gases of steam and combustion-product-gases. This paper aims at presenting the working concept and reporting the experimental results on the performance of the proposed boiler. The experiments of various operating parameters were performed and collected data were used for the performance analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed boiler can be operated as well as the conceptual design and then it is promising. It can be possibly further developed to be a high efficiency boiler by means of reducing or suppressing the surface heat loss with better insulator and/or refractory lined.

  8. Cross connecting absorber module inlets of multiple boiler units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, A.J.; Sperber, P.K.; Belavadi, V.N.; Mukherji, A.

    1991-01-01

    The retrofitting of scrubbers downstream of existing balanced draft boilers is often accomplished by the addition of induced draft (ID) booster fans. By creating a common plenum between the ID fans and the ID booster fans of two or more boiler-absorber trains, absorber module capacity may be shared among multiple boiler units. At Harrison Power Station, three (3) 4,900,000 lb/hour boilers (640 MWe Gross) will be linked through a common plenum. This sharing capability precludes the need to add standby module capacity, thereby saving capital dollars and keeping project critical path schedules, which typically run through absorber procurement and construction, to a minimum. Through damper placement in the ductwork cross connections, unitized boiler-absorber module operation or common plenum operation may be obtained, thus providing both operational flexibility and reliability. Additionally, open plenum operation allows the removal of an absorber unit from service, while keeping its associated boiler on line, thereby precluding 'cold starts' and maintaining overall unit availabilities. As either unitized or common plenum operation is possible with the cross connection, the furnace draft control systems of each boiler must be examined for varying load operation and trip conditions. This paper addresses the means by which to analyze such cross connection operational scenarios while maintaining compliance with furnace flame out safety guidelines, and will discuss the physical design considerations, ramifications and benefits of same, with select emphasis on what is being implemented at the Harrison Power Station

  9. Design of a volume-imaging positron emission tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, R.; Rogers, J.G.; Coombes, G.H.; Wilkinson, N.A.; Pate, B.D.; Morrison, K.S.; Stazyk, M.; Dykstra, C.J.; Barney, J.S.; Atkins, M.S.; Doherty, P.W.; Saylor, D.P.

    1988-11-01

    Progress is reported in several areas of design of a positron volume imaging tomograph. As a means of increasing the volume imaged and the detector packing fraction, a lens system of detector light coupling is considered. A prototype layered scintillator detector demonstrates improved spatial resolution due to a unique Compton rejection capability. The conceptual design of a new mechanism for measuring scattered radiation during emission scans has been tested by Monte Carlo simulation. The problem of how to use effectively the resulting sampled scattered radiation projections is presented and discussed

  10. A NOx control regulation for electric utility boilers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions is becoming an increasingly important part of ozone attainment plans. As a part of its ozone attainment plan, the Ventura County (California) Air Pollution Control Board adopted in June, 1991, a regulation (Rule 59) to limit oxides of nitrogen emissions from four electrical utility boilers in the county. Rule development took two years and involved considerable public input. The emission limit for each of two 750 megawatt units is set at 0.10 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour net after June, 1994. The emission limit for each of two 215 megawatt units is 0.20 pounds of NO x per megawatt-hour after June, 1996. Additional limitations are included for fuel oil operation. The rule does not specify an emission control technology. Conventional selective catalytic reduction, urea injection and combustion modifications are considered the technologies most likely to be used to comply. At $17,613 per ton of NO x reduced for the two large boilers and $8.992 per ton of NO x reduced for the small boilers, the rule is considered cost effective. The capital cost for conventional selective catalytic reduction systems on all four boilers is expected to be in excess of $210,000,000

  11. Improved nuclear boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierart, Robert.

    1980-01-01

    The improved nuclear boiler concerned in this invention is of the kind comprising, inter alia, a nuclear reactor supported by a metallic structure and of which the vessel is at least enclosed in part by a casing acting as a protective containment integrated in this structure. It is essentially characterized in that this casing is fitted into and maintained in position in the metallic structure by removable locking devices which enable the casing to be withdrawn from the remainder of the structure. Hence, after the casing has been withdrawn or removed from the metallic structure, access to the reactor vessel is readily obtained for inspection and/or testing from without [fr

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  13. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  14. Numerical simulation of a small-scale biomass boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo, J.; Porteiro, J.; Míguez, J.L.; Granada, E.; Gómez, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simplified model for biomass combustion was developed. ► Porous zone conditions are used in the bed. ► Model is fully integrated in a commercial CFD code to simulate a small scale pellet boiler. ► Pollutant emissions are well predicted. ► Simulation provides extensive information about the behaviour of the boiler. - Abstract: This paper presents a computational fluid dynamic simulation of a domestic pellet boiler. Combustion of the solid fuel in the burner is an important issue when discussing the simulation of this type of system. A simplified method based on a thermal balance was developed in this work to introduce the effects provoked by pellet combustion in the boiler simulation. The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements, and a good agreement was found. The results of the boiler analysis show that the position of the water tubes, the distribution of the air inlets and the air infiltrations are the key factors leading to the high emission levels present in this type of system.

  15. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  16. Numerical investigation of ash deposition in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen

    in the design phase of straw-fired boilers. Some of the primary model outputs include improved heat transfer rate predictions and detailed information about local deposit formation rates. This information is essential when boiler availability and efficiency is to be estimated. A stand-alone program has been...... accumulation rates encountered during straw combustion in grate-fired boilers. The sub-models have been based on information about the combustion and deposition properties of straw gathered from the literature and combined into a single Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based analysis tool which can aid...... transfer mechanisms have a pronounced influence on the combustion pattern. The combined set of sub-models has been evaluated using the straw-fired boiler at Masnedø CHP plant as a test case. The predicted grate combustion and KCl release patterns are in qualitative agreement with experimental findings...

  17. Reducing CO2 Emissions through Lightweight Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Mark A.; Allwood, Julian M.; Milford, Rachel L.

    2011-05-01

    To meet targeted 50% reductions in industrial CO2 emissions by 2050, demand for steel and aluminium must be cut. Many steel and aluminium products include redundant material, and the manufacturing routes to produce them use more material than is necessary. Lightweight design and optimized manufacturing processes offer a means of demand reduction, whilst creating products to perform the same service as existing ones. This paper examines two strategies for demand reduction: lightweight product design; and minimizing yield losses through the product supply chain. Possible mass savings are estimated for specific case-studies on metal-intensive products, such as I-beams and food cans. These estimates are then extrapolated to other sectors to produce a global estimate for possible demand reductions. Results show that lightweight product design may offer potential mass savings of up to 30% for some products, whilst yield in the production of others could be improved by over 20%. If these two strategies could be combined for all products, global demand for steel and aluminium would be reduced by nearly 50%. The impact of demand reduction on CO2 emissions is presented, and barriers to the adoption of new, lightweight technologies are discussed.

  18. Active brickworks - phase I[For application in biofuel boilers]; Aktiva murverk - etapp I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrangensten, Lars; Schuster, Robert; Ingman, Rolf; Sendelius, Mikael; Ehleskog, Rickard [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    This report is the first step of the R and D project 'Active brickworks' within the program 'Possibilities to improve the operation conditions in industrial bark boilers by optimised combustion control'. Good high temperature resistance is one of the major characteristics of ceramics. They are based on quartz and aluminium oxide, an attachment component (acid or cement) and also different types of additives which, together with the heating treatment, gives the ceramic materials their features. The brickwork in a boiler has several assignments. First of all resistance to corrosion, erosion and protection against fouling of the water tube walls, but also to significant affect the combustion process by energy saving features and heating radiation. This project has been focused on the last named features, namely to be able to make a more active choice of brickwork in order to utilise the ceramic features and hereby making it possible to lower the combustion process emissions. The material samples received from the manufactures have been tested in a small-scale laboratory rig. Features investigated are emissivity/reflection, heat conductivity and heat capacity. Mathematic simulations have also been performed with a representative type boiler model in order to make conclusions concerning how the results can be transformed to and applied in a real full-scale boiler. The most important designing case for ceramics in bark boilers is when boiler load rapidly increases or during a fast fuel moisture change from dry to wet fuel. It has been concluded in the study that that the ceramic walls in a boiler should be divided into different layers. The outer layer in the ceiling and sidewalls of the drying zone must consist of highly insulating material in order to get a high temperature of heating surfaces close to the furnace. To store heat during load transients the heating surfaces must have high emissivity factor and good heating capacity. From this point of

  19. Multiloop control of a drum boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kozáková

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Equivalent Subsystems Method (ESM (Kozáková et al., 2011 is methodology of decentralized controller design in the frequency domain which allows designing local controllers using any SISO frequency domain method. The paper deals with the digital ESM version where digital local PID controllers guaranteeing required performance for the full system are designed for individual equivalent subsystems using the practice-oriented Sine-wave method (Bucz et al., 2012. The proposed decentralized controller design procedure was verified on the nonlinear benchmark drum boiler simulation model (Morilla, 2012.

  20. SOURCE SAMPLING FINE PARTICULATE MATTER: WOOD-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides a profile for a wood-fired industrial boiler equipped with a multistage electrostatic precipitator control device. Along with the profile of emissions of fine particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM-2.5), data are also provide...

