WorldWideScience

Sample records for emf

  1. EMF and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widemann, P.M.; Schuetz, H.

    1995-01-01

    There has lately been a greater responsivement in the media as well as the general public to the risk potential of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). If the discussion continues to gain momentum, this could have grave consequences for companies offering the products or services under attack. The working group Man, Environment, Technology (MUT) at Juelich Research Centre has examined the question of how EMF risks are valuated by the public. The study centered on the following questions: How are EMF risk potentials perceived by the public and what factors influence the public discussion? What future course might the discussion on risks take and what critical events and conditions deserve particular attention? The authors present and discuss the results of this first German study on product-inherent risks. (orig.) [de

  2. EMFs run aground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raloff, J.

    1993-01-01

    Presently no one knows whether electromagnetic fields (EMFs) play a role in human cancer or other ailments, though epidemiological studies over the years have suggested that possibility. A study by the Electric Power Research Institute attempted to quantify everything it could about the magnetic environment of a home, identifying not only major sources of magnetic fields, but also their frequencies, strengths, and how they fall off with distance. Sources of a homes magnetic environment include appliances, overhead powerlines, and grounding connections to metallic water pipes. Fields will vary over time, depending on how much current is passing through the electrically conductive sources. Additional contributors to a home's magnetic background may include unusual wiring in the walls, underground power lines, and near-by high voltage transmission lines. This paper summarizes the study results, indicating weak, persistant EMFs may dominate, but small magnetic field associated with ground currents can end up contributing more to the overall EMF background than appliances producing far larger fields which fall off more quickly with distance. 2 figs

  3. ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE, EMF (CELLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, M.D.; Feldberg, S.W.

    1998-09-16

    The voltage or electric potential difference across the terminals of a cell when no current is drawn from it. The emf of a cell is the sum of the electric potential differences (PDs) produced by a separation of charges (electrons or ions) that can occur at each phase boundary (or interface) in the cell. The magnitude of each PD depends on the chemical nature of the two contacting phases. Thus, at the interface between two different metals, some electrons will have moved from the metal with a higher free energy of electrons to the metal with a lower free energy of electrons. The resultant charge separation will produce a PD (just as charge separation produces a voltage across a capacitor) that, at equilibrium, exactly opposes further electron flow. Similarly, PDs can be produced when electrons partition across a metal/solution interface or metal/solid interface, and when ions partition across a solution/membrane/solution interface.

  4. radio frequency emf radio frequency emf exposure due to gsm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    about electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation from base. Nigerian Journal of ... oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other as shown in ... and magnetic) is produced by a change in the other part and the ... limit). 4. MATERIALS AND METHOD.

  5. WHO's International EMF Project (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    The International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project assesses health and environmental effects of exposure to static and time varying electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300 GHz. The Project facilitates a coordinated international response to the concerns about possible health effects of exposure to EMF, assesses the scientific literature, identifies gaps in knowledge needing further research to improve health risk assessments and encourages focused research to fill gaps in knowledge. When the results of this research are published, they will be incorporated into WHO's Environmental Health Criteria monographs where formal health risk assessments are made on exposure to EMF. These monographs provide a database that facilitates the development of internationally acceptable standards for EMF exposure. This paper reviews the International EMF Project activities related to WHO's EMF research requirements and focuses on specific questions raised during the scientific reviews that need to be considered in future epidemiological studies. (author)

  6. EMF 9 scenario design (EMF WP 9.4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the specifications of the scenarios selected by the EMF 9 Working Group, which is focusing on North American natural gas markets. The four first-round scenarios include: (1) an upper oil price path, (2) a lower oil price path, (3) a lower resource base, and (4) a higher gas demand due to policies and technologies affecting the electric utility sector. Each scenario represents a combination of market and regulatory environments. For example, the upper oil price scenario combines an upper oil price trend with a reference set of resource and demand conditions and with a pro-competitive regulatory environment. This scenario also serves as a control case for comparing the other scenarios, which specify a change in one of the environments for oil prices, resources, or demand. The regulatory environment has been maintained constant across these first-round scenarios but may be changed depending upon the later recommendations of the regulatory policy and market structure study group. The next section describes the detailed specifications for modelers in simulating the upper oil price scenario. Guidance is offered for energy prices, economic activity, and resource base estimates. The next three sections describe the other three scenarios that involve changes in these inputs from their values in the upper oil price scenario. Special wellhead price assumptions for stand-alone supply models and plans for developing inputs for Canadian models are then discussed. The final section describes the output variables to be reported to the EMF staff for comparing model results

  7. EMF Monitoring—Concepts, Activities, Gaps and Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Dürrenberger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart environments and novel wireless devices. Until now, systematic and coordinated efforts to monitor EMF exposure are rare. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about personal exposure levels. This lack of knowledge is detrimental for any evidence-based risk, exposure and health policy, management and communication. The main objective of the paper is to review the current state of EMF exposure monitoring activities in Europe, to comment on the scientific challenges and deficiencies, and to describe appropriate strategies and tools for EMF exposure assessment and monitoring to be used to support epidemiological health research and to help policy makers, administrators, industry and consumer representatives to base their decisions and communication activities on facts and data.

  8. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  9. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  10. EVALUATION OF EMF EXPOSURE OF MOBILE PHONES ON HUMAN HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Vtornikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mobile phones are worldwide spread nowadays. Smartphones penetration is growing year after year. Numerous studies indicate the negative effect of EMF exposure of these devices on humans. Therefore, it is important to study the peculiarities of their influence on the target organ-the brain. It is important for solving this problem to find out the real situation of the distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure near the front panel of the apparatus.The aim of the study is to determine and compare EMF exposure from smartphones and classic mobile phones on human head.Material and methods. The original method patented in the Russian Federation was used in this study. The used original measuring setup is also patented, developed and assembled by the authors of the study. The object of the study was classical mobile phones and smartphones widespread at the time of work.Results. We got the graphic of matrices of distribution of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel of 10 apparatus corresponding to the topography of a human head. The study revealed peculiarities of this distribution in smartphones and the classic mobile phones and got the values of energy flux density (EFD of EMF exposure in the investigated devices acting primarily on the brain.Conclusions. The design of smartphones and mobile phones determines the overall picture of distribution of EFD of EMF exposure in the plane against the front panel for devices of a particular type. This picture must be taken into account when planning epidemiological and experimental studies to obtain comparable results. Progress in the development of mobile communication technologies has led to an increase in the electromagnetic load on users of modern devices.

  11. monIT: A Portuguese Risk Communication Project on EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Sebastiao, Daniel; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Correia, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    The monIT project is a risk communication programme, aiming at providing information on exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communication systems in Portugal. monIT's website, www.lxlit.pt/monit, is the main interface for dissemination of information. Besides including relevant information about EMF for both the general public and the technical community, this website provides results from extensive measurement campaigns performed all over Portugal during the last three years. This paper presents the project's structure and activities, practical results achieved and ends with some conclusions and action lines for future work. (author)

  12. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Lercher, Piero; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby

    2016-09-01

    Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with non-specific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic fields (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common electromagnetic field or EMF sources: Radio-frequency radiation (RF) (3 MHz to 300 GHz) is emitted from radio and TV broadcast antennas, Wi-Fi access points, routers, and clients (e.g. smartphones, tablets), cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, and Bluetooth devices. Extremely low frequency electric (ELF EF) and magnetic fields (ELF MF) (3 Hz to 3 kHz) are emitted from electrical wiring, lamps, and appliances. Very low frequency electric (VLF EF) and magnetic fields (VLF MF) (3 kHz to 3 MHz) are emitted, due to harmonic voltage and current distortions, from electrical wiring, lamps (e.g. compact fluorescent lamps), and electronic devices. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term exposure to certain EMFs is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and male infertility. On the other hand

  13. Exposure of ELF-EMF and RF-EMF Increase the Rate of Glucose Transport and TCA Cycle in Budding Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kang-Wei; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transcriptional response to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and 2.0 GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure by Illumina sequencing technology using budding yeast as the model organism. The transcription levels of 28 genes were upregulated and those of four genes were downregulated under ELF-EMF exposure, while the transcription levels of 29 genes were upregulated and those of 24 genes were downregulated under RF-EMF exposure. After validation by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a concordant direction of change both in differential gene expression (DGE) and RT-qPCR was demonstrated for nine genes under ELF-EMF exposure and for 10 genes under RF-EMF exposure. The RT-qPCR results revealed that ELF-EMF and RF-EMF exposure can upregulate the expression of genes involved in glucose transportation and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but not the glycolysis pathway. Energy metabolism is closely related with the cell response to environmental stress including EMF exposure. Our findings may throw light on the mechanism underlying the biological effects of EMF.

  14. New bimetallic EMF cell shows promise in direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, J. C.; Shimotake, H.

    1968-01-01

    Concentration cell, based upon a thermally regenerative cell principle, produces electrical energy from any large heat source. This experimental bimetallic EMF cell uses a sodium-bismuth alloy cathode and a pure liquid sodium anode. The cell exhibits reliability, corrosion resistance, and high current density performance.

  15. Two-way portable radios: monitoring exposure to EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Campos, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Hand-held two-way portable radios, also known as push-to-talk radios (PTT), radiate intense electromagnetic fields (EMF). Increasingly used for communications inside buildings, these devices should not be neglected as EMF sources in workplace environments. In contrast to mobile-phones, push-to-talk radios usually operate in a lower frequency range (450 < f < 470 MHz), where the reference levels, established by ICNIRP for human exposure, are more restrictive. The intrinsic hazard potential associated to these devices has motivated this assessment of occupational exposure to EMF. In spite of relatively low power levels, usually no more than a few watts, and the intermittency of transmissions, push-to-talk radios are operated close to the body, therefore exposure takes place in the near-field region. Measurements of electromagnetic field intensities were carried out for two push-to-talk models, operating at power levels of 2 W and 5 W, with a broad-band field monitor, EMR-300 (W and G), coupled to an E-field triaxial probe (type 8.0). Intensities were measured at various points surrounding the transmitter, to assess exposure levels of other workers sitting nearby during communications. Results show significant electric field intensities at points less than 10 cm away from the source. A personal monitor with triaxial E and H-field shaped probes, RadMan XT (Narda), was used as a dosimeter by workers operating both radio models, during 8 hours. This device measures E and H-field intensities and stores these values as a percentage of ICNIRP occupational limits, in a data logger. Results of both kind of measurements show that intense EMF are emitted during transmissions. Therefore, workers should be informed about possible EMF hazards and trained to properly operate these transmitters, in order to minimize exposure risks. (author)

  16. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2015 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Johansson, Olle; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Lercher, Piero; Mosgöller, Wilhelm; Moshammer, Hanns; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with unspecific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems certainly necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic field (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes. Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common EMF sources include Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, Bluetooth devices, ELF magnetic fields from net currents, ELF electric fields from electric lamps and wiring close to the bed and office desk. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term-exposure to certain EMF exposures is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI) leading to a functional impairment (EHS), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the

  17. Electric shock and elevated EMF levels due to triplen harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, T.Q.; Conrad, L.E.; Stallman, B.K.

    1996-01-01

    The increasing use of single phase rectifiers for electric power conversion in residential applications increases harmonic load on utility systems. Many papers have analyzed the effect of these loads on power quality and equipment loadability. However, there are two more critical concerns for harmonic loads served phase to neutral on multi-grounded wye systems. Triplen harmonics, particularly the third, add in the neutral and have little diversity between loads. The higher neutral currents may cause significant problems. Neutral to earth voltages will increase near the substations which could increase stray voltage complaints. The additional neutral current on three phase lines will elevate EMF levels especially in the fringe areas. This paper provides fundamental understanding of triplen harmonic influence on stray voltage and EMF related to multi-grounded wye electric distribution systems

  18. Rate of rotation measurement using back-EMFS associated with windings of a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for measuring rate of rotation. A brushless DC motor is rotated and produces a back electromagnetic force (emf) on each winding thereof. Each winding's back-emf is integrated and multiplied by the back-emf associated with an adjacent winding. The multiplied outputs associated with each winding are combined to produce a directionally sensitive DC output proportional only to the rate of rotation of the motor's shaft.

  19. Overview of EMF 22 U.S. transition scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, Allen A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Chesnaye, Francisco C. de la; Reilly, John M.; Weyant, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum 22 study included a set of U.S. transition scenarios designed to bracket a range of potential U.S. climate policy goals. Models from the six teams that participated in this part of the study include models that have been prominently involved in analyzing proposed U.S. climate legislation, as well as models that have been involved in the Climate Change Science Program and other parts of this EMF 22 study. This paper presents an overview of the results from the U.S. transition scenarios, and provides insights into the comparison of results from the participating models. (author)

  20. Emf, maximum power and efficiency of fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaggioli, R.A.; Dunbar, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the ideal voltage of steady-flow fuel cells usually expressed by Emf = -ΔG/nF where ΔG is the Gibbs free energy of reaction for the oxidation of the fuel at the supposed temperature of operation of the cell. Furthermore, the ideal power of the cell is expressed as the product of the fuel flow rate with this emf, and the efficiency of a real fuel cell, sometimes called the Gibbs efficiency, is defined as the ratio of the actual power output to this ideal power. Such viewpoints are flawed in several respects. While it is true that if a cell operates isothermally the maximum conceivable work output is equal to the difference between the Gibbs free energy of the incoming reactants and that of the leaving products, nevertheless, even if the cell operates isothermally, the use of the conventional ΔG of reaction assumes that the products of reaction leave separately from one another (and from any unused fuel), and when ΔS of reaction is positive it assumes that a free heat source exists at the operating temperature, whereas if ΔS is negative it neglects the potential power which theoretically could be obtained form the heat released during oxidation. Moreover, the usual cell does not operate isothermally but (virtually) adiabatically

  1. Use of C. Elegans as a model organism for sensing the effects of ELF-EMFs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacchini, A H; Everington, M L; Augousti, A T; Walker, A J [School of Life Sciences, Kingston University London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    For the past two decades, there have been concerns and controversy about the effects on human health of the increased exposure to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) resulting from electrification, in both residential and industrial settings. Several epidemiological studies have implicated ELF-EMFs averaging 0.4 {mu}mUTesla (T) or more in increased risk of cancer, especially childhood leukaemia [1,2]; there have also been many reports demonstrating effects of power-frequency EMFs on cells [outlined in 1,3]. Unfortunately, however, the precise mechanisms by which ELF-EMFs exert biological effects have proven difficult to define and results of various studies have often been hard to reproduce [1]. We believe that C. elegans offers an exciting opportunity to elucidate the effects of power-frequency EMFs on cell signalling pathways within the whole organism and are therefore investigating the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on MAPK signalling in intact worms and fertilized embryos. Through taking a targeted approach to studying the effects of ELF-EMF's on MAPK signalling in C. elegans we aim to gather data that is physiologically relevant. Presently, this research is at a preliminary stage of preparation, and more detailed results on the exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans to ELF-EMF radiation will be presented at the conference itself.

  2. Thermo-emf of cermet films based on rare earth borides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islamgaliev, R.K.; Zyrin, A.V.; Shulishova, O.I.; Shcherbak, I.A

    1987-01-01

    Thermo-emf and electric conductivity of granulated films which contain a solid solution of europium and praseodymium borides Eu 0.5 Pr 0.5 B 6 as a conducting phase, and glass-crystal binder on the base of alummomagnesial fluosilicates as a dielectric phase are studied within the temperature range of 100-1100 K. Thermo-emf of films has a negative sign within the temperature range of 100-500 K and does not exceed 5 μkV/K according to the absolute value which is close to the value of the conducting phase thermo-emf. A negative sign and a small value of thermo-emf are indicative of the charge transfer in granulated films by electrons. Contribution of each of the components into the general thermo-emf is different at high temperatures in different temperature ranges and depends on the individual physico-chemical properties of the used materials

  3. Retraction: Evaluation of Carcinogenic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (Emf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehic

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This retracts the article "EVALUATION OF CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF" on page 245. The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal ofBasic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: “Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF” published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3:245-50.After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  4. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  5. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  6. Artificial neural networks to estimate the EMF ELF on car travelling near power transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sayegh, O.A.; Qabazard, A.M. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). advanced Systems Division of Environment and Urban

    2007-07-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to determine the electromagnetic field (EMF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) intensity on a vehicle body at different distances from a high tension power line and at varying power loads. EMF radiated emissions from ELF source power transmission lines can produce interference in the electric components in vehicles traveling at variable speed near the power lines. The passengers in the vehicle may also experience EMF-related health problems. Although EMF has been recently categorized as a new form of pollution, the situation has been largely ignored by the industry. Typically, electromagnetic fields at different frequencies show the fastest growing environmental influences. All populations are now exposed to varying degrees of EMF and the levels will continue to increase as technology advances. The purpose of this work was to promote discussion and help find design solutions to manufacture a new device for measuring the EMF at variable speed. In this study, a set of near field measurements outside the vehicle were used to train ANN. Estimations of the EMF ELF for various distances from the high tension power line were presented. It was determined that the most important factors affecting the electric field model include exposure conditions; size, shape and position of the exposed body in the field; and, surface charge density. The EMF ELF was found to increase near sagging areas of the overhead power transmission line. The EMF ELF was found to be proportional to the total amps flowing through the line at the time of measurement. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-06-06

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where `m`is the free mass and `q` the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  8. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Luis-David Patino [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Dilhaire, Stefan [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Grauby, Stephane [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Salhi, M Amine [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Ezzahri, Younes [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Claeys, Wilfrid [Universite de Bordeaux 1, Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, 351, cours de la liberation, 33405 Talence (France); Batsale, Jean-Christophe [Laboratoire TREFLE, Esplanade des Arts et Metiers, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)

    2005-05-21

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties.

  9. Optimization of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) to retard breast cancer tumor growth and vascularity

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Ivan L; Markov, Marko S; Hardman, W Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Background This study provided additional data on the effects of a therapeutic electromagnetic field (EMF) device on growth and vascularization of murine 16/C mammary adenocarcinoma cells implanted in C3H/HeJ mice. Methods The therapeutic EMF device generated a defined 120 Hz semi sine wave pulse signal of variable intensity. Murine 16/C mammary adenocarcinoma tumor fragments were implanted subcutaneously between the scapulae of syngeneic C3H mice. Once the tumor grew to 100 mm3, daily EMF tr...

  10. Characterization of thermoelectric devices by laser induced Seebeck electromotive force (LIS-EMF) measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luis-David Patino; Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Salhi, M Amine; Ezzahri, Younes; Claeys, Wilfrid; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth study related to a new method of characterizing properties in thermoelectrics is proposed in this paper. This technique is appropriate for single or multi-layered thermoelectric devices. A modulated laser beam is used as a heater in order to generate a Seebeck electromotive force (EMF). The laser beam, line shaped, can be focused at any location along the sample surface, allowing spatially resolved measurements. Seebeck EMF measurements, associated with a versatile model based on the thermal quadrupoles method, allow determination of the sample Seebeck EMF profile and identifying of the sample thermal contact resistances, and should be useful for identification of devices and material thermoelectric properties

  11. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where 'm'is the free mass and 'q' the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. EMF 7 model comparisons: key relationships and parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, B.G.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified textbook model of aggregate demand and supply interprets the similarities and differences in the price and income responses of the various EMF 7 models to oil and policy shocks. The simplified model is a marriage of Hicks' classic IS-LM formulation of the Keynesian theory of effective demand with a rudimentary model of aggregate supply, combining a structural Phillips curve for wage determination and a markup theory of price determination. The reduced-form income equation from the fix-price IS-LM model is used to define an aggregate demand (AD) locus in P-Y space, showing alternative pairs of the implicit GNP deflator and real GNP which would simultaneously satisfy the saving-investment identity and the condition for money market equilibrium. An aggregate supply (AS) schedule is derived by a similar reduction of relations between output and labor demand, unemployment and wage inflation, and the wage-price-productivity nexus governing markup pricing. Given a particular econometric model it is possible to derive IS and LM curves algebraically. The resulting locuses would show alternative combinations of interest rate and real income which equilibrate real income identity on the IS side and the demand and supply of money on the LM side. By further substitution the reduced form fix-price income relation could be obtained for direct quantification of the AD locus. The AS schedule is obtainable by algebraic reduction of the structural supply side equations.

  13. Nuclear Energy Response in the EMF27 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Son H.; Wada, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Atsushi; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear energy response for mitigating global climate change across eighteen participating models of the EMF27 study is investigated. Diverse perspectives on the future role of nuclear power in the global energy system are evident in the broad range of nuclear power contributions from participating models of the study. In the Baseline scenario without climate policy, nuclear electricity generation and shares span 0 - 66 EJ/ year and 0 - 25% in 2100 for all models, with a median nuclear electricity generation of 39 EJ/year (1,389 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and median share of 9%. The role of nuclear energy increased under the climate policy scenarios. The median of nuclear energy use across all models doubled in the 450 ppm CO2e scenario with a nuclear electricity generation of 67 EJ/year (2,352 GWe at 90% capacity factor) and share of 17% in 2100. The broad range of nuclear electricity generation (11 - 214 EJ/year) and shares (2 - 38%) in 2100 of the 450 ppm CO2e scenario reflect differences in the technology choice behavior, technology assumptions and competitiveness of low carbon technologies. Greater clarification of nuclear fuel cycle issues and risk factors associated with nuclear energy use are necessary for understanding the nuclear deployment constraints imposed in models and for improving the assessment of the nuclear energy potential in addressing climate change

  14. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF: A systematic review of identifying criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliatsas Christos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF remains a complex and unclear phenomenon, often characterized by the report of various, non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS when an EMF source is present or perceived by the individual. The lack of validated criteria for defining and assessing IEI-EMF affects the quality of the relevant research, hindering not only the comparison or integration of study findings, but also the identification and management of patients by health care providers. The objective of this review was to evaluate and summarize the criteria that previous studies employed to identify IEI-EMF participants. Methods An extensive literature search was performed for studies published up to June 2011. We searched EMBASE, Medline, Psychinfo, Scopus and Web of Science. Additionally, citation analyses were performed for key papers, reference sections of relevant papers were searched, conference proceedings were examined and a literature database held by the Mobile Phones Research Unit of King’s College London was reviewed. Results Sixty-three studies were included. “Hypersensitivity to EMF” was the most frequently used descriptive term. Despite heterogeneity, the criteria predominantly used to identify IEI-EMF individuals were: 1. Self-report of being (hypersensitive to EMF. 2. Attribution of NSPS to at least one EMF source. 3. Absence of medical or psychiatric/psychological disorder capable of accounting for these symptoms 4. Symptoms should occur soon (up to 24 hours after the individual perceives an exposure source or exposed area. (Hypersensitivity to EMF was either generalized (attribution to various EMF sources or source-specific. Experimental studies used a larger number of criteria than those of observational design and performed more frequently a medical examination or interview as prerequisite for inclusion. Conclusions Considerable heterogeneity exists in the

  15. Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Ferguson, Glenn M; Ollson, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Background The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science. Meth...

  16. Health effect from EMF exposure of Korea population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Cho, Y. S.; Lee, J. T.; Yup, M. J.; Hong, J. H. [Institute of Environmental and Industrrial Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    This study on health effect from EMF exposure was performed from June 2001 to April 2002 to compare changes in melatonin levels in urine of 40 subjects during their normal sleeping hours, to evaluate heart rate, ST segment in ventricular, and ventricular premature beat for cardiac function, to evaluate microwave exposure from cellular phones which may have a potential influence on the electro physiologic function of human brain, and each 20 subjects in occupational and non-occupational group measured personal 24-h continual exposure, using EMDEX(for 40-800Hz, Enertech Consultant, Inc.). An urine samples for analysis of melatonin excretion level were collected 1 times a day(immediately after wake-up) for five days from each subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay, HRV-test for relationship between heart rate and EMF exposure was performed heart rate beat using Holter for subjects, and double EEG-test were performed in 10 long-term users of the cellularphones when using and not using them, and a single EEG-test in 10 short-term users of the cellular phones. Each EEG-recording took 40 min consisting of 30 min filed exposure and 10 min measurement. And We estimated the economic value of the potential damage of electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone, and the willingness to pay of people for the study of the radiation damage led by the government, by applying contingent variation method. The results of this study were followed; 1. Personal exposure assessment 2. We showed not significant difference for the subjective average melatonin levels between occupational and non- occupational groups exposed to electromagnetic fields. 3. We showed no difference in the awake EEGs in terms of spectral power density measures between long-term users and short-term users of cellular phones. 4. We found that the economic value of the potential damage by the radiation for a typical cellular phone user is about 20,000 won per year and he would be willing to pay about 1,800 won

  17. Simulation study of induced EMFs and the suppression during SST-1 start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, V., E-mail: vishal@ipr.res.in; Sharma, D.; Vardhrajulu, A.; Gupta, C.N.; Srinivasan, R.; Daniel, R.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Induced EMFs study in PF coils during SST-1 start up using MATlab simulink. • Integration of wave shaping network to generate practical OT current profile. • This study would protect coil insulation with identifying RC circulating network. • Study of MOV technique for circulation of current through RC. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) comprises of various copper and superconducting coils for generating magnetic field for initiation, providing equilibrium and shaping of plasma in tokamak. In this paper, an attempt is made to study the induced EMF in superconducting poloidal field coils (PF coils) due to fast ramp down of current in ohmic transformer copper coils (OT coils) for SST-1 plasma initiation. The fast ramp down of current, from few kA to zero amperes in just 50–100 ms in OT coils, is required to achieve plasma breakdown and ramp up of plasma current in tokamak. However, it induces nearly 5 kV EMF in one of the SST-1 PF coils that can damage the coil insulation and also bias negatively the electronic switching of power supply. It is necessary to maintain induced EMF below 1 kV in all PF coils for safe operation of SST-1. The induced EMF up to 1 kV can be clamped without any need of protection and circulating current. If the induced EMF is in excess of 1 kV, then it has to allow the circulation of current through RC network for coil protection from overvoltage. These circulating currents in PF coils will affect the shaping of plasma. In this paper, the induced EMF in PF coils are simulated using MATlab simulink for a typical SST-1 current profile of OT coils. Further, this simulation study is used to design the protection system for PF coils. In this paper, the worst-case induced EMF scenario is considered by excluding the effect of passive elements like vacuum vessel and cryostat on mutual coupling parameters. However, the implementation of the EMF suppression scheme need more elaborated study with considering

  18. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2006-01-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of E.M.F. exposure from medical electrical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    he medical electric and electronic equipment, including electro surgical devices, short- and microwave diathermy units, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, belong to the most hazardous sources of electromagnetic emissions. The electromagnetic emissions can interfere with emissions from other medical equipment located in the same facility (e.g. operation rooms) thus having impact on their work, but more importantly, they can be dangerous to patients, medical personnel operating them and other persons. In the present project, an assessment of E.M.F. intensity was performed for more than 2 000 electro surgical devices (330 khz, 440 khz and 1.76 MHz frequency ranges), 1 200 diathermy units and 45 MRI 0.2 - 1.5 T systems. E.M.F. exposure of medical staff was assessed based on respective national hygienic standards. The actual exposure levels were found to exceed the admissible values in Poland. The recorded E.M.F. intensities were compared with relevant Who and U E recommendations (e.g. I.C.N.I.R.P. guidelines, 1998, Directive 2004/40/E.C.). The findings revealed that for 18% of the devices examined, the E.M.F. was higher than the E.M.F. intensity values recommended by U E. (authors)

  20. Recommendations for Guidelines for EMF Personal Exposure Measurements, Rapid Project #4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of developing guidelines for electric and magnetic field (EMF) personal exposure measurements (lF'EM) is to ensure reliable and comparable data across I?EM studies. Study techniques may vary due to different populations or objectives, but the resulting data should be consistently reported and comparable, to the extent possible. Any guideline must allow creativity by the research-oriented investigator and provide specific guidance to industrial hygienists or other results-oriented investigators, requiring a standard protocol. Recognizing measurement studies with different purposes is an important aspect of these recommendations. The guidelines presented here intend to produce comparable data across studies while remaining flexible. The recommendations for designing and implementing an EMF PEM program describe a three-stage process. The first step is to clearly state the purpose of the PEM program. The next stage addresses the fundamental elements of an EMF PEM study, including an assessment of the scientific and organizational resources that will be required. This process is codified in a written study plan. These stages are described in 1 Section 5 of this report. The third stage of a PEM study involves the design, implementation and documentation of specific procedures and protocols fo~ sampling strategies, selection of measurement parameters; instrumentation, measurement and data collection, data management, data analysis, quality assurance, uncertainty evaluation, and archiving the study methods and results. The methods for designing these elements of an EMF PEM study are described in Section 6: Specific Guidelines for EMF I?EM Study Design.

  1. EMF-research 1993-2003[Health hazards from Electromagnetic fields]; EMF-forskning 1993-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Petra; Lindgren, Rolf [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    This report summarises 10 years of research on power frequency electric and magnetic fields. Cancer is the topic for which most research has been carried out during the 10-year-period. Epidemiological studies have shown statistical correlations between long time exposure to magnetic fields and a few forms of cancer. The most obvious correlation is between childhood leukaemia and magnetic fields from power lines. However, the correlations correspond to very small increases in risk and since there is no experimental evidence and no trustworthy mechanism exists, a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be established. Furthermore, there are also comprehensive and well-performed studies which show no correlations. Some studies indicate a correlation between electric and magnetic fields and cognitive functions and diffuse central nervous symptoms. The results show correspondence with the hypothesis that magnetic fields cause a chronic stress effect to the central nervous system. A relatively strong correlation has been shown between ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) and electricity related labour. EMF is however only one of several conceivable explanations. An equivalent, although weaker, correlation has also been shown for Alzheimer's decease. It can be stated that frequent electric and magnetic fields do not seem to have any influence on reproducibility, such as damage on the foetus or negative effects on the reproduction in humans or animals. A potentially important area is the effect on the immune system in humans and animals. In fact, it has been noted that magnetic fields may activate the immune system whilst long term exposure seems to impoverish the capacity of the immune system. The research on field variables and connected mechanisms shows that intermittent magnetic fields have stronger biological impact than continuous fields. Another observation is that biological effects often appear as window effects in amplitude, frequency and sometimes even in time

  2. Electromagnetic fields and the public: EMF standards and estimation of risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Yury

    2010-04-01

    Mobile communications are a relatively new and additional source of electromagnetic exposure for the population. Standard daily mobile-phone use is known to increase RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic field) exposure to the brains of users of all ages, whilst mobile-phone base stations, and base station units for cordless phones, can regularly increase the exposures of large numbers of the population to RF-EMF radiation in everyday life. The need to determine appropriate standards stipulating the maximum acceptable short-term and long-term RF-EMF levels encountered by the public, and set such levels as general guidelines, is of great importance in order to help preserve the general public's health and that of the next generation of humanity.