  1. Hardware and software techniques for boiler operation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi (Hirakawa Iron Works, Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1989-04-01

    A study was conducted on the requirements for easy-operable boiler from the view points of hardware and software technologies. Relation among efficiency, energy-saving, and economics, and control of total emission regarding low NOx operation, were explained, with suggestion of orientation to developed necessary hard- and soft- ware for the realization. 8 figs.

  2. Summary of Energy Assessment Requirements under the Area Source Boiler Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides an overview of the energy assessment requirements for the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources: industrial, commercial and Institutional boilers, 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ.

  3. A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Granada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  4. A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

  5. Market review. Pellet wood gasification boiler / combination boiler. 8. ed.; Marktuebersicht. Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2012-01-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  6. Pellet wood gasification boiler / Combination boiler. Market review. 7. ed.; Scheitholzvergaser-/Kombikessel. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uth, Joern

    2010-08-15

    In the market review under consideration on pellet wood gasification boilers and combination boilers, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on planning and installation of wood-fired heating systems, recommendations regarding to the technical assessment of boiler systems, buffers/combination boilers, prices of pellet wood gasification boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, pellet wood combination boilers, prices of pellet wood combination boilers, data sheets of the compared pellet wood gasification boilers, list of providers.

  7. Design optimization of zero-emission vehicle chassis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Killing, D.; Saleh, F.; Kashani-Zadeh, H.; Kim, I.Y. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described the design of a zero emission chassis for a prototype 2-passenger, zero emission, 3 season drive-by-wire vehicle capable of driving at a speed of 60 km/h for up to 100 km. The chassis design was part of vehicle design project developed to improve collaboration tools and methodologies used by engineers in the automotive design field. The chassis was comprised of tube members in a truss structure to reduce equipment requirements. Design iterations were conducted to ensure that the chassis met with interior space requirements. Static and dynamic finite element analyses were used to minimize chassis weight, and to ensure that structural requirements were preserved. ANSYS implicit FEA simulation tools with specific loading configurations were then used to consider torsional stiffness, bending stiffness and natural frequency. A crashworthiness analysis was then conducted using explicit FEA analysis tools. The analysis focused on full frontal impact and considered maximum deceleration and the head injury criterion (HIC) over a specific time range. Non-structural mass elements were added in specific locations to address the low mass of the chassis. The chassis was then given an initial velocity of 48 km/h and impacted into a wall. Weight was chosen as the objective function for the pseudo-topology optimization process. Structural characteristics developed from the static and dynamic FEA were used as constraints, and cockpit dimensions were tracked. It was concluded that the weight of the chassis was reduced from 139 kg to 103.4 kg using the optimization process. 2 refs.

  8. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  9. Enviro-exergy sustainability analysis of boiler evolution in district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, M.; Rezaie, B.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations into energy resources are important from the point of energy sustainability. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the evolution of the operating boilers at the University of Idaho (UI) district energy plant through an exergy analysis. The biomass boiler uses western red cedar chips from nearby lumber mills and provides 95% of the steam requirements of the main campus of UI in Moscow, ID, USA. Thermodynamic analysis reveals a thermal efficiency of 76% and an exergy efficiency of 24% for the biomass boiler. A combustion model is developed to determine the primary emissions products of both the bone dry wood chips and natural gas fuels. CO 2 comprises 26% of the bone dry biomass emissions and 8% of the natural gas emissions products. Testing results of the biomass boiler exhaust stack show CO 2 emissions of 14% when an average moisture content of 33% is accounted for. An overview of the evolution of the energy plant is discussed, showing the generational differences in each boiler. By using a biomass fuel source, the cost per 1000 kg of steam produced is on average 63% lower than using natural gas, resulting in savings of over $1 million annually. - Highlights: • Exergy efficiency comparison of biomass and natural gas boilers. • Moisture content in biomass reduces average heating value and exergy efficiency. • Local sustainable energy sources can result in economic savings over fossil fuels. • Older boilers can have comparable efficiencies with newer ones after improvements.

  10. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall...

  11. 30 CFR 77.413 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 77.413 Section 77.413 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.413 Boilers. (a) Boilers shall be equipped with guarded, well-maintained water... the gages shall be kept clean and free of scale and rust. (b) Boilers shall be equipped with automatic...

  12. 30 CFR 56.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 56.13030 Section 56.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure gauges...

  13. 30 CFR 57.13030 - Boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers. 57.13030 Section 57.13030 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13030 Boilers. (a) Fired pressure vessels (boilers) shall be equipped with water level gauges, pressure...

  14. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav; Banski, Adrián

    2017-03-01

    In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm-3, fly ash 50 mgm-3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  15. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzurenda Ladislav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm−3, fly ash 50 mgm−3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  16. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  17. Efficiency of using direct-flow burners and nozzles in implementation of dry-bottom ash removal at the TPP-210A boiler furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, A. M.; Kanunnikov, A. A.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Chernov, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In reconstruction of operating pulverized coal-fired boilers, one of the main factors is the choice of a method for slag removal: dry bottom ash removal (DBAR) or slag-tap removal (STR). In this case, ecological and economic aspects should be taken into account, and also the early ignition of pulverized coal fuel, the reliability of operation of the furnace walls in the mode without slagging, and the stability of slag removal should be provided. In this work, issues of changeover of the pulverized coal-fired boilers of the TPP-210A type from the STR mode to the DBAR mode are considered. As of today, the main problems during the operation of these boilers are the high emissions of nitrogen oxides together with flue gases into the atmosphere and the appropriated payoffs, a small range of loads available, the necessity of stabilization of the pulverizedcoal flame sustainability by using the highly reactive fuel, large mechanical fuel underburning, etc. Results of studying aerodynamics of a furnace with DBAR obtained in the process of physical simulation are given; technical solutions and preliminary design (configuration of burners and nozzles in the boiler furnace, conceptual design of the pulverized coal burner, configuration of TPP-210A boiler with the low heat liberation of furnace cross-section and volumetric heat release) are set forth, which are associated with the optimization of aerodynamics of furnace volume, when the direct-flow burners and nozzles are used, and with organization of the efficient staged combustion of solid fuel. Two versions of possible modernization of a boiler unit are considered. Under conditions of the planned increase in the steam production capacity, the most promising measures are as follows: the DBAR implementation with reducing heat releases of the cross-section and volume of the furnace approximately by half, the installation of the direct-flow burners and nozzles with injection of recirculation gases into the active combustion

  18. Low NO{sub x} burner modifications to front-fired pulverized coal boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, R G; Wagner, M

    1998-07-01

    Madison Gas and Electric Blount Street Station Units 8 and 9 are Babcock and Wilcox pulverized coal fired and natural gas fired boilers. These boilers were build in the late 1950's and early 1960's with each boiler rated at 425,000 lb./hr of steam producing 50 MW of electricity. The boilers are rated at 9,500 F at 1,350 psig. Each unit is equipped with one Ljungstroem air heater and two B and W EL pulverizers. These units burn subbituminous coal with higher heating value of 10,950 Btu/LB on an as-received basis. The nitrogen content is approximately 1.23% with 15% moisture. In order to comply with the new Clean Air Act Madison Gas and Electric needs to reduce NO{sub x} on these units to less than .5 LB/mmBtu. Baseline NO{sub x} emissions on these units range between .8--.9 lb./mmBtu. LOIs average approximately 8%. Madison Gas and Electric contracted with RJM Corporation to modify the existing burners to achieve this objective. These modifications consisted of adding patented circumferentially and radially staged flame stabilizers, modifying the coal pipe, and replacing the coal impeller with a circumferentially staged coal spreader. RJM Corporation utilized computational fluid dynamics modeling in order to design the equipment to modify these burners. The equipment was installed during the March 1997 outage and start-up and optimization was conducted in April 1997. Final performance results and economic data will be included in the final paper.

  19. 46 CFR 61.05-10 - Boilers in service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers in service. 61.05-10 Section 61.05-10 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Boilers § 61.05-10 Boilers in service. (a) Each boiler, including superheater, reheater, economizer, auxiliary boiler, low-pressure heating boiler, and unfired steam boiler...

  20. Reconstruction actions in order to achieve and increase the designed nominal heat capacity of a hot-water block boiler with two flame pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninevski, Gjorgji; Sekovanikj, Ivica; Kirovski, Hristo

    2000-01-01

    All companies which are occupied with some kind of useful energy production, must realize two very important things: firstly, maximum utilization of projecting capacities of energetic plants, in condition when specific investment for projecting and erecting of new plants allude use of prominent financial capital, and secondly, the energy must be produced economically, i.e. with the highest possible coefficient of efficiency and the lowest impact of combustion process to the environment. This paper presents the chronology of reconstruction activities of a block hot water boiler with two flame tubes type BKG 200 with 16.28 MWth (made by TPK Zagreb) in order to acquire and increase its thermal capacity app. 11 % (Authors)

  1. Cigarettes sold in China: design, emissions and metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Li, Qiang; Stephens, W Edryd; Hammond, David; Elton-Marshall, Tara; Cummings, K Michael; Giovino, Gary A; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-10-01

    China is the home to the world's largest cigarette maker, China National Tobacco Company (CNTC), yet little is known publicly about the design and emissions of Chinese cigarettes. CNTC is currently in the process of consolidating its brands and has ambitions to export its cigarettes. Machine-measured tar yields of many of its cigarette brands have also been reduced, similar to what occurred in Western countries from the 1970s through the 1990s with so-called 'low-tar' cigarettes introduced to address consumer concerns about health risks from smoking. The current study examines the design and physical characteristics, labelled smoke emissions and tobacco metals content of leading brands of Chinese cigarettes from seven cities purchased in 2005-6 and in 2007. Findings suggest that similar to most countries, tar levels of Chinese cigarettes are predicted primarily by tobacco weight and filter ventilation. Ventilation explained approximately 50% of variation observed in tar and 60% variation in carbon monoxide yields. We found little significant change in key design features of cigarettes purchased in both rounds. We observed significant levels of various metals, averaging 0.82 μg/g arsenic (range 0.3-3.3), 3.21 μg/g cadmium (range 2.0-5.4) and 2.65 μg/g lead (range 1.2-6.5) in a subsample of 13 brands in 2005-6, substantially higher than contemporary Canadian products. Results suggest that cigarettes in China increasingly resemble those sold in Western countries, but with tobacco containing higher levels of heavy metals. As CNTC looks to export its product around the world, independent surveillance of tobacco product characteristics, including tobacco blend characteristics, will become increasingly important.

  2. Optimal Combustion Conditions for a Small-scale Biomass Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Plaček

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an attempt to achieve maximum efficiency and lowest possible emissions for a small-scale biomass boiler. This aim can be attained only by changing the control algorithm of the boiler, and in this way not raising the acquisition costs for the boiler. This paper describes the experimental facility, the problems that arose while establishing the facility, and how we have dealt with them. The focus is on discontinuities arising after periodic grate sweeping, and on finding the parameters of the PID control loops. Alongside these methods, which need a lambda probe signal for proper functionality, we inroduce another method, which is able to intercept the optimal combustion working point without the need to use a lambda sensor.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  4. Hybrid model of steam boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinowski, Henryk; Stanek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    In the case of big energy boilers energy efficiency is usually determined with the application of the indirect method. Flue gas losses and unburnt combustible losses have a significant influence on the boiler's efficiency. To estimate these losses the knowledge of the operating parameters influence on the flue gases temperature and the content of combustible particles in the solid combustion products is necessary. A hybrid model of a boiler developed with the application of both analytical modelling and artificial intelligence is described. The analytical part of the model includes the balance equations. The empirical models express the dependence of the flue gas temperature and the mass fraction of the unburnt combustibles in solid combustion products on the operating parameters of a boiler. The empirical models have been worked out by means of neural and regression modelling.

  5. CFD modeling of small biomass-fired boilers, second stage; CFD-modellering av mindre biobraenslepannor, etapp 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennermark, A. [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Leckner, B. [Chalmers Univ. of Techn., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of the project is to study how the design of the gas combustion chamber in a small boiler for biomass affects the emissions and how computer simulations can be used to decrease harmful emissions. The aim of the first part of the project was to investigate how phenomena and processes, important for the combustion, depend on various parameters. Within the frame of that part the temperature distribution, the flow pattern and the mixing processes have been studied. In the second part the combustion and the different reactions have been studied. A number of well-equipped combustion experiments in a small biomass-fired boiler have also been conducted to obtain better information about the boundary conditions. The results have been used to verify the simulations. The gas combustion chamber of a modern boiler using down draught firing has been simulated by using two Computational Fluid Dynamics codes, SOFIE and FLUENT. The results from the simulations show that with literature values for the reaction parameters, the reaction rates are controlled by mixing. This means that the reactions are fast and all the CO and the hydrocarbons were consumed. By varying the activation energy, it is possible to reach data that are more comparable with experimental data. The effects of the bowl in the gas combustion chamber on the combustion and mixing are discussed. The effects of the temperature and the radiation are also presented.

  6. Application of zonal combustion model for on-line furnace analysis of 575MW tangential coal firing boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Karasina, E.; Livshits, B.; Talanker, A. [Israel Electric Corporation (Israel). Engineering Division

    1999-07-01

    An advanced code for calculating heat transfer in the boiler of furnaces is considered. The code can be used to compute the flue gas temperature in the furnace volume and the absorbed and incident heat fluxes. The number of zones in the furnace, the points of the injection of the fuel, air and flue gas recirculation (if applicable), the radiative heat transfer properties of the flue gases as well as all the factors determining performance are taken into account in the calculation. The code also predicts water wall and superheater temperature and NO{sub x} emission. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by comparison between calculated and measured values. The predicted results show good agreement with the experimental data. The code developed is for engineers using advanced PCS at the stage of designing new boilers as well as when retrofitting and adjusting boilers already in operation. In comparison with existing complex computational models the proposed system can be used in modern monitoring systems for the furnace diagnostic problems including NO{sub x} emission. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  7. DBSSP - A computer program for simulation of controlled circulation boiler and natural circulation boiler start up behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bin; Chen Tingkuan; Yang Dong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a computer program, Drum Boiler Start-up Simulation Program (DBSSP), is developed for simulating the start up behavior of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers. The mathematical model developed here is based on the first principles of mass, energy and momentum conservations. In the boiler model, heat transfer in the waterwall, the superheater, the reheater and the economizer is simulated by the distributing parameter method, while heat transfer in the drum and the downcomer is simulated by lumped parameter analysis. The program can provide detailed flow and thermodynamic characteristics of the boiler components. The development of this program is based only on design data, so it can be used for any subcritical, controlled or natural circulation boiler. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements, and good agreements between them were found. This program is expected to be useful for predicting the characteristics and the performance of controlled circulation and natural circulation boilers during the start up process. It also can be used to optimize a start up system for minimum start up time

  8. How much Energy is Embodied in your Central Heating Boiler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubogiannis, D.; Nouhou, C.

    2016-11-01

    Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is an important tool in current research to quantitatively assess energy consumption and environmental impact of a building. In the context of LCA, the Embodied Energy (EE) related to the building and the corresponding Embodied CO2 emissions are valuable data. In such a case, these data concern the constitutive materials of the building and any subsystem, component or equipment in it. Usually, after calculating the mass of these materials, embodied energy values are estimated multiplying them by the corresponding EE coefficients concerning the production of these materials (EEMP). However, apart from transportation energy costs, another part of EE is that consumed for the manufacturing of any item as a finished product. The present work focuses on the manufacturing EE (EEMFG) of central heating boilers in Hellenic dwellings. Six typical boilers of different types are studied. Each of them is analyzed to its constitutive materials and its EEMP is estimated. For four of them, the boiler house where it was constructed in Greece was visited and data were collected. Based on them the corresponding boiler EEMFG values are estimated. The results concerning the EE for material production and manufacturing, as well as the results concerning the corresponding ECO2 values are discussed and assessed. Benchmark values correlating EE and ECO2 with the mass or the heat rate of the boiler are extracted.

  9. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  10. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, S.; Preto, F.; Melin, S.; Bi, X.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO 2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas

  11. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler with low mass flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jie; Yang Dong; Chen Gongming; Zhou Xu; Bi Qincheng

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler becomes an important development trend for coal-fired power plant and thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key factor for the design and operation of water wall. According to the boiler structure and furnace-sided heat flux, the water wall system of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler is treated in this paper as a flow network consisting of series-parallel loops, pressure grids and connecting tubes. A mathematical model for predicting the thermal-hydraulic characteristics in boiler heating surface is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations of these components, which introduces numerous empirical correlations available for heat transfer and hydraulic resistance calculation. Mass flux distribution and pressure drop data in the water wall at 30%, 75% and 100% of the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR) are obtained by iteratively solving the model. Simultaneity, outlet vapor temperatures and metal temperatures in water wall tubes are estimated. The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance, which implies that the water wall design of supercritical CFB boiler is applicable. - Highlights: → We proposed a model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of boiler heating surface. → The model is applied in a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler. → We explore the pressure drop, mass flux and temperature distribution in water wall. → The operating safety of boiler is estimated. → The results show good heat transfer performance and low flow resistance.

  12. The pressure cold wind system on the impact of industrial boiler economy and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Qian, Hongli; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Dekai; Li, Guannan; Yuan, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipment in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption.Industrial boiler in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment, the average industrial boiler operation efficiency is only 65%. If the efficiency increased by 15% ∼ 20%, which meet the international advanced level, each year 70 million tons of coal saving and reduce environmental pollution[1]. As energy conservation and emissions reduction becomes the basic national policy of our country, improving the efficiency of industrial boiler energy is facing opportunities and challenges, optimizing the operation mode of the existing units, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the boiler control.

  13. Boiler inspection manipulator for Torness Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrey, R.T.A.; Playle, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection at Torness Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is achieved, via penetrations above and below the core area and boilers and through eight circulator penetrations for inspection of the sub-diagrid area. A manipulator is described which can access the area above the reactor core via any of these eight peripheral penetrations. The design and fabrication of the manipulator has led to innovation with a number of possible solutions being tendered. In reactor deployment of the successful design is expected in early 1997. (UK)

  14. Pelly Crossing wood chip boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-11

    The Pelly wood chip project has demonstrated that wood chips are a successful fuel for space and domestic water heating in a northern climate. Pelly Crossing was chosen as a demonstration site for the following reasons: its extreme temperatures, an abundant local supply of resource material, the high cost of fuel oil heating and a lack of local employment. The major obstacle to the smooth operation of the boiler system was the poor quality of the chip supply. The production of poor quality chips has been caused by inadequate operation and maintenance of the chipper. Dull knives and faulty anvil adjustments produced chips and splinters far in excess of the one centimetre size specified for the system's design. Unanticipated complications have caused costs of the system to be higher than expected by approximately $15,000. The actual cost of the project was approximately $165,000. The first year of the system's operation was expected to accrue $11,600 in heating cost savings. This estimate was impossible to confirm given the system's irregular operation and incremental costs. Consistent operation of the system for a period of at least one year plus the installation of monitoring devices will allow the cost effectiveness to be calculated. The wood chip system's impact on the environment was estimated to be minimal. Wood chip burning was considered cleaner and safer than cordwood burning. 9 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  16. 40 CFR 63.7541 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance under the emission averaging provision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solid fuel boilers participating in the emissions averaging option as determined in § 63.7522(f) and (g... this section. (i) For each existing solid fuel boiler participating in the emissions averaging option... below the applicable limit. (ii) For each group of boilers participating in the emissions averaging...