  3. Electromagnetic fields and the public: EMF standards and estimation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications are a relatively new and additional source of electromagnetic exposure for the population. Standard daily mobile-phone use is known to increase RF-EMF (radiofrequency electromagnetic field) exposure to the brains of users of all ages, whilst mobile-phone base stations, and base station units for cordless phones, can regularly increase the exposures of large numbers of the population to RF-EMF radiation in everyday life. The need to determine appropriate standards stipulating the maximum acceptable short-term and long-term RF-EMF levels encountered by the public, and set such levels as general guidelines, is of great importance in order to help preserve the general public's health and that of the next generation of humanity.

  4. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-01-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell...

  5. Electron thermal EMF for NaxCu2-xS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuterbekov Kairat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the temperature dependences of the thermoelectromotive force (thermo–emf in copper selenide, substituted in a small concentration, were studied. The results of the measurements showed that the thermo–emf coefficient of the samples increases, and the conductivity decreases with increasing silver concentration in its composition. These results allow – with optimal selection of the doping regime and protective coatings – to develop on the basis of nanostructured copper selenide an effective thermoelectric for use at temperatures of 20–500°C as p–type semiconductors suitable for increasing the efficiency of thermoelectric generators.

  6. Comparison of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and Toftness sensometer for body surface EMF measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John; Toftness, Dave; Snyder, Brian; Nosco, Dennis; Balcavage, Walter; Nindl, Gabi

    2004-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields to treat disease has intrigued mankind since the time of the ancient Greeks. More recently it has been shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment aids bone healing, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be beneficial in treating schizophrenia and depression. Since external EMFs influence internal body processes, we hypothesized that measurement of body surface EMFs might be used to detect disease states and direct the course of subsequent therapy. However, measurement of minute body surface EMFs requires use of a sensitive and well documented magnetometer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and frequency response of a fluxgate magnetometer with a triaxial probe for use in detecting body surface EMF and we compared the magnetometer readings with a signal from a Toftness Sensometer, operated by an experienced clinician, in the laboratory and in a clinical setting. A Peavy Audio Amplifier and variable power output Telulex signal generator were used to develop 50 microT EMFs in a three coil Merritt coil system. A calibrated magnetometer was used to set a 60 Hz 50 microT field in the coil and an ammeter was used to measure the current required to develop the 50 microT field. At frequencies other than 60 Hz, the field strength was maintained at 50 microT by adjusting the Telulex signal output to keep the current constant. The field generated was monitored using a 10 turn coil connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope reading indicated that the field strength was the same at all frequencies tested. To determine if there was a correspondence between the signals detected by a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM1) and the Toftness Sensometer both devices were placed in the Merritt coil and readings were recorded from the FGM1 and compared with the ability of a highly experienced Toftness operator to detect the 50 microT field. Subsequently, in a clinical setting, FGM1 readings made by an FGM1 technician and

  7. Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bieńkowski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS as an electromagnetic field (EMF source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. Material and Methods: The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. Results: The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Conclusions: Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method are also presented. Med Pr 2015;66(5:701–712

  8. [Optimization of measurement methods for a multi-frequency electromagnetic field from mobile phone base station using broadband EMF meter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Cała, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of the mobile phone base station (BS) as an electromagnetic field (EMF) source. The most common system configurations with their construction are described. The parameters of radiated EMF in the context of the access to methods and other parameters of the radio transmission are discussed. Attention was also paid to antennas that are used in this technology. The influence of individual components of a multi-frequency EMF, most commonly found in the BS surroundings, on the resultant EMF strength value indicated by popular broadband EMF meters was analyzed. The examples of metrological characteristics of the most common EMF probes and 2 measurement scenarios of the multisystem base station, with and without microwave relays, are shown. The presented method for measuring the multi-frequency EMF using 2 broadband probes allows for the significant minimization of measurement uncertainty. Equations and formulas that can be used to calculate the actual EMF intensity from multi-frequency sources are shown. They have been verified in the laboratory conditions on a specific standard setup as well as in real conditions in a survey of the existing base station with microwave relays. Presented measurement methodology of multi-frequency EMF from BS with microwave relays, validated both in laboratory and real conditions. It has been proven that the described measurement methodology is the optimal approach to the evaluation of EMF exposure in BS surrounding. Alternative approaches with much greater uncertainty (precaution method) or more complex measuring procedure (sources exclusion method) are also presented). This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Five years later: the current status of the use of proteomics and transcriptomics in EMF research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; de Pomerai, David; Koczan, Dirk; Stoll, Dieter; Franke, Helmut; Albar, Juan Pablo

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization's and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority's "Workshop on Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in Electromagnetic Fields Research" was held in Helsinki in the October/November 2005. As a consequence of this meeting, Proteomics journal published in 2006 a special issue "Application of Proteomics and Transcriptomics in EMF Research" (Vol. 6 No. 17; Guest Editor: D. Leszczynski). This Proteomics issue presented the status of research, of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) using proteomics and transcriptomics methods, present in 2005. The current overview/opinion article presents the status of research in this area by reviewing all studies that were published by the end of 2010. The review work was a part of the European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST) Action BM0704 that created a structure in which researchers in the field of EMF and health shared knowledge and information. The review was prepared by the members of the COST Action BM0704 task group on the high-throughput screening techniques and electromagnetic fields (TG-HTST-EMF). © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. EMF measurements on mixed protonic/electronic conductors for hydrogen membrane applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Henrik Karnøe; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Phair, John

    2010-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements are often used to estimate the transport number of conducting species in ionic and mixed conductors. In this work, the applicability of the method to systems, where both protonic, oxide-ionic and electronic conduction is significant, was examined. The effect...

  11. Thermodynamic properties of calcium–bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojong; Boysen, Dane A.; Bradwell, David J.; Chung, Brice; Jiang Kai; Tomaszowska, Alina A.; Wang Kangli; Wei Weifeng; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of Ca–Bi alloys were determined by electromotive force (emf) measurements to assess the suitability of Ca–Bi electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Emf was measured at ambient pressure as a function of temperature between 723 K and 1173 K using a Ca(s)|CaF 2 (s)|Ca(in Bi) cell for twenty different Ca–Bi alloys spanning the entire range of composition from x Ca = 0 to 1. Reported are the temperature-independent partial molar entropy and enthalpy of calcium for each Ca–Bi alloy. Also given are the measured activities of calcium, the excess partial molar Gibbs energy of bismuth estimated from the Gibbs–Duhem equation, and the integral change in Gibbs energy for each Ca–Bi alloy at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K. Calcium activities at 973 K were found to be nearly constant at a value of a Ca = 1 × 10 −8 over the composition range x Ca = 0.32–0.56, yielding an emf of ∼0.77 V. Above x Ca = 0.62 and coincident with Ca 5 Bi 3 formation, the calcium activity approached unity. The Ca–Bi system was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry over the entire range of composition. Based upon these data along with the emf measurements, a revised Ca–Bi binary phase diagram is proposed.

  12. Effects of EMF Emissions from Cables and Junction Boxes on Marine Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanak, Manhar [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Spieler, Richard [Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, Kirk [Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States); Jermain, Robert F. [Nova Southeastern Univ., Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States); Frankenfield, John [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Ravenna, Shirley [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Dibiasio, Christopher [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Coulson, Robert [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Henderson, Ed [Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States); Venezia, William [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Carderock Division (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Studies have shown that diverse aquatic species are electrosensitive. Many fishes, and marine mammals, can either detect, navigate by, or are affected by electromagnetic fields (EMF) with various sensitivities, and their behavior may be impacted by unnatural EMF emissions in the water column. Sharks, rays and skates are known to have the highest sensitivity to electric fields. Electric field emissions in the range 0.5–100 micro volt/m appear to attract them, and emissions over 100 micro volt/m to repulse them. A marine hydrokinetic MHK device will have multiple components and associated multiple submarine cables on the seafloor and running through the water column and would potentially increase the level of EMF emissions to which the marine species at the site may be exposed to. There are therefore concerns amongst stakeholders that EMF emissions associated with MHK devices and their components may act as barriers to species migration, cause disorientation, change community compositions and ecosystems, and that they may attract sharks, leading to a local increase in the risk of shark attacks. However, field data to validate and model potential relationships between observed responses and the EMF emissions in situ are sparse. A program of experimental field surveys were conducted off the coast of South Florida, USA to characterize the electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions in the water column from a submarine cable, and to monitor for responses of local aquatic species. The field surveys were conducted at the South Florida Ocean Measurement Facility (SFOMF) off Fort Lauderdale, which is a cabled offshore in-water navy range. It consists of multiple active submarine power cables and a number of junction boxes, with the capability to transmit AC/DC power at a range of strength and frequencies. The site includes significant marine life activities and community structure, including highly mobile species, such as sharks, stingrays, mammals and turtles. SFOMF therefore

  13. Universal "Imaginary Closed Circuit Method" and Formula for Determination of Direction of Induced EMF/Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atram, Dattatraya Balaram

    2011-01-01

    Fleming's right-hand rule and the right-flat-hand rule are generally applied for determining the direction of flow of induced emf/current in straight conductors. The right-hand-fingers rule is applied for coils only. The right-hand-thumb rule can be applied for either straight conductors or coils. Different rules have to be applied for different…

  14. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  15. International policy and advisory response regarding children's exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure regulations/guidelines generally only consider acute effects, and not chronic, low exposures. Concerns for children's exposure are warranted due to the amazingly rapid uptake of many wireless devices by increasingly younger children. This review of policy and advice regarding children's RF-EMF exposure draws material from a wide variety of sources focusing on the current situation. This is not a systematic review, but aims to provide a representative cross-section of policy and advisory responses within set boundaries. There are a wide variety of approaches which I have categorized and tabulated ranging from ICNIRP/IEEE guidelines and "no extra precautions needed" to precautionary or scientific much lower maxima and extensive advice to minimize RF-EMF exposure, ban advertising/sale to children, and add exposure information to packaging. Precautionary standards use what I term an exclusion principle. The wide range of policy approaches can be confusing for parents/carers of children. Some consensus among advisory organizations would be helpful acknowledging that, despite extensive research, the highly complex nature of both RF-EMF and the human body, and frequent technological updates, means simple assurance of long-term safety cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, minimum exposure of children to RF-EMF is recommended. This does not indicate need for alarm, but mirrors routine health-and-safety precautions. Simple steps are suggested. ICNIRP guidelines need to urgently publish how the head, torso, and limbs' exposure limits were calculated and what safety margin was applied since this exposure, especially to the abdomen, is now dominant in many children.

  16. Relation of Giant Thermo-EMF, Magnetothermo-EMF, Magnetoresistance, and Magnetization to Magnetic Impurity States in Manganites Nd(1- x)Sr x MnO3 and Sm(1- x)Sr x MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroleva, L. I.; Batashev, I. K.; Morozov, A. S.; Balbashov, A. M.; Szymczak, H.; Slawska-Waniew, A.

    2018-02-01

    Thermo-EMF, magnetothermo-EMF, magnetoresistance, and magnetization of single-crystal samples of Nd(1- x)Sr x MnO3 and Sm(1- x)Sr x MnO3 with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 have been studied experimentally. A sharp increase in the thermo-EMF and giant magnetothermo-EMF and magnetoresistance has been observed near the Curie point T C in compounds with 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.3. At the same time, no peculiarities have been found in compositions with x = 0. Since compounds with x > 0 consist of ferromagnetic clusters of the ferron type that reside in an antiferromagnetic A-type matrix, this means that the sharp increase in the thermo-EMF near T C is caused by ferrons. Indeed, the disappearance of ferrons due to a magnetic field or heating above T C leads to an abrupt decrease in the thermo-EMF. Therefore, thermo-EMF in alloyed magnetic semiconductors has been determined by the impurity concentration and the sample volume.

  17. Two-frequency method for measuring Hall emf in high-resistive materials with charge-carrier low mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.L.; Vedeneev, A.S.; Gulyaev, I.B.; Zhdan, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for measuring Hall emf in high-resistive materials with low mobility of charge carriers by the two-frequency method using digital synchronous integration is described. The facility permits to detect the minimum Hall emf approxamatety equat to 5 μV at approximatety equal to 1 T Ohm of the investigated.sample resistance during the measuring time of approximately equal to 2000 s. Sensitivity by Hall mobility makes up >= 0.01 cm 2 /Vxs at the same measuring time. Measuring results of the Hall emf on GaAs monocrystals, CdSe films and island film of gold are presented

  18. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP), EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pinton, Jean-Francois; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier, E-mail: kian.rahbarnia@ipp.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CNRS and Universite de Lyon, F-69364 Lyon (France)

    2012-11-10

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  19. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF THE TURBULENT emf AND TRANSPORT OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN A LIQUID SODIUM EXPERIMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbarnia, Kian; Brown, Benjamin P.; Clark, Mike M.; Kaplan, Elliot J.; Nornberg, Mark D.; Rasmus, Alex M.; Taylor, Nicholas Zane; Forest, Cary B.; Jenko, Frank; Limone, Angelo; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas; Verhille, Gautier

    2012-01-01

    For the first time, we have directly measured the transport of a vector magnetic field by isotropic turbulence in a high Reynolds number liquid metal flow. In analogy with direct measurements of the turbulent Reynolds stress (turbulent viscosity) that governs momentum transport, we have measured the turbulent electromotive force (emf) by simultaneously measuring three components of velocity and magnetic fields, and computed the correlations that lead to mean-field current generation. Furthermore, we show that this turbulent emf tends to oppose and cancel out the local current, acting to increase the effective resistivity of the medium, i.e., it acts as an enhanced magnetic diffusivity. This has important implications for turbulent transport in astrophysical objects, particularly in dynamos and accretion disks.

  20. The precautionary principle and EMF: from the theory to the practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1992 the United Nations Declaration on the Environment stated that where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation. Since this interpretation has been reaffirmed within numerous framework conventions and national environment law in a number of countries has begun to incorporate it. The contents of the precautionary principle: There are in fact two completely different ideas about the principle: the absolute: the precautionary principle would aim to guarantee complete harmless. The aim is zero risk and even a minimal suspicion of risk should result in a moratorium or a definitive ban, the moderate: its implementation is subject to a scientifically credible statement of hypothetical risk. It also gives priority to positive measures particularly research to provide a better assessment of the risk. In every case, before any decision a statement of cost and of advantages should be drawn up. The concept of prudent avoidance introduced in 1989 by G. Morgan and adopted by some states (Sweden, Australia) seems to be a specific application of the precautionary principle to EMF, taking into account the cost of the policy. The EMF research: After more than 20 years of research (epidemiological residential and professional studies, in vitro studies and laboratory animal studies) the scientific uncertainty has been considerably reduced but the possibility of some adverse effects remains. This fact and the public concern about EMF (partly explained by the ubiquity of exposure) explain the temptations in applying the precautionary principle to the EMF issue

  1. Determination of transference numbers in ionic conductors by the EMF method with active load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, V.P.

    1988-01-01

    Method for determining transference numbers in ionic conductors by means of measuring EMF of concentration cell with accout of polarization resistance of electrodes is suggested. The method enables to determine easily very small transference numbers of electron component against the background of predominating ionic conductivity. To illustrate the method there were determined transference numbers for the sample of industrial solid electrolyte in the cell; O 2 Pt|0.91ZrO 2 +0.09Y 2 O 3 |Pt, air

  2. Design and strength evaluation of structural joint made by electro-magnetic forming (EMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Bae; Oh, Soo-Ik; Kim, Heon-Young

    2004-01-01

    Recently, weight reduction of vehicles has been of great interest, and consequently, the use of low-density materials in the automotive industry is increasing every year. Materials should not be substituted such a way that material of component parts is simply changed because there is a problem in achieving stiffness and strength. To achieve these requirements, the automobile should be redesigned totally. Aluminum spaceframe is rapidly being adopted as a body structure for accommodating lightness, stiffness and strength requirement. In aluminum spaceframe manufacturing, it is often required to join aluminum tube. But there are few suitable methods for joining aluminum tube, so that much interest has been focused on testing suitable joining methods. Joining by electromagnetic forming(EMF) can be useful method in joining aluminum tube, which offers some advantages compared with the conventional joining method. In this paper, joining by EMF was investigated as a pre-study for applying an automotive spaceframe. Finite element simulations and strength tests were performed to analyze the influence of geometric parameters on joint strength. Based on these results, configurations of axial joint and torque joint were suggested and guidelines for designing EMF joint were established

  3. RF-EMF exposure of fetus and mother during magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pediaditis, M; Leitgeb, N; Cech, R [Institute of Health Care Engineering with European Notified Body of Medical Devices, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 18, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: norbert.leitgeb@tugraz.at

    2008-12-21

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) avoids risks of genetic damage but may be associated with excess heating of body tissues. To investigate the exposure to MRI radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), low-pass and high-pass birdcage coils were simulated and the whole-body pregnant woman model SILVY used to determine local and whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) in mother and fetus. Resonant RF-EMF of MRI devices were investigated at 0.3, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 T. Results allow extrapolation also to higher fields. They showed that local SAR in mother's trunk reaches exposure limits first. However, data show that during abdominal MRI meeting exposure limits of the mother is not sufficient to protect the fetus if limits of the general populations are applied to it. In that case fetal whole-body SAR exceeds limits by 7.4-fold. It is up to the physician and/or the ethics commission to decide upon justification for abdominal MRI of pregnant women if limits are exceeded. The results indicate the need for specifically addressing fetal exposure to EMF and elaborating general recommendations by radiation protection bodies.

  4. RF-EMF exposure of fetus and mother during magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediaditis, M; Leitgeb, N; Cech, R

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) avoids risks of genetic damage but may be associated with excess heating of body tissues. To investigate the exposure to MRI radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), low-pass and high-pass birdcage coils were simulated and the whole-body pregnant woman model SILVY used to determine local and whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) in mother and fetus. Resonant RF-EMF of MRI devices were investigated at 0.3, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 4 T. Results allow extrapolation also to higher fields. They showed that local SAR in mother's trunk reaches exposure limits first. However, data show that during abdominal MRI meeting exposure limits of the mother is not sufficient to protect the fetus if limits of the general populations are applied to it. In that case fetal whole-body SAR exceeds limits by 7.4-fold. It is up to the physician and/or the ethics commission to decide upon justification for abdominal MRI of pregnant women if limits are exceeded. The results indicate the need for specifically addressing fetal exposure to EMF and elaborating general recommendations by radiation protection bodies.

  5. [Polish guidelines of 2001 for maximum admissible intensities in high frequency EMF versus European Union recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, a draft of amendments to maximum admissible intensities (MAI) of electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz) was prepared by Professor H. Korniewicz of the Central Institute for Labour Protection, Warsaw, in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź (radio- and microwaves) and the Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Warsaw (pulse radiation). Before 2000, the development of the national MAI guidelines for the frequency range of 0.1 MHz-300 GHz was based on the knowledge of biological and health effects of EMF exposure available on the turn of the 1960s. A current basis for establishing the MAI international standards is a well-documented thermal effect measured by the value of a specific absorption rate (SAR), whereas the effects of resonant absorption imposes the nature of the functional dependency on EMF frequency. The Russian standards, already thoroughly analyzed, still take so-called non-thermal effects and the conception of energetic load for a work-shift with its progressive averaging (see hazardous zone in Polish guidelines) as a basis for setting maximum admissible intensities. The World Health Organization recommends a harmonization of the EMF protection guidelines, existing in different countries, with the guidelines of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and its position is supported by the European Union.

  6. Residential exposure from extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Shamesh Raj; Tukimin, Roha

    2018-01-01

    ELF EMF radiation have received considerable attention as a potential threat to the safety and health of people living in the vicinity of high voltage transmission lines, electric distribution substations, power stations and even in close proximity to electronics and electrical household appliances. The paper highlights the study on the ELF EMF safety assessment performed at residences comprising of an owner-occupied house, a completed vacant house and an under construction condominium. The objectives of this study were to determine the ELF EMF radiation exposure level from the high voltage transmission line, electric distribution substation, power station and electrical household appliances in the residences, and to assess the potential exposure received by the occupants at the assessed locations. The results were logged in the electric and magnetic field strength with the units of volt per meter (V/m) and miliGauss (mG) respectively. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines.

  7. Measuring electromagnetic fields (EMF) around wind turbines in Canada: is there a human health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Knopper, Loren D; Ferguson, Glenn M; Ollson, Christopher A

    2014-02-15

    The past five years has seen considerable expansion of wind power generation in Ontario, Canada. Most recently worries about exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wind turbines, and associated electrical transmission, has been raised at public meetings and legal proceedings. These fears have not been based on any actual measurements of EMF exposure surrounding existing projects but appear to follow from worries from internet sources and misunderstanding of the science. The study was carried out at the Kingsbridge 1 Wind Farm located near Goderich, Ontario, Canada. Magnetic field measurements were collected in the proximity of 15 Vestas 1.8 MW wind turbines, two substations, various buried and overhead collector and transmission lines, and nearby homes. Data were collected during three operational scenarios to characterize potential EMF exposure: 'high wind' (generating power), 'low wind' (drawing power from the grid, but not generating power) and 'shut off' (neither drawing, nor generating power). Background levels of EMF (0.2 to 0.3 mG) were established by measuring magnetic fields around the wind turbines under the 'shut off' scenario. Magnetic field levels detected at the base of the turbines under both the 'high wind' and 'low wind' conditions were low (mean = 0.9 mG; n = 11) and rapidly diminished with distance, becoming indistinguishable from background within 2 m of the base. Magnetic fields measured 1 m above buried collector lines were also within background (≤ 0.3 mG). Beneath overhead 27.5 kV and 500 kV transmission lines, magnetic field levels of up to 16.5 and 46 mG, respectively, were recorded. These levels also diminished rapidly with distance. None of these sources appeared to influence magnetic field levels at nearby homes located as close as just over 500 m from turbines, where measurements immediately outside of the homes were ≤ 0.4 mG. The results suggest that there is nothing unique to wind farms with respect to EMF exposure; in

  8. Comprehensive personal RF-EMF exposure map and its potential use in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rubio, Jesus; Najera, Alberto; Arribas, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, numerous epidemiological studies, which deal with the potential effects of mobile phone antennas on health, have almost exclusively focused on their distance to mobile phone base stations. Although it is known that this is not the best approach to the problem, this situation occurs due to the numerous difficulties when determining the personal exposure to the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). However, due to the rise of personal exposimeters, the evolution of spatial statistics, the development of geographical information systems and the use of powerful software, new alternatives are available to deal with these epidemiological studies and thus overcome the aforementioned difficulties. Using these tools, this paper presents a lattice map of personal RF-EMF exposure from exterior mobile phone base stations, covering the entire 110 administrative regions in the city of Albacete (Spain). For this purpose, we used a personal exposimeter, Satimo EME Spy 140 model, performing measurements every 4s The exposimeter was located inside the plastic basket of a bicycle, whose versatility permitted the access to all the zones of the city. Once the exposure map was prepared, its relation with the known antenna locations was studied. The 64 mobile telephone antennas of the city were also georeferenced; the randomness of both variables (exposure and antennas) were studied by means of the Moran's I test. Results showed that the distribution of the antennas follows a grouped pattern (pbased on the mean exposure values to RF-EMF in these sections. The displayed map would permit the execution of more accurate epidemiological studies, since it would be possible to compare the exposure measurements with the incidence data of a disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of micronuclei induction in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed in vitro to EMF RF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiets, Irina A.; Triapitsina, Galina A.; Polevik, Nikolai D.; Pryakhin, Evgeny A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The widespread application of cellular phones is of great concern in view possible consequences for human health. The aim of this study is to assess the capability of electromagnetic fields (EMF) RF with frequency 925 MHz and modulation 217 Hz to induce genotoxic effects as evaluated by the in vitro micronucleus assay on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The flasks of peripheral blood samples collected from healthy volunteers (5 men and 5 women) were placed just on the oscillator of emitting antenna. The signals were produced by the laboratory research plant and were evaluated at four specific absorption rates (SARs) - 0; 0.29; 1.2; 8.1 W/kg. SARs were determined by the calorimetric method. Phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes were exposed three times for 10 minutes in the G o (the first 30 minutes after the beginning of cultivation), S (24 hours later), G 2 -M (after 48 hours from the beginning of cultivation) stages of the cell cycle. 72-hours cultures of lymphocytes were examined to determine the extent of micronuclei. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance for comparison. The data indicated a significant increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes exposed to EMF RF (6.5 ± 0.51 0/00; 7.1 ± 0.66 0/00; 7.0 ± 0.50 0/00) in comparison with sham-exposed lymphocytes (3.0 ± 0.60 0/00). There was not revealed a dose-dependent increase of micronuclei in human lymphocytes. It was suggested that the increase of micronuclei in lymphocytes is explicated by a particularity of EMF RF just near the oscillator of emitting antenna. (author)

  10. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field (ELF-EMF and childhood leukemia near transmission lines: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kokate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systematic review of most cited studies from developed countries those shed light on the potential relation between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF. All the findings of articles critically segregated as per some neglected parameters like number of samples, exposure duration, frequency range, distance from the radiation sources, and location during measurement of magnetic field density near power lines. Literature of major 50 studies are divided according to pooled analysis / meta-analysis, residential zone assessment and case-control studies.

  11. Photo-EMF Sensitivity of Porous Silicon Thin Layer–Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction to Ammonia Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Dal Kwack

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  12. Photo-EMF sensitivity of porous silicon thin layer-crystalline silicon heterojunction to ammonia adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light.

  13. Photo-EMF Sensitivity of Porous Silicon Thin Layer–Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction to Ammonia Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light. PMID:22319353

  14. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2015-05-22

    Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1%) and from DECT phone calls (4.8%). Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%), use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2%) and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%). The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people's mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.

  15. Assessment and comparison of total RF-EMF exposure in femtocell and macrocell base station scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2014-12-01

    The indoor coverage of a mobile service can be drastically improved by deployment of an indoor femtocell base station (FBS). However, the impact of its proximity on the total exposure of the human body to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is unknown. Using a framework designed for the combination of near-field and far-field exposure, the authors assessed and compared the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone (MP) user that is either connected to an FBS or a conventional macrocell base station while in an office environment. It is found that, in average macrocell coverage and MP use-time conditions and for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System technology, the total exposure can be reduced by a factor of 20-40 by using an FBS, mostly due to the significant decrease in the output power of the MP. In general, the framework presented in this study can be used for any exposure scenario, featuring any number of technologies, base stations and/or access points, users and duration. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Determination of Measurement Points in Urban Environments for Assessment of Maximum Exposure to EMF Associated with a Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A base station (BS antenna operates in accordance with the established exposure limits if the values of electromagnetic fields (EMF measured in points of maximum exposure are below these limits. In the case of BS in open areas, the maximum exposure to EMF probably occurs in the antenna’s boresight direction, from a few tens to a few hundred meters away. This is not a typical scenery for urban environments. However, in the line of sight (LOS situation, the region of maximum exposure can still be analytically estimated with good results. This paper presents a methodology for the choice of measurement points in urban areas in order to assess compliance with the limits for exposure to EMF.

  17. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) reduces oxidative stress and improves functional and psychological status in ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichoń, Natalia; Bijak, Michał; Miller, Elżbieta; Saluk, Joanna

    2017-07-01

    As a result of ischaemia/reperfusion, massive generation of reactive oxygen species occurs, followed by decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can modulate oxidative stress, but there are no clinical antioxidant studies in brain stroke patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of ELF-EMF on clinical and antioxidant status in post-stroke patients. Fifty-seven patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an ELF-EMF field of 40 Hz, 7 mT for 15 min/day for 4 weeks (5 days a week). The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was measured in hemolysates, and total antioxidant status (TAS) determined in plasma. Functional status was assessed before and after the series of treatments using Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Applied ELF-EMF significantly increased enzymatic antioxidant activity; however, TAS levels did not change in either group. Results show that ELF-EMF induced a significant improvement in functional (ADL) and mental (MMSE, GDS) status. Clinical parameters had positive correlation with the level of enzymatic antioxidant protection. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:386-396, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Regularities in electroconductivity and thermo-emf in systems of binary continuous solid solutions of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedernikov, M.V.; Dvunitkin, V.G.; Zhumagulov, A.

    1978-01-01

    Given are new experimental data about specific electric resistance of 10 systems of binary continuous solid metal solutions at the temperatures of 293 and 4.2 K: Cr-V, Mo-Nb, Mo-V, Cr-Mo, Nb-V, Ti-Zr, Hf-Zr, Hf-Ti, Sc-Zr, Sc-Hf. For the first time a comparative analysis of all available data on the resistance dependence on the composition of systems of continuous solid solutions, which covers 21 systems, is carried out. The ''resistance-composition'' dependence for such alloy systems is found to be of two types. The dependence of the first type is characteristic of the systems, formed by two isoelectronic metals, the dependence of the second type - for the systems, formed by non-isoelectronic metals. Thermo-emf of each type of solid solutions differently depends on their compositions

  19. Modelling of BLDCM with a double 3-phase stator winding and back EMF harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdowski Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the mathematical model of the brushless DC motor (BLDCM with a double 3-phase stator winding is analysed. Both the 3-phase windings are mutually displaced by 30 electrical degree. Special care has been sacrificed to influence of higher harmonics of induced electromotive forces (EMF on electromagnetic torque and zero sequence voltages that may be used for sensorless control. The mathematical model has been presented in natural variables and, after transformation to symmetrical components, in a vector form. This allows, from one side, for formulating the equivalent circuit suitable for circuit oriented simulators (e.g.: Spice, SimPowerSystems of Simulink and, from the other point of view, for analysis of higher harmonics influence on control possibilities. These considerations have been illustrated with some results of four quadrant operation obtainded due to simulation at automatic control.

  20. Modeled and perceived RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations in relation to symptom reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Technological changes have led to a rapid increase in the use of mobile technology. This is coupled with an increase in the number of mobile phone base stations that emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). There are concerns about the potential health effects of this exposure among

  1. Effects of four kinds of electromagnetic fields (EMF) with different frequency spectrum bands on ovariectomized osteoporosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Tao; Li, Feijiang; Liang, Zhuowen; Tang, Chi; Xie, Kangning; Wang, Pan; Dong, Xu; Shan, Shuai; Liu, Juan; Xu, Qiaoling; Luo, Erping; Shen, Guanghao

    2017-04-03

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) was considered as a non-invasive modality for treatment of osteoporosis while the effects were diverse with EMF parameters in time domain. In present study, we extended analysis of EMF characteristics from time domain to frequency domain, aiming to investigate effects of four kinds of EMF (LP (1-100 Hz), BP (100-3,000 Hz), HP (3,000-50,000 Hz) and AP (1-50,000 Hz)) on ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis (OP) in mice. Forty-eight 3-month-old female BALB/c mice were equally assigned to Sham, OVX, OVX + LP, OVX + BP, OVX + HP and OVX + AP groups (n = 8). After 8-week exposure (3 h/day), LP and BP significantly increased serum bone formation markers and osteogenesis-related gene expressions compared with OVX. Bedsides, LP and BP also slightly increased bone resorption activity compared with OVX, evidenced by increased RANKL/OPG ratio. HP sharply decreased serum bone formation and resporption markers and osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis related gene expressions compared with OVX. AP had accumulative effects of LP, BP and HP, which significantly increased bone formation and decreased bone resporption activity compared with OVX. As a result, LP, BP and HP exposure did not later deterioration of bone mass, microarchitecture and mechanical strength in OVX mice with OP. However, AP stimulation attenuated OVX-induced bone loss.

  2. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) : A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.

    2015-01-01

    The association between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache, fatigue, nausea and sleep problems and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the general population has been a subject of ongoing scientific debate and public concern. A limited number of epidemiological studies

  3. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  4. Development of an RF-EMF Exposure Surrogate for Epidemiologic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Roser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure assessment is a crucial part in studying potential effects of RF-EMF. Using data from the HERMES study on adolescents, we developed an integrative exposure surrogate combining near-field and far-field RF-EMF exposure in a single brain and whole-body exposure measure. Contributions from far-field sources were modelled by propagation modelling and multivariable regression modelling using personal measurements. Contributions from near-field sources were assessed from both, questionnaires and mobile phone operator records. Mean cumulative brain and whole-body doses were 1559.7 mJ/kg and 339.9 mJ/kg per day, respectively. 98.4% of the brain dose originated from near-field sources, mainly from GSM mobile phone calls (93.1% and from DECT phone calls (4.8%. Main contributors to the whole-body dose were GSM mobile phone calls (69.0%, use of computer, laptop and tablet connected to WLAN (12.2% and data traffic on the mobile phone via WLAN (6.5%. The exposure from mobile phone base stations contributed 1.8% to the whole-body dose, while uplink exposure from other people’s mobile phones contributed 3.6%. In conclusion, the proposed approach is considered useful to combine near-field and far-field exposure to an integrative exposure surrogate for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies. However, substantial uncertainties remain about exposure contributions from various near-field and far-field sources.

  5. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  6. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on catalase, cytochrome P450 and nitric oxide synthase in erythro-leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patruno, Antonia; Tabrez, Shams; Pesce, Mirko; Shakil, Shazi; Kamal, Mohammad A; Reale, Marcella

    2015-01-15

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) are widely employed in electrical appliances and different equipment such as television sets, mobile phones, computers and microwaves. The molecular mechanism through which ELF-EMFs can influence cellular behavior is still unclear. A hypothesis is that ELF-EMFs could interfere with chemical reactions involving free radical production. Under physiologic conditions, cells maintain redox balance through production of ROS/RNS and antioxidant molecules. The altered balance between ROS generation and elimination plays a critical role in a variety of pathologic conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, aging and cancer. Actually, there is a disagreement as to whether there is a causal or coincidental relationship between ELF-EMF exposure and leukemia development. Increased ROS levels have been observed in several hematopoietic malignancies including acute and chronic myeloid leukemias. In our study, the effect of ELF-EMF exposure on catalase, cytochrome P450 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity and their expression by Western blot analysis in myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 was evaluated. A significant modulation of iNOS, CAT and Cyt P450 protein expression was recorded as a result of ELF-EMF exposure in both phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and non-stimulated cell lines. Modulation in kinetic parameters of CAT, CYP-450 and iNOS enzymes in response to ELF-EMF indicates an interaction between the ELF-EMF and the enzymological system. These new insights might be important in establishing a mechanistic framework at the molecular level within which the possible effects of ELF-EMF on health can be understood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-antimony alloys determined from emf measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzyzak, Agnieszka; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Sb alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte. The emfs of the cells:Ag x Sb (1-x), Sb 2 O 3 /O 2- /airwere measured in the temperatures range 950-1100K in the whole range of the alloy compositions.First, the Gibbs free energy of formation of liquid Sb 2 O 3 from pure elements was derived:ΔG o f(Sb2O3) (J/mol)=-687100+243.23T.Next, the activities of antimony were measured as a function of the alloy compositions, x. Redlich-Kister polynomial expansion was used to describe the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase. From the model equations the limiting value of the logarithm of activity coefficient of antimony in silver was obtained as a function of temperature:lnγ Sb 0 =-3812.5/T+0.4112.The obtained results were compared with the experimental values reported in the literature

  8. Thermodynamic properties of liquid silver-gallium alloys determined from e.m.f. and calorimetric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the liquid Ag-Ga alloys were determined using e.m.f. and calorimetric methods. In the e.m.f. method, solid oxide galvanic cells were used with zirconia electrolyte. The cells of the type W,Ag x Ga (1-x) ,Ga 2 O 3 //ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//FeO,Fe,W were used in the temperature range from 1098 K to 1273 K, and in the range of mole fraction from x Ga = 0.1 to x Ga = 1.0. At first, the Gibbs free energy of formation of pure solid gallium oxide, Ga 2 O 3 , from pure elements was derived. Using values of the measured e.m.f. for the cell with x Ga = 1.0, the following temperature dependence was obtained: Δ f G m,Ga 2 O 3 0 (±4kJ·mol -1 J)=-1061.7235+0.2899T/K. Next, the activity of the gallium was derived as a function of the alloy composition from the values of the measured e.m.f. Activities of silver were calculated using the Gibbs-Duhem equation. The drop calorimetric measurements were carried out at two temperatures, viz. 923 K and 1123 K, using a Setaram MHTC calorimeter. Integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid binary alloys were determined at those temperatures. Finally, thermodynamic properties of the liquid alloys were described with the Redlich-Kister equation using ThermoCalc software.

  9. Thermo-emf of cadmium under hydrostatic pressure up to 3.0 GPa in the range of electron-topological transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajdenov, V.F.; Itskevich, E.S.; Gapotchenko, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dependence of longitudinal d and transverse α thermo-emf of cadmium in 4-300 K temperature range at pressures up to 3.0 GPa was investigated. The anomaly value depends sufficiently on sample perfection

  10. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gajšek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range, some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  11. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. PMID:27598182

  12. Down-Regulation of OsEMF2b Caused Semi-sterility Due to Anther and Pollen Development Defects in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchang Deng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anther and pollen development are crucial processes of plant male reproduction. Although a number of genes involved in these processes have been identified, the regulatory networks of pollen and anther development are still unclear. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2b (OsEMF2b is important for rice development. Its biological function in floral organ, flowering time and meristem determinacy have been well-studied, but its role, if only, on male reproduction is still unknown, because null mutants of OsEMF2b barely have anthers. In this study, we identified a weak allele of OsEMF2b, osemf2b-4. The T-DNA insertion was located in the promoter region of OsEMF2b, and OsEMF2b expression was significantly decreased in osemf2b-4. The osemf2b-4 mutant exhibited much more normal anthers than null mutants of OsEMF2b, and also showed defective floret development similar to null mutants. Cytological analysis showed various defects of anther wall and pollen development in osemf2b-4, such as slightly or extremely enlarged tapetum, irregular or normal morphology microspores, and partial or complete sterility. OsEMF2b was highly expressed in tapetum and microspores, and the protein was localized in the nucleus. The expression of 15 genes essential for anther and pollen development was investigated in both WT and osemf2b-4. Fourteen genes including GAMYB was up-regulated, and only PTC1 was down-regulated in osemf2b-4. This suggests that up-regulated GAMYB and down-regulated PTC1 might contribute to the defective anther and pollen development in osemf2b-4. Overall, our work suggests that OsEMF2b plays an essential role during post-meiotic anther and pollen development.

  13. Effects of whole body exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on serum and liver lipid levels, in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias-Viñas David

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgound The effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF on the blood serum and liver lipid concentrations of male Wistar rats were assessed. Methods Animals were exposed to a single stimulation (2 h of ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 2.4 mT or sham-stimulated and thereafter sacrificed at different times (24, 48 or 96 h after beginning the exposure. Results Blood lipids showed, at 48 h stimulated animals, a significant increase of cholesterol associated to high density lipoproteins (HDL-C than those observed at any other studied time. Free fatty acid serum presented at 24 h significant increases in comparison with control group. The other serum lipids, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol did not show differences between groups, at any time evaluated. No statistical differences were shown on total lipids of the liver but total cholesterol was elevated at 24 h with a significant decrease at 96 h (p = 0.026. The ELF-EMF stimulation increased the liver content of lipoperoxides at 24 h. Conclusion Single exposures to ELF-EMF increases the serum values of HDL-C, the liver content of lipoperoxides and decreases total cholesterol of the liver. The mechanisms for the effects of ELF-EMF on lipid metabolism are not well understand yet, but could be associated to the nitric oxide synthase EMF-stimulation.

  14. Thermodynamic behavior of high-Tc oxide systems via EMF and related measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetenbaum, M.; Tumidajaski, P.; Bloom, I.D.; Brown, D.L.; Blander, M.

    1991-01-01

    EMF measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , and NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x , and Nd 1.81 Ce 0.19 CuO x superconducting systems in the temperature range 400--750 degree C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. The object of our current measurements is to investigate the effect of ionic size of Y, Gd and Nd on the thermodynamic behavior and structural transition in the LnBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. The shape of the 400 degree C isotherm for NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x suggests the presence of a miscibility gap at lower temperatures, at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. The locations of the miscibility gaps are consistent with the effects of ionic radii on the composition dependence of T c for these systems. Our results explain the two plateaus in measured value of T c as a function of composition for the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system and appear to be consistent with the less pronounced T c plateaus found for the NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x system higher stoichiometry values. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, partial pressures of oxygen above NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x are higher than for the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system in accord with calculated partial molar thermodynamic quantities. The results of limited measurements on the n-type (electron-doped) superconducting Nd 1.81 Ce 0.19 CuO x system will be presented. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our oxygen partial pressure measurements with the results of other measurements will be presented. 34 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Implementing the EMF 9 gas trade scenarios and interpreting the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowse, J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed description of the model employed appears in Rowse (1986) and the Appendix of Rowse (1987). Only the salient features are discussed here, along with the modifications carried out for the EMF scenarios and certain specific data and assumptions important for understanding the empirical results. The nonlinear programming model has seven Canadian regions, pipeline links to three US regions, twenty-five three-year time periods representing 1986-2060, and perfect foresight in allocating gas to domestic and export regions. It determines equilibrium Canadian consumption levels, Canadian supplies and exports to the US over this time frame by solving for equilibrium prices. Figure 1 indicates the regional breakdown employed, with the principal supply regions lying in Western Canada. Ontario is the principal consuming region in Canada. Prospective supplies and their locations are also indicated in Figure 1. All producing provinces of Western Canada have existing and prospective conventional supplies of gas, while prospective nonconventional supplies are confied to Alberta. Nonconventional or Deep Basin supplies are assumed available only by the mid-1990's at the earliest because they have not previously been commercially produced. Prospective supplies are also assumed available from the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea area - henceforth simply Delta - but only by the mid-1990's as well due to the lead time necessary for pipeline construction and for industry confidence in the financial viability of megaprojects to recover. Delta gas is shown as a prospective Alberta source because, if developed, it will likely be pipelined south to connect with the existing transportation network in Alberta. Both nonconventional gas and Delta gas are more costly than future conventional gas supplies but the latter can only be introduced gradually over time because of constraints on gas finding rates and expansion of the domestic drilling rig fleet

  16. Analysis of influence on back-EMF based sensorless control of PMSM due to parameter variations and measurement errors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    To achieve better performance of sensorless control of PMSM, a precise and stable estimation of rotor position and speed is required. Several parameter uncertainties and variable measurement errors may lead to estimation error, such as resistance and inductance variations due to temperature...... and flux saturation, current and voltage errors due to measurement uncertainties, and signal delay caused by hardwares. This paper reveals some inherent principles for the performance of the back-EMF based sensorless algorithm embedded in a surface mounted PMSM system adapting vector control strategy...

  17. Artificial Inductance Concept to Compensate Nonlinear Inductance Effects in the Back EMF-Based Sensorless Control Method for PMSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Lei, Xiao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The back EMF-based sensorless control method is very popular for permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) in the medium- to high-speed operation range due to its simple structure. In this speed range, the accuracy of the estimated position is mainly affected by the inductance, which varies...... at different loading conditions due to saturation effects. In this paper, a new concept of using a constant artificial inductance to replace the actual varying machine inductance for position estimation is introduced. This facilitates greatly the analysis of the influence of inductance variation...

  18. Setting up an off-site emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a DVI incident: disaster victim management (DVM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, David; Zimmermann, Alex

    2012-06-01

    Forensic mortuaries in all Australian jurisdictions are dealing with increasing workloads, with routine cases regularly occupying greater than 50%, and often as much as 85%, of existing cold room body storage capacity, particularly over long weekends and during seasonal increases in respiratory infections. Hence the need to deal with a sudden influx of deceased persons or multiple body parts in a mass fatality incident would overwhelm most Australian forensic mortuaries, thereby requiring other means of body storage and processing. Exercise "Construct" was a joint South Australian Police (SAPol) and Forensic Science South Australia exercise designed to practice the establishment and construction of an emergency mortuary facility (EMF) to deal with a mass fatality incident and the subsequent disaster victim identification process. The aims of the exercise were to test preparedness, activation and construction processes relative to the establishment of an EMF. The exercise provided the opportunity to identify gaps in the capacity to successfully complete the tasks within the allotted time frames. The exercise reinforced the need to have a comprehensive and clearly documented process which must include a current list of suppliers who can deliver goods and services in a timely manner. The aim of this paper is to report on the exercise findings and share the experience with other jurisdictions. It will also provide other jurisdictions with the opportunity to consider whether the South Australian model will be useful to them in improving their own response when confronted with a mass fatality incident that may overwhelm existing local mortuary capacities and capabilities.

  19. Sickness absence from 1978 to 1992 of Electricite de France (EDF) workers exposed to ELF-EMF: the substation group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Dab, W.; Lambrozo, J.; Chevalier, A.; Coing, F.

    1996-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are suspected of many health effects, including cancers, immunity and fertility disorders, congenital malformations, suicides and depression.... Although the results of all studies are contradictory and no biological mechanism has been found, populations are concerned about this matter. This study analyzes the absence from work of some EDF employees who are a priori the most professionally exposed to ELF EMF. Absence from work is taken as an health indicator. Although it is not specific, it can be predictive of serious health problems. The specific context of EDF has made it possible to collect and analyze the medical aspect of absence from work, that is rare in France. We were interested with employees working with high voltage (over 90 kV). Three job categories have been selected: live line workers, substation maintenance workers and substation exploitation workers (called in the company the ATEX). The first group concerned the live linemen and the results were exposed previously. It appeared they had more accidents at work, but this was more related to the job of lineman rather than to the EMF exposure. Nevertheless, substation workers have an exposure less intensive but longer than live linemen. We present here the result about the absenteeism of the substation workers, maintenance and exploitation. (author)

  20. Dynamic Control of Adsorption Sensitivity for Photo-EMF-Based Ammonia Gas Sensors Using a Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Vashpanov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an adsorption sensitivity control method that uses a wireless network and illumination light intensity in a photo-electromagnetic field (EMF-based gas sensor for measurements in real time of a wide range of ammonia concentrations. The minimum measurement error for a range of ammonia concentration from 3 to 800 ppm occurs when the gas concentration magnitude corresponds with the optimal intensity of the illumination light. A simulation with LabView-engineered modules for automatic control of a new intelligent computer system was conducted to improve measurement precision over a wide range of gas concentrations. This gas sensor computer system with wireless network technology could be useful in the chemical industry for automatic detection and measurement of hazardous ammonia gas levels in real time.

  1. Newly developed EMF cell with zirconia solid electrolyte for measurement of low oxygen potentials in liquid Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the very low oxygen potential by use of stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte emf method, a new cell construction was devised. The idea was based on Janke but a zirconia rod was used instead of the zirconia crucible which contacts liquid alloy electrode. The cell was used for determination of the oxygen potentials in liquid dilute Cu-Cr and Cu-Zr alloys. The reference electrode was Cr,Cr2O3. Emf measurements were performed in the temperature range of 1400-1580K and composition range of 0.198-3.10at%Cr-Cu alloys, and 1380-1465K, 0.085-0.761at%Zr-Cu alloys. The composition of liquid alloys were determined by picking up from the liquid alloys and ICP analysis. By use of the newly devised cell construction in this study, stable emf values were obtained at each temperature and alloy composition. Emf values were corrected by using the parameter for electronic contribution of the YSZ. Activity of Cr obeys Henry’s law and activity coefficient at infinitely dilute alloys of Cr in Cu-Cr alloys are: lng0 Cr =(3.80 at 1423K, (3.57 at 1473K, (3.38 at 1523K and (3.20 at 1573K. At 1423 K activity coefficient of Zr at infinitely diluted alloy is lnγo Zr = -4.0.

  2. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    Background: Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the

  3. Nepal and the Americas: Can Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Signals Be Detected There That Yield Information About Culturally Dictated Spiritual Values, and Can Computers Interface Their Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Sanjita; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2002-10-01

    Nepal has a particularly rich tradition of culturally developed views on the material and spiritual worlds, and also has a powerful natural environment that may generate EMFs in conjunction with natural phenomena. We have an interest in determining whether these can be detected by portable technological means, and recording such data on notebook-type computers for analysis and evaluation. One goal is to assess whether historic Native Americans, such as Maine's and New Hampshire's Molly Ockett, may have been motivated in their selection of special, and perhaps, to them, "sacred" sites for their attention and as possible burial sites. Some of these may have been chosen on the basis of the EMFs that seem to emanate from them, and their assessment of what they meant to their worldviews. Do some Amerindians consider the EMF and reincarnation as requiring their rejection of material aspects of existence? Could other traditional cultures, or even suicidal terrorists, be sensitive to "information" they may receive from the EMF?

  4. Notes on methodology and pitfalls in science and research and on communication of results. Some aspects related to EMF; Synpunkter paa metodik och fallgropar inom vetenskap och forskning samt hur resultaten kommuniceras. Naagra aspekter relaterade till EMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Bjoern (Unit of Med. Radiation Physics and Med. Radiation Biology, Dept. Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    There are many aspects of the controversy around EMF and potential risks that are largely unknown to the wider audience. Such aspects form the basis for the topics discussed in this report. More specifically focus has been on arguments related to possible cause-effect where linguistic barriers and societal 'filters' (for instance by uncritical media) may constitute a problem. Regardless of whether scientists are working with for example molecular biology or epidemiology they are confronted with a number of methodological problems that may be difficult or even impossible to master. Such difficulties are seldom seen in press releases, news media and so on but they may still be part of many scientists' daily challenges. The most difficult communication challenge is probably that if something is absolutely safe it cannot be proven. An unknown virus, bacterium, or chemical contaminant may completely ruin experiments in a molecular biology experiment but at least the experiments can be repeated and often measures can be taken once such a contamination has been found. For epidemiological studies there is always a specific challenge in that the investigations cannot be repeated as people never do the same things under the same conditions and in a predictable manner. It is with this background and context that the author has chosen to treat some methodological problems in science as well as the so-called Hill's criteria for cause-effects. A shorter comment has been made with reference to various aspects of the precautionary principle as it is often referred to in the EMF debate but most often, however, it has seldom been clarified what is meant by precautionary practices or actions. Precaution is closely related to human fear and therefore a corresponding chapter has been included. This report ends with a few looks into the historical rear-view mirror which illuminates the anticipated benefits with the invisible and mystical rather than the potential

  5. Numerous Sinusoidal and Other EMF Phenomena, At Present and Former Native American Sites, May Be Superimposing Themselves onto Regional Power Grids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadran, Lawrence R.; Mc Leod, Roger D.; Mc Leod, David M.

    2003-10-01

    Periodic electromagnetic field signals (EMF), sometimes noticeable as faint blue-light or other phenomena, frequently are also detected at sites associated with Native Americans. We first noticed this sort of information in the vicinity of Wendell, MA about fourteen years ago. Similar and other signals are apparent at Americas Stonehenge, AS, in North Salem, NH. Connecticut provided our first evidence of superposition of two such waves at the Gungywamp site north of Groton, CT. A Maine location first showed orthogonally oriented trajectories in neighborhoods formerly frequented by Molocket and Metallak and their relatives near Rumford and Rangeley, ME. Florida exhibits similar signals in the vicinity of Hollywood and at Miamis Tequesta instrument, as does a separate site in CT. Powerful thunderstorms in the vicinity of a stone serpent effigy in Ohio cause EMF pulsations. Such signals are possibly superimposing themselves onto power-grids, where frequency changes and system instabilities may occur, according to the elementary physics involved.

  6. Study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission from overhead High-Voltage Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, S.R.; Roha Tukimin; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah; Zulkifli Yusof; Mohd Azizi Mohd Jali

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights the study on the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emission performed at an overhead 275-kV High-Voltage Transmission Lines. The study comprised of assessment at the transmission lines on 3 different cases and locations in Klang Valley, specifically on a vacant land near the transmission line, inside and around the house at the vicinity of the transmission line and the area directly under the transmission line. The instrument setup and measurement protocols during the assessment were adopted from standard measurement method and procedures stipulated under the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard. The results were compared with the standards recommended in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. The results showed that the measured field strengths are within the safety limit with the highest measured exposure was 10.8 % and 1.8 % of the permissible exposure limit for the electric and magnetic field respectively. Both the field strengths were found to drop significantly against distance from the transmission lines where closer distances showed higher field strengths. Furthermore, the study revealed that buildings and other object such as trees and shrubs screen out the electric field, resulting in a lower value at indoor measurements and near the stated objects. In addition, higher value of electric and magnetic field strengths were recorded when assessment was being done directly under the transmission line compared to the lateral measurement. (author)

  7. Electrical conductivity and thermo-EMF of cobaltite gallates LaCo_1_-_xGa_xO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubinskij, N.N.; Shevchenko, S.V.; Bashkirov, L.A.; Petrov, G.S.; Slonskaya, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    It has been found that in LaCo_1_-_xGa_xO_3 system increase of the substitution degree x from 0 to 0,95 leads to the gradual electrical conductivity (σ) decrease. Within 300-1050 K temperature range for samples LaCo_1_-_xGa_xO_3 with x≤0,5 there are three linear parts on the curve lnσ - T"-"1, where electrical conductivity activation energies have been calculated for the low, intermediate and high temperature ranges. Electrical conductivity activation energy (E_A) for samples at different temperatures has been also estimated using derivatives d(lnσ)/d(T"-"1). The E_A temperature dependence for LaCo_1_-_xGa_xO_3 at 0≤x≤0,5 passes through a maximum that indicates the temperature for beginning of semiconductor-metal phase transition (T_E__A___m___a___x). It has been shown that the thermo-EMF coefficient (S) for LaCo_1_-_xGa_xO_3 (0,1≤x≤0,3) at room temperature is negative, increasing with temperature rising, going through zero at 435-530 K, reaching the maximum at 500-650 K and then dropping down. It has been established that the temperatures corresponding to the maximum S and E_A values are identical. (authors)

  8. Thermodynamic and nonstoichiometric behavior of promising Hi-Tc cuprate systems via EMF measurements: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetenbaum, M.

    1999-01-01

    Electromotive force (EMF) measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made on the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x , GdBa 2 Cu 3 O x , NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x and bismuth cuprate systems in the temperature range ∼400-750 C by means of an oxygen titration technique with an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. The shapes of the 400 C isotherms as a function of oxygen stoichiometry for the Gd and Nd cuprate systems suggest the presence of miscibility gaps at values of x that are higher than those in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. For a given oxygen stoichiometry, oxygen partial pressures above GdBa 2 Cu 3 O x and NdBa 2 Cu 3 O x are higher (above x=6.5) than that for the promising YBa 2 Cu 3 O x system. A thermodynamic assessment and intercomparison of our partial pressure measurements with the results of related measurements will be presented

  9. A comparison of important international and national standards for limiting exposure to EMF including the scientific rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Colin R; Martin, Lindsay J

    2007-06-01

    A comparison of Eastern (from Russia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, and the Czech Republic) and Western (represented by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers standards) radiofrequency standards reveals key differences. The Eastern approach is to protect against non-thermal effects caused by chronic exposure to low level exposure, and the occupational basic restriction is power load (the product of intensity and exposure duration). In contrast, the Western approach is to protect against established acute biological effects that could signal an adverse health effect, and the principal basic restriction is the specific absorption rate to protect against thermal effects. All of the standards are science-based, but a fundamental difference arises from a lack of agreement on the composition of the reference scientific database and of which adverse effect needs to be protected against. However, differences also exist between the ICNIRP and IEEE standards. An additional complication arises when standards are derived or modified using a precautionary approach. For ELF the differences between ICNIRP and IEEE are more fundamental; namely, differences in the basic restriction used (induced current; in-situ electric field) and the location of breakpoints in the strength-frequency curves result in large differences. In 2006, ICNIRP will initiate the review of their ELF and radiofrequency guidelines, and this will provide an opportunity to address differences in standards and the move towards harmonization of EMF standards and guidelines.

  10. [The electromagnetic fields of the base stations of mobile radio communication and ecology. The estimation of danger of the base station EMF for population and for bioecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, K A

    2005-01-01

    The estimation of the danger for the population and for the bioecosistems of the electromagnetic conditions around of the base stations was given. The insufficiency of the scientific knowledge does not allow to guarantee the safety of the population and of the bioecosystems in the conditions of a round-the-clock long-term influence of EMF RF. WHO recommends to use "Precautionary principle".

  11. I-F starting method with smooth transition to EMF based motion-sensorless vector control of PM synchronous motor/generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Fatu, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents with the r......This paper proposes a novel hybrid motion- sensorless control system for permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) using a new robust start-up method called I-f control, and a smooth transition to emf-based vector control. The I-f method is based on separate control of id, iq currents......-adaptive compensator to eliminate dc-offset and phase-delay. Digital simulations for PMSM start-up with full load torque are presented for different initial rotor-positions. The transitions from I-f to emf motion-sensorless vector control and back as well, at very low-speeds, are fully validated by experimental...

  12. Synergistic effect of EMF-BEMER-type pulsed weak electromagnetic field and HPMA-bound doxorubicin on mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Tomala, Jakub; Ulbrich, Karel; Kovář, Marek

    2011-12-01

    We have investigated the effects of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) produced by BEMER device on experimental mouse T-cell lymphoma EL4 growing on conventional and/or athymic (nude) mice. Exposure to EMF-BEMER slowed down the growth of tumor mass and prolonged the survival of experimental animals. The effect was more pronounced in immuno-compromised nude mice compared to conventional ones. Acceleration of tumor growth was never observed. No measurable levels of Hsp 70 or increased levels of specific anti-EL4 antibodies were detected in the serum taken from experimental mice before and at different intervals during the experiment, i.e. before solid tumor appeared, at the time of its aggressive growth, and at the terminal stage of the disease. A significant synergizing antitumor effect was seen when EL4 tumor-bearing mice were simultaneously exposed to EMF-BEMER and treated with suboptimal dose of synthetic HPMA copolymer-based doxorubicin, DOX(HYD)-HPMA. Such a combination may be especially useful for heavily treated patients suffering from advanced tumor and requiring additional aggressive chemotherapy which, however, at that time could represent almost life-threatening way of medication.

  13. qEMF3, a novel QTL for the early-morning flowering trait from wild rice, Oryza officinalis, to mitigate heat stress damage at flowering in rice, O. sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Kambe, Takashi; Gannaban, Ritchel B; Miras, Monaliza A; Mendioro, Merlyn S; Simon, Eliza V; Lumanglas, Patrick D; Fujita, Daisuke; Takemoto-Kuno, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yoshinobu; Kaji, Ryota; Kondo, Motohiko; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ogawa, Tsugufumi; Ando, Ikuo; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Ishimaru, Tsutomu

    2015-03-01

    A decline in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production caused by heat stress is one of the biggest concerns resulting from future climate change. Rice spikelets are most susceptible to heat stress at flowering. The early-morning flowering (EMF) trait mitigates heat-induced spikelet sterility at the flowering stage by escaping heat stress during the daytime. We attempted to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) for EMF in the indica-type genetic background by exploiting the EMF locus from wild rice, O. officinalis (CC genome). A stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for flower opening time (FOT) was detected on chromosome 3. A QTL was designated as qEMF3 and it shifted FOT by 1.5-2.0 h earlier for cv. Nanjing 11 in temperate Japan and cv. IR64 in the Philippine tropics. NILs for EMF mitigated heat-induced spikelet sterility under elevated temperature conditions completing flower opening before reaching 35°C, a general threshold value leading to spikelet sterility. Quantification of FOT of cultivars popular in the tropics and subtropics did not reveal the EMF trait in any of the cultivars tested, suggesting that qEMF3 has the potential to advance FOT of currently popular cultivars to escape heat stress at flowering under future hotter climates. This is the first report to examine rice with the EMF trait through marker-assisted breeding using wild rice as a genetic resource. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the impact of 1800-MHz electromagnetic field radiations (EMF-r), widely used in mobile communication, on the growth and activity of starch-, sucrose-, and phosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes in Zea mays seedlings. We exposed Z. mays to modulated continuous wave homogenous EMF-r at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.69±0.0 × 10(-1) W kg(-1) for ½, 1, 2, and 4 h. The analysis of seedlings after 7 days revealed that short-term exposure did not induce any significant change, while longer exposure of 4 h caused significant growth and biochemical alterations. There was a reduction in the root and coleoptile length with more pronounced effect on coleoptile growth (23 % reduction on 4-h exposure). The contents of photosynthetic pigments and total carbohydrates declined by 13 and 18 %, respectively, in 4-h exposure treatments compared to unexposed control. The activity of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes-α- and β-amylases-increased by ∼92 and 94 %, respectively, at an exposure duration of 4 h, over that in the control. In response to 4-h exposure treatment, the activity of sucrolytic enzymes-acid invertases and alkaline invertases-was increased by 88 and 266 %, whereas the specific activities of phosphohydrolytic enzymes (acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases) showed initial increase up to ≤2 h duration and then declined at >2 h exposure duration. The study concludes that EMF-r-inhibited seedling growth of Z. mays involves interference with starch and sucrose metabolism.