  17. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  18. Application of the decree 2910 for coal fired boilers; Application de l`arrete 2910 aux chaudieres a charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hing, K. [CDF Energie, Charbonnages de France, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impacts of the new French decree 2910 concerning the classification of all combustion equipment with regards to their energy sources, energy efficiency and pollution control, on 2 to 20 MW coal-fired boilers, are discussed, with emphasis on their pollutant emissions (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ashes). The compositions of several coals is presented and the various types of coal-fired boilers adapted to the new decree are presented: automatic boilers, dense fluidized bed boilers, vibrating and chain grids with fume tubes and water tubes

  19. The orificing of once-through boilers for gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.; Whitmarsh-Everiss, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The boilers at Hinkley Point B, Hunterston B (which are built to a common design) and Hartlepool and Heysham (which are identical to each other although different from Hinkley B/Hunterston B) are discussed. Heysham II and Torness have boilers developed from the Hinkley B/Hunterston B design. The boiler design is explained and the problems encountered are presented. The study presented in this address highlights the potential sensitivity of the performance of once-through boilers to the following factors - the uniformity of the gas inlet temperature profile, the choice of the operating point on the boiler characteristic (preferably this should be where the performance of the unit is not too sensitive to the primary side temperature and flow distribution); this can be achieved by greater levels of orificing reducing the steady state gains, and the various plant operating states which introduce asymmetries into the boundary conditions for the boiler. A number of computer codes have been used to model boiler performance. Using these, a new design was proposed for boiler feed regulating orifices and these revised orifices were installed during outages on the two Heysham reactors in 1985. (U.K.)

  20. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  1. CCD camera eases the control of a soda recovery boiler; CCD-kamera helpottaa soodakattilan valvontaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, L.

    2001-07-01

    Fortum Technology has developed a CCD firebox camera, based on semiconductor technology, enduring hard conditions of soda recovery boiler longer than traditional cameras. The firebox camera air- cooled and the same air is pressed over the main lens so it remains clean despite of the alkaline liquor splashing around in the boiler. The image of the boiler is transferred through the main lens, image transfer lens and a special filter, mounted inside the camera tube, into the CCD camera. The first CCD camera system has been in use since 1999 in Sunila pulp mill in Kotka, owned by Myllykoski Oy and Enso Oyj. The mill has two medium-sized soda recovery boilers. The amount of black liquor, formed daily, is about 2000 tons DS, which is more than enough for the heat generation. Even electric power generation exceeds sometimes the demand, so the surplus power can be sold out. Black liquor is sprayed inside the soda recovery boiler with high pressure. The liquor form droplets in the boiler, the temperature of which is over 1000 deg C. A full-hot pile is formed at the bottom of the boiler after burning. The size and shape of the pile effect on the efficiency and the emissions of the boiler. The camera has operated well.

  2. Market diffusion, technological learning, and cost-benefit dynamics of condensing gas boilers in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Dittmar, Lars; Junginger, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Blok, Kornelis

    2009-01-01

    High costs often prevent the market diffusion of novel and efficient energy technologies. Monitoring cost and price decline for these technologies is thus important in order to establish effective energy policy. Here, we present experience curves and cost-benefit analyses for condensing gas boilers produced and sold in the Netherlands between 1981 and 2006. For the most dominant boiler type on the Dutch market, i.e., condensing gas combi boilers, we identify learning rates of 14±1% for the average price and 16±8% for the additional price relative to non-condensing devices. Economies of scale, competitive sourcing of boiler components, and improvements in boiler assembly are among the main drivers behind the observed price decline. The net present value of condensing gas combi boilers shows an overall increasing trend. Purchasing in 2006 a gas boiler of this type instead of a non-condensing device generates a net present value of 970 EUR (Euro) and realizes CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emission savings at negative costs of -120 EUR per tonne CO 2 . We attribute two-thirds of the improvements in the cost-benefit performance of condensing gas combi boilers to technological learning and one-third to a combination of external effects and governmental policies.

  3. LCA of a condensing boiler according to EuP Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremonti, M.; Breedvelt, L.; Padovan, G.; Bosio, S.; Corsini, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the EuP Directive (2005/32/EC), producers of Energy using Product (EuP) are obliged to initiate eco design activities. Fourteen product groups are currently under study, one being the preparatory EC study Eco Boiler, and will result in a EuP Working Plan. The LCA of a condensing boiler, commissionated by an Italian SME in the Lombardy Region, has been conducted to support its environmental strategy and communication, to start implementing eco design activities and to anticipate implications to the EuP Directive. In line with the Eco Boiler study, no detailed LCA has been applied, instead a simplified LCA proves to be a strategic tool to support the company environmental objectives. Specifically, the condensing boiler (the option with the best environmental performance and the lowest life cycle costs for the final consumer) has been internally compared to other boilers, resulting in useful eco design recommendations

  4. Investing in efficient industrial boiler systems in China and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Dixon, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam systems can be very low due to old technologies, improper design and non-optimal operation of the steam systems. Solutions include efficiency assessments and investments in steam system optimizations, education and training for operators of the systems. This paper presents case studies on assessing and investing in boiler steam systems in China and Vietnam. Methodologies and approaches for data collection and analyses were designed specifically for each of the two countries. This paper concludes: (1) investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system in China and Vietnam are cost effective; (2) government should not sent national energy efficiency standards lower than that of energy companies or energy equipment manufactures. - Highlights: ► GEF successfully catalyzed investment in industrial energy efficiency boilers in China in 1990s. ► With about $100 million of investment by the GEF/World Bank/Chinese government, the project will mitigate 40 million tons of CO 2 by 2019. ► This generated lowest unit cost of carbon reduction in the world: about $2.5 per ton of CO 2 mitigation. ► Investing in energy efficiency in industrial boiler steam system today in Vietnam will be the same cost effective as in China: $2.1 per ton of CO 2 mitigation.

  5. Effect of Pellet Boiler Exhaust on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from α-Pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Eetu; Hao, Liqing; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Leskinen, Ari; Kortelainen, Miika; Grigonyte, Julija; Worsnop, Douglas R; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Sippula, Olli; Faiola, Celia L; Virtanen, Annele

    2017-02-07

    Interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and implications for aerosol production, have raised particular scientific interest. Despite active research in this area, real anthropogenic emission sources have not been exploited for anthropogenic-biogenic interaction studies until now. This work examines these interactions using α-pinene and pellet boiler emissions as a model test system. The impact of pellet boiler emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from α-pinene photo-oxidation was studied under atmospherically relevant conditions in an environmental chamber. The aim of this study was to identify which of the major pellet exhaust components (including high nitrogen oxide (NO x ), primary particles, or a combination of the two) affected SOA formation from α-pinene. Results demonstrated that high NO x concentrations emitted by the pellet boiler reduced SOA yields from α-pinene, whereas the chemical properties of the primary particles emitted by the pellet boiler had no effect on observed SOA yields. The maximum SOA yield of α-pinene in the presence of pellet boiler exhaust (under high-NO x conditions) was 18.7% and in the absence of pellet boiler exhaust (under low-NO x conditions) was 34.1%. The reduced SOA yield under high-NO x conditions was caused by changes in gas-phase chemistry that led to the formation of organonitrate compounds.

  6. The heat exchanger of small pellet boiler for phytomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičieta, Jozef; Lenhard, Richard; Jandačka, Jozef

    2014-08-01

    Combustion of pellets from plant biomass (phytomass) causes various troubles. Main problem is slagging ash because of low melting temperature of ash from phytomass. This problem is possible to solve either improving energetic properties of phytomass by additives or modification of boiler construction. A small-scale boiler for phytomass is different in construction of heat exchanger and furnace mainly. We solve major problem - slagging ash, by decreasing combustion temperature via redesign of pellet burner and boiler body. Consequence of lower combustion temperature is also lower temperature gradient of combustion gas. It means that is necessary to design larger heat exchanging surface. We plane to use underfed burner, so we would utilize circle symmetry heat exchanger. Paper deals design of heat exchanger construction with help of CFD simulation. Our purpose is to keep uniform water flux and combustion gas flux in heat exchanger without zone of local overheating and excess cooling.