  15. Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure levels in different European outdoor urban environments in comparison with regulatory limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Joseph, Wout; Huss, Anke; Verloock, Leen; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vermeulen, Roel; Martens, Luc; Röösli, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Concerns of the general public about potential adverse health effects caused by radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) led authorities to introduce precautionary exposure limits, which vary considerably between regions. It may be speculated that precautionary limits affect the base station network in a manner that mean population exposure unintentionally increases. The objectives of this multicentre study were to compare mean exposure levels in outdoor areas across four different European cities and to compare with regulatory RF-EMF exposure levels in the corresponding areas. We performed measurements in the cities of Amsterdam (the Netherlands, regulatory limits for mobile phone base station frequency bands: 41-61 V/m), Basel (Switzerland, 4-6 V/m), Ghent (Belgium, 3-4.5 V/m) and Brussels (Belgium, 2.9-4.3 V/m) using a portable measurement device. Measurements were conducted in three different types of outdoor areas (central and non-central residential areas and downtown), between 2011 and 2012 at 12 different days. On each day, measurements were taken every 4s for approximately 15 to 30 min per area. Measurements per urban environment were repeated 12 times during 1 year. Arithmetic mean values for mobile phone base station exposure ranged between 0.22 V/m (Basel) and 0.41 V/m (Amsterdam) in all outdoor areas combined. The 95th percentile for total RF-EMF exposure varied between 0.46 V/m (Basel) and 0.82 V/m (Amsterdam) and the 99th percentile between 0.81 V/m (Basel) and 1.20 V/m (Brussels). All exposure levels were far below international reference levels proposed by ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). Our study did not find indications that lowering the regulatory limit results in higher mobile phone base station exposure levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Protect children from EMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M; Grigoriev, Y

    2015-09-01

    The twenty-first century is marked with aggressive development of the wireless communications (satellite, mobile phones, Internet, Wi-Fi). In addition to thousand of satellites that deliver radio and TV signals, large satellite and base station networks secure intensive instant delivery of audio and video information. It is fair to say that that the entire civilization, both biosphere and mankind are exposed to continuous exposure of multitude of radiofrequency (RF) signals. It should be taken into account that the entire world population is exposed to exponentially increasing RF radiation from base stations and satellite antennas. While several years ago the potential hazard was connected with placement of mobile phones close to human head, today "smart phones" represent small, but powerful computers continuously receiving audio and video data. The largest group of users is the children and teenagers who "need" to communicate nearly 24 h a day. This is even more important because cell phones and tablets may be seen in the hands of children as little as two years in age. There is no way to assess and predict the potential damages of children brain, vision and hearing under exposure to RF radiation. The WHO precautionary principle and IARC classification must be applied in discussing the potential hazard of the use of today's and tomorrow's communication devices.

  17. Determination of the ionic transport numbers of lanthanum gallate materials by impedance spectroscopy and modified EMF method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Martínez, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A combination of impedance spectroscopy and a modified electromotive force method (emf were used to evaluate the ionic transport numbers and the overall conductivity of several doped lanthanum gallate materials, i.e. La0.9Sr0.1Ga1-xMgxO3-δ (x=0.05-0.30, La0.9A0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (A=Sr, Ba and Ca and La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2-yCoyO3-δ (y=0.015 and 0.045. La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 (LSGM sample showed the maximum ionic transport number in the temperature range 900-1173 K, around 0.99 in both O2/air and H2/air gradients.

    La conductividad total y los números de transporte iónico de las composiciones, basadas en el galato de lantano, La0,9Sr0,1Ga1-xMgxO3-δ (x=0,05-0,30, La0,9A0,1Ga0,8Mg0,2O3-δ (A=Sr, Ba, Ca y La0,9Sr0,1Ga0,8Mg0,2-yCoyO3-δ (y=0.015; 0,045 fueron estudiadas mediante una combinación de técnicas de espectroscopia de impedancia compleja y fuerza electromotriz (fem. La composición La0,9Sr0,1Ga0,8Mg0,2O2,85 (LSGM presenta el mayor número de transporte iónico, concretamente 0,99 en el rango de temperaturas 900-1173 K, tanto en gradiente de O2/aire como de H2/aire.

  18. Ge/Si(001) heterostructures with dense arrays of Ge quantum dots: morphology, defects, photo-emf spectra and terahertz conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuryev, Vladimir A; Arapkina, Larisa V; Storozhevykh, Mikhail S; Chapnin, Valery A; Chizh, Kirill V; Uvarov, Oleg V; Kalinushkin, Victor P; Zhukova, Elena S; Prokhorov, Anatoly S; Spektor, Igor E; Gorshunov, Boris P

    2012-07-23

    : Issues of Ge hut cluster array formation and growth at low temperatures on the Ge/Si(001) wetting layer are discussed on the basis of explorations performed by high resolution STM and in-situ RHEED. Dynamics of the RHEED patterns in the process of Ge hut array formation is investigated at low and high temperatures of Ge deposition. Different dynamics of RHEED patterns during the deposition of Ge atoms in different growth modes is observed, which reflects the difference in adatom mobility and their 'condensation' fluxes from Ge 2D gas on the surface for different modes, which in turn control the nucleation rates and densities of Ge clusters. Data of HRTEM studies of multilayer Ge/Si heterostructures are presented with the focus on low-temperature formation of perfect films.Heteroepitaxial Si p-i-n-diodes with multilayer stacks of Ge/Si(001) quantum dot dense arrays built in intrinsic domains have been investigated and found to exhibit the photo-emf in a wide spectral range from 0.8 to 5 μm. An effect of wide-band irradiation by infrared light on the photo-emf spectra has been observed. Photo-emf in different spectral ranges has been found to be differently affected by the wide-band irradiation. A significant increase in photo-emf is observed in the fundamental absorption range under the wide-band irradiation. The observed phenomena are explained in terms of positive and neutral charge states of the quantum dot layers and the Coulomb potential of the quantum dot ensemble. A new design of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed.By using a coherent source spectrometer, first measurements of terahertz dynamical conductivity (absorptivity) spectra of Ge/Si(001) heterostructures were performed at frequencies ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 THz in the temperature interval from 300 to 5 K. The effective dynamical conductivity of the heterostructures with Ge quantum dots has been discovered to be significantly higher than that of the structure with the same amount of bulk

  19. Study of Belousov—Zhabotinsky oscillators in water—acetonitrile medium employing EMF and EPR techniques with o-vanillin, p-vanillin and adrenaline as substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, P. V.; Ramaswamy, R.; Ramakrishnan, Geetha; Rao, P. Sambasiva

    1994-12-01

    The oscillatory behaviour of three substrates, ortho-vanillin, para-vanillin and adrenaline, in mixed media (water plus 20% acetonitrile) has been investigated using EPR and EMF techniques. All these substrates exhibit two types of oscillation involving Br 2/Br - and Mn(III)/Mn(II) redox couples. From the oscillatory characteristics (total time, number of oscillations and time per oscillation) obtained by employing these techniques, the reactivities of the vanillins have been correlated. The Field—Koros—Noyes mechanism, suggested for catalysed systems in pure aqueous medium, is established to be applicable even in mixed media.

  20. The Seminole Serpent Warrior At Miramar, FL, Shows Settlement Locations Enabled Environmental Monitoring Reminiscent Of the Four-corners Kokopelli-like EMF Phenomena, and Related to Earthquakes, Tornados and Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balam Matagamon, Chan; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Certain Native Americans of the past seem to have correctly deduced that significant survival information for their tradition-respecting cultures resided in EMF-based phenomena that they were monitoring. This is based upon their myths and the place or cult-hero names they bequeathed us. The sites we have located in FL have been detectable by us visually, usually by faint blue light, or by the elicitation of pin-like prickings, by somewhat intense nervous-system response, by EMF interactions with aural electrochemical systems that can elicit tinitus, and other ways. In the northeast, Cautantowit served as a harbinger of Indian summer, and appears to be another alter ego of the EMF. The Miami, FL Tequesta site along the river clearly correlates with tornado, earthquake and hurricane locations. Sites like the Mohave Deserts giant man may have had similar significance.

  1. The design of measuring tubes and their influence on long term stability of EMF in filling machines; Einfluss der Messrohrkonstruktion auf die Langzeitstabilitaet von Abfuell-MID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, B. [Krohne Messtechnik Gmbh und Co KG, Duisburg (Germany); Hofmann, F.

    2008-07-01

    Electro Magnetic Flow Meters (EMF) have been used for many decades measuring the volumetric flow rate of electric conductive liquids. Changes of the inner diameter because of temperature influences are creating measuring errors. In particular applications, where a high accuracy and repeatability is needed, this can cause trouble. This effect can be recognized after a long use of these meters and the corresponding cleaning procedures with liquid or steam, which is typical for the food and beverage industry. This effect is of a huge importance on electro magnetic flow meters, which are used on rotating filling machines for filling PET (plastic) bottles. Meters with ceramic tubes had a better long term stability than the ones with PFA liner. (orig.)

  2. Mt Pamola, the Electromagnetic Field, EMF, Thunderbird, Mothman and Environmental Monitoring Signals Via the Southern Constellation Phoenix As Detectable In Potato Cave, Acton, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea S.; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2004-03-01

    Just below the peak of Mt Pamola in ME, at the juncture with the Knife Edge, downwardly arcing segments of Earths EMF, are manifested by a faint lotus-blossom-blue, neon-like glow at 3 pm some sunny afternoons. Similarly hued glows, and horizontal but variable-arced segmented trajectories, are somewhat periodically detectable under certain conditions in chambers at Acton, MA. These phenomena curiously have the filled-in profile that precisely matches the outline of the southern constellation Phoenix, which is never visible above the nighttime horizon locally. The stick-figure representation of the constellation Canis Major can also be detected in a chamber at Americas Stonehenge, two hours before it has arisen, at certain times. The sequence of phenomena visible at Acton correctly correlates with eclipses and other alignments of our solar system. Phoenix, a.k.a. Thunderbird and Mothman, is detectable elsewhere in MA.

  3. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y C; Chen, C C; Cheng, Y T; Tu, W; Tseng, F G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells

  4. SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie de programmes Java5

    OpenAIRE

    Barais , Olivier

    2006-01-01

    2 ième Journée sur l'Ingénièrie Dirigée par les Modèles; Ce document présente succinctement SpoonEMF, une brique logicielle pour l'utilisation de l'IDM dans le cadre de la réingénierie d'applications écrites en Java. L'accent dans cette courte présentation est mis sur les cas d'utilisation possibles de cette brique logicielle et l'intérêt des choix techniques retenus : le framework EMF pour l'expression du méta-modèle afin de favoriser l'interopérabilité avec d'autres outils et l'intégration ...

  5. Environmental Metabolic Footprinting (EMF) vs. half-life: a new and integrative proxy for the discrimination between control and pesticides exposed sediments in order to further characterise pesticides' environmental impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Ben Jrad, Amani; Raviglione, Delphine; Zhou, Yuxiang; Bertrand, Cédric

    2017-06-28

    Pesticides are regularly used for a variety of applications and are disseminated throughout the environment. These substances may have significant negative impacts. To date, the half-life, t 1/2 , was often used to study the fate of pesticides in environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment). However, this value gives limited information. First, it does not evaluate the formation of by-products, resulting in the need for additional experiments to be performed to evaluate biodegradation and biotransformation products. T 1/2 also fails to consider the chemical's impact on biodiversity. Resilience time, a new and integrative proxy, was recently proposed as an alternative to t 1/2 , with the potential to evaluate all the post-application effects of the chemical on the environment. The 'Environmental Metabolic Footprinting' (EMF) approach, giving an idea of the resilience time, was used to evaluate the impact of botanicals on soil. The goal is to optimise the EMF to study the impact of a microbial insecticide, the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), on sediment. The difficulty of this work lies in the commercial solution of Bti that is really complex, and this complexity yields chromatograms that are extremely difficult to interpret; t 1/2 cannot be used. No methodologies currently exist to monitor the impact of these compounds on the environment. We will test the EMF to determine if it is sensitive enough to tolerate such complex mixtures. A pure chemical insecticide, the α-cypermethrin, will be also studied. The article shows that the EMF is able to distinguish meta-metabolome differences between control and exposed (with Bti) sediments.

  6. Biophysical aspects of the influence of electromagnetic fields (EMF on the human body Influencia de los campos electromagnéticos en el organismo humano: aspectos biofísicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napaleon Hernández

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Some historical aspects of biomagnetism and of the various steps that led to the development of bioelectricity and electro technique are summarized. Alterations observed in individuals working for long periods of time in contact with artificial EMF are described as well as the correlation between natural EMF and accidentality. The utilization of EMF for therapeutic purposes 15 reviewed and some considerations are given to the so called ";bioenergetic medicine"; that employs light, laser, sound, electricity and magnetism. A warning 15 made against the indiscriminate therapeutic use of EMF by practitioners without proper training; the need for solid research which may support the development of this area of medicine Is emphasized.

     

    En este artículo se resumen algunos aspectos históricos del biomagnetismo y de las etapas que condujeron al desarrollo de la bioelectricidad y la electrotécnica. Se describen las alteraciones observadas en quienes trabajan por períodos prolongados en contacto con campos electromagnéticos (CEM artificiales y la correlación entre los CEM naturales y la accidentalidad. Se revisan la utilización de los CEM con fines curativos y la escuela llamada ";bioenergética"; que utiliza terapéuticamente la luz, el láser, el sonido, la electricidad y el magnetismo. Se previene contra el uso terapéutico Indiscriminado de los CEM por personas sin adecuada formación y se hace énfasis en la necesidad de adelantar Investigaciones serias que sustenten este desarrollo de la medicina.

  7. Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle, during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05 except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.

  8. Significant RF-EMF and thermal levels observed in a computational model of a person with a tibial plate for grounded 40 MHz exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Anderson, Vitas

    2014-05-01

    Using numerical modeling, a worst-case scenario is considered when a person with a metallic implant is exposed to a radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF). An adult male standing on a conductive ground plane was exposed to a 40 MHz vertically polarized plane wave field, close to whole-body resonance where maximal induced current flows are expected in the legs. A metal plate (50-300 mm long) was attached to the tibia in the left leg. The findings from this study re-emphasize the need to ensure compliance with limb current reference levels for exposures near whole-body resonance, and not just rely on compliance with ambient electric (E) and magnetic (H) field reference levels. Moreover, we emphasize this recommendation for someone with a tibial plate, as failure to comply may result in significant tissue damage (increases in the localized temperature of 5-10 °C were suggested by the modeling for an incident E-field of 61.4 V/m root mean square (rms)). It was determined that the occupational reference level for limb current (100 mA rms), as stipulated in the 1998 guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), is satisfied if the plane wave incident E-field levels are no more than 29.8 V/m rms without an implant and 23.4 V/m rms for the model with a 300 mm implant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Campos electromagnéticos y salud: Exposición a CEM de baja frecuencia en oficinas y laboratorios de computación; Electromagnetic Fields and Health: Exposition to Low Frecuency EMF in Office Areas and Calculating Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castro Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El interés por establecer los límites de influencia de los campos electromagnéticos (CEM sobre los sereshumanos, y definir los riesgos sobre su salud, es uno de los temas que en la actualidad ocupa a empresasde servicio eléctrico, productores de equipos y empresas de seguros. En este artículo se exponen losresultados de mediciones realizadas en diferentes locaciones donde el ser humano ejecuta su trabajodiariamente; las mediciones consistieron en obtener mapas de campo magnético (CM para diferenteszonas de dichas áreas. Aun cundo los resultados obtenidos no pueden ser considerados definitivos ofrecenpuntos de análisis para el debate de un tema de mucho interés en el mundo actual y, por demás, muypolémico. The interes to stablish limits for Electromagnetics Fields (EMF influence on human being and to definerisk on human health has ocuped the electric services, manufacturers and safe enterprise at presentetime.The results of measurements done in differents place where human being realices his dairy work arepresented in this paper; magnetic field map (MFM for different zones in these places is obtained with themeasurements. Results are not final conclusions, but permit to offer point of view to analysis the problemaof EMF, today some confusse. 

  10. Spotlight census of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes and the domestic cat (<em>Felis catus in three sample areas of the Marches region (Central Italy / Censimento notturno di Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e di Gatto domestico (<em>Felis catus in tre aree campione delle Marche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pandolfi

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the density of the red fox and of the domestic cat, 55 transects were made from 1986 to 1989 using spotlight census method in three sample areas. The mean density of foxes agreed substantially with its biological cycle and the hightes values (2.01 foxes/km² in spring and 4.3 foxes/km² in winter were recorded in the study area with the better natural characteristics. Foxes selected the shrub woodland (macchia all year round, the inhabited area in spring. The domestic cat was widely spread and abundant, and selected especially inhabited areas where the density varied from 4.27 cats/km² (in winter to 12.42 cat/km² (in spring. Riassunto Dal 1986 al 1989, con il metodo dei percorsi notturni con fari, sono stati effettuati complessivamente 55 conteggi in tre aree campione per valutare la densità della Volpe (Vulpes vulpes e del Gatto domestico (<em>Felis catus nonché le loro preferenze ambientali limitatamente ad una zona campione. Per la Volpe le densità medie rilevate sono sostanzialmente in accordo con il ciclo biologico della specie e quelle più elevate (2,O1 volpi/km² in primavera e 4,3 volpi/km² in inverno sono state registrate nella zona campione con maggior presenza di boschi ed aree incolte. La Volpe seleziona le zone con vegetazione "di macchia" in ogni periodo dell'anno, e le aree abitate in primavera. Per il Gatto domestico le densità rilevate evidenziano la presenza di una diffusa ed abbondante popolazione. La specie mostra una spiccata preferenza per le aree abitate dove raggiunge densità di 4,27 individui/km² e 12,42 individui/km² in inverno e primavera rispettivamente.

  11. Electromagnetic fields and the issue of biological effects from a chemical-physical perspective; Elektromagnetiska faelt ('EMF') och fraagan om biologiska effekter utifraan ett kemiskt-fysikaliskt perspektiv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cedervall, Bjoern (Unit of Med. Radiation Physics and Med. Radiation Biology, Dept. Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The question of whether electric and/or magnetic fields in various respects are dangerous or not is of interdisciplinary character. That high electric or magnetic fields may give rise to dangerous currents is well known. More controversial is the topic of genotoxic effects, i.e. effects which have their origin in changes in DNA or effects on other parts of the molecular machinery of the cell and which if extended could result is some form of disease (e.g. neurological disorders). One may see this as a chain of possible events according to: 'Exposure->antenna->interaction between EMF and atoms or molecules->molecular biology/biochemistry->->disease'. The topics that have been discussed in this report have often been neglected but may shed light on the complexity of relevant laboratory experiments and theoretical interpretations. This report includes: descriptions of an exposure, what is meant by dose, what is relevant from a molecular aspect at various frequency ranges, thermal and non-thermal effects respectively, and ferromagnetic particles as a contaminant in the laboratory environment as well as in Nature. One way of approaching the scientific questions is to analyze the energy density of electric and magnetic fields and then put these into the context of the natural environment in single cells or whole individuals. Of particular interest is the order of magnitude for forces and energies as they occur naturally in cells (e.g. for pulling apart chromosomes during cell division). As is clear from the corresponding sections of this report, it seems improbable that EMF can break chemical bonds (and thereby cause DNA strand breaks) if we restrict ourselves to EMF contexts of daily exposures in the home or most workplaces. DNA damage is generally classified into half a dozen major categories. Among these damage categories the DNA double-strand breaks are considered to be among the most severe as these may give rise to mutations, chromosomal aberrations

  12. Maine's MOLLOCKET and METALLAK: Adherents of God's Secret Spirit Signal, SSS, Applied Physicists of the EMF/Manitou, Doctors, Reincarnationists, "Potlachers," Confidants of the Powerful, and, they Did Own the Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jennifer; Ferreira, Nadja; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-04-01

    Northeastern ``Indians,'' reputed to ``make the weather,'' actually, from youth, observed earth phenomena, including SSS. These are subtle and barely detectable visual artifacts of the electromagnetic field, special information that led/leads to their spiritual belief in reincarnation, which came from the EMF/SSS communication, backward and forward, (up to) seven generations. It commands communal, democratic, ``potlatch'' redistribution of accumulated wealth, Mother Earth's bounty, from their land, gifted by ``The Great Spirit,'' Manitou, Peru's Ñari Huallac, ``Serpent God.'' Genetics established the non-Asian origins of 1/3 of North American Indians. Linguistics indicates a major impact westwards to us. MILLInocket is ``Adherent of God (Spirit-signal) monk Cathar.'' Katahdin, with a shared root, has Manitou. After 1820, Gov. E. Lincoln and at least one US senator went westward to MetALLAk; his biography is by a Rumford, ME Knight of Pythias. Why? MOLLOCKET frequently asserted ownership of western Maine. ``Great Council Fires,'' religious ``Law Things,'' were at Merrymeeting Bay in pre-Colonial times. ``Medicine men/priests'' often participated as their applied scientist-statesmen. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.1

  13. The use of the thermo-emf method to investigate the reversibility of gas cell electrodes with the ZrO2+Y2O3 electrolyte in the gaseous phase of any composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfil'ev, M.V.; Fadeev, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of using the thermo-e.m.f. method to determine the minimum temperature at which the electrode potential of solid electrolyte sells remains equilibrium relatively to the gaseous phase in the atmospheres of the arbitrary composition, is considered. The above method and the method of concentration e.m.f. have been used to determine maximum temperatures of reversibility of powder platinum electrodes in the CO+CO 2 atmosphere with CO 2 content from 5 to 95%. Both methods are shown to produce similar results. It is supposed that the reason for the deviation of electrode potential from the equilibrium value at low temperatures is the absence of equilibrium between the gaseous phase and the adsorption layer. Parameters which are included in the equation for thermo-e.m.f. in any atmosphere are determined for the electrolyte of the 0.93 ZrO 2 +0.07 Y 2 O 3 composition. Oxygen vacancies are shown to interact with the formation of complexes at measurement temperatures of 300 deg-800 deg C

  14. Determination of standard Ghibbs free energy of formation of NiW sub 2 B sub 2 and activity of Ni-W binary system by EMF measurement. Kidenryokuho ni yoru NiW sub 2 B sub 2 no hyojun seisei Gibbs jiyu energy to Ni-W 2 seibunkei no katsuryo no sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayama, Koichiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Matsuo, Hideki (Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan) Fukushin Electric Co., Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    NiW {sub 2} B {sub 2} (M phase), existing in trinary Ni-W-B system, was measured in standard Gibbs free energy (GF) of formation in the temperature range from 1273K to 1423K by an electromotive force method (EMF) with use of solid oxide electrolyte. First, oxide phase in equilibrium with three-phase M-W-Ni solid solution region was confirmed to be B {sub 2} O {sub 3}. Binary Ni-W system solid solution in equilibrium with M phase and W phase is constant in composition with Ni-16.4mo1%W in the above temperature range. WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72} were actually measured in GF. As Ni-W solid solution is in equilibrium with WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}, binary Ni-W system was measured in activity by the EMF, and Ni-16.4mo1%W solid solution was calculated in GF of mixing by use of the above measured GF of WO {sub 2} and WO {sub 2.72}. Finally with use of sample in M-W-Ni solid solution region, M phase was calculated in GF by the EMF. The result of those calculations were expressed with experimental formulas. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. What Are Electric and Magnetic Fields? (EMF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  16. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  17. Study of heat conductivity, electric conductivity and thermo-emf of BiSrCaCu2Ox and Bi1.82Sr1.73Ca1.73Ca1.25Cu2.2Ox systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, T.B.; Parfen'eva, L.S.; Popov, V.V.; Melekh, B.T.; Smirnov, I.A.; Khalmedov, Kh.M.

    1991-01-01

    Phase compositions are determined and temperature dependences are measured of x-heat conductivity, ρ-electric resistance and α-thermo-emf of polycrystal, monophase, highly textured HTSC samples of BiSrCaCu 2 O x and Bi 1.82 Sr 1.73 Ca 1.25 Cu 2.2 O x produced through method of direct induction melting in the air in a cold container. Sample 'aging' after storage in the air and vacuum, leading to decrease in the number of foring phases and increase in the basic phase content as well as to change of x, ρ and α coefficients is identified

  18. Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khullar, Shilpa; Sood, Archana; Sood, Sanjay

    2013-12-01

    There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I-V as well as interpeak latencies I-III, I-V and III-V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.

  19. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  20. Investigation of reaction equilibrium in reactor materials by EMF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, H.; Teske, K.; Reetz, T.; Rettig, D.; Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznecov, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    By means of electrochemical cells with solid electrolytes measurements of the chemical activities of oxygen and hydrogen in a sodium test loop were performed. The reaction equilibrium of oxygen and hydrogen in dilute solutions of sodium was investigated. The activities of both oxygen and hydrogen decrease with increasing concentration of the reaction partner. From the relation between the activivy of one component and the analytic concentration of the reaction partner the equilibrium constant of the reaction 0+H = OH was determinded to lg K sub(diss) = -(1,502+-0,216)-(1356+-140)/T. An electrochemical cell with an iron membrane and a solid electrolyte was used to measure the activity of carbon in a carborizing medium. The cell output was stable over a period of more than 1000 hours at a carbon activity of 1. (orig.) [de

  1. Human thermoregulation model of RF-EMF interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermayr, F.

    2012-01-01

    A thermal model has been developed which allows accurate temperature computations in high resolution anatomical models. The model is based on the basic thermal model described by Pennes which neglects any of the thermoregulatory mechanisms in humans. The thermal model developed here overcomes major simplifications by the mathematical consideration of these mechanisms which is needed for modeling a physiologically correct reaction to a thermal stimulus. The local blood perfusion, as well as the local metabolic rate, is modified as a function of the local tissue temperature. The model implemented increases the blood temperature on the basis of the absorbed energy. The heat exchange at the tissue/air interface, including the skin and respiratory tract, is also improved. The model takes not only the heat dissipation by radiation, conduction and convection into consideration but also the insensible loss of water by evaporation. Furthermore, the thermal model also accounts for the active heat dissipation by sweating. The generic implementation of the thermal model makes it possible to use it for different human models (children, adults, pregnant women) and it is also possible to take implants into consideration. The performance of the model is validated by comparing the simulation results to actual temperature measurements in humans. The thermal model is used to compute the temperature elevation in humans exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Until now, the tissue heating caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields could only be estimated by a surrogate, namely the specific absorption rate. The temperature elevations in children of different sizes and ages as well as pregnant women at different gestational stages exposed to plane waves is computed. Furthermore, the temperature elevation in human bodies is computed for a diagnostic modality (magnetic resonance imaging) and a therapeutic modality (medical diathermy). (author) [de

  2. Emf measurements on nanocrystalline copper-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauth, P.; Villain, S.

    1998-01-01

    Mixed oxide samples of nanostructured Cu x Ce 1-x O 2-y of various composition were generated by (i) chemical precipitation and ball milling and (ii) inert gas condensation. X-ray diffraction measurements suggested that copper oxide was dissolved in nanostructured cerium oxide up to concentrations of x = 0.15. Solid electrolyte cells of the type A, Cu 2 O/CuBr/Cu x Ce 1-x O 2-y (A = Cu or CuO) showed reversible cell voltages. The ratio of the formal chemical activities of CuO and Cu 2 O dissolved in nanostructured cerium oxide were calculated from the cell voltages. The results are discussed in terms of an apparent macroscopic solubility, due to interfacial segregation of copper oxide on nanostructured cerium oxide

  3. Effects of ELF-EMF on brain proteins in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strašák, Luděk; Bártová, Eva; Krejčí, Jana; Fojt, Lukáš; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2009), s. 96-104 ISSN 1536-8378 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP310/07/P480; GA MŠk(CZ) 1MO528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemisorption * IR spectroscopy * electrochemistry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2009

  4. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  5. Radio Frequency EMF Exposure due to Gsm Mobile Phones Base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSs). In Nigerian some people believed that exposure to radiation from BSs for long period could cause different diseases like cancer, destroys reproductive organs, congenital anomalies, epilepsy and persistent headache and some of the BSs ...

  6. Radiation protection for EMF harmonizing legislation in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyaruba, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    To effect a change in biological material through which it is passing, an Electromagnetic wave must deposit enough energy to alter some structure significantly. But:- Every material particle within the body already possesses an average thermal kinetic energy (kT) and these particles continually collide with other particles of similar energy. For a change to occur an EM wave should transfer energy greater than kT. There is a bond energy which is within an order of magnitude of electron volt (1.6 X 10-19 J). For a change to occur an EM photon which typically carries an energy of hf should deposit packets of energy larger than bond energy. RF fields : It is concluded (epidemiological, animal and in vitro studies) that exposure to RF fields is unlikely to lead to an increase in cancer in humans. IF fields: The data are still too limited for an appropriate risk assessment. ELF fields: No new studies support a causal relationship between ELF fields and self-reported symptoms. Preliminary study of RF radiation levels in the residential areas. The study was conducted 2007 - 2008.Measurements of RF radiation levels to 200 cellular phone base stations, 2 Television stations and 5 radio stations. Measurements done aat to 300 meters from the fence of base stations. Preliminary results showed public exposed to 0.05% of the ICNIRP reference levels. Need to re-confirm measurements

  7. EMF 9 scenarios Canadian natural gas: Potential demand and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The basic analytical perspectives of this work are: (1) Canada is a price taker on the US natural gas market; (2) Gas competes with HFO in both markets, and Canada is integrated into the international oil market; (3) Canadian and US income growth rates are consistent with each other, given the major influence of US economic performance on that of the Canadian economy; and (4) Given the price, income and other assumptions, we used the Board's Energy Demand Model to calculate annual demand for natural gas in each price case. We used the Board's models for reserves additions and productive capacity estimation to calculate potential annual supply. The difference between demand and potential supply is the potential exportable volume. The annual productive capacity curve assumes, agnostically, that all potential production is sold yearly

  8. Severe asthma with markedly increased asbestos of 2 types & TXB2, and markedly reduced acetylcholine, DHEA & drug uptake in parts of upper lungs, & similar abnormalities at respiratory & cardiac center of medulla oblongata: complete elimination of this asthma within 15 days using one optimal dose of astragalus & application of strong red light & EMF neutralizer on respiratory centers of abnormal medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Henoch, Avraham; Shimotsuura, Yasuhira; Duvvi, Harsha; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Ohki, Motomu

    2009-01-01

    When the window of an Asbestos-contaminated room from a broken ceiling was opened wide, A 73 year-old male physician of Oriental origin, who was sitting in the next room, suddenly developed a severe asthma attack, which did not stop by the use of a hand-held Albuterol inhaler. Temporary relief was obtained only by using a Compressor-Nebulizer (Inspiration 626 with Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Solution 0.083%). During the attack, abnormal areas were discovered at the upper lobes of both lungs, where Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was markedly increased to 500 ng (BDORT units) (the rest of the lung had about 2.5 ng), 2 types of Asbestos (Chrysotile and Crocidolite) were abnormally increased to 0.120-0.135 mg, (BDORT units) Acetylcholine was markedly reduced to 0.5 ng (the rest of the lung was low, about 100 ng), DHEA was extremely reduced to 1 ng (the rest of the lung had about 52 ng), and telomere was less than 1 yg (= 10(-24) g). Bacterial & viral infections were also present in these abnormal areas, but no antibiotics entered the abnormal parts of the lungs. Therefore, one optimal dose of Astragalus was given once, which resulted in a rapid continuous excretion of large amounts of the above 2 types of Asbestos & TXB2 in urine & sputum, and Asthma symptoms reduced slightly in severity. Additional acupuncture & shiatsu given on all the known acupuncture points for lung disease only created slight, temporary improvement. Then, the respiratory & cardiac center of the Medulla Oblongata was found to have similar abnormalities as the lungs. Therefore, 100 mW output of Light Emitting Diode of red spectra (650 nm center spectrum) was projected on the abnormal area of the medulla oblongata on the back of the head. This resulted drug uptake of on and off and significantly reduced difficulty of breathing. Additional application of the EMF Neutralizer on the abnormal area of the Medulla Oblongata for 3 hours resulted in continuous drug uptake and complete disappearance of asthma. As a

  9. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (Emf) of extremely low frequency and Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, L.

    2008-01-01

    Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (between 3 and 3000 hz) is one potential risk factor for Alzheimer disease. this critical meta-analysis of the published epidemiologic work suggests the existence of an association in a very heterogeneous dataset. It looks for potential sources of error, examines the areas of uncertainty, and calls for the pursuit of further research. (author)

  10. The EU 20/20/2020 targets. An overview of the EMF22 assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, Carl on Ossietzky University, Oldenburg (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland); Tol, Richard S.J. [Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin (Ireland); Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Spatial Economics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Three computable general equilibrium models are used to estimate the economic implications of a stylized version of EU climate policy. If implemented at the lowest possible cost, the 20% emissions reduction would lead to a welfare loss of 0.5-2.0% by 2020. Second-best policies increase costs. A policy with two carbon prices (one for the ETS, one for the non-ETS) could increase costs by up to 50%. A policy with 28 carbon prices (one for the ETS, one each for each Member State) could increase costs by another 40%. The renewables standard could raise the costs of emissions reduction by 90%. Overall, the inefficiencies in policy lead to a cost that is 100-125% too high. The models differ greatly in the detail of their results. The ETS/non-ETS split may have a negligible impact on welfare, while the renewables standard may even improve welfare. The models agree, however, that the distortions introduced by total EU package imply a substantial welfare loss over and above the costs needed to meet the climate target. The marginal, total and excess costs reported here are notably higher than those in the impact assessment of the European Commission. (author)

  11. Effects of alternative styles of risk information on EMF risk perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Elstein, Arthur; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Risk scenarios characterized by exposures to new technologies with unknown health effects, together with limited appreciation of benefits pose a challenge to risk communication. The present report illustrates this situation through a study of the perceived risk from mobile phones and mobile masts...... radiation from mobile phones and masts. The objective was to study whether different types of information were rated as equally useful, informative, comprehensible, and trustworthy. Moreover, an important issue was whether information would influence risk perception and intended behavior. The conclusion...

  12. A novel Back EMF observer for sensorless control of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Vadstrup, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a position sensing method for IPM motors based on an observer referring to the estimated frame of reference, eliminating problems with position dependent inductances. Convergence of the estimation error to zero is proofed, under the assumption that the mechanical time constant ...

  13. Thermodynamic properties of liquid copper-indium-tin alloys determined from e.m.f. measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrzejczyk-Handzlik, Dominika; Gierlotka, Wojciech; Fitzner, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics properties of liquid Cu-In-Sn alloys were determined using solid oxide galvanic cells with zirconia electrolyte: (I)Re+kanthal,Cu x -In y -Sn (1-x-y) ,'In 2 O 3 '//ZrO 2 +(Y 2 O 3 )//NiO,Ni,Pt in the temperature range (973 to 1223) K. Applied In 2 O 3 can be either pure or in the solid solutions with SnO 2 . Thermodynamics properties of the liquid phase were described by the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu formula. Using the commercial software different phase relations in the ternary system were calculated and compared with experimental data found in the literature

  14. Pre- and post-natal exposure of children to EMF generated by domestic induction cookers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Miklavčič, Damijan; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2011-10-01

    Induction cookers are a type of cooking appliance that uses an intermediate-frequency magnetic field to heat the cooking vessel. The magnetic flux density produced by an induction cooker during operation was measured according to the EN 62233 standard, and the measured values were below the limits set in the standard. The measurements were used to validate a numerical model consisting of three vertically displaced coaxial current loops at 35 kHz. The numerical model was then used to compute the electric field (E) and induced current (J) in 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 6 and 11 year old children. Both E and J were found to be below the basic restrictions of the 2010 low-frequency and 1998 ICNRIP guidelines. The maximum computed E fields in the whole body were 0.11 and 0.66 V m-1 in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 0.28 and 2.28 V m-1 in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 4.25 V m-1). The maximum computed J fields in the whole body were 46 and 42 mA m-2 in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 27 and 16 mA m-2 in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 70 mA m-2).

  15. Review of Electromagnetic Frequency (EMF) Safety Program for Homestead ARB, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    using technique number MSL-7. Calibrations below I GHz were perfonned in a electrical characterist.ics of the cell and the measured net power...Altimeter ( CARA ) 1 per F-16 4 .2-4.2 GHz 100/10 0 .8 2 .4 482 AMXS/MXAAS AN/APG68 Fire Control Radar (FCR) 1 per F-1 6 Classified Classified Classified...A. MPE fot· Upper T ier Electric Magnetic field Powet· Averaging Fr equency Field - nns strength - n ns Density - nns (S) time R ange (t) (E

  16. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  17. Pre- and post-natal exposure of children to EMF generated by domestic induction cookers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, Bor; Miklavcic, Damijan; Kotnik, Tadej; Valic, Blaz; Gajsek, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Induction cookers are a type of cooking appliance that uses an intermediate-frequency magnetic field to heat the cooking vessel. The magnetic flux density produced by an induction cooker during operation was measured according to the EN 62233 standard, and the measured values were below the limits set in the standard. The measurements were used to validate a numerical model consisting of three vertically displaced coaxial current loops at 35 kHz. The numerical model was then used to compute the electric field (E) and induced current (J) in 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 6 and 11 year old children. Both E and J were found to be below the basic restrictions of the 2010 low-frequency and 1998 ICNRIP guidelines. The maximum computed E fields in the whole body were 0.11 and 0.66 V m -1 in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 0.28 and 2.28 V m -1 in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 4.25 V m -1 ). The maximum computed J fields in the whole body were 46 and 42 mA m -2 in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 27 and 16 mA m -2 in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 70 mA m -2 ).

  18. Pre- and post-natal exposure of children to EMF generated by domestic induction cookers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, Bor; Miklavcic, Damijan; Kotnik, Tadej [Laboratory of Biocybernetics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valic, Blaz; Gajsek, Peter, E-mail: bor.kos@fe.uni-lj.si, E-mail: damijan.miklavcic@fe.uni-lj.si, E-mail: tadej.kotnik@fe.uni-lj.si, E-mail: blaz.valic@inis.si, E-mail: p.gajsek@inis.si [Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation, Pohorskega Bataljona 215, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-10-07

    Induction cookers are a type of cooking appliance that uses an intermediate-frequency magnetic field to heat the cooking vessel. The magnetic flux density produced by an induction cooker during operation was measured according to the EN 62233 standard, and the measured values were below the limits set in the standard. The measurements were used to validate a numerical model consisting of three vertically displaced coaxial current loops at 35 kHz. The numerical model was then used to compute the electric field (E) and induced current (J) in 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 6 and 11 year old children. Both E and J were found to be below the basic restrictions of the 2010 low-frequency and 1998 ICNRIP guidelines. The maximum computed E fields in the whole body were 0.11 and 0.66 V m{sup -1} in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 0.28 and 2.28 V m{sup -1} in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 4.25 V m{sup -1}). The maximum computed J fields in the whole body were 46 and 42 mA m{sup -2} in the 26 and 30 weeks pregnant women and 27 and 16 mA m{sup -2} in the 6 and 11 year old children (ICNIRP basic restriction 70 mA m{sup -2}).

  19. Joint HVAC Transmission EMF Environmental Study : Final Report on Experiment 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Oregon Regional Primate Research Center

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration`s Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  20. Molten salt e.m.f. cell measurements on U-Ga alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakara Reddy, B.; Kandan, R.; Nagarajan, K.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Gibbs free energy of formation of intermetallic compounds, UGa 3 , UGa 2 and U 2 Ga 3 were determined by using high temperature molten salt galvanic cell measurements in the temperature range of 644-988 K, 751-947 K and 800-950 K, respectively. (author)

  1. Preliminary study : Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) effects on the growth of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Wan Norsuhaila Wan Aziz; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdulah

    2010-01-01

    A research has been done to study the effects of magnetic fields on the growth of plants.Two samples of maize seedlings and green beans have been studied. Helmholtz coil systems were used as magnetic field source at frequency 50 Hz with 440 mGauss field strength. Sample characteristics such height, leaf, colour and length of roots were observed. The results show that the magnetic field influenced the growth of the sample. The sample that were exposed to the magnetic field show faster growth compared to the controlled sample. (author)

  2. Solid-state e.m.f. and calorimetric measurements on Cs2Cr2O7(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.; Iyer, V.S.; Agarwal, R.; Roy, K.N.; Prasad, R.; Sood, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The standard molar Gibbs free energy of formation of Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 (1) has been determined in the temperature range 797 to 874 K, using a solid-oxide-electrolyte galvanic cell. The melting and transition temperatures, molar enthalpies of fusion and of transition of the same caesium compound were determined in the temperature range 662 to 826 K, using a high temperature Calvet microcalorimeter. Results on the standard molar enthalpy of formation of Cs 2 Cr 2 O 7 at 298.15 K are in good agreement with those reported by other workers. (U.K.)

  3. Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure and natural killer activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Bargellini, Annalisa; Scaringi, Meri; Bravo, Giulia; Borella, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Extremely Low Frequency-Magnetic Fields (ELF-MF) are possible carcinogens to humans and some data suggest that they can act as promoters or progressors. Since NK cells play a major role in the control of cancer development, an adverse effect on ELF-MF on NK function has been hypothesized. We examined NK activity in 52 workers exposed to different levels of ELF-MF in various activities. Individual exposure was monitored during 3 complete work-shifts using personal dosimeters. Environmental exposure was also monitored. ELF-MF levels in the workers were expressed as Time-Weighted Average (TWA) values. NK activity was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). In the whole group the median occupational TWA was 0.21 μT. According to the TWA levels, workers were classified as low exposed (26 subjects, TWA ≤ 0.2 μT) and higher exposed workers (26 subjects; TWA > 0.2 μT). In higher exposed workers, we observed a trend to reduce NK activity compared to low exposed, but the difference was not significant. Then we selected a subgroup of highest exposed workers (12 subjects; TWA > 1 μT); no difference was observed between low and highest exposed subjects in the main personal variables. Considering both E:T ratios from 12:1 to 50:1 and Lytic Units, a significant reduction in NK activity was observed in the highest exposed workers compared to the low exposed. Multivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation between exposure and LU, while no correlation was evidenced with other personal characteristics. ELF-MF are considered possible carcinogens, and existing data suggest that they can act as promoters. Due to the role of NK activity in host defence against cancer, the results obtained in this study in workers exposed to ELF-MF levels exceeding 1 μT are in agreement with this hypothesis, and support the need for further investigation in this field

  4. Comparison of TGA and EMF measurement of the oxygen potential of U075Pu025O/sub 2+-x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    To resolve uncertainies in various low temperature oxygen potential data for mixed-oxide nuclear fuels, additional measurements have been performed employing a combined thermogravimetric and galvanic cell technique. Oxygen potentials obtained in this manner exhibit good agreement with the results of prior thermogravimetric determinations

  5. Modifying the Genetic Regulation of Bone and Cartilage Cells and Associated Tissue by EMF Stimulation Fields and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Shackelford, Linda C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method to modify the genetic regulation of mammalian tissue, bone, or any combination. The method may be comprised of the steps of tuning at least one predetermined profile associated with at least one time-varying stimulation field thereby resulting in at least one tuned time-varying stimulation field comprised of at least one tuned predetermined profile, wherein said at least one tuned predetermined profile is comprised of a plurality of tuned predetermined figures of merit and is controllable through at least one of said plurality of tuned predetermined figures of merit, wherein said plurality of predetermined tuned figures of merit is comprised of a tuned B-Field magnitude, tuned rising slew rate, tuned rise time, tuned falling slew rate, tuned fall time, tuned frequency, tuned wavelength, and tuned duty cycle; and exposing mammalian chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, nucleus pulposus, associated tissue, or any combination to said at least one tuned time-varying stimulation field comprised of said at least one tuned predetermined profile for a predetermined tuned exposure time or plurality of tuned exposure time sequences.

  6. Thermodynamic studies on corrosion inhibition of aqueous solutions of amino/carboxylic acids toward copper by EMF measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spah, Manjula; Spah, Dal Chand; Deshwal, Balraj; Lee, Seungmoon; Chae, Yoon-Keun; Park, Jin Won

    2009-01-01

    Electromotive force (E) measurements were made on an electrochemical cell [Cu x Hg|CuCl 2 (m) in a solvent S|AgCl-Ag] (where S is a dilute aqueous solution (0.01 m) of amino acid (glycine, alanine, methionine and glutamic acid) or aliphatic carboxylic acid (formic acid, acetic acid, n-butyric acid and glutaric acid)) at 30 deg. C. These measured E values were used to compute the dissociation constants (K 1 and K 2 ) and the degree of dissociation (α 1 and α 2 ) by iterative procedures. The standard cell potential (E o ) and the mean activity coefficient (γ ± ) of CuCl 2 were also determined. The E o data were next used to evaluate the Gibbs energy of transfer (ΔG tr 0 ) of CuCl 2 from water to dilute aqueous solutions of the amino/carboxylic acids. The negative ΔG tr 0 values suggested that these acids act as potential corrosion inhibitors. The magnitudes of ΔG tr 0 values show that the amino acids act as better corrosion inhibitors towards copper than the aliphatic carboxylic acids.

  7. Measurement of Vertical Oil-in-water Two-phase Flow Using Dual-modality ERT-EMF System

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj, Yousef; Wang, Mi; Jia, Jiabin; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-gang; Oddie, Gary; Primrose , Ken; Qiu, Changhua

    2015-01-01

    Oil-in-water two-phase flows are often encountered in the upstream petroleum industry. The measurement of phase flow rates is of particular importance for managing oil production and water disposal and/or water reinjection. The complexity of oil-in-water flow structures creates a challenge to flow measurement. This paper proposes a new method of two-phase flow metering, which is based on the use of dual-modality system and multidimensional data fusion. The Electrical Resistance Tomography sys...

  8. Influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and local exposure of the fetus to RF-EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsier, N; Wiart, J; Dahdouh, S; Angelini, E D; Bloch, I; Serrurier, A; De la Plata, J-P; Anquez, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of pregnancy stage and fetus position on the whole-body and brain exposure of the fetus to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Our analysis is performed using semi-homogeneous pregnant woman models between 8 and 32 weeks of amenorrhea. By analyzing the influence of the pregnancy stage on the environmental whole-body and local exposure of a fetus in vertical position, head down or head up, in the 2100 MHz frequency band, we concluded that both whole-body and average brain exposures of the fetus decrease during the first pregnancy trimester, while they advance during the pregnancy due to the rapid weight gain of the fetus in these first stages. From the beginning of the second trimester, the whole-body and the average brain exposures are quite stable because the weight gains are quasi proportional to the absorbed power increases. The behavior of the fetus whole-body and local exposures during pregnancy for a fetus in the vertical position with the head up were found to be of a similar level, when compared to the position with the head down they were slightly higher, especially in the brain. (paper)

  9. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) RAPID Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of Field Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute

    1997-08-01

    This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic fields sectio~ and field reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic field reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic field shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic field plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.

  10. The contemporary emergence of health concerns related to mobile phones: a study of the origins and diffusion of mobile phone fears and anti-EMF campaigns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burgess, Adam

    2010-01-01

    .... We focus on the chronology of public and institutional responses to the issue in the UK and how this is reflected in the accounts and strategies of campaign groups."--Ch. 1 ... Introduction ... p. 4...

  11. Development and evaluation of a tool for retrospective exposure assessment of selected endocrine disrupting chemicals and EMF in the car manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Birte; Schmeisser, Nils; Lünzmann, Hauke; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Langner, Ingo; Behrens, Thomas; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2011-08-01

    A system for retrospective occupational exposure assessment combining the efficiency of a job exposure matrix (JEM) and the precision of a subsequent individual expert exposure assessment (IEEA) was developed. All steps of the exposure assessment were performed by an interdisciplinary expert panel in the context of a case-control study on male germ cell cancer nested in the car manufacturing industries. An industry-specific JEM was developed and automatic exposure estimation was performed based on this JEM. A subsample of exposure ratings was done by IEEA to identify determinants of disagreement between the JEM and the individual review. Possible determinants were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) of disagreement between ratings with regard to different dimensions (e.g. high versus low intensity of exposure). Disagreement in ≥20% of the sampled exposure ratings with a statistically significant OR was chosen as a threshold for inclusion of the exposure ratings into a final IEEA. The most important determinants of disagreement between JEM and individual review were working outside of the production line (disagreement 80%), low probability of exposure (disagreement 25%), and exposure depending on specific activities like usage of specific lacquers (disagreement 32%) for jobs within the production line. These determinants were the selection criteria of exposure ratings for the subsequent final IEEA. Combining a JEM and a subsequent final IEEA for a selected subset of exposure ratings is a feasible and labor-saving approach for exposure assessment in large occupational epidemiological studies.

  12. WHO Meeting on EMF Biological Effects and Standards Harmonization in Asia and Oceania, 22-24 October, 2001, Shilla Hotel, Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-24

    Inventory HHI -Medical Check: >> Anamnesis >>General and Neurological Examination -Exposure Experiments A. Wojtyialmedi.~ hsiologie’• Ol .ppt, I0/01...Introductory Conversation V’ Medical Anamnesis VL 1. Test series V’ Psycho-social Anamnesis VL Medical Examination V 2. Test series VL Blood Sampling VL

  13. Synergistic effect of EMF-BEMER-type pulsed weak electromagnetic field and HPMA-bound doxorubicin on mouse EL4 T-cell lymphoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říhová, Blanka; Etrych, Tomáš; Šírová, Milada; Tomala, Jakub; Ulbrich, Karel; Kovář, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 10 (2011), s. 890-899 ISSN 1061-186X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400200702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : EL4 T-cell lymphoma * athymic mice * DOX(HYD)-HPMA Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.696, year: 2011

  14. General Practitioners Using Complementary and Alternative Medicine Differ From General Practitioners Using Conventional Medicine in Their View of the Risks of Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    often attributed own health complaints to EMF (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.8-5.6), and more often reported at least 1 EMF consultation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.6-3.9). GPs using homeopathy perceived EMF as more risky than GPs using acupuncture or naturopathic treatment. CONCLUSION: Concern about common EMF...

  15. Elevated CO2 and O3 effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal root tip communities in consideration of a post-agricultural soil nutrient gradient legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie Andrew; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role of EMF in nutrient and carbon (C) dynamics, combined effects of global atmospheric pollutants on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are unclear. Here, we present research on EMF root-level community responses to elevated CO2 and O3. We discovered that belowground EMF community richness and similarity were...

  16. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Broccoli EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long-Fang O.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Lai, Ying-Mi; Huang, Jia-Yuan; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate major developmental processes in Arabidopsis. EMBRYONIC FLOWER 2 (EMF2), the VEFS domain-containing PcG gene, regulates diverse genetic pathways and is required for vegetative development and plant survival. Despite widespread EMF2-like sequences in plants, little is known about their function other than in Arabidopsis and rice. To study the role of EMF2 in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica cv. Elegance) development, we identified two broccoli EMF2 (BoEMF2) genes with sequence homology to and a similar gene expression pattern to that in Arabidopsis (AtEMF2). Reducing their expression in broccoli resulted in aberrant phenotypes and gene expression patterns. BoEMF2 regulates genes involved in diverse developmental and stress programs similar to AtEMF2 in Arabidopsis. However, BoEMF2 differs from AtEMF2 in the regulation of flower organ identity, cell proliferation and elongation, and death-related genes, which may explain the distinct phenotypes. The expression of BoEMF2.1 in the Arabidopsis emf2 mutant (Rescued emf2) partially rescued the mutant phenotype and restored the gene expression pattern to that of the wild type. Many EMF2-mediated molecular and developmental functions are conserved in broccoli and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the restored gene expression pattern in Rescued emf2 provides insights into the molecular basis of PcG-mediated growth and development. PMID:22537758

  17. Determination of standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca2P2O7 and Ca(PO3)2 from solid-state EMF measurements using yttria stabilised zirconia as solid electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, Malin Hannah; Bostroem, Dan; Rosen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The equilibrium reactions: 3Ca 2 P 2 O 7 (s)+6Ni(s)-bar 2Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s)+2Ni 3 P(s)+52O 2 (g) and 2Ca(PO 3 ) 2 (s)+6Ni(s)-bar Ca 2 P 2 O 7 (s)+2Ni 3 P(s)+52O 2 (g) were studied in the temperature range 890K to 1140K. The oxygen equilibrium pressures were determined using galvanic cells incorporating yttria stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte. From the measured data and using the literature values of standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 and Ni 3 P, the following relationship of the standard Gibbs free energy of formation for Ca 2 P 2 O 7 and Ca(PO 3 ) 2 were calculated:Δ f G o (Ca 2 P 2 O 7 )+/-11/(kJ.mol -1 )=-3475.9+1.5441(T/K)-0.1051(T/K).ln(T/K)andΔ f G o (Ca(PO 3 ) 2 )+/-12/(kJ.mol -1 )=-3334.8+6.1561(T/K)-0.6950(T/K).ln(T/K)

  18. Perception of health risks of electromagnetic fields by MRI radiographers and airport security officers compared to the general Dutch working population: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Diana; Smid, Tjabe; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M

    2011-11-09

    The amount of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at work is mainly determined by an individual's occupation and may differ from exposure at home. It is, however, unknown how different occupational groups perceive possible adverse health effects of EMF. Three occupational groups, the general Dutch working population (n = 567), airport security officers who work with metal detectors (n = 106), and MRI radiographers who work with MRI (n = 193), were compared on perceived risk of and positive and negative feelings towards EMF in general and of different EMF sources, and health concerns by using analyses of variances. Data were collected via an internet survey. Overall, MRI radiographers had a lower perceived risk, felt less negative, and more positive towards EMF and different sources of EMF than the general working population and the security officers. For security officers, feeling more positive about EMF was not significantly related to perceived risk of EMF in general or EMF of domestic sources. Feeling positive about a source did not generalize to a lower perceived risk, while negative feelings were stronger related to perceived risk. MRI radiographers had fewer health concerns regarding EMF than the other two groups, although they considered it more likely that EMF could cause physical complaints. These data show that although differences in occupation appear to be reflected in different perceptions of EMF, the level of occupational exposure to EMF as such does not predict the perceived health risk of EMF. © 2011 van Dongen et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Perception of health risks of electromagnetic fields by MRI radiographers and airport security officers compared to the general Dutch working population: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongen Diana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF at work is mainly determined by an individual's occupation and may differ from exposure at home. It is, however, unknown how different occupational groups perceive possible adverse health effects of EMF. Methods Three occupational groups, the general Dutch working population (n = 567, airport security officers who work with metal detectors (n = 106, and MRI radiographers who work with MRI (n = 193, were compared on perceived risk of and positive and negative feelings towards EMF in general and of different EMF sources, and health concerns by using analyses of variances. Data were collected via an internet survey. Results Overall, MRI radiographers had a lower perceived risk, felt less negative, and more positive towards EMF and different sources of EMF than the general working population and the security officers. For security officers, feeling more positive about EMF was not significantly related to perceived risk of EMF in general or EMF of domestic sources. Feeling positive about a source did not generalize to a lower perceived risk, while negative feelings were stronger related to perceived risk. MRI radiographers had fewer health concerns regarding EMF than the other two groups, although they considered it more likely that EMF could cause physical complaints. Conclusions These data show that although differences in occupation appear to be reflected in different perceptions of EMF, the level of occupational exposure to EMF as such does not predict the perceived health risk of EMF.

  20. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tongning; Shao, Qing; Yang, Lei; Qi, Dianyuan; Lin, Jun; Lin, Xiaojun; Yu, Zongying

    2013-06-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge.

  1. Electromagnetic fields mediate efficient cell reprogramming into a pluripotent state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Soonbong; Quan, Xiaoyuan; Kim, Soochan; Lengner, Christopher; Park, Jung-Keug; Kim, Jongpil

    2014-10-28

    Life on Earth is constantly exposed to natural electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and it is generally accepted that EMFs may exert a variety of effects on biological systems. Particularly, extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EL-EMFs) affect biological processes such as cell development and differentiation; however, the fundamental mechanisms by which EMFs influence these processes remain unclear. Here we show that EMF exposure induces epigenetic changes that promote efficient somatic cell reprogramming to pluripotency. These epigenetic changes resulted from EMF-induced activation of the histone lysine methyltransferase Mll2. Remarkably, an EMF-free system that eliminates Earth's naturally occurring magnetic field abrogates these epigenetic changes, resulting in a failure to undergo reprogramming. Therefore, our results reveal that EMF directly regulates dynamic epigenetic changes through Mll2, providing an efficient tool for epigenetic reprogramming including the acquisition of pluripotency.

  2. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  3. The Role of Dosimetry in High-Quality EMI Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    The Final Proceedings for The role of EMF dosimetry in high quality risk assessment 13 September 2006 - 15 September 2006 In the last three decades the use of devices that emit electromagnetic fields (EMF...

  4. General Practitioners' Knowledge and Concern about Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to explore general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge about EMF, and to assess whether different knowledge structures are related to the GPs' concern about EMF. Random samples were drawn from lists of GPs in Germany in 2008. Knowledge about EMF was assessed by seven items. A latent class...... analysis was conducted to identify latent structures in GPs' knowledge. Further, the GPs' concern about EMF health risk was measured using a score comprising six items. The association between GPs' concern about EMF and their knowledge was analysed using multiple linear regression. In total 435 (response...... "don't know". There was no association between GPs' latent knowledge classes or between the number of correct answers given by the GPs and their EMF concern, whereas the number of incorrect answers was associated with EMF concern. Greater EMF concern in subjects with more incorrect answers suggests...

  5. Improving component interoperability and reusability with the java connection framework (JCF): overview and application to the ages-w environmental model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental modeling framework (EMF) design goals are multi-dimensional and often include many aspects of general software framework development. Many functional capabilities offered by current EMFs are closely related to interoperability and reuse aspects. For example, an EMF needs to support dev...

  6. Neighboring trees affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a woodland-forest ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Nathaniel A; Gehring, Catherine A

    2008-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are frequently species rich and functionally diverse; yet, our knowledge of the environmental factors that influence local EMF diversity and species composition remains poor. In particular, little is known about the influence of neighboring plants on EMF community structure. We tested the hypothesis that the EMF of plants with heterospecific neighbors would differ in species richness and community composition from the EMF of plants with conspecific neighbors. We conducted our study at the ecotone between pinyon (Pinus edulis)-juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in northern Arizona, USA where the dominant trees formed associations with either EMF (P. edulis and P. ponderosa) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; J. monosperma). We also compared the EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines where their rhizospheres overlapped. The EMF community composition, but not species richness of pinyon pines was significantly influenced by neighboring AM juniper, but not by neighboring EM ponderosa pine. Ponderosa pine EMF communities were different in species composition when growing in association with pinyon pine than when growing in association with a conspecific. The EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines were similar where their rhizospheres overlapped consisting of primarily the same species in similar relative abundance. Our findings suggest that neighboring tree species identity shaped EMF community structure, but that these effects were specific to host-neighbor combinations. The overlap in community composition between pinyon pine and ponderosa pine suggests that these tree species may serve as reservoirs of EMF inoculum for one another.

  7. General practitioners' knowledge and concern about electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Kowall, Bernd

    2014-12-01

    Our aim is to explore general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge about EMF, and to assess whether different knowledge structures are related to the GPs' concern about EMF. Random samples were drawn from lists of GPs in Germany in 2008. Knowledge about EMF was assessed by seven items. A latent class analysis was conducted to identify latent structures in GPs' knowledge. Further, the GPs' concern about EMF health risk was measured using a score comprising six items. The association between GPs' concern about EMF and their knowledge was analysed using multiple linear regression. In total 435 (response rate 23.3%) GPs participated in the study. Four groups were identified by the latent class analysis: 43.1% of the GPs gave mainly correct answers; 23.7% of the GPs answered low frequency EMF questions correctly; 19.2% answered only the questions relating EMF with health risks, and 14.0% answered mostly "don't know". There was no association between GPs' latent knowledge classes or between the number of correct answers given by the GPs and their EMF concern, whereas the number of incorrect answers was associated with EMF concern. Greater EMF concern in subjects with more incorrect answers suggests paying particular attention to misconceptions regarding EMF in risk communication.

  8. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field involves T-type calcium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly A Buckner

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field (EMF exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca(2+ influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+ channels. Blocking Ca(2+ uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca(2+ influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy.

  9. Inhibition of cancer cell growth by exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field involves T-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca(2+) influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca(2+) channels. Blocking Ca(2+) uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca(2+) influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy.

  10. Effect of electromagnetic waves from mobile phone on immune status of male rats: possible protective role of vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gohary, Ola Ahmed; Said, Mona Abdel-Azeem

    2017-02-01

    There are considerable public concerns about the relationship between mobile phone radiation and human health. The present study assesses the effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from a mobile phone on the immune system in rats and the possible protective role of vitamin D. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group I: control group; Group II: received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day) orally; Group III: exposed to EMF 1 h/day; Group IV: exposed to EMF 2 h/day; Group V: exposed to EMF 1 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day); Group VI: exposed to EMF 2 h/day and received vitamin D (1000 IU/kg/day). After 30 days of exposure time, 1 h/day EMF exposure resulted in significant decrease in immunoglobulin levels (IgA, IgE, IgM, and IgG); total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts; and a significant increase in neutrophil and monocyte counts. These changes were more increased in the group exposed to 2 h/day EMF. Vitamin D supplementation in EMF-exposed rats reversed these results when compared with EMF-exposed groups. In contrast, 7, 14, and 21 days of EMF exposure produced nonsignificant differences in these parameters among all experimental groups. We concluded that exposure to mobile phone radiation compromises the immune system of rats, and vitamin D appears to have a protective effect.