  7. Failure analysis of boiler tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Boiler tubes are energy conversion components where heat energy is used to convert water into high pressure superheated steam, which is then delivered to a turbine for electric power generation in thermal power plants or to run plant and machineries in a process or manufacturing industry. It was reported that one of the tubes of a fire-tube boiler used in a local industry had leakage after the formation of pits at the external surface of the tube. The inner side of the fire tube was working with hot flue gasses with a pressure of 10 Kg/cm/sup 2/ and temperature 225 degree C. The outside of the tube was surrounded by feed water. The purpose of this study was to determine the cause of pits developed at the external surface of the failed boiler tube sample. In the present work boiler tube samples of steel grade ASTM AI61/ASTM A192 were analyzed using metallographic analysis, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was concluded that the appearance of defects on the boiler tube sample indicates cavitation type corrosion failure. Cavitation damage superficially resembled pitting, but surface appeared considerably rougher and had many closely spaced pits. (author)

  8. 46 CFR 54.01-2 - Adoption of division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. 54.01-2 Section 54.01-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... division 1 of section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. (a) Pressure vessels shall be designed, constructed, and inspected in accordance with section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel...

  9. Coal-fired boiler houses in Cracow present state and possibilities to improve their efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyklis, P. [Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Cracow (Poland); Butcher, T.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A significant amount of heat energy both for heating and process purposes is generated in Cracow, Poland in small-and medium size local boiler houses. The operating procedure of these boiler houses is most often economically and ecologically ineffective because of the bad condition of boilers and lack of funds to install automation, control and measurement equipment. Within the Polish-American Program of Elimination of Low Emission Sources financed by the US Department of Energy, the ENERGOEKSPERT Co., Ltd. investigated chosen boiler houses in Cracow, commissioned by the Cracow Development Office. The results of these investigations were subject of engineering analysis carried out at the Institute of Industrial Equipment and Power Engineering, Technical University, Cracow. The analysis proved that the low-cost improvement of economic efficiency and reduction of air pollutant emission is feasible for combustion of coal fuels.

  10. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nur Aziz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. The model describes the temperature dynamics of the boiler subsystems such as economizer, steam drum, desuperheater, and superheater. The mathematical model was examined using industrial boiler performance test data.It can be used to build a boiler simulator or help operators run a boiler effectively.

  11. Analysis of residual swirl in tangentially-fired natural gas-boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasril Hasini; Muhammad Azlan Muad; Mohd Zamri Yusoff; Norshah Hafeez Shuaib

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation on residual swirl flow in a 120 MW natural gas, full-scale, tangential-fired boiler. Emphasis is given towards the understanding of the behavior of the combustion gas flow pattern and temperature distribution as a result of the tangential firing system of the boiler. The analysis was carried out based on three-dimensional computational modeling on full scale boiler with validation from key design parameter as well as practical observation. Actual operating parameters of the actual boiler are taken as the boundary conditions for this modeling. The prediction of total heat flux was found to be in agreement with the key design parameter while the residual swirl predicted at the upper furnace agrees qualitatively with the practical observation. Based on this comparison, detail analysis was carried out for comprehensive understanding on the generation and destruction of the residual swirl behavior in boiler especially those with high capacity. (author)

  12. Structured Mathematical Modeling of Industrial Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Abdullah Nur; Nazaruddin, Yul Yunazwin; Siregar, Parsaulian; Bindar, Yazid

    2014-01-01

    As a major utility system in industry, boilers consume a large portion of the total energy and costs. Significant reduction of boiler cost operation can be gained through improvements in efficiency. In accomplishing such a goal, an adequate dynamic model that comprehensively reflects boiler characteristics is required. This paper outlines the idea of developing a mathematical model of a water-tube industrial boiler based on first principles guided by the bond graph method in its derivation. T...

  13. Modeling and optimization of processes for clean and efficient pulverized coal combustion in utility boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belošević Srđan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverized coal-fired power plants should provide higher efficiency of energy conversion, flexibility in terms of boiler loads and fuel characteristics and emission reduction of pollutants like nitrogen oxides. Modification of combustion process is a cost-effective technology for NOx control. For optimization of complex processes, such as turbulent reactive flow in coal-fired furnaces, mathematical modeling is regularly used. The NOx emission reduction by combustion modifications in the 350 MWe Kostolac B boiler furnace, tangentially fired by pulverized Serbian lignite, is investigated in the paper. Numerical experiments were done by an in-house developed three-dimensional differential comprehensive combustion code, with fuel- and thermal-NO formation/destruction reactions model. The code was developed to be easily used by engineering staff for process analysis in boiler units. A broad range of operating conditions was examined, such as fuel and preheated air distribution over the burners and tiers, operation mode of the burners, grinding fineness and quality of coal, boiler loads, cold air ingress, recirculation of flue gases, water-walls ash deposition and combined effect of different parameters. The predictions show that the NOx emission reduction of up to 30% can be achieved by a proper combustion organization in the case-study furnace, with the flame position control. Impact of combustion modifications on the boiler operation was evaluated by the boiler thermal calculations suggesting that the facility was to be controlled within narrow limits of operation parameters. Such a complex approach to pollutants control enables evaluating alternative solutions to achieve efficient and low emission operation of utility boiler units. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in

  14. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H. [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  15. Cracking and corrosion recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suik, H [Tallinn Technical University, Horizon Pulp and Paper, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    The corrosion of heat surfaces and the cracking the drums are the main problems of the recovery boiler. These phenomena have been appeared during long-term operation of boiler `Mitsubishi - 315` erected at 1964. Depth of the crack is depending on the number of shutdowns and on operation time. Corrosion intensity of different heat surfaces is varying depend on the metal temperature and the conditions at place of positioning of tube. The lowest intensity of corrosion is on the bank tubes and the greatest is on the tubes of the second stage superheater and on the tubes at the openings of air ports. (orig.) 5 refs.

  16. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  17. Analysis of a waste-heat boiler by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongziang; Jokilaakso, A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Waste-heat boilers play important roles in the continuous operation of a smelter and in the conservation of energy. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour has not been well studied, concerning the boiler performance and design. This presentation describes simulated gas flow and heat transfer of a waste-heat boiler in the Outokumpu copper flash smelting process. The governing transport equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and enthalpy were solved with a commercial CFD-code PHOENICS. The standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and a composite-flux radiation model were used in the computations. The computational results show that the flow is strongly recirculating and distinctly three-dimensional in most part of the boiler, particularly in the radiation section. The predicted flow pattern and temperature distribution were in a good agreement with laboratory models and industrial measurements. The results provide detailed information of flow pattern, the temperature distribution and gas cooling efficiency. The CFD proved to be a useful tool in analysing the boiler operation. (author)

  18. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  19. MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Chayalakshmi C.L

    2018-01-01

    MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR PREDICTION OF BOILER LOSSES AND BOILER EFFICIENCY ABSTRACT Calculation of boiler efficiency is essential if its parameters need to be controlled for either maintaining or enhancing its efficiency. But determination of boiler efficiency using conventional method is time consuming and very expensive. Hence, it is not recommended to find boiler efficiency frequently. The work presented in this paper deals with establishing the statistical mo...

  20. Modelling of a one pass smoke tube boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Claus M. S.; Sørensen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A nonlinear state-space model with five states describing a one pass smoke tube boiler has been formulated. By means of mass- and energy-balance the model describes the dynamics of the Furnace, the Convection Zone and the Water/Steam Part and the three sub models are merged into an overall model....... The model is further linearized for use in a linear control design. The simulations have been carried out by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK and the models have been verified with measurements from a full scale boiler plant. Parameters in the model that are difficult to calculate have been estimated and the method...

  1. Design optimization of flexible biomass-processing polygeneration plants using characteristic operation periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Münster, Marie; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2014-01-01

    scheme applied on a conceptual polygeneration plant that considers the integrated production of power, heat, ethanol, and biomethane. The design is optimized with respect to net present value and total CO2 emission impact. The results suggest that the best solution with respect to net present value...... is the production of heat and power using a gas turbine and a natural gas boiler, while the best solution with respect to CO2 emission savings includes full-scale ethanol and biomethane production, as well as a straw boiler for utility heat production. Solving the same design optimization problem using yearly...

  2. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  3. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Computer generated data on the performance of the cogeneration energy conversion system are presented. Performance parameters included fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics, and emissions of residual fired process boilers.

  4. CFD modeling of a boiler's tubes rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Khoshhal, Abbas; Shariati, Seyed Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study on the reason for tubes damage in the superheater Platen section of the 320 MW Bisotoun power plant, Iran. The boiler has three types of superheater tubes and the damage occurs in a series of elbows belongs to the long tubes. A three-dimensional modeling was performed using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the reason. The code has ability of simultaneous solving of the continuity, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and employing the turbulence, combustion and radiation models. The whole boiler including; walls, burners, air channels, three types of tubes, etc., was modeled in the real scale. The boiler was meshed into almost 2,000,000 tetrahedral control volumes and the standard k-ε turbulence model and the Rosseland radiation model were used in the model. The theoretical results showed that the inlet 18.9 MPa saturated steam becomes superheated inside the tubes and exit at a pressure of 17.8 MPa. The predicted results showed that the temperature of the steam and tube's wall in the long tubes is higher than the short and medium size tubes. In addition, the predicted steam mass flow rate in the long tube was lower than other ones. Therefore, it was concluded that the main reason for the rupture in the long tubes elbow is changing of the tube's metal microstructure due to working in a temperature higher than the design temperature. In addition, the structural fatigue tension makes the last elbow of the long tube more ready for rupture in comparison with the other places. The concluded result was validated by observations from the photomicrograph of the tube's metal samples taken from the damaged and undamaged sections

  5. Operating experience - electrostatic precipitators as deduster for circulating fluidized bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.J.; Bork, G. [Lurgi Lentjes Bischoff GmbH (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are widely used for dedusting flue gases generated by steam generators with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) furnaces. In such applications, limestone is used as a desulphurisation additive in the furnace, eliminating the need for further desulphurisation systems downstream. However, the additive changes the physical properties of the particulate matter to be removed by the ESP, mostly unfavourably as regards ash resistivity. In this paper, design criteria and operating experiences are discussed, showing the main influences attributable to the additive and the CFB operating regime. Specific reference is made to the Heizkraftwerk 1 CFB power plant (Germany). Designed for domestic coals, on switching to import coals boiler output at the plant had to be limited due to unacceptably high dust emissions. ESP efficiency was optimised in two ways: (1) flow distribution was improved; and (2) new microprocessor controllers installed. Results of the modifications are discussed.