  11. Retention of seed trees fails to lifeboat ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in harvested Scots pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, Kerstin; Lindahl, Björn D; Dahlberg, Anders

    2017-09-01

    Fennoscandian forestry has in the past decades changed from natural regeneration of forests towards replantation of clear-cuts, which negatively impacts ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity. Retention of trees during harvesting enables EMF survival, and we therefore expected EMF communities to be more similar to those in old natural stands after forest regeneration using seed trees compared to full clear-cutting and replanting. We sequenced fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicons to assess EMF communities in 10- to 60-year-old Scots pine stands regenerated either using seed trees or through replanting of clear-cuts with old natural stands as reference. We also investigated local EMF communities around retained old trees. We found that retention of seed trees failed to mitigate the impact of harvesting on EMF community composition and diversity. With increasing stand age, EMF communities became increasingly similar to those in old natural stands and permanently retained trees maintained EMF locally. From our observations, we conclude that EMF communities, at least common species, post-harvest are more influenced by environmental filtering, resulting from environmental changes induced by harvest, than by the continuity of trees. These results suggest that retention of intact forest patches is a more efficient way to conserve EMF diversity than retaining dispersed single trees. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The effect of electronic monitoring feedback on medication adherence and clinical outcomes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heuckelum, Milou; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Houterman, Anne E J; Heemskerk, Charlotte P M; van Dulmen, Sandra; van den Bemt, Bart J F

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to assess the efficacy of Electronic Monitoring Feedback (EMF) as an intervention to improve medication adherence (i.e. dose- or full adherence) and clinical outcomes in adult patients. A systematic search was performed in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science and reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EMF with usual care were identified to systematically summarise the evidence for use of EMF in improving medication adherence and clinical outcomes. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of the body of evidence. Of 9,993 initially-identified studies, ten studies (four of high-quality and six of low-quality) were included. The sample size of the studies included varied from 18 to 205 patients. Four of the six studies (66.7%) reported a significant positive effect of EMF on mean dose adherence levels, whereas a significant positive effect of EMF on mean full adherence levels was found in all of the included studies (100%, five out of five of the studies included). A significant positive effect of EMF on clinical outcomes was reported in one of the seven studies included. The overall effect of EMF on mean dose- and full adherence was positive and the overall effect of EMF on clinical outcomes was inconclusive. Considering the positive effect of EMF on medication adherence, EMF might be a promising intervention to enhance medication adherence. However, the effect of EMF on clinical outcomes was inconclusive. Prior to implementing EMF in clinical practice, future research with high-quality studies (e.g. adequate sample sizes, follow-up periods and no interfering co-interventions) is required to examine the (long-term) efficacy of EMF.

  13. Insights into the Metal Salt Catalyzed 5-Ethoxymethylfurfural Synthesis from Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of common metal salts as catalysts for 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF synthesis from carbohydrate transformation was performed. Initial screening suggested AlCl3 as an efficient catalyst for EMF synthesis (45.0% from fructose at 140 °C. Interestingly, CuSO4 and Fe2(SO43 were found to yield comparable EMF at lower temperature of 110 to 120 °C, and high yields of ethyl levulinate (65.4–71.8% were obtained at 150 °C. However, these sulfate salts were inactive in EMF synthesis from glucose and the major product was ethyl glucoside with around 80% yield, whereas EMF of 15.2% yield could be produced from glucose using CrCl3. The conversion of sucrose followed the accumulation of the reaction pathways of fructose and glucose, and a moderate yield of EMF could be achieved.

  14. Effect of adverse environmental conditions and protective clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew W

    2017-07-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, simulating a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worker wearing protective clothing subject to RF-EMF exposure, and subject to various environmental conditions including high ambient temperature and high humidity, with full thermoregulatory mechanisms in place. How the human body responds in various scenarios was investigated, and the information was used to consider safety limits in current international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards. It was found that different environmental conditions had minimal impact on the magnitude of the thermal response due to RF-EMF exposure, and that the current safety factor of 10 applied in international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards for RF-EMF workers is generally conservative, though it is only narrowly so when workers are subjected to the most adverse environmental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:356-363, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2014-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

  16. Thermoelectric and Hall-effect studies in hydrogenerated nickel foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, R.; Nigam, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Thermo e.m.f. and Hall constant of hydrogenerated nickel foils have been measured. Termo e.m.f. shows a sign reversal which is not due to the change in sign of the charge carriers, as indicated by the Hall-effect measurements. To account for the sign reversal of thermo e.m.f., it is found necessary to take into account the surface states of chemisorbed hydrogen on nickel

  17. Exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field inhibits cell proliferation via cAMP and ERK signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to specific electromagnetic field (EMF) patterns can affect a variety of biological systems. We have shown that exposure to Thomas-EMF, a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern, inhibited growth and altered cell signaling in malignant cells. Exposure to Thomas-EMF for 1 h/day inhibited the growth of malignant cells including B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT-20, and MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa cervical cancer cells but did not affect non-malignant cells. The Thomas-EMF-dependent changes in cell proliferation were mediated by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF transiently changed the level of cellular cAMP and promoted ERK phosphorylation. Pharmacologic inhibitors (SQ22536) and activators (forskolin) of cAMP production both blocked the ability of Thomas-EMF to inhibit cell proliferation, and an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway (PD98059) was able to partially block Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Genetic modulation of protein kinase A (PKA) in B16-BL6 cells also altered the effect of Thomas-EMF on cell proliferation. Cells transfected with the constitutively active form of PKA (PKA-CA), which interfered with ERK phosphorylation, also interfered with the Thomas-EMF effect on cell proliferation. The non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in cAMP levels, ERK phosphorylation, or cell growth. These data indicate that exposure to the specific Thomas-EMF pattern can inhibit the growth of malignant cells in a manner dependent on contributions from the cAMP and MAP kinase pathways. Bioelectromagnetics. 39;217-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Description of the Lewin Natural Gas Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuuskraa, V.; Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a brief description of the Lewin Natural Gas Model, shows how this model differs in key features from the other models participating in EMF-9, and describes how the different modeling scenarios analyzed in EMF-9 were implemented in the Lewin model. This background helps explain the key results that have been gained from applying the Lewin model to the EMF scenarios

  19. Effect of titanium content and cooling rate on the microstructure and martensitic transformation of rapidly solidified Ti-Ni shape memory alloys; Influencia do Ti e da taxa de resfriamento na microestrutura e na temperatura M{sub S} em ligas Ni-Ti com EMF solidificadas rapidamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmo, George Carlos dos Santos; Castro, Walman Benicio de, E-mail: georgeanselmo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: walman.castro@ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    One important challenge of microsystems design is the implementation of efficient principles of miniaturized actuation at the micro-scale. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have early been considered as a potential solution to this problem as these materials offer attractive properties like a high-power to weight ratio, large deformation and the capability to be micro-scale processed. Alloys of composition Ni-44,8wt%Ti and Ni- 45,3wt%Ti were produced using the melt spinning method in air atmosphere. Ribbons obtained in this process showed martensitic grain size between 5 and 30 μm, depending on the alloy composition and the linear velocity of the wheel. (author)

  20. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress of microwave radiation role of ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, O.S.; Abdel Karim, M.A.; Deiaa El Deen, D.A.; Nayal, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radiofrequency fields and especially microwaves are very important part of electromagnetic spectrum that can produce generations of reactive oxygen species, and thus can affect DNA and cause chromosomal aberrations. So this effect can be diminished by the supplement of an antioxidant such as ascorbic acid. In this study, the proposed protective role of ascorbic acid was tested against the EMF induced chromosomal aberrations and lipid peroxidation. The present study proved that EMF had a clastogenic effect on the bone marrow cells of mice, either with the exposure to EMF; 950 MHz or frequency EMF; 2450 MHz. This effect was evidenced by structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. The study also proved that EMF had an effect on oxidative stress, evidenced by increase in the level of lipid peroxide, in a dose dependent manner. So, the mechanism of EMF induced chromosomal aberrations can be explained by this oxidative stress induced by EMF exposure. The present study showed that ascorbic acid had a protective effect against both EMF induced chromosomal aberrations and oxidative stress, when it is applied concomitantly with EMF exposure either at frequency of 950 MHz or 2450 MHz. this is evident by decreases in the level of lipid peroxide and decrease in chromosomal aberrations

  1. Aggregated data from two double-blind base station provocation studies comparing individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance with attribution to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    Data from two previous studies were aggregated to provide a statistically powerful test of whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produced by telecommunication base stations negatively affects well-being in individuals who report idiopathic environmental illness with attribution to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) and control participants. A total of 102 IEI-EMF and 237 controls participated in open provocation trials and 88 IEI-EMF and 231 controls went on to complete double-blind trials in which they were exposed to EMFs from a base station emitting either a Global System for Mobile Communication and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System or a Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System signal. Both experiments included a comparison sham condition. Visual analog and symptom scales measured subjective well-being. Results showed that IEI-EMF participants reported lower levels of well-being during real compared to sham exposure during open provocation, but not during double-blind trials. Additionally, participants reported lower levels of well-being during high compared to low load trials and this did not interact with radiofrequency-EMF exposure. These findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating there is no causal relationship between short-term exposure to EMFs and subjective well-being in members of the public whether or not they report perceived sensitivity to EMFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Kätega ravimine ehk me kõik oleme energia / Kerttu Soans

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Kerttu, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Erinevatest energia vahendamisel põhinevatest psühhotehnikatest ja ravimeetoditest: reiki, Silva ultra, maagiline maatriks ehk MM, elektromagnetvälja tasakaalustamise tehnika EMF, kvantpuudutus, bioenergeetika

  3. Analytic-metallurgical application of solid-electrolyts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundermann, H.

    1976-08-01

    The measurement principle and devations are discussed. The activity and distribution coefficients are represented in multinary systems and the appropriate electrochemical-thermodynamical relationships are given of the EMF vs temperature, EMF vs concentration and EMF vs T-C plots in order to restrict the number of chemical calibrations. To define chemically the EMF-T-fields a potentio-coulometric method was established and electronic systems were developed allowing automatic recording of measured values with direct transformation into required analytical data. (orig.) [de

  4. Measurement of electromagnetic force between multiple bulk superconductors; Fukusu no barukutai chodendotai to eikyujishakukairo niokeru denjiryoku sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, T.; Murakami, M. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Nagashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M. [Shikoku Ekectric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-25

    The electromagnetic force (EMF) that is exhibited by the interaction between bulk superconductors and permanent magnets is used for magnetic levitation devices. To facilitate such applications, it is necessary to enhance the EMF. We measured the EMF for Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors with different shapes and dimensions by varying the structure of disk magnets such as their thickness and the number of poles. The EMF is strongly dependent on the magnet structure as long as permanent magnets and good quality bulk superconductors are used. Thus, for the design of practical devices, it is important to optimize the magnet structure. (author)

  5. Direct transformation of carbohydrates to the biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural by solid acid catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Yang, Song

    2016-01-01

    employed, dealuminated beta zeolites [DeAl-H-beta-12.5 (700)] gave a moderate yield of EMF (37%) in a single step catalytic process. A combined catalytic system consisting of H-form zeolite and Amberlyst-15 was found to be more efficient for the transformation of glucose to EMF (46%) via an one-pot, two......-step reaction protocol. Alternative biomass-based mono-, di- and polysaccharides formed also moderate to good yields of EMF with the catalytic systems, including fructose which yielded 67 % of EMF and 4% of ethyl levulinate (ELevu) along with 10 % 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the combined reaction protocol...... recovery and thermal stability during regeneration....

  6. Non-Ionizing Radiation: Evaluation of General Public's Exposures in Greece and Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylli, Fatos; Karabetsos, Efthymios; Dollani, Kostandin; Koutounidis, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    With the growth of electric power generation and transmission, the development of new telecommunication systems and advances in medical and industrial applications, humans are increasingly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The need to understand the potentially harmful effects of EMF on human health has been met by several decades of research, but the development of exposure standards is more recent and a variety of national standards now exist. A number of organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential EMF exposure. The exposure limits for EMF developed by the ICNIRP were based in large reviews of scientific literature, including thermal and non-thermal effects.

  7. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  8. Effects of 100-μT extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields exposure on hematograms and blood chemistry in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jinsheng; Zhang Yemao; Zhang Jiangong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMFs) affect health or not. Here, we constructed a 100-μT/50 Hz electromagnetic field atmosphere. A total of 128 rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the ELF EMF group and the sham group. The ELF EMF group was exposed to 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF for 20 h per day for three months; at the same time the other group was exposed to a sham device without ELF EMF. During the three months, the weight was recorded every 2 weeks, and the water intake and food intake of the animals were recorded weekly. The hematologic parameters were detected before and after the exposure, whereas blood chemistry analysis was performed every 4 weeks. The general condition of the exposed rats was not affected by ELF EMF. Compared with the sham group, the hematograms were not significantly altered in the ELF EMF group. Similarly, the blood chemistry (including lipid profile, blood glucose, liver function and renal function of rats) from the ELF EMF group showed no difference compared with rats from the control group during the three months exposure. The present study indicated that short-term exposure of 100-μT/50-Hz ELF EMF may not affect hematograms and blood chemistry in rats. (author)

  9. Exposure of Nurses to Electromagnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Mamrot, P.; Politanski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) within the range of 0-300 GHz are widely used in surgical and diagnostic procedures. As a result a large number of physicians and other groups of medical personnel may be exposed to EMF. Even if patients' exposure, sometimes quite high, is inevitable or even recommended, medical personnel should be substantially protected against EMF exposure. Evaluation of nurses' exposure to EMF was based on an analysis of EMF magnitudes in the surrounding of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrosurgical units. These two kinds of apparatus are the strongest EMF sources in health service facilities. The measurements were performed according to the norms and hygiene regulations binding in Poland. Measurements performed by the Nofer Institute of Medicine in Lodz, and data collected by the Central Database on EMF Sources were used in the analysis. The Central Database is run by the Nofer Institute of Medicine at the behest of the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The study showed that nurses' exposure to EMF emitted by MRI and electrosurgical units complies with Polish norms and hygiene regulations and can be classified as negligible or allowable. It was found that work of nurses in exposure to EMF emitted by MRI and electrosurgical units can be regarded as safe, which means that their health should not be endangered by the performed job. (author)

  10. Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Liu, Hui [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Epidemiology and Health Statistics; Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Chronic Disease Research Inst.; and others

    2016-01-15

    The potential health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have currently raised considerable public concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMF exposure on levels of plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of an electric power plant. Seventy-seven male workers with high occupational EMF exposure and 77 male controls with low exposure, matched by age, were selected from a cross-sectional study. Moreover, high EMF exposure group was with walkie-talkies usage and exposed to power frequency EMF at the work places for a longer duration than control group. A questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant information, including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and EMF exposures. Plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, melatonin, NF-KB, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP27, and TET1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMF exposure group had statistically significantly lower levels of testosterone (β = -0.3 nmol/L, P = 0.015), testosterone/estradiol (T/E2) ratio (β = -15.6, P = 0.037), and NF-KB (β = -20.8 ng/L, P = 0.045) than control group. Moreover, joint effects between occupational EMF exposure and employment duration, mobile phone fees, years of mobile phone usage, and electric fees on levels of testosterone and T/E2 ratio were observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant associations of EMF exposures with plasma estradiol, melatonin, HSP70, HSP27, and TET1 were found. The findings showed that chronic exposure to EMF could decrease male plasma testosterone and T/E2 ratio, and it might possibly affect reproductive functions in males. No significant associations of EMF exposure with inflammatory pathway biomarkers were found.

  11. Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Promote In Vitro Neuronal Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth of Embryonic Neural Stem Cells via Up-Regulating TRPC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinlong; Chen, Chunhai; Deng, Ping; Zhu, Gang; Lin, Min; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Shangcheng; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Duan, Weixia; Pi, Huifeng; Cao, Zhengwang; Pei, Liping; Li, Min; Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) can enhance hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice. However, little is focused on the effects of ELF-EMFs on embryonic neurogenesis. Here, we studied the potential effects of ELF-EMFs on embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs). We exposed eNSCs to ELF-EMF (50 Hz, 1 mT) for 1, 2, and 3 days with 4 hours per day. We found that eNSC proliferation and maintenance were significantly enhanced after ELF-EMF exposure in proliferation medium. ELF-EMF exposure increased the ratio of differentiated neurons and promoted the neurite outgrowth of eNSC-derived neurons without influencing astrocyes differentiation and the cell apoptosis. In addition, the expression of the proneural genes, NeuroD and Ngn1, which are crucial for neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth, was increased after ELF-EMF exposure. Moreover, the expression of transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) was significantly up-regulated accompanied by increased the peak amplitude of intracellular calcium level induced by ELF-EMF. Furthermore, silencing TRPC1 expression eliminated the up-regulation of the proneural genes and the promotion of neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth induced by ELF-EMF. These results suggest that ELF-EMF exposure promotes the neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of eNSCs via up-regulation the expression of TRPC1 and proneural genes (NeuroD and Ngn1). These findings also provide new insights in understanding the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on embryonic brain development. PMID:26950212

  12. The effects of electromagnetic fields on B16-BL6 cells are dependent on their spatial and temporal character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to low intensity, low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) has effects on several biological systems. Spatiotemporal characteristics of these EMFs are critical. The effect of several complex EMF patterns on the proliferation of B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells was tested. Exposure to one of these patterns, the Thomas-EMF, inhibited cell proliferation and promoted calcium uptake. The Thomas-EMF is coded from a digital-to-analog file comprised of 849 points, which provides power to solenoids and can be set to alter timing, intensity, and duration of variable EMF. Setting the point duration to 3 ms generated a time-varying EMF pattern which began at 25 Hz and slowed to 6 Hz over a 2.5 s repeat. Exposing B16-BL6 cells to Thomas-EMF set to 3 ms for 1 h/day inhibited cell proliferation by 40% after 5 days, while setting the point duration to 1, 2, 4, or 5 ms had no effect on cell proliferation. Similarly, exposing cells to Thomas-EMF set to 3 ms promoted a three-fold increase in calcium uptake after 1 h, while the other timings had no effect. Exposure to Thomas-EMF for as short as 15 min/day slowed cell proliferation, but exposure for 1 h/day was optimal. This corresponded to the effect on calcium uptake where uptake was detected after 15 min exposure and was maximal by 1 h of treatment. Studies show that the specific spatiotemporal character of EMF is critical in mediating their biological activities. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:165-174, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Electromagnetic treatment to old Alzheimer's mice reverses β-amyloid deposition, modifies cerebral blood flow, and provides selected cognitive benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Arendash

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated physiologic and cognitive effects of "long-term" electromagnetic field (EMF exposure in humans or animals. Our recent studies have provided initial insight into the long-term impact of adulthood EMF exposure (GSM, pulsed/modulated, 918 MHz, 0.25-1.05 W/kg by showing 6+ months of daily EMF treatment protects against or reverses cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's transgenic (Tg mice, while even having cognitive benefit to normal mice. Mechanistically, EMF-induced cognitive benefits involve suppression of brain β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation/deposition in Tg mice and brain mitochondrial enhancement in both Tg and normal mice. The present study extends this work by showing that daily EMF treatment given to very old (21-27 month Tg mice over a 2-month period reverses their very advanced brain Aβ aggregation/deposition. These very old Tg mice and their normal littermates together showed an increase in general memory function in the Y-maze task, although not in more complex tasks. Measurement of both body and brain temperature at intervals during the 2-month EMF treatment, as well as in a separate group of Tg mice during a 12-day treatment period, revealed no appreciable increases in brain temperature (and no/slight increases in body temperature during EMF "ON" periods. Thus, the neuropathologic/cognitive benefits of EMF treatment occur without brain hyperthermia. Finally, regional cerebral blood flow in cerebral cortex was determined to be reduced in both Tg and normal mice after 2 months of EMF treatment, most probably through cerebrovascular constriction induced by freed/disaggregated Aβ (Tg mice and slight body hyperthermia during "ON" periods. These results demonstrate that long-term EMF treatment can provide general cognitive benefit to very old Alzheimer's Tg mice and normal mice, as well as reversal of advanced Aβ neuropathology in Tg mice without brain heating. Results further underscore the potential for EMF

  14. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  15. Selective isolation of cationic amino acids and peptides by electro-membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargeman, Gerrald; Dohmen-Speelmans, Monique; Recio, Isidra; Timmer, Martin; van der Horst, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    In the food industry there is a clear trend towards the production of speciality products with a high added value. Electro-membrane filtration (EMF) can be used to separate and concentrate these products from complex solutions. With EMF, lysine was separated from a model solution and a protein

  16. Electrochemical determination of oxygen stoichiometry and entropy in oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    in the temperature range 800-1000 degrees C. With scan rates of 2 mu V/s potential sweeps on CeO2 are reversible. The change in entropy is determined by either subtraction of e.m.f. curves obtained by potential sweeps of different temperatures or by measuring the e.m.f. during a temperature scan. The latter method...

  17. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Strien, Rob T.; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell

  18. People's responses to risks of electromagnetic fields and trust in government policy: the role of perceived risk, benefits and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, D.; Claassen, L.; Smid, T.; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trust in government policy affects the way people perceive and handle risks. In our study, we investigated the relationships between trust in government policy regarding electromagnetic fields (EMF), perceived risk and perceived benefits of public and personal EMF sources, perceived control over

  19. Effects of electromagnetic field of 33 and 275 kV influences on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from 33 and 275 kV high voltage transmission line on biochemical and antioxidant system changes in mustard leaf (Brassica chinensis) were investigated under field condition. Mustard leaves were exposed to EMF from power lines at distances of 0, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 21, ...

  20. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic fields are an important environmental factor that can influence the growth and development of plants. Exposure to EMFs was performed by a locally designed EMF generator. Our investigations were focused on plants grown from wet pretreated seeds with 3 and 10 mT for a 4 h exposure time and compared ...

  1. Direct catalytic transformation of carbohydrates into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; Khokarale, Santosh Govind; Kotni, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    carbohydrates. A high EMF yield of 76.6%, 58.5%, 42.4%, and 36.5% could be achieved, when fructose, inulin, sorbose, and sucrose were used as starting materials, respectively. Although, the acid–base bifunctional nanocatalysts were inert for synthesis of EMF from glucose based carbohydrates, ethyl...

  2. Oxidative response of human monocytes and macrophages cultured under low oxygen culture conditions to ion parametric resonance magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION One proposed mechanism of action of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on biological systems is the Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR) model, which has been experimentally validated in neuronal PC-12 cells [1, 2]. It proposes that when applied EMFs are tuned to resonate with...

  3. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  4. Instrumentation for electromagnetic field generation in biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaric, K.; Malaric, R.; Tkalec, M.; Lenicek, I.; Sala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are part of everyday life in modern world. Extremely low-frequency EMFs (50 Hz) are produced by most electric home appliance, electric power transmission and distribution lines. For the last ten years mobile phones have been widely used all around the world. They operate on the EMF frequencies from 400 MHz to 1900 MHz. The effects of EMFs on living organisms have been the subject of debate and research for the last thirty years. The instrumentation for generation of EMFs have been designed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, and can be used for controlled exposure to different EMFs. To study the effect of extremely low-frequency EMF, duckweed (Lemna minor) - the model plant in biological measurement, test setup was made for magnetic field in Helmholtz coil and for electric field between two parallel circle electrodes. For the effect of mobile phones frequencies, test setup with exposition to the electromagnetic field was done with Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode (GTEM) cell. The research confirmed that instrumentation used in these experiments is suitable for evaluation of biological effects of EMFs. The effect of different field strengths, exposure times and modulation can be tested with these instrumentation.(author)

  5. An Improved Flux Observer for Field-Oriented Control of Induction Motors Based on Dual Second-Order Generalized Integrator Frequency-Locked Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Zhao, Rende; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    with the conventional low-pass filter based method, the SOGI-FLL does not need compensation and can effectively attenuate the high-order harmonics in the back ElectroMotive Force (EMF). However, the dynamic performance of this method is not satisfactory because the back-EMF frequency estimated by FLL suffers from...

  6. Nondestructive testing: a bidimensional model for defect detection by eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.

    1982-09-01

    The program presented in this paper calculates the induced e.m.f in the two coils of the probe moving inside the tube of a steam generator. The difference between these two e.m.f shows a defect, a modification of the tube geometry or the presence of the end plate [fr

  7. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data-Treatment Chemicals, Construction Materials, Transportation, On-site Equipment, and Other Processes for Use in Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report estimates environmental emission factors (EmF) for key chemicals, construction and treatment materials, transportation/on-site equipment, and other processes used at remediation sites. The basis for chemical, construction, and treatment material EmFs is life cycle inv...

  8. A short-term extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure increases circulating leukocyte numbers and affects HPA-axis signaling in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, de Stan; Ferwerda, Gerben; Wiese, Michelle; Trentelman, Jos; Cuppen, Jan; Kozicz, Tamas; Jager, de Linda; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Kemenade, van Lidy

    2016-01-01

    There is still uncertainty whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) can induce health effects like immunomodulation. Despite evidence obtained in vitro, an unambiguous association has not yet been established in vivo. Here, mice were exposed to ELF-EMF for 1, 4, and 24

  9. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources,

  10. Electric and Magnetic Fields Research and Public Information Dissemination Program annual report for fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program was authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 as a near-term effort to expand and accelerate the research needed to address the EMF issue. As required by this legislation, the EMF Interagency Committee, the National EMF Advisory Committee (NEMFAC), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) are providing valued input and advice for the direction of this program. With this input and advice, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) have developed and are implementing five-year program plans. Multi-year health effects research projects and related EMF measurement and exposure assessment projects are underway using funds appropriated in fiscal years 1994, 1995, and 1996 together with voluntary non-Federal contributions. The results of these research projects, along with the results of other EMF research, will be used as input to the hazard evaluation effort, which is the focus of the EMF RAPID Program. A coordinated interagency program is underway to communicate needed information on the EMF issue in a clear manner to the public and other decision makers.

  11. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data-Treatment Chemicals, Construction Materials, Transportation, On-site Equipment, and other Processes for Use in Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA): Revised Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report estimates environmental emission factors (EmF) for key chemicals, construction and treatment materials, transportation/on-site equipment, and other processes used at remediation sites. The basis for chemical, construction, and treatment material EmFs is life cycle inv...

  12. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF

  13. Exploring the Safety Margin in Current Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Adibzadeh (Fatemeh)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractExposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) is unavoidable in today's modern life. This exposure is growing mainly because of rapid growth in telecommunication systems. Awareness of the possible risks of exposure to EMF has raised public concern. To avoid any

  14. Dosimetry of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields in Daily Life and Medical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Bakker (Jurriaan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractElectromagnetic fields (EMF) are present everywhere in our environment but are usually invisible to the human eye. EMF for example generated by mobile phones and 50Hz power lines, can cause electric fields, currents and tissue heating in the human body. In the past, exposure limits were

  15. Impact of high strength electromagnetic fields generated by Tesla transformer on plant cell ultrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rusakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal effects of direct electric fields and alternating electromagnetic fields (EMF have been successfully used in a number of studies and applications in agriculture and biotechnology. Among different kinds of high strength EMF generators, the Tesla transformer (TT is known as a widely applied, low cost, and troubleproof device, which generates EMF in the range of 2–8 MHz. Despite of a number of developed and perspective applications of high strength EMFs in agriculture and biotechnology, the EMFs generated by TT, as well as the 1–50 MHz range of high strength EMF still remain unexplored in the fields of plant physiology, ultrastructure studies and biochemistry. In this work, we have shown that TT-EMFs (4 MHz induced fast stem and petiole bending, disappearance of cell organelles, vacuolar membranes, and increase of a non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching in petioles. It is intriguing that such fatal effects can be evoked in plants by EMFs which are well known as harmless for man at the applied strength and frequency.

  16. The importance and conservation of ectomycorrizal fungal diversity in forest ecosystems: lessons from Europe and the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus

    1998-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) consist of about 5,000 species and profoundly affect forest ecosystems by mediating nutrient and water uptake, protecting roots from pathogens and environmental extremes, and maintaining soil structure and forest food webs. Diversity of EMF likely aids forest ecosystem resilience in the face of changing environmental factors such as...

  17. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure does not modulate Toll-like receptor signaling in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, de S.; Bouwens, M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Cuppen, J.J.M.; Ferwerda, G.; Hermans, P.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on human health remain unclear. It has been reported that ELF-EMF may modulate the innate immune response to microorganisms in animal models and mammalian cell-lines. With the recently gained insight in innate immune signaling

  18. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: Theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.M. Paulides (Maarten); E. Neufeld; A. Christ (A.); N. Kuster (Niels); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb) are provided to keep the

  19. Electromagnetic Induction: A Computer-Assisted Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, J. E.; Moreland, L.

    1972-01-01

    By using minimal equipment it is possible to demonstrate Faraday's Law. An electronic desk calculator enables sophomore students to solve a difficult mathematical expression for the induced EMF. Polaroid pictures of the plot of induced EMF, together with the computer facility, enables students to make comparisons. (PS)

  20. Electromagnetized gold nanoparticles mediate direct lineage reprogramming into induced dopamine neurons in vivo for Parkinson's disease therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Junsang; Lee, Euiyeon; Kim, Hee Young; Youn, Dong-Ho; Jung, Junghyun; Kim, Hongwon; Chang, Yujung; Lee, Wonwoong; Shin, Jaein; Baek, Soonbong; Jang, Wonhee; Jun, Won; Kim, Soochan; Hong, Jongki; Park, Hi-Joon; Lengner, Christopher J.; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Youngeun; Kim, Jongpil

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are physical energy fields generated by electrically charged objects, and specific ranges of EMF can influence numerous biological processes, which include the control of cell fate and plasticity. In this study, we show that electromagnetized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of specific EMF conditions facilitate an efficient direct lineage reprogramming to induced dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, electromagnetic stimulation leads to a specific activation of the histone acetyltransferase Brd2, which results in histone H3K27 acetylation and a robust activation of neuron-specific genes. In vivo dopaminergic neuron reprogramming by EMF stimulation of AuNPs efficiently and non-invasively alleviated symptoms in mouse Parkinson's disease models. This study provides a proof of principle for EMF-based in vivo lineage conversion as a potentially viable and safe therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. Fullerene faraday cage keeps magnetic properties of inner cluster pristine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdoshenko, Stanislav M

    2018-04-21

    Any single molecular magnets (SMMs) perspective for application is as good as its magnetization stability in ambient conditions. Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) provide a solid basis for promising SMMs. In this study, we investigated the behavior of functionalized EMFs on a gold surface (EMF-L-Au). Having followed the systems molecular dynamics paths, we observed that the chemically locked inner cluster inside fullerene cage will remain locked even at room temperature due to the ligand-effect. We have located multiple possible minima with different charge arrangements between EMF-L-Au fragments. Remarkably, the charge state of the EMF inner cluster remained virtually constant and so magnetic properties are expected to be untouched. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields in View of Studies Performed in Poland and Abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobiczewska, E.; Szmigielski, S.