  6. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  7. Policy design and performance of emissions trading markets: an adaptive agent-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Zhang; Qinqin, Yu; Jun, Bi

    2010-08-01

    Emissions trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the pilot emissions trading programs in China have failed to bring remarkable success in the campaign for pollution control. The policy design of an emissions trading program is found to have a decisive impact on its performance. In this study, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading applying the agent-based model was constructed. The performance of the Jiangsu SO2 emissions trading market under different policy design scenario was also examined. Results show that the market efficiency of emissions trading is significantly affected by policy design and existing policies. China's coal-electricity price system is the principal factor influencing the performance of the SO2 emissions trading market. Transaction costs would also reduce market efficiency. In addition, current-level emissions discharge fee/tax and banking mechanisms do not distinctly affect policy performance. Thus, applying emissions trading in emission control in China should consider policy design and interaction with other existing policies.

  8. Failure Analysis of 600 MW Supercritical Boiler Water Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Huilin; Cai Zhengchun; Yan Xiaozhong; He Jinqiao; Zhou Yucai

    2013-01-01

    Boiler tube often causes abnormal boiler outage, bringing greater economic losses. This thesis mainly comes from the dynamics of boiler water, boiler furnace accident location of wall temperature distribution to explore the cause of the accident boiler. Calculation results show that the deformation will seriously reduce the boiler allowable maximum temperature difference between the screens. And the boiler is not over-temperature, low temperature difference between the screens, which have bur...

  9. A study of burning processes of fossil fuels in straitened conditions of furnaces in low capacity boilers by an example of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to research operations of modern combined low-emission swirl burner with a capacity of 2.2 MW for fire-tube boiler type KV-GM-2.0, to ensure the effective burning of natural gas, crude oil and diesel fuel. For this purpose, a computer model of the burner and furnace chamber has been developed. The paper presents the results of numerical investigations of the burner operation, using the example of natural gas in a working load range from 40 to 100%. The basic features of processes of fuel burning in the cramped conditions of the flame tube have been identified to fundamentally differ from similar processes in the furnaces of steam boilers. The influence of the design of burners and their operating modes on incomplete combustion of fuel and the formation of nitrogen oxides has been determined.

  10. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  11. A review on biomass as a fuel for boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Abelaziz, E.A.; Demirbas, A.; Hossain, M.S.; Mekhilef, S. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-06-15

    Currently, fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas represent the prime energy sources in the world. However, it is anticipated that these sources of energy will deplete within the next 40-50 years. Moreover, the expected environmental damages such as the global warming, acid rain and urban smog due to the production of emissions from these sources have tempted the world to try to reduce carbon emissions by 80% and shift towards utilizing a variety of renewable energy resources (RES) which are less environmentally harmful such as solar, wind, biomass etc. in a sustainable way. Biomass is one of the earliest sources of energy with very specific properties. In this review, several aspects which are associated with burning biomass in boilers have been investigated such as composition of biomass, estimating the higher heating value of biomass, comparison between biomass and other fuels, combustion of biomass, co-firing of biomass and coal, impacts of biomass, economic and social analysis of biomass, transportation of biomass, densification of biomass, problems of biomass and future of biomass. It has been found that utilizing biomass in boilers offers many economical, social and environmental benefits such as financial net saving, conservation of fossil fuel resources, job opportunities creation and CO{sub 2} and NO emissions reduction. However, care should be taken to other environmental impacts of biomass such as land and water resources, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity and deforestation. Fouling, marketing, low heating value, storage and collections and handling are all associated problems when burning biomass in boilers. The future of biomass in boilers depends upon the development of the markets for fossil fuels and on policy decisions regarding the biomass market.

  12. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

  13. Development and test of small-scale batch-fired straw boilers in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Kristensen, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, government subsidies for the testing and installation of biomass-fired boilers were available for the period from 1995 until 2002. Each boiler type had to pass an official approval test to achieve subsidy. The combustion abilities of the boiler were optimized prior to the test. The main aim of this subsidy was to encourage the development of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly boilers. The scheme was therefore organized in such a way that the greatest subsidies were awarded for boilers with high efficiency and low emissions. This goal has in effect been achieved for batch-fired straw boilers, where the typical efficiency has been increased from about 75% in 1995 to about 87% in 2002. Similarly, the carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced from 5000 ppm (reference value 10% O 2 ) in 1995 to less than 1000 ppm in 2002. These improvements are mainly due to better insulation inside the combustion chamber, more efficient techniques for supplying air to the combustion process, improved cooling of the flue gas, and optimization of the electronic control unit for the air supply

  14. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  15. Code boiler and pressure vessel life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States of America and in Canada, laws and controls for determining life assessment for continued operation of equipment exist only for those pressure vessels built to Section III and evaluated according to Section XI. In this presentation, some of those considerations which are made in the USA and Canada for deciding on life or condition assessment of boilers and pressure vessels designed and constructed to other sections of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are reviewed. Life assessment or condition assesssment is essential in determining what is necessary for continued operation. With no ASME rules being adopted by laws or regulations, other than OSHA in the USA and similar environmental controls in Canada, to control life assessment for continued operation, the equipment owner must decide if assessment is to be done and how much to do. Some of those considerations are reviewed along with methods and procedures to make an assessment along with a discussion of where the ASME B and PV Code currently stands regarding continued operation. (orig.)

  16. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmat, A.; Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G.; Waibel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO x , SO x , and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Combustion system optimization of a P-62 lignite boiler in ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3 with NOx-reduction and efficiency improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, Ch.; Thierbach, Hans-Ulrich; Totev, T.

    2013-01-01

    Steinmueller Engineering GmbH, Gummersbach, Germany, successfully concluded in consortium with Siemens EOOD, Sofia, the combustion system modification of a P62 lignite fired boiler in TPP ContourGlobal Maritsa East 3, which was targeting mainly the reduction of the NOx emissions below 180 mg/Nm 3 at 6 % O 2 . The modification is part of an EPC contract covering the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning works needed to upgrade the boilers at the power station. The Modification concept involves optimization of PF- and Vapor distribution, replacement of the coal burners, installation of new Over-fire air (OFA) system and Side-wall air (SWA) system and minor modification of the existing control system to allow control of the OFAflow. The main results of the modification are: Reduction of the NOx emissions (at ESP exit) from approximately 390 g/Nm³ to below 180 mg/Nm³ at 6% O 2 , Efficiency increase of the furnace by reduction of the excess air ratio from 1.2 to 1.15 (at furnace outlet) and overall increase of the boiler efficiency. (authors)

  18. Experimental validation of a thermodynamic boiler model under steady state and dynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlon, Elisa; Verma, Vijay Kumar; Schwarz, Markus; Golicza, Laszlo; Prada, Alessandro; Baratieri, Marco; Haslinger, Walter; Schmidl, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Laboratory tests on two commercially available pellet boilers. • Steady state and a dynamic load cycle tests. • Pellet boiler model calibration based on data registered in stationary operation. • Boiler model validation with reference to both stationary and dynamic operation. • Validated model suitable for coupled simulation of building and heating system. - Abstract: Nowadays dynamic building simulation is an essential tool for the design of heating systems for residential buildings. The simulation of buildings heated by biomass systems, first of all needs detailed boiler models, capable of simulating the boiler both as a stand-alone appliance and as a system component. This paper presents the calibration and validation of a boiler model by means of laboratory tests. The chosen model, i.e. TRNSYS “Type 869”, has been validated for two commercially available pellet boilers of 6 and 12 kW nominal capacities. Two test methods have been applied: the first is a steady state test at nominal load and the second is a load cycle test including stationary operation at different loads as well as transient operation. The load cycle test is representative of the boiler operation in the field and characterises the boiler’s stationary and dynamic behaviour. The model had been calibrated based on laboratory data registered during stationary operation at different loads and afterwards it was validated by simulating both the stationary and the dynamic tests. Selected parameters for the validation were the heat transfer rates to water and the water temperature profiles inside the boiler and at the boiler outlet. Modelling results showed better agreement with experimental data during stationary operation rather than during dynamic operation. Heat transfer rates to water were predicted with a maximum deviation of 10% during the stationary operation, and a maximum deviation of 30% during the dynamic load cycle. However, for both operational regimes the

  19. Combustion of Corn Stover Bales in a Small 146-kW Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joey Villeneuve

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Spring harvested corn stover was used for direct combustion in a 146 kW dual chamber boiler designed for wood logs. Stover had a very low moisture content (6.83 ± 0.17%, a gross calorific value (GCV of 18.57 MJ/kg of dry matter (±0.32 MJ/kg DM and an ash content of 5.88% (±1.15%. Small stover bales (8.83 ± 0.90 kg were placed manually in the upper combustion chamber at a rate of 10.5 to 12.8 kg/h over a 24-h period, with three replications, and compared to a control wood combustion trial (12.1 kg/h during 24 h. The overall heat transfer efficiency for stover was lower than for wood (57% vs. 77%. Stover bales produced on average 7.5% ash which included about 2% of unburned residues while wood produced 1.7% ash. CO gas emissions averaged 1324 mg/m³ for stover (118 mg/m³ for wood. The corn stover showed a good calorific potential, but it would have to be densified and the boiler should be modified to improve airflow, completeness of combustion and handling of the large amount of ash formed.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  1. 46 CFR 52.25-20 - Exhaust gas boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust gas boilers. 52.25-20 Section 52.25-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-20 Exhaust gas boilers. Exhaust gas boilers with a maximum allowable working pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 63.25-1 - Small automatic auxiliary boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small automatic auxiliary boilers. 63.25-1 Section 63.25... AUXILIARY BOILERS Requirements for Specific Types of Automatic Auxiliary Boilers § 63.25-1 Small automatic auxiliary boilers. Small automatic auxiliary boilers defined as having heat-input ratings of 400,000 Btu/hr...