    2007-01-01

    The review presents modern views on the assessment of bio effects and health risk in workers exposed to different intensities of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). The review of studies carried out in Poland and abroad reveals that non-specific symptoms and functional disturbances of various physiological systems may develop in persons exposed to EMF of intensities below international safety recommendations, however exact EMF threshold values responsible for inducing these responses are not known. There areno valid data on the possibility of increased risk of various diseases, including cancer, in workers exposed to EMFs. However, hints that the increased morbidity is possible in small groups of workers with long-term exposure to high intensities of EMFs do exist. (author)

  3. The Biological Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Vibrations on Barley Seed Hydration and Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Amyan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of wet and dry weights and germination of barley seed in different periods of its swelling in nontreated (control, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF –treated, and extremely low frequency vibrations (ELFV–treated cold (4°C and warm (20°C distilled water (DW were studied. The metabolic-dependent seed hydration, dry weight dissolving, germination, and water binding in seed were modulated by preliminary EMF- and ELFV-treated DW. Frequency “windows” for the effect of EMF and ELFV on seed hydration, solubility, water binding in seed, and germination were discovered. These “windows” were different for EMF and ELFV, as well as in various phases of seed swelling. It is suggested that EMF-induced water structure modification has a different biological effect on the process of seed hydration, solubility, water binding in seed, and germination compared to ELFV.

  4. Radiofrequency exposure in the Neonatal Medium Care Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvente, I.; Vázquez-Pérez, A.; Fernández, M.F.; Núñez, M.I.; Múñoz-Hoyos, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize electromagnetic fields of radiofrequency (RF-EMF) levels generated in a Neonatal Medium Care Unit and to analyze RF-EMF levels inside unit’s incubators. Spot and long-term measurements were made with a dosimeter. The spot measurement mean was 1.51±0.48 V/m. Higher values were found in the proximity to the window and to the incubator evaluated. Mean field strength for the entire period of 17 h was 0.81 (±0.07) V/m and the maximum value was 1.58 V/m for long-term RF-EMF measurements in the incubator. Values found during the night period were higher than those found during the day period. It is important to consider RF-EMF exposure levels in neonatal care units, due to some evidence of adverse health effects found in children and adults. Characterization of RF-EMF exposure may be important to further investigate the mechanisms and underlying effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on infant health. A prudent avoidance strategy should be adopted because newborns are at a vulnerable stage of development and the actual impact of EMF on premature infants is unknown. - Highlights: • The increasing use of RF-EMF suggests an urgent need for more research in this field. • Health consequences of RF-EMF exposure on infants are not well known. • Description of RF-EMF exposure is vital in further study mechanisms on infant health. • Considering newborns vulnerability, it is wise to adopt a prudent avoidance strategy.

  5. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields promote mesenchymal stem cell migration by increasing intracellular Ca2+ and activating the FAK/Rho GTPases signaling pathways in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingchi; Yan, Jiyuan; Xu, Haoran; Yang, Yong; Li, Wenkai; Wu, Hua; Liu, Chaoxu

    2018-05-21

    The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to migrate to the desired tissues or lesions is crucial for stem cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Optimal therapeutics for promoting MSC migration are expected to become an effective means for tissue regeneration. Electromagnetic fields (EMF), as a noninvasive therapy, can cause a lot of biological changes in MSCs. However, whether EMF can promote MSC migration has not yet been reported. We evaluated the effects of EMF on cell migration in human bone marrow-derived MSCs. With the use of Helmholtz coils and an EMF stimulator, 7.5, 15, 30, 50, and 70 Hz/1 mT EMF was generated. Additionally, we employed the L-type calcium channel blocker verapamil and the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor PF-573228 to investigate the role of intracellular calcium content, cell adhesion proteins, and the Rho GTPase protein family (RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) in EMF-mediated MSC migration. Cell adhesion proteins (FAK, talin, and vinculin) were detected by Western blot analysis. The Rho GTPase protein family activities were assessed by G-LISA, and F-actin levels, which reflect actin cytoskeletal organization, were detected using immunofluorescence. All the 7.5, 15, 30, 50, and 70 Hz/1 mT EMF promoted MSC migration. EMF increased MSC migration in an intracellular calcium-dependent manner. Notably, EMF-enhanced migration was mediated by FAK activation, which was critical for the formation of focal contacts, as evidenced by increased talin and vinculin expression. Moreover, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 were activated by FAK to increase cytoskeletal organization, thus promoting cell contraction. EMF promoted MSC migration by increasing intracellular calcium and activating the FAK/Rho GTPase signaling pathways. This study provides insights into the mechanisms of MSC migration and will enable the rational design of targeted therapies to improve MSC engraftment.

  6. Cell type-dependent induction of DNA damage by 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although IARC clarifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF as possible human carcinogen, the debate on its health impact continues due to the inconsistent results. Genotoxic effect has been considered as a golden standard to determine if an environmental factor is a carcinogen, but the currently available data for RF-EMF remain controversial. As an environmental stimulus, the effect of RF-EMF on cellular DNA may be subtle. Therefore, more sensitive method and systematic research strategy are warranted to evaluate its genotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether RF-EMF does induce DNA damage and if the effect is cell-type dependent by adopting a more sensitive method γH2AX foci formation; and to investigate the biological consequences if RF-EMF does increase γH2AX foci formation. METHODS: Six different types of cells were intermittently exposed to GSM 1800 MHz RF-EMF at a specific absorption rate of 3.0 W/kg for 1 h or 24 h, then subjected to immunostaining with anti-γH2AX antibody. The biological consequences in γH2AX-elevated cell type were further explored with comet and TUNEL assays, flow cytometry, and cell growth assay. RESULTS: Exposure to RF-EMF for 24 h significantly induced γH2AX foci formation in Chinese hamster lung cells and Human skin fibroblasts (HSFs, but not the other cells. However, RF-EMF-elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells did not result in detectable DNA fragmentation, sustainable cell cycle arrest, cell proliferation or viability change. RF-EMF exposure slightly but not significantly increased the cellular ROS level. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

  7. Radiofrequency exposure in the Neonatal Medium Care Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. de la Investigación, 11, torre A, planta 11, 18016 Granada (Spain); Vázquez-Pérez, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Granada (Spain); Fernández, M.F. [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. de la Investigación, 11, torre A, planta 11, 18016 Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Núñez, M.I., E-mail: isabeln@ugr.es [Unit Research Support of the San Cecilio University Hospital, Biosanitary Institute of Granada (ibs.GRANADA), University Hospitals of Granada/University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Department of Radiology and Physical Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Av. de la Investigación, 11, torre A, planta 11, 18016 Granada (Spain); Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine Institute (IBIMER), University of Granada (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Múñoz-Hoyos, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Granada (Spain)

    2017-01-15

    The aims of this study were to characterize electromagnetic fields of radiofrequency (RF-EMF) levels generated in a Neonatal Medium Care Unit and to analyze RF-EMF levels inside unit’s incubators. Spot and long-term measurements were made with a dosimeter. The spot measurement mean was 1.51±0.48 V/m. Higher values were found in the proximity to the window and to the incubator evaluated. Mean field strength for the entire period of 17 h was 0.81 (±0.07) V/m and the maximum value was 1.58 V/m for long-term RF-EMF measurements in the incubator. Values found during the night period were higher than those found during the day period. It is important to consider RF-EMF exposure levels in neonatal care units, due to some evidence of adverse health effects found in children and adults. Characterization of RF-EMF exposure may be important to further investigate the mechanisms and underlying effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on infant health. A prudent avoidance strategy should be adopted because newborns are at a vulnerable stage of development and the actual impact of EMF on premature infants is unknown. - Highlights: • The increasing use of RF-EMF suggests an urgent need for more research in this field. • Health consequences of RF-EMF exposure on infants are not well known. • Description of RF-EMF exposure is vital in further study mechanisms on infant health. • Considering newborns vulnerability, it is wise to adopt a prudent avoidance strategy.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic fields on bone loss in hyperthyroidism rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoxu; Zhang, Yingchi; Fu, Tao; Liu, Yang; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Dongming; Zhao, Wenchun; Song, Mingyu; Tang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Optimal therapeutics for hyperthyroidism-induced osteoporosis are still lacking. As a noninvasive treatment, electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been proven to be effective for treating osteoporosis in non-hyperthyroidism conditions. We herein systematically evaluated the reduced effects of EMF on osteoporosis in a hyperthyroidism rat model. With the use of Helmholtz coils and an EMF stimulator, 15 Hz/1 mT EMF was generated. Forty-eight 5-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four different groups: control, levothyroxine treated (L-T4), EMF exposure + levothyroxine (EMF + L-T4), and EMF exposure without levothyroxine administration (EMF). All rats were treated with L-T4 (100 mg/day) except those in control and EMF groups. After 12 weeks, the results obtained from bone mineral density analyses and bone mechanical measurements showed significant differences between L-T4 and EMF + L-T4 groups. Micro CT and bone histomorphometric analyses indicated that trabecular bone mass and architecture in distal femur and proximal tibia were augmented and restored partially in EMF + L-T4 group. In addition, bone thyroid hormone receptors (THR) expression of hyperthyroidism rats was attenuated in EMF + L-T4 group, compared to control group, which was not observed in L-T4 group. According to these results, we concluded that 15 Hz/1 mT EMF significantly inhibited bone loss and micro architecture deterioration in hyperthyroidism rats, which might occur due to reduced THR expression caused by EMF exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:137-150, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Removal of Escherichia coli via low frequency electromagnetic field in riverbank filtration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rossitah; Abustan, Ismail; Rizal Arshad, Mohd; Mokhtar Kamal, Nurul Hana

    2018-04-01

    The removal of Escherichia coli (E. coli) via low frequency of electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) with different magnetic field was studied. LF-EMF is known as a high magnetic susceptibility method, which could affect E. coli growth without the usage of chemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of E. coli by using LF-EMF in water abstraction for the riverbank filtration (RBF) application. The effect of LF-EMF with the intensity of 2 to 10mT and 50Hz on coiled column of 1mm copper wire at 1 to 6 hours was assessed. The removal of E. coli after exposing to LF-EMF on the column model was measured using most probable number (MPN/100mL) and colonies forming unit (CFU/100mL) methods. Water flows into the column were varied up to 6 hours and with flowrate of 100 mL/min. Experimental results demonstrate that 100% of E. coli was removed at 8mT after 6 hours exposure. The magnetic field at 10mT removed 100% of E. coli after 4 hours exposure. The results obtained in this study proved that the LF-EMF was efficient in E. coli removal from RBF system. These finding indicated that the LF-EMF intensities and time of exposure can affect the removal of E. coli.

  10. Effect of Bluetooth headset and mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the human auditory nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalà, Marco; Colletti, Vittorio; Sacchetto, Luca; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Marcocci, Alessandro; Colletti, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that long-term mobile phone use increases the incidence of astrocytoma, glioma and acoustic neuroma has been investigated in several studies. Recently, our group showed that direct exposure (in a surgical setting) to cell phone electromagnetic fields (EMFs) induces deterioration of auditory evoked cochlear nerve compound action potential (CNAP) in humans. To verify whether the use of Bluetooth devices reduces these effects, we conducted the present study with the same experimental protocol. Randomized trial. Twelve patients underwent retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy to treat definite unilateral Ménière's disease while being monitored with acoustically evoked CNAPs to assess direct mobile phone exposure or alternatively the EMF effects of Bluetooth headsets. We found no short-term effects of Bluetooth EMFs on the auditory nervous structures, whereas direct mobile phone EMF exposure confirmed a significant decrease in CNAPs amplitude and an increase in latency in all subjects. The outcomes of the present study show that, contrary to the finding that the latency and amplitude of CNAPs are very sensitive to EMFs produced by the tested mobile phone, the EMFs produced by a common Bluetooth device do not induce any significant change in cochlear nerve activity. The conditions of exposure, therefore, differ from those of everyday life, in which various biological tissues may reduce the EMF affecting the cochlear nerve. Nevertheless, these novel findings may have important safety implications. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Characteristics of the Na/beta-alumina/Na cell as a sodium vapor pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takikawa, O.; Imai, A.; Harata, M.

    1982-01-01

    The EMF and voltage-current characteristics for a galvanic cell with the configuration Na vapor (P 1 )/sodium beta-alumina/Na vapor (P 2 ) were studied. It was verified that the EMF followed the Nernst relation over a wide pressure range. For example, when P 1 = 2 x 10 -2 mm Hg and beta-alumina temperature = 340 0 C, the measured EMF agreed with the calculated value in P 2 range from 10 -5 to 10 -2 mm Hg. At lower pressure range, the measured EMF showed a negative deviation. Coexisting argon gas did not influence the cell EMF characteristic. In an atmosphere containing oxygen, the measured EMF was very high at first. Then it decreased and finally approached a value which agreed with the Nernst equation after several hours. At low beta-alumina temperatures, current saturation was observed in the voltage versus current relation with the anode on the P 2 side. Although the sodium pressure could be determined from saturating current measurement, the measurable pressure range was narrower than that for EMF measurement. At high beta-alumina temperature, current saturation was not clear. Values of 6 x 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 for the electron conductivity and 6 x 10 -10 (Ω cm) -1 for the hole conductivity at 340 0 C were obtained for beta-alumina from the voltage-current characteristics at low sodium pressure. (Auth.)

  12. Childhood leukemia in relation to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from television and radio broadcast transmitters. Results of a case-control study; Leukaemien im Kindesalter und elektromagnetische Felder in der Umgebung von Rundfunkstationen. Ergebnisse einer Fall-Kontroll-Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedel, Sven [Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Cancer Epidemiology; Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Merzenich, Hiltrud; Bennack, Sabrina; Blettner, Maria [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Brueggemeyer, Hauke [Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz, Hildesheim (Germany). AB35 - Strahlenschutz in Niedersachsen; Philipp, Johannes [Suedwestrundfunk, Stuttgart (Germany). Abt. Frequenz- und Versorgungsplanung; Schuetz, Joachim [Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark). Inst. of Cancer Epidemiology

    2009-07-01

    The causes of childhood leukemia are poorly understood. Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted from broadcast stations are possible risk factors. A case-control study was conducted in West Germany on RF-EMF and childhood leukemia. The study region consisted of municipalities near 24 radio and television transmitters. Cases (aged 0-14 years, diagnosis 1984-2003) were registered at the German childhood cancer registry. Three age-, gender- and transmitter areamatched controls per case were drawn randomly from population registries. The analysis included 1,959 cases and 5,848 controls. The RF-EMF exposure was calculated with a field strength prediction program. In the statistical analysis conditional logistic regression was used. Considering total RF-EMF, the odds ratio for leukemia was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.67-1.11) comparing upper ({>=}95%) and lower (<90%) quantile for the RF-EMF distribution. No association between RF-EMF exposure and leukemia was observed for the time periods before and after the introduction of mobile telecommunication. There was no increased risk among children living in the 2 km vicinity of the transmitters. The study provides no evidence for an association between RF-EMF and childhood leukemia. (orig.)

  13. [INVITED] Magnetic field vector sensor by a nonadiabatic tapered Hi-Bi fiber and ferrofluid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layeghi, Azam; Latifi, Hamid

    2018-06-01

    A magnetic field vector sensor based on super-paramagnetic fluid and tapered Hi-Bi fiber (THB) in fiber loop mirror (FLM) is proposed. A two-dimensional detection of external magnetic field (EMF) is experimentally demonstrated and theoretically simulated by Jones matrix to analyze the physical operation in detail. A birefringence is obtained due to magnetic fluid (MF) in applied EMF. By surrounding the THB with MF, a tunable birefringence of MF affect the transmission of the sensor. Slow and fast axes of this obtained birefringence are determined by the direction of applied EMF. In this way, the transmission response of the sensor is depended on the angle between the EMF orientation and the main axes of polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) in FLM. The wavelength shift and intensity shift versus EMF orientation show a sinusoidal behavior, while the applied EMF is constant. Also, the changes in the intensity of EMF in a certain direction results in wavelength shift in the sensor spectrum. The maximum wavelength sensitivity of 214 pm/mT is observed.

  14. Application of microwave cell system in calibration of electromagnetic field meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Kassem, I.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to improve radiation measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) through realizing tests and calibrations of measurement devices by intercomparison within the microwaves (MW) range according to EMF wave cell properties. Actually, the calibration facility in electromagnetic field is not available in Syria; therefore, realizing an experimental system for electromagnetic field radiometer calibration is very important at national level. This study showed the possibility of using EMF wave cell in intercomparison of electromagnetic field radiometers in order to achieve a direct calibration via standard radiometer. The EMF wave cell properties were studied and the homogeneity of its EMF was tested using the EF Cube probe. Results showed that the field homogeneity inside the cell is good and the variation of electric field strength, within the comparison position, is less than 10% of measured values. It was recognized that the probe form and dimensions influence the comparison results; and measurement results showed that it's possible to achieve comparison in the working domain of EMF wave cell (10 - 3000 MHz) with a relative deviation of result values between 10% and 30% according to the measurement device and frequency range. Development of comparison process in order to obtain accurate results needs to improve mechanical supports of tested probes and to introduce a correction factor related to studied probe form and dimensions. From another side, it is better to carry out measurements at frequencies around the central frequency, and not close to frequency range borders, of the EMF wave cell working frequency domain. (author)

  15. Mobile phone signal exposure triggers a hormesis-like effect in Atm+/+ and Atm-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan; Wei, Xiaoxia; Fei, Yue; Su, Liling; Zhao, Xinyuan; Chen, Guangdi; Xu, Zhengping

    2016-11-18

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as possible carcinogens to humans; however, this conclusion is based on limited epidemiological findings and lacks solid support from experimental studies. In particular, there are no consistent data regarding the genotoxicity of RF-EMFs. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is recognised as a chief guardian of genomic stability. To address the debate on whether RF-EMFs are genotoxic, we compared the effects of 1,800 MHz RF-EMF exposure on genomic DNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with proficient (Atm +/+ ) or deficient (Atm -/- ) ATM. In Atm +/+ MEFs, RF-EMF exposure for 1 h at an average special absorption rate of 4.0 W/kg induced significant DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and activated the SSB repair mechanism. This effect reduced the DNA damage to less than that of the background level after 36 hours of exposure. In the Atm -/- MEFs, the same RF-EMF exposure for 12 h induced both SSBs and double-strand breaks and activated the two repair processes, which also reduced the DNA damage to less than the control level after prolonged exposure. The observed phenomenon is similar to the hormesis of a toxic substance at a low dose. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report a hormesis-like effect of an RF-EMF.

  16. Dry calibration of electromagnetic flowmeters based on numerical models combining multiple physical phenomena (multiphysics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Hu, L.; Lee, K. M.; Zou, J.; Ruan, X. D.; Yang, H. Y.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a method for dry calibration of an electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF). This method, which determines the voltage induced in the EMF as conductive liquid flows through a magnetic field, numerically solves a coupled set of multiphysical equations with measured boundary conditions for the magnetic, electric, and flow fields in the measuring pipe of the flowmeter. Specifically, this paper details the formulation of dry calibration and an efficient algorithm (that adaptively minimizes the number of measurements and requires only the normal component of the magnetic flux density as boundary conditions on the pipe surface to reconstruct the magnetic field involved) for computing the sensitivity of EMF. Along with an in-depth discussion on factors that could significantly affect the final precision of a dry calibrated EMF, the effects of flow disturbance on measuring errors have been experimentally studied by installing a baffle at the inflow port of the EMF. Results of the dry calibration on an actual EMF were compared against flow-rig calibration; excellent agreements (within 0.3%) between dry calibration and flow-rig tests verify the multiphysical computation of the fields and the robustness of the method. As requiring no actual flow, the dry calibration is particularly useful for calibrating large-diameter EMFs where conventional flow-rig methods are often costly and difficult to implement.

  17. Acute effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phone on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Sumich, Alexander; Wang, Grace Y

    2017-07-01

    Due to its attributes, characteristics, and technological resources, the mobile phone (MP) has become one of the most commonly used communication devices. Historically, ample evidence has ruled out the substantial short-term impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) emitted by MP on human cognitive performance. However, more recent evidence suggests potential harmful effects associated with MP EMF exposure. The aim of this review is to readdress the question of whether the effect of MP EMF exposure on brain function should be reopened. We strengthen our argument focusing on recent neuroimaging and electroencephalography studies, in order to present a more specific analysis of effects of MP EMF exposure on neurocognitive function. Several studies indicate an increase in cortical excitability and/or efficiency with EMF exposure, which appears to be more prominent in fronto-temporal regions and has been associated with faster reaction time. Cortical excitability might also underpin disruption to sleep. However, several inconsistent findings exist, and conclusions regarding adverse effects of EMF exposure are currently limited. It also should be noted that the crucial scientific question of the effect of longer-term MP EMF exposure on brain function remains unanswered and essentially unaddressed. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:329-338, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Radiofrequency exposure in the Neonatal Medium Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvente, I; Vázquez-Pérez, A; Fernández, M F; Núñez, M I; Múñoz-Hoyos, A

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize electromagnetic fields of radiofrequency (RF-EMF) levels generated in a Neonatal Medium Care Unit and to analyze RF-EMF levels inside unit's incubators. Spot and long-term measurements were made with a dosimeter. The spot measurement mean was 1.51±0.48V/m. Higher values were found in the proximity to the window and to the incubator evaluated. Mean field strength for the entire period of 17h was 0.81 (±0.07)V/m and the maximum value was 1.58V/m for long-term RF-EMF measurements in the incubator. Values found during the night period were higher than those found during the day period. It is important to consider RF-EMF exposure levels in neonatal care units, due to some evidence of adverse health effects found in children and adults. Characterization of RF-EMF exposure may be important to further investigate the mechanisms and underlying effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on infant health. A prudent avoidance strategy should be adopted because newborns are at a vulnerable stage of development and the actual impact of EMF on premature infants is unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Bolte, John; Neubauer, Georg; Cardis, Elisabeth; Feychting, Maria; Gajsek, Peter; Heinrich, Sabine; Joseph, Wout; Mann, Simon; Martens, Luc; Mohler, Evelyn; Parslow, Roger C; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Radon, Katja; Schüz, Joachim; Thuroczy, György; Viel, Jean-François; Vrijheid, Martine

    2010-05-20

    The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  20. Benign Effect of Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Brain Plasticity Assessed by Nitric Oxide Metabolism during Poststroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cichoń

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is one of the most important signal molecules, involved in both physiological and pathological processes. As a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, NO regulates cerebral blood flow, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF on generation and metabolism of NO, as a neurotransmitter, in the rehabilitation of poststroke patients. Forty-eight patients were divided into two groups: ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF. Both groups underwent the same 4-week rehabilitation program. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field of 40 Hz, 7 mT, for 15 min/day. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine, nitrate/nitrite, and TNFα in plasma samples were measured, and NOS2 expression was determined in whole blood samples. Functional status was evaluated before and after a series of treatments, using the Activity Daily Living, Geriatric Depression Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination. We observed that application of ELF-EMF significantly increased 3-nitrotyrosine and nitrate/nitrite levels, while expression of NOS2 was insignificantly decreased in both groups. The results also show that ELF-EMF treatments improved functional and mental status. We conclude that ELF-EMF therapy is capable of promoting recovery in poststroke patients.

  1. Direct catalytic transformation of carbohydrates into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hu; Govind, Khokarale Santosh; Kotni, Ramakrishna; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders; Yang, Song

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Catalytic conversion of carbohydrates into HMF and EMF in ethanol/DMSO with acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres prepared from self-assembly of corresponding basic amino acids and HPA. - Highlights: • Acid–base bifunctional nanospheres were efficient for production of EMF from sugars. • Synthesis of EMF in a high yield of 76.6% was realized from fructose. • Fructose based biopolymers could also be converted into EMF with good yields. • Ethyl glucopyranoside was produced in good yields from glucose in ethanol. - Abstract: A series of acid–base bifunctional hybrid nanospheres prepared from the self-assembly of basic amino acids and phosphotungstic acid (HPA) with different molar ratios were employed as efficient and recyclable catalysts for synthesis of liquid biofuel 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF) from various carbohydrates. A high EMF yield of 76.6%, 58.5%, 42.4%, and 36.5% could be achieved, when fructose, inulin, sorbose, and sucrose were used as starting materials, respectively. Although, the acid–base bifunctional nanocatalysts were inert for synthesis of EMF from glucose based carbohydrates, ethyl glucopyranoside in good yields could be obtained from glucose in ethanol. Moreover, the nanocatalyst functionalized with acid and basic sites was able to be reused several times with no significant loss in catalytic activity

  2. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi.

  3. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields stimulation modulates autoimmunity and immune responses: a possible immuno-modulatory therapeutic effect in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Guerriero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs stimulation is able to exert a certain action on autoimmunity and immune cells. In the past, the efficacy of pulsed ELF-EMFs in alleviating the symptoms and the progression of multiple sclerosis has been supported through their action on neurotransmission and on the autoimmune mechanisms responsible for demyelination. Regarding the immune system, ELF-EMF exposure contributes to a general activation of macrophages, resulting in changes of autoimmunity and several immunological reactions, such as increased reactive oxygen species-formation, enhanced phagocytic activity and increased production of chemokines. Transcranial electromagnetic brain stimulation is a non-invasive novel technique used recently to treat different neurodegenerative disorders, in particular Alzheimer's disease. Despite its proven value, the mechanisms through which EMF brain-stimulation exerts its beneficial action on neuronal function remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that its beneficial effects may be due to a neuroprotective effect on oxidative cell damage. On the basis of in vitro and clinical studies on brain activity, modulation by ELF-EMFs could possibly counteract the aberrant pro-inflammatory responses present in neurodegenerative disorders reducing their severity and their onset. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of the published literature on EMFs and outline the most promising effects of ELF-EMFs in developing treatments of neurodegenerative disorders. In this regard, we review data supporting the role of ELF-EMF in generating immune-modulatory responses, neuromodulation, and potential neuroprotective benefits. Nonetheless, we reckon that the underlying mechanisms of interaction between EMF and the immune system are still to be completely understood and need further studies at a molecular level.

  4. Influence of electromagnetic field (1800 MHz on lipid peroxidation in brain, blood, liver and kidney in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Bodera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is the evaluation of the influence of repeated (5 times for 15 min exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF of 1800 MHz frequency on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO both in normal and inflammatory state, combined with analgesic treatment. Material and Methods: The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA as the end-product of the lipid peroxidation (LPO was estimated in blood, liver, kidneys, and brain of Wistar rats, both healthy and those with complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced persistent paw inflammation. Results: The slightly elevated levels of the MDA in blood, kidney, and brain were observed among healthy rats in electromagnetic field (EMF-exposed groups, treated with tramadol (TRAM/EMF and exposed to the EMF. The malondialdehyde remained at the same level in the liver in all investigated groups: the control group (CON, the exposed group (EMF, treated with tramadol (TRAM as well as exposed to and treated with tramadol (TRAM/EMF. In the group of animals treated with the complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA we also observed slightly increased values of the MDA in the case of the control group (CON and the exposed groups (EMF and TRAM/EMF. The MDA values concerning kidneys remained at the same levels in the control, exposed, and not-exposed group treated with tramadol. Results for healthy rats and animals with inflammation did not differ significantly. Conclusions: The electromagnetic field exposure (EMF, applied in the repeated manner together with opioid drug tramadol (TRAM, slightly enhanced lipid peroxidation level in brain, blood, and kidneys.

  5. SENSITIVITY OF PIGMENT CONTENT OF BANANA AND ORCHID TISSUE CULTURE EXPOSED TO EXTREMELY LOW FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riry Prihatini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothschildianum cultures were exposed to 6 and 12 mT ELF-EMF generated by controllable ELF-EMF built up machine for 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours. After exposure, the banana and orchid cultures were incubated at 25° C for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the ELF-EMF exposure had different effects on banana and slipper orchid cultures though both plant species belong to monocotyledon. The highest increase in chlorophyll content on banana was resulted by the high intensity and long duration of ELF-EMF exposure (12 mT for 4 hours, whereas on slipper orchid the modest and short duration of ELF-EMF exposure produced the most excessive chlorophyll content. Different ELF-EMF exposures (12 mT for 4 hours and 6 mT for 30 minutes had potential to be applied on each plant to improve in vitro plant (banana and slipper orchid, respectively growth. The increased chlorophyll and carotene/xanthophyll content on banana indicated that the banana was more tolerant to ELF-EMF exposure compared to slipper orchid. 