  3. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  4. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  5. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  6. Dynamic Simulation of the Water-steam System in Once-through Boilers - Sub-critical Power Boiler Case -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongil; Choi, Sangmin

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of a water-steam system in a once-through boiler was simulated based on the physics-based modeling approach, representing the system in response to large load change or scale disturbance simulations. The modeling considered the mass, energy conservation, and momentum equation in the water pipe and the focus was limited to the sub-critical pressure region. An evaporator tube modeling was validated against the reference data. A simplified boiler system consisting of economizer, evaporator, and superheater was constructed to match a 500 MW power boiler. The dynamic response of the system following a disturbance was discussed along with the quantitative response characteristics. The dynamic response of the boiler system was further evaluated by checking the case of an off-design point operation of the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio. The results re-emphasized the significance of controlling the feedwater-to-fuel supply ratio and additional design requirements of the water-steam separator and spray attemperator.

  7. Imulation of temperature field in swirl pulverized coal boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Wu, Weifeng; Chen, Chen; Chen, Weifeng; Qi, Guoli; Zhang, Songsong

    2018-02-01

    In order to achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction and energy efficient utilization, taking a 58MW swirl pulverized coal boiler as the research object, the three-dimensional model of the rotor is established. According to the principle of CFD, basic assumptions and boundary conditions are selected, the temperature field in the furnace of 6 kinds of working conditions is numerically solved, and the temperature distribution in the furnace is analyzed. The calculation results show that the temperature of the working condition 1 is in good agreement with the experimental data, and the error is less than 10%,the results provide a theoretical basis for the following calculation. Through the comparison of the results of the 6 conditions, it is found that the working condition 3 is the best operating condition of the pulverized coal boiler.

  8. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  9. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  10. Inception report and gap analysis. Boiler inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    This inception and gap analysis report on boilers in Latvia, has been prepared in the framework of the 'Implementation of the EU directive on energy performance of buildings: development of the Latvian Scheme for energy auditing of building and inspection of boilers'. The report is the basis for the establishment of training of boiler inspectors; it develops a gap analysis for better understanding and estimating the number of installations in Latvia and develops suggestions for the institutional set up. In particular includes information on existing standard and regulation on boiler, suggestion for the content of the training material of experts for boiler inspections and a syllabus of the training course. A specific section is dedicated to the suggestion for certification system of trained boiler inspectors. (au)

  11. Further development of recovery boiler; Soodakattilan kehitystyoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K.; Siiskonen, P.; Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The global model of a recovery boiler was further developed. The aim is to be able to model the velocity, temperature and concentration fields in a boiler. At this moment the model includes submodels for: droplet drying, pyrolysis, char burning, gas burning and for droplet trajectory. The preliminary study of NO{sub x} and fly ash behaviour in a boiler was carried out. The study concerning flow field in the superheater area was carried out a 2-dimensional case in which the inflow parameters were taken from global model of a recovery boiler. Further the prediction methods of fouling in a recovery boiler were developed based on theoretical calculations of smelting behaviour of multicomponent mixtures and measurements at operating recovery boilers. (author)

  12. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000 to 2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  13. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2002-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  14. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal

  15. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-01-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB

  16. 40 CFR 49.124 - Rule for limiting visible emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...% opacity limit. (3) The visible emissions from an oil-fired boiler or solid fuel-fired boiler that... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for limiting visible emissions. 49... Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.124 Rule for limiting visible emissions. (a) What is...

  17. Analysis and study on the membrane method of CO2 removal of coal-fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fangqin, Li; Henan, Li; Jianxing, Ren; Jiang, Wu; Zhongzhu, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one kind of harmful substances from the burning process of fossil fuel. CO 2 emissions cause serious pollution on atmospheric environment, especially greenhouse effect. In this paper, CO 2 formation mechanism and control methods were researched. Membrane technology was studied to control CO 2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. The relationship between CO 2 removal efficiency and parameters of membrane contactor was analyzed. Through analysis and study, factors affecting on CO 2 removal efficiency were gotten. How to choose the best parameters was known. This would provide theoretical basis for coal-fired utility boilers choosing effective way of CO 2 removal. (author)

  18. FY 1999 Feasibility study on the environmentally-friendly coal utilization systems. Green Helmet Project (Circulating fluidized bed boiler Zaozhuang, Shangdong Province, China); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata sekitan riyo system kanosei chosa jigyo seika hokokusho. Green helmet jigyo (junkan ryudosho boiler Chugoku Shangdong sho Zaozhuang)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The demonstration project is carried out in at Chaili coal mine in Shangdong Province, China for installation of and dissemination activities for circulating fluidized bed boilers to abate sulfur oxide emissions associated with utilization of coal, and the FY 1999 results are reported. The operating conditions were reviewed, and some recommendations were made for improving the operation procedures. Limestone was not used for desulfurization, and furnace temperature tended to increase due to increased size of the fluidizing particles. Therefore, it was recommended to use limestone at the design rate. The boiler was operated at a load exceeding the design level, and it was recommended to limit the load viewed from extending serviceability. The boiler start-up procedure was concretely proposed to use a mixed fuel of wood and coal instead of distillate oil, in order to reduce the start-up cost. The recommendations and design support activities for improving facilities included early stage repair of the damaged refractories. For build up of the ashes in the horizontal heat transfer section, the investigated design charts for improvement by installation of ash-discharging hopper were drawn and proposed. Maintenance-related information was given, including Chinese agencies for obtaining auxiliary facilities. (NEDO)

  19. Development of an Optimizing Control Concept for Fossil-Fired Boilers using a Simulation Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J. H.; Mølbak, T.; Commisso, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    of implementation and commissioning. The optimizing control system takes into account the multivariable and nonlinear characteristics of the boiler process as a gain-scheduled LQG-controller is utilized. For the purpose of facilitating the control concept development a dynamic simulation model of the boiler process......An optimizing control system for improving the load following capabilities of power plant units has been developed. The system is implemented as a complement producing additive control signals to the existing boiler control system, a concept which has various practical advantages in terms...... model when designing a new control concept are discussed....

  20. Analysis and control design of sustainable policies for greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Bing; Duncan, Stephen; Papachristodoulou, Antonis; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is now an urgent priority. Systems control theory, and in particular feedback control, can be helpful in designing policies that achieve sustainable levels of emissions of CO 2 (and other greenhouse gases) while minimizing the impact on the economy, and at the same time explicitly addressing the high levels of uncertainty associated with predictions of future emissions. In this paper, we describe preliminary results for an approach where model predictive control (MPC) is applied to a model of the UK economy (UK 4see model) as a test bed to design sustainable policies for greenhouse gas emissions. Using feedback control, the policies are updated on the basis of the actual emissions, rather than on the predicted level of emissions. The basic structure and principle of the UK 4see model is described and its implementation in Simulink is presented. A linearized state space model is obtained and model predictive control is applied to design policies for CO 2 emissions. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The preliminary results obtained in this paper illustrate the strength of the proposed design approach and form the basis for future research on using systems control theory to design optimal sustainable policies

  1. Cigarette Design Features: Effects on Emission Levels, User Perception, and Behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Richter, Patricia A; Stepanov, Irina; Watson, Christina V; Watson, Clifford H

    This paper describes the effects of non-tobacco, physical cigarette design features on smoke emissions, product appeal, and smoking behaviors - 3 factors that determine smoker's exposure and related health risks.

  2. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  3. Investigation of fuel lean reburning process in a 1.5 MW boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Young; Baek, Seung Wook; Kim, Se Won

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → We examine a detailed study of fuel lean reburning process in a 1.5 MW gas-fired boiler. → Experimental and numerical researches are conducted. → We investigate change in the level of NO X and CO emission. → The recirculation flow is important in the fuel lean reburning process. -- Abstract: This paper examines a detailed study of fuel lean reburning process applied to a 1.5 MW gas-fired boiler. Experimental and numerical studies were carried out to investigate the effect of the fuel lean reburning process on the NO X reduction and CO emission. Natural gas (CH 4 ) was used as the reburn as well as the main fuel. The amount of the reburn fuel, injection location and thermal load of boiler were considered as experimental parameters. The flue gas data revealed that the fuel lean reburning process led to NO X reduction up to 43%, while CO emission was limited to less than 30 ppm for the 100% thermal load condition. The commercial computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT 6.3, which included turbulence, chemical reaction, radiation and NO modeling, was used to predict the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics under various operational conditions in the boiler. Subsequently, predicted results were validated with available measured data such as gas temperature distributions and local mean NO X concentrations. The detailed numerical results showed that the recirculation flow developed inside the boiler was found to play an important role in improving the effectiveness of fuel lean reburning process.

  4. The Technology Introduction of Chain Boiler Energy Conservation Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Liu, Xiwen; Yuan, Hong; Lin, Jiadai; Zhang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    Introduced the present status of chain boiler efficiency is low, the system analysis of the chain boiler optimization and upgrading of technology, for the whole progress of chain boiler to provide some ideas and reference.

  5. Elevated temperature failures in boiler tubes - case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowrisankar, I.; Bandyopadhyay, G.

    1989-01-01

    Metallurgical investigation of boiler tube failures enables identification of failure mechanisms and the underlying cause related to boiler conditions. Some case studies in short term overheating, prolonged overheating and low cycle fatigue failures in boiler tubes are discussed. (author)

  6. Integrating multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics to optimize boiler combustion process of a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xingrang; Bansal, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A coal fired power plant boiler combustion process model based on real data. • We propose multi-objective optimization with CFD to optimize boiler combustion. • The proposed method uses software CORBA C++ and ANSYS Fluent 14.5 with AI. • It optimizes heat flux transfers and maintains temperature to avoid ash melt. - Abstract: The dominant role of electricity generation and environment consideration have placed strong requirements on coal fired power plants, requiring them to improve boiler combustion efficiency and decrease carbon emission. Although neural network based optimization strategies are often applied to improve the coal fired power plant boiler efficiency, they are limited by some combustion related problems such as slagging. Slagging can seriously influence heat transfer rate and decrease the boiler efficiency. In addition, it is difficult to measure slag build-up. The lack of measurement for slagging can restrict conventional neural network based coal fired boiler optimization, because no data can be used to train the neural network. This paper proposes a novel method of integrating non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) based multi-objective optimization with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to decrease or even avoid slagging inside a coal fired boiler furnace and improve boiler combustion efficiency. Compared with conventional neural network based boiler optimization methods, the method developed in the work can control and optimize the fields of flue gas properties such as temperature field inside a boiler by adjusting the temperature and velocity of primary and secondary air in coal fired power plant boiler control systems. The temperature in the vicinity of water wall tubes of a boiler can be maintained within the ash melting temperature limit. The incoming ash particles cannot melt and bond to surface of heat transfer equipment of a boiler. So the trend of slagging inside furnace is controlled. Furthermore, the

  7. Optimized emission in nanorod arrays through quasi-aperiodic inverse design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P Duke; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-06-01

    We investigate a new class of quasi-aperiodic nanorod structures for the enhancement of incoherent light emission. We identify one optimized structure using an inverse design algorithm and the finite-difference time-domain method. We carry out emission calculations on both the optimized structure as well as a simple periodic array. The optimized structure achieves nearly perfect light extraction while maintaining a high spontaneous emission rate. Overall, the optimized structure can achieve a 20%-42% increase in external quantum efficiency relative to a simple periodic design, depending on material quality.

  8. Agglomeration of bed material: Influence on efficiency of biofuel fluidized bed boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov Georgy A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful design and operation of a fluidized bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The main ash-related problem of biomass filing boiler is agglomeration. The fluidized bed boiler with steam capacity of 66 t/h (4 MPa, 440 °C was started up at the Arkhangelsk Paper-Pi dp-Plant in 2001. This boiler was manufactured by the Russian companies "Energosofin" and "Belenergomash" and installed instead of the existing boiler with mechanical grate. Some constructional elements and steam drum of existing boiler remained unchanged. The primary air fan was installed past the common air fan, which supply part of the air into 24 secondary airports. First operating period shows that the bed material is expanded and then operator should increase the primary air rate, and the boiler efficiency dramatically decreases. Tills paper presents some results of our investigations of fuel, bed and fly ash chemical compositions and other characteristics. Special experiments were carried out to optimize the bed drain flow rate. The influence of secondly air supply improvement on mixing with the main flow and boiler efficiency are given.

  9. A Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Optimized for Oxyfuel Combustion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Dlouhý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on modifying a pulverized coal-fired steam boiler in a 250 MWe power plant for oxygen combustion conditions. The entry point of the study is a boiler that was designed for standard air combustion. It has been proven that simply substituting air by oxygen as an oxidizer is not sufficient for maintaining a satisfactory operating mode, not even with flue gas recycling. Boiler design optimization aggregating modifications to the boiler’s dimensions, heating surfaces and recycled flue gas flow rate, and specification of a flue gas recycling extraction point is therefore necessary in order to achieve suitable conditions for oxygen combustion. Attention is given to reducing boiler leakage, to which external pre-combustion coal drying makes a major contribution. The optimization is carried out with regard to an overall power plant conception for which a decrease in efficiency due to CO2 separation is formulated.

  10. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żymełka, Piotr; Nabagło, Daniel; Janda, Tomasz; Madejski, Paweł

    2017-12-01

    Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA) nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS) data.

  11. Online Monitoring System of Air Distribution in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler Based on Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żymełka Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balanced distribution of air in coal-fired boiler is one of the most important factors in the combustion process and is strongly connected to the overall system efficiency. Reliable and continuous information about combustion airflow and fuel rate is essential for achieving optimal stoichiometric ratio as well as efficient and safe operation of a boiler. Imbalances in air distribution result in reduced boiler efficiency, increased gas pollutant emission and operating problems, such as corrosion, slagging or fouling. Monitoring of air flow trends in boiler is an effective method for further analysis and can help to appoint important dependences and start optimization actions. Accurate real-time monitoring of the air distribution in boiler can bring economical, environmental and operational benefits. The paper presents a novel concept for online monitoring system of air distribution in coal-fired boiler based on real-time numerical calculations. The proposed mathematical model allows for identification of mass flow rates of secondary air to individual burners and to overfire air (OFA nozzles. Numerical models of air and flue gas system were developed using software for power plant simulation. The correctness of the developed model was verified and validated with the reference measurement values. The presented numerical model for real-time monitoring of air distribution is capable of giving continuous determination of the complete air flows based on available digital communication system (DCS data.

  12. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  13. Emission reductions through precombustion chamber design in a natural gas, lean burn engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.E.; King, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various precombustion chamber design, operating and control parameters on the exhaust emissions of a natural gas engine. Analysis of the results showed that engine-out total hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) can be reduced, relative to conventional methods, through prechamber design. More specifically, a novel staged prechamber yielded significant reductions in NO x and total hydrocarbon emissions by promoting stable prechamber and main chamber ignition under fuel-lean conditions. Precise fuel control was also critical when balancing low emissions and engine efficiency (i.e., fuel economy). The purpose of this paper is to identify and explain positive and deleterious effects of natural gas prechamber design on exhaust emissions

  14. EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL BOILER BY FLUE GAS DUCT INSULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay H. Zala

    2017-01-01

    Now a days in industry major losses are find out so here we calculate these losses and find out efficiency of boiler. Boiler efficiency and energy losses from boiler are important parameter for any industry using boiler. In this work a detailed analysis was carried out for boiler at Anish Chemicals Bhavnagar. It is a combined water and fire tube boiler using biomass coal as fuel. Boiler efficiency calculated by direct method is in range of (78.5% to 81.6%). Major losses from boiler are heat ...

  15. MODELLING, SIMULATING AND OPTIMIZING BOILERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.; Condra, T.; Houbak, Niels

    2003-01-01

    , and the total stress level (i.e. stresses introduced due to internal pressure plus stresses introduced due to temperature gradients) must always be kept below the allowable stress level. In this way, the increased water-/steam space that should allow for better dynamic performance, in the end causes limited...... freedom with respect to dynamic operation of the plant. By means of an objective function including as well the price of the plant as a quantification of the value of dynamic operation of the plant an optimization is carried out. The dynamic model of the boiler plant is applied to define parts...

  16. Wood fuelled boiler operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandars, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a management study into the operating costs of wood-fired boilers. Data obtained from existing wood-fired plant has been analysed and interpreted using the principles of machinery management and the science that underlies the key differences between this fuel and any other. A set of budgeting principles has been developed for the key areas of labour requirement, insurance, maintenance and repair and electricity consumption. Other lesser cost centres such as the provision of shelter and the effects of neglect and accidents have also been considered, and a model constructed. (author)

  17. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R. [Pulp and Paper Research Inst. of Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  18. Economic evaluation of a coal fired boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briem, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper provides basic information on boiler economics which will assist steam users in analyzing the feasibility of using coal to generate steam - in either new or existing facilities. The information presented covers boilers ranging in size from 10,000 to 100,000 pounds per hour steaming capacity

  19. 46 CFR 109.555 - Propulsion boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propulsion boilers. 109.555 Section 109.555 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Miscellaneous § 109.555 Propulsion boilers. The master or person in charge and the engineer in charge shall...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.162 Ship's boilers. (a) Before...