  6. Effects of short-term W-CDMA mobile phone base station exposure on women with or without mobile phone related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Toshiaki; Ushiyama, Akira; Terao, Yasuo; Mizuno, Yoko; Shirasawa, Kei; Pongpaibool, Pornanong; Simba, Ally Y; Wake, Kanako; Nishikawa, Masami; Miyawaki, Kaori; Yasuda, Asako; Uchiyama, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hitomi Kobayashi; Masuda, Hiroshi; Hirota, Shogo; Takahashi, Miyuki; Okano, Tomoko; Inomata-Terada, Satomi; Sokejima, Shigeru; Maruyama, Eiji; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Ohkubo, Chiyoji; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2009-02-01

    To investigate possible health effects of mobile phone use, we conducted a double-blind, cross-over provocation study to confirm whether subjects with mobile phone related symptoms (MPRS) are more susceptible than control subjects to the effect of electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from base stations. We sent questionnaires to 5,000 women and obtained 2,472 valid responses from possible candidates; from these, we recruited 11 subjects with MPRS and 43 controls. There were four EMF exposure conditions, each of which lasted 30 min: continuous, intermittent, and sham exposure with and without noise. Subjects were exposed to EMF of 2.14 GHz, 10 V/m (W-CDMA), in a shielded room to simulate whole-body exposure to EMF from base stations, although the exposure strength we used was higher than that commonly received from base stations. We measured several psychological and cognitive parameters pre- and post-exposure, and monitored autonomic functions. Subjects were asked to report on their perception of EMF and level of discomfort during the experiment. The MPRS group did not differ from the controls in their ability to detect exposure to EMF; nevertheless they consistently experienced more discomfort, regardless of whether or not they were actually exposed to EMF, and despite the lack of significant changes in their autonomic functions. Thus, the two groups did not differ in their responses to real or sham EMF exposure according to any psychological, cognitive or autonomic assessment. In conclusion, we found no evidence of any causal link between hypersensitivity symptoms and exposure to EMF from base stations. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Survey of electromagnetic field exposure in bedrooms of residences in lower Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitsch, Johannes; Dechant, Engelbert; Frank, Wilhelm

    2010-04-01

    Previous investigations of exposure to electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields (EMF) in households were either about electricity supply EMFs or radio frequency EMFs (RF-EMFs). We report results from spot measurements at the bedside that comprise electrostatic fields, extremely low-frequency electric fields (ELF-EFs), extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs), and RF-EMFs. Measurements were taken in 226 households throughout Lower Austria. In addition, effects of simple reduction measures (e.g., removal of clock radios or increasing their distance from the bed, turning off Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunication (DECT) telephone base stations) were assessed. All measurements were well below International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guideline levels. Average night-time ELF-MFs (long-term measurement from 10 pm to 6 am, geometric mean over households) above 100 nT were obtained in 2.3%, and RF-EMFs above 1000 microW/m(2) in 7.1% of households. Highest ELF-EFs were primarily due to lamps beside the bed (max = 166 V/m), and highest ELF-MFs because of transformers of devices (max = 1030 nT) or high current of power lines (max = 380 nT). The highest values of RF-EMFs were caused by DECT telephone base stations (max = 28979 microW/m(2)) and mobile phone base stations (max = 4872 microW/m(2)). Simple reduction measures resulted in an average decrease of 23 nT for ELF-MFs, 23 V/m for ELF-EFs, and 246 microW/m(2) for RF-EMFs. A small but statistically significant correlation between ELF-MF exposure and overall RF-EMF levels of R = 0.16 (P = 0.008) was computed that was independent of type (flat, single family) and location (urban, rural) of houses. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave radiation and the risk of brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Gabriele; Spallek, Jacob; Schüz, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    It is still under debate whether occupational exposure to radio frequency/microwave electromagnetic fields (RF/MW-EMF) contributes to the development of brain tumors. This analysis examined the role of occupational RF/MW-EMF exposure in the risk of glioma and meningioma. A population-based, case....... "High" exposure was defined as an occupational exposure that may exceed the RF/MW-EMF exposure limits for the general public recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were performed separately for glioma and meningioma...

  9. Nighttime exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia: an extended pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Linet, Martha S

    2007-01-01

    analysis of case-control studies on ELF EMF exposure and risk of childhood leukemia to examine nighttime residential exposures. Data from four countries (Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States) were included in the analysis, comprising 1,842 children diagnosed with leukemia and 3......,099 controls (diagnosis dates ranged from 1988 to 1996). The odds ratios for nighttime ELF EMF exposure for categories of 0.1-or=0.4 microT as compared with ... that nighttime measures are more appropriate; hence, the observed association between ELF EMF and childhood leukemia still lacks a plausible explanation....

  10. Corrosion of Steel in Concrete – Specimen Design for Investigation of Interface and Bulk Conversions during Curing and Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, Andre; Møller, Per; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2005-01-01

    A reinforced mortar specimen that allows electromotive force (EMF) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was designed and tested. The specimen consists of a mortar cylinder with a central rebar and a concentric arrangement of embedded electrode wires. The wires can act...... as both reference and counter electrode during EIS and the arrangement allows investigation of local changes in the bulk mortar by measuring the EMF of each wire versus an external standard electrode. The state of corrosion of the rebar can be investigated by EIS and EMF. EIS can be performed before...

  11. Accuracy and performance of 3D mask models in optical projection lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, Viviana; Evanschitzky, Peter; Erdmann, Andreas; Fühner, Tim; Shao, Feng; Limmer, Steffen; Fey, Dietmar

    2011-04-01

    Different mask models have been compared: rigorous electromagnetic field (EMF) modeling, rigorous EMF modeling with decomposition techniques and the thin mask approach (Kirchhoff approach) to simulate optical diffraction from different mask patterns in projection systems for lithography. In addition, each rigorous model was tested for two different formulations for partially coherent imaging: The Hopkins assumption and rigorous simulation of mask diffraction orders for multiple illumination angles. The aim of this work is to closely approximate results of the rigorous EMF method by the thin mask model enhanced with pupil filtering techniques. The validity of this approach for different feature sizes, shapes and illumination conditions is investigated.

  12. Use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields for the treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Hugo; Blackman, Carl; Lesser, Glenn; Debinski, Waldemar; Chan, Michael; Sharma, Sambad; Watabe, Kounosuke; Lo, Hui-Wen; Thomas, Alexandra; Godwin, Dwayne; Blackstock, William; Mudry, Albert; Posey, James; O'Connor, Rodney; Brezovich, Ivan; Bonin, Keith; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel; Barbault, Alexandre; Pasche, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Cancer treatment and treatment options are quite limited in circumstances such as when the tumor is inoperable, in brain cancers when the drugs cannot penetrate the blood-brain-barrier, or when there is no tumor-specific target for generation of effective therapeutic antibodies. Despite the fact that electromagnetic fields (EMF) in medicine have been used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, the use of non-ionizing EMF for cancer treatment is a new emerging concept. Here we summarize the history of EMF from the 1890's to the novel and new innovative methods that target and treat cancer by non-ionizing radiation.

  13. Polarization of photons in matter–antimatter annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskaliuk, S.S. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrolohichna Street, 14-b, Kyiv-143, Ukraine, UA-03143 e-mail: mss@bitp.kiev.ua (Ukraine)

    2015-03-10

    In this work we demonstrate the possibility of generation of linear polarization of the electromagnetic field (EMF) due to the quantum effects in matter-antimatter annihilation process for anisotropic space of the I type according to Bianchi. We study the dynamics of this process to estimate the degree of polarisation of the EMF in the external gravitational field of the anisotropic Bianchi I model. It has been established that the quantum effects in matter-antimatter annihilation process in the external gravitational field of the anisotropic Bianchi I model provide contribution to the degree of polarisation of the EMF in quadrupole harmonics.

  14. A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The object modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The environmental modeling community has historically been concerned with the proliferation of models and the effort associated with collective model development tasks (e.g., code generation, data provisioning and transformation, etc.). Environmental modeling frameworks (EMFs) have been developed to...

  15. Physical chemistry. Pt. 3. Physikalische Chemie. T. 3. Mischphasenthermodynamik, Elektrochemie, Reaktionskinetik. Lehrbuch fuer Chemiker, Verfahrenstechniker, Physiker ab 3. Semester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, G M

    1977-01-01

    The text-book contains chapters about solids, liquids, phase diagrams of one- and multi-component systems, mixed phase thermodynamics and phase equilibria, electrolyte solutions, the EMF of electrochemical cells, macromolecules, chemical kinetics, adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis.

  16. Effects of 1.84 GHz radio-frequency electromagnetic field on sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    found that, compared with sham group, the sperm morphology and ... harmful effects of electromagnetic fields emitted from ... RF-EMF, which are widely selected for mobile ... Laboratory Animal Centre, the Fourth Military Medical University,.

  17. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats. ... African Health Sciences ... Background: Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on ...

  18. Investigations on the sleep quality of electrosensitive residents near base stations unter homely conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In this study during a total of 214 nights sleep of 200 volunteers was analyzed. The investigated persons suffered from permanent and severe sleep disturbances and were deeply convinced that the environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) caused their problems. The studies used mobile shields to compare the sleep quality with and without shield including a sham shield. For a predominant number the subjective conviction of volunteers that RF EMF pollution was the cause of their sleep disturbance could be falsified. The pooled analysis resulted in statistically significant placebo-effects for subjective sleep parameters. For 18% of volunteers it could be demonstrated that their belief in shielding improved sleep (placebo-effect). The sleep onset behavior of 9% of the volunteers was statistical significantly affected by RF EMF shielding. The investigations did not indicate adverse health effects of RF EMF emissions in general and from mobile telecommunication fields in particular

  19. Updating of the inherent and acquired reactions of rats at influence of electromagnetic field of weak intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, Z.G.; Rustamova, T.V.

    2008-01-01

    Investigated effects of unitary influence of weak electromegnetic (EMF) radiations of a range modulated in area alfa of EEG fluctuations on behavior reaction at rats in the test of an open field and conditional reaction. As a source EMF applied the generator of shaking frequency. The results testify to increase of research activity and infringement of processes learning at rats, subjected to influence of EMF directly ahead of updating. The irradiation of animals after procedure of training reflex doe not cause of infringements in behavior during testing. The received data are analyzed from the point of view of infringement under influence of EMF, of an optimum level of emotional making of learning processes, necessary for a correct estimation of the biological importance of unconditional components of activity

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... guidelines for public from EMF. Power absorption is electromagnetic energy that is taken up .... Wireless Sensor Network, 2016, 8:85-92. [5] Calvente I ... exposures from multiple electric transmission lines. International Journal ...

  1. Killing fields; The biophysical evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coghill, Roger

    1990-02-01

    A review, with 49 references, considers the hazardous effects of electrical and magnetic fields, particularly at the cellular level. Effects on triglycerides and lymphocytes, immune deficiences, DNA and cellular breakdown and EMFs and cot deaths, are discussed. (U.K.).

  2. Design and analysis of full pitch winding and concentrated stator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    magnet machine with flux linkage reversal in the stator concentrated winding. The existing ... Section 7 compares steady state motor ... flux linking the stator winding is sinusoidal, the induced emf is also sinusoidal as shown in figure 3.

  3. [Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic fields of industrial frequency on the ultrastructure and proliferative activity of rat's thymus cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkevich, T I; Bokut', T B; Netukova, N I

    2001-01-01

    Effects of two types of low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMF) of industrial frequency (50 Hz) on the fine structure and proliferative activity of thymic cells in white rats were studied. It was found that a weak EMF with a prevailing electrical component (380-480 V/m, 120-140 nT1) did not affect the DNA synthesis intensity. An EMF with a stronger magnetic induction (10-15 V/m, 800-1500 nT1) diminished the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and proliferative processes in cultured stimulated lymphocytes. Electron microscopic investigation of the thymus after both types of exposure revealed an accumulation of lymphocytes with pyknotic nuclei and electron-dense cytoplasm, as well as hypoplasia of the vascular endothelium. At the same time, EMF with a prevailing magnetic component produced a more marked negative effect on the ultrastructure of thymic cells, which indicated a lowered secretory activity of epitheliocytes.

  4. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Since cell phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), this study tested the hypothesis that cell phones placed ... mobile phones on autonomic modulation of the heart. ..... Electrocardiogram and Its Technology. J. Am.

  5. Case Analysis Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — CATS tracks Public and Federal Agency Reference Requests for OPF (Official Personnel Folder) , EMF (Employee Medical Folder), and eOPF (electronic Official Personnel...

  6. Bio-effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in context of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliev, Timur; Tachibana, Katsuro; Bulanin, Denis; Mikhalovsky, Sergey; Whitby, Ray D L

    2014-01-01

    Bio-effects mediated by non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) have become a hot topic of research in the last decades. This interest has been triggered by a growing public concern about the rapid expansion of telecommunication devices and possible consequences of their use on human health. Despite a feasibility study of potential negative impacts, the therapeutic advantages of EMF could be effectively harnessed for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This review aims to examine recent findings relating to the mechanisms of action underlying the bio-effects induced by non-ionizing EMF. The potential of non-thermal and thermal effects is discussed in the context of possible applications for the induction of apoptosis, formation of reactive oxygen species, and increase of membrane permeability in malignant cells. A special emphasis has been put on the combination of EMF with magnetic nano-particles and ultrasound for cancer treatment. The review encompasses both human and animal studies.

  7. Electromagnetic field pretreatment of Sinapis alba seeds improved cadmium phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulak, Piotr; Lata, Lesia; Plak, Andrzej; Wiącek, Dariusz; Strobel, Wacław; Walkiewicz, Anna; Pietruszewski, Stanisław; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2018-03-21

    It was hypothesized that electromagnetic field (EMF) pretreatment of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds could increase the accumulation of non-essential, pollutant heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) in shoots. Seeds of white mustard were treated with either 60 or 120 mT of alternating EMF (50 Hz) for 1 minute and then grown in a Petri dish in the presence of Cd, in comparison to the control (seeds grown without EMF pretreatment). Biomass production and content of calcium (Ca) and Cd in seedling shoots were measured. The Cd content in shoots from the EMF-treated seeds was higher in both variants than in the control (by 73% and 78%, respectively; p phytoextraction, but more research is needed.

  8. [National system of protection against electromagnetic fields 0 Hz-300 GHz in the light of current legal regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniołczyk, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) occurs when man is exposed to the effect of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields and contact currents different from those resulting from physiological processes in the organism or other natural phenomena. In Poland, the system of protection against EMF has been functioning for over 35 years. In 2001, when the Minister of Labor and Social Policy issued the regulation introducing the maximum admissible intensities (MAI) for electromagnetic fields and radiation within the range of 0 Hz-300 GHz, the system was directed mainly towards evaluation of exposure to EMF occurring in the occupational environment. The system is linked via MAI values with human protection in the natural environment. In this paper, the background, principles and the range of the national system of protection against EMF and its monitoring are presented. The project of implementation of EU directives, following Poland's accession to the European Union is also discussed.

  9. Effect of electromagnetic fields on the chondrogenic differentiation under microgravity conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A combination therapy of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and simulated microgravity (SMG) has not been examined in regenerative medicine of cartilage. In the present...

  10. Lightning may pose a danger to patients receiving deep brain stimulation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Neža; Trošt, Maja; Georgiev, Dejan; Flisar, Dušan

    2018-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment option for advanced stages of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. It is known that DBS is susceptible to strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that can be generated by various electrical devices at work, home, and in medical environments. EMFs can interfere with the proper functioning of implantable pulse generators (IPGs). Very strong EMFs can generate induction currents in implanted electrodes and even damage the brain. Manufacturers of DBS devices have issued a list of warnings on how to avoid this danger. Strong EMFs can result from natural forces as well. The authors present the case of a 66-year-old woman who was being treated with a rechargeable DBS system for neck dystonia when her apartment was struck by lightning. Domestic electronic devices that were operating during the event were burned and destroyed. The woman's IPG switched off but remained undamaged, and she suffered no neurological consequences.

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  12. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field in combination with β ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatemeh Sanie-Jahromi

    Extremely low frequency (<300 Hz) electromagnetic field (EMF) is shown to decrease ... Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under ..... mouse liver induced by morphine and protected by antioxidants.

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number

  16. Simplified segmented human models for whole body and localised SAR evaluation of 20 MHz to 6 GHz electromagnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.

    2013-01-01

    The digital human model is a key element in evaluating the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. This paper proposes the application of simplified segmented human models for EMF exposure compliance evaluation with the whole body and the localised limits. The method is based on the fact that most of the EMF power absorption is concentrated in several major tissues. Two kinds of human models were simply (the proposed method) and precisely segmented from two sets of whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanned images. The whole body average-specific absorption rate (WBA-SAR) and the peak localised SAR averaging over 10 g tissues for the two kinds of models are calculated for various exposure configurations. The results confirmed the efficiency and the validity of the proposed method. The application as evaluating the MRI radiofrequency EMF exposure is also discussed in the paper. (authors)

  17. What makes Chinese firms to choose international external technology sources? An inquiry on internationalization, innovation and institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason; Wang, Yuandi

    2013-01-01

    . However, we have also witnessed an emerging trend of external acquisition of technology by EMFs firms in both international and domestic markets. Why some EMFs are active in sourcing both domestic and international technologies instead of being significantly in favour of foreign technologies from...... framework. Based on a unique sample of 389 Chinese firms on their inward technology licensing activities through an observation period from 2000 to 2005, it is found that (1) firms’ international market orientation; (2) firm’s technological capability; (3) regional innovation capability; and (4......External technology sourcing from developed countries has been one of the most important vehicles by which emerging market firms (EMFs) sustain competiveness. Foreign advanced technologies offer EMFs opportunities to gain access to state-of-the-art technologies and upgrade their competitiveness...

  18. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in everyday microenvironments in Europe: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Sanjay; Dongus, Stefan; Schoeni, Anna; Roser, Katharina; Eeftens, Marloes; Struchen, Benjamin; Foerster, Milena; Meier, Noëmi; Adem, Seid; Röösli, Martin

    2018-03-01

    The impact of the introduction and advancement in communication technology in recent years on exposure level of the population is largely unknown. The main aim of this study is to systematically review literature on the distribution of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in the everyday environment in Europe and summarize key characteristics of various types of RF-EMF studies conducted in the European countries. We systematically searched the ISI Web of Science for relevant literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 April 2015, which assessed RF-EMF exposure levels by any of the methods: spot measurements, personal measurement with trained researchers and personal measurement with volunteers. Twenty-one published studies met our eligibility criteria of which 10 were spot measurements studies, 5 were personal measurement studies with trained researchers (microenvironmental), 5 were personal measurement studies with volunteers and 1 was a mixed methods study combining data collected by volunteers and trained researchers. RF-EMF data included in the studies were collected between 2005 and 2013. The mean total RF-EMF exposure for spot measurements in European "Homes" and "Outdoor" microenvironments was 0.29 and 0.54 V/m, respectively. In the personal measurements studies with trained researchers, the mean total RF-EMF exposure was 0.24 V/m in "Home" and 0.76 V/m in "Outdoor". In the personal measurement studies with volunteers, the population weighted mean total RF-EMF exposure was 0.16 V/m in "Homes" and 0.20 V/m in "Outdoor". Among all European microenvironments in "Transportation", the highest mean total RF-EMF 1.96 V/m was found in trains of Belgium during 2007 where more than 95% of exposure was contributed by uplink. Typical RF-EMF exposure levels are substantially below regulatory limits. We found considerable differences between studies according to the type of measurements procedures, which precludes cross

  19. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röösli, Martin

    2008-06-01

    This article is a systematic review of whether everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) causes symptoms, and whether some individuals are able to detect low-level RF-EMF (below the ICNIRP [International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection] guidelines). Peer-reviewed articles published before August 2007 were identified by means of a systematic literature search. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool the results from studies investigating the ability to discriminate active from sham RF-EMF exposure. RF-EMF discrimination was investigated in seven studies including a total of 182 self-declared electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS) individuals and 332 non-EHS individuals. The pooled correct field detection rate was 4.2% better than expected by chance (95% CI: -2.1 to 10.5). There was no evidence that EHS individuals could detect presence or absence of RF-EMF better than other persons. There was little evidence that short-term exposure to a mobile phone or base station causes symptoms based on the results of eight randomized trials investigating 194 EHS and 346 non-EHS individuals in a laboratory. Some of the trials provided evidence for the occurrence of nocebo effects. In population based studies an association between symptoms and exposure to RF-EMF in the everyday environment was repeatedly observed. This review showed that the large majority of individuals who claims to be able to detect low level RF-EMF are not able to do so under double-blind conditions. If such individuals exist, they represent a small minority and have not been identified yet. The available observational studies do not allow differentiating between biophysical from EMF and nocebo effects.

  20. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  1. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaroufi, Karima; Had-Aissouni, Laurence; Melon, Christophe; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phone technology over the last decade raises concerns about the impact of high frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on health. More recently, a link between EMF, iron overload in the brain and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases has been suggested. Co-exposure to EMF and brain iron overload may have a greater impact on brain tissues and cognitive processes than each treatment by itself. To examine this hypothesis, Long-Evans rats submitted to 900 MHz exposure or combined 900 MHz EMF and iron overload treatments were tested in various spatial learning tasks (navigation task in the Morris water maze, working memory task in the radial-arm maze, and object exploration task involving spatial and non spatial processing). Biogenic monoamines and metabolites (dopamine, serotonin) and oxidative stress were measured. Rats exposed to EMF were impaired in the object exploration task but not in the navigation and working memory tasks. They also showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus. Rats that received combined treatment did not show greater behavioral and neurochemical deficits than EMF-exposed rats. None of the two treatments produced global oxidative stress. These results show that there is an impact of EMF on the brain and cognitive processes but this impact is revealed only in a task exploiting spontaneous exploratory activity. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between EMF and a high content of iron in the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabi, N; Mobasheri, H; Faraji-Dana, R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultra high frequency (UHF) nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the channel activities of nanopore forming protein, OmpF porin, were investigated. The voltage clamp technique was used to study the single channel activity of the pore in an artificial bilayer in the presence and absence of the electromagnetic fields at 910 to 990 MHz in real time. Channel activity patterns were used to address the effect of EMF on the dynamic, arrangement and dielectric properties of water molecules, as well as on the hydration state and arrangements of side chains lining the channel barrel. Based on the varied voltage sensitivity of the channel at different temperatures in the presence and absence of EMF, the amount of energy transferred to nano-environments of accessible groups was estimated to address the possible thermal effects of EMF. Our results show that the effects of EMF on channel activities are frequency dependent, with a maximum effect at 930 MHz. The frequency of channel gating and the voltage sensitivity is increased when the channel is exposed to EMF, while its conductance remains unchanged at all frequencies applied. We have not identified any changes in the capacitance and permeability of membrane in the presence of EMF. The effect of the EMF irradiated by cell phones is measured by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in artificial model of human head, Phantom. Thus, current approach applied to biological molecules and electrolytes might be considered as complement to evaluate safety of irradiating sources on biological matter at molecular level.

  3. System and Method for Determining Rate of Rotation Using Brushless DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for measuring rate of rotation. A brushless DC motor is rotated and produces a back electromagnetic force (emf) on each winding thereof. Each winding's back-emf is squared. The squared outputs associated with each winding are combined, with the square root being taken of such combination, to produce a DC output proportional only to the rate of rotation of the motor's shaft.

  4. Sensitivity of Pigment Content of Banana and Orchid Tissue Culture Exposed to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fiel

    OpenAIRE

    Prihatini, Riry; Saleh, Norihan Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Natural exposure of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occurs in the environment and acts as one of the abiotic factors that affect the growth and development of organisms. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ELF-EMF on the tissue cultured banana and slipper orchid chlorophyll content as one of the indicators in measuring plant photosynthetic capacity. Four days old banana (Musa sp. cv. Berangan) corm and seven days old slipper orchid (Paphiopedilum rothsc...

  5. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Brain Cells Exposed to Oxidative Damage by Electromagnetic Field in Rat: Ultrastructural Study by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki Arash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Basil herb (Ocimum basilicum has long been used in human nutrition. Nowadays antioxidant role of this herb is known more. The aim of this study was to study the anti-oxidative property of sweet basil to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic field (EMF and its affective sequences. Materials and Methods: Forty Albino male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups, 10 rats per each. Group 1 received normal diet (control group, group 2 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF for 8 weeks (EMF group. Group 3 was exposed to 50 Hz EMF and fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks (treatment group and group 4 was fed with basil extract (0.5 g/kg body weight for 8 weeks and named as herbal group. At the end of eighth week 5 mL blood was taken from all rats for biochemical analysis and for ultra structural study of brain neuron samples was taken. Results: The results showed level of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione (GSH peroxidase and catalase activity (CAT were significantly increased in herbal and treatment groups as compared to EMF group (P < 0.05. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA was significantly decreased in treatment group as compare to EMF group (P < 0.05. Ultra structural evaluation of EMF group showed brain nucleus has a lot of heterochromatic changes and mitochondria have been ovulated and have swelling figure this changes were less in treatment group. Conclusion: Antioxidant capacity of basil extract can cause to decrease oxidative effects of EMF on brain tissue and in rats.

  6. Einfluss hochfrequenter Felder des Mobilfunks auf das blutbildende System in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Gläser, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Elektromagnetische Felder (EMF) sind in der Umwelt des Menschen allgegenwärtig. Unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Frequenzen bilden sie die Grundlage zahlreicher Technologien und begegnen uns im Alltag in einer Vielzahl von Anwendungen. Eine sehr wichtige Anwendung von EMF ist die mobile Kommunikation. Die hierfür verwendeten Frequenzen liegen im hochfrequenten Bereich und variieren mit dem Mobilfunkstandard. Weit verbreitet ist die GSM- und UMTS-Modulation der zweiten (2G) und dritten Gener...

  7. Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects

    OpenAIRE

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. METHODS: We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposu...

  8. EM Induction Experiment to Determine the Moment of a Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najiya Maryam, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    If we drop a magnet through a coil, an emf is induced in the coil according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Here, such an experiment is done using expEYES kit. The plot of emf versus time has a specific shape with two peaks. A theoretical analysis of this graph is discussed here for both short and long cylindrical magnets.…

  9. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  10. Catalytic Cascade Dehydration-Etherification of Fructose into 5-Ethoxymethylfurfural with SO3H-Functionalized Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of SO3H-functionalized polymers were prepared and employed as heterogeneous catalysts for one-pot transformation of fructose into 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (EMF that is considered to be one of potential liquid biofuels. A high EMF yield of 72.8% could be obtained at 110°C for 10 h, and the polymeric acid catalysts could be recycled for five times without significant loss of catalytic performance.

  11. Validity of at home model predictions as a proxy for personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Astrid L; Bolte, John F B; Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Smid, Tjabe; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies on the potential health effects of RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations require efficient and accurate exposure assessment methods. Previous studies have demonstrated that the 3D geospatial model NISMap is able to rank locations by indoor and outdoor RF-EMF exposure levels. This study extends on previous work by evaluating the suitability of using NISMap to estimate indoor RF-EMF exposure levels at home as a proxy for personal exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations. For 93 individuals in the Netherlands we measured personal exposure to RF-EMF from mobile phone base stations during a 24h period using an EME-SPY 121 exposimeter. Each individual kept a diary from which we extracted the time spent at home and in the bedroom. We used NISMap to model exposure at the home address of the participant (at bedroom height). We then compared model predictions with measurements for the 24h period, when at home, and in the bedroom by the Spearman correlation coefficient (rsp) and by calculating specificity and sensitivity using the 90th percentile of the exposure distribution as a cutpoint for high exposure. We found a low to moderate rsp of 0.36 for the 24h period, 0.51 for measurements at home, and 0.41 for measurements in the bedroom. The specificity was high (0.9) but with a low sensitivity (0.3). These results indicate that a meaningful ranking of personal RF-EMF can be achieved, even though the correlation between model predictions and 24h personal RF-EMF measurements is lower than with at home measurements. However, the use of at home RF-EMF field predictions from mobile phone base stations in epidemiological studies leads to significant exposure misclassification that will result in a loss of statistical power to detect health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The views of primary care physicians on health risks from electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi; Heyer, Kristina; Kowall, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out what primary care physicians in Germany think about the possible health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and how they deal with this topic in discussions with patients.......The aim of this study was to find out what primary care physicians in Germany think about the possible health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and how they deal with this topic in discussions with patients....

  13. Setting research strategy on electromagnetic-field pollution of Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    General population and occupational groups are being exposed to electromagnetic field (EMF) nonionizing radiation that come from all electric or electronic equipment that work either with extremely low frequency (ELF) or radiofrequency (RF) fields. This preoccupation has generated research and regulation plans in some countries int he world, in order to set a clear configuration of bioeffects and other environmental implications derived from exposures to ELF/RF EMF

  14. Is newborn melatonin production influenced by magnetic fields produced by incubators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Iacoponi, Francesca; Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Negro, Simona; Proietti, Fabrizio; Longini, Mariangela; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    During permanence in most incubators, newborns are very close to the electric engine, which represents a source of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Previous studies demonstrated a decrease in melatonin production in adults and animals exposed to EMF. To assess melatonin production in a group of newborns exposed to EMF, and to evaluate whether removing the babies from the source of MF can affect melatonin production. We have recruited 28 babies (study group), who had spent at least 48 h in incubator where we had previously assessed the presence of significant EMF. We have measured their mean 6-hydroxy-melatonin-sulfate (6OHMS) urine excretion at the end of their permanence in the incubators, and compared it with their mean 6OHMS excretion after having been put in cribs, where EMF are below the detectable limit (babies who were not exposed to EMF during both samples. Mean 6OHMS/cr values were respectively 5.34±4.6 and 7.68±5.1ng/mg (p=0.026) when babies were exposed to EMF in incubators, and after having been put in the crib. In the control group, mean 6OHMS/cr values in the first and in the second sample were respectively 5.91±5.41 vs 6.17±3.94ng/mg (p=0.679). The transitory increase in melatonin production soon after removing newborns from incubators demonstrates a possible influence of EMF on melatonin production in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Some aspects of animal-to-human approximation of low frequency electromagnetic field exposure conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasin, A L

    2003-01-01

    Appropriateness of representation of a biological object surface as an equipotential surface has been proved for conditions of a quasistatic exposure to EMF of frequencies lower than 1 MHz. The conditions, at which a self capacitance of a biological object is its basic electrical parameter, have been considered. A factor of animal-to-human approximation of low-frequency EMF exposure conditions was estimated on the basis of equal dose loading in biological objects of different geometric sizes.

  16. Radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure and non-specific symptoms of ill health: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeoesli, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This article is a systematic review of whether everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) causes symptoms, and whether some individuals are able to detect low-level RF-EMF (below the ICNIRP [International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection] guidelines). Peer-reviewed articles published before August 2007 were identified by means of a systematic literature search. Meta-analytic techniques were used to pool the results from studies investigating the ability to discriminate active from sham RF-EMF exposure. RF-EMF discrimination was investigated in seven studies including a total of 182 self-declared electromagnetic hypersensitive (EHS) individuals and 332 non-EHS individuals. The pooled correct field detection rate was 4.2% better than expected by chance (95% CI: -2.1 to 10.5). There was no evidence that EHS individuals could detect presence or absence of RF-EMF better than other persons. There was little evidence that short-term exposure to a mobile phone or base station causes symptoms based on the results of eight randomized trials investigating 194 EHS and 346 non-EHS individuals in a laboratory. Some of the trials provided evidence for the occurrence of nocebo effects. In population based studies an association between symptoms and exposure to RF-EMF in the everyday environment was repeatedly observed. This review showed that the large majority of individuals who claims to be able to detect low level RF-EMF are not able to do so under double-blind conditions. If such individuals exist, they represent a small minority and have not been identified yet. The available observational studies do not allow differentiating between biophysical from EMF and nocebo effects

  17. Physic basis of electromagnetic induction low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.J. Kutkovetskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The statement on the macro level of EMF dependence on change in magnetic flux in time wrong reflects the physical phenomenon of electromagnetic induction low by Faraday, because EMF can be inducted if the magnetic flux of the circuit does not change. Changing magnetic flux of the circuit when the electromotive force arises is only a result of crossing the magnetic field lines by conductor and is an exception, which applies only to certain classes of electric machines.

  18. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure measurements in Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Katharina; Schoeni, Anna; Struchen, Benjamin; Zahner, Marco; Eeftens, Marloes; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Adolescents belong to the heaviest users of wireless communication devices, but little is known about their personal exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this paper is to describe personal RF-EMF exposure of Swiss adolescents and evaluate exposure relevant factors. Furthermore, personal measurements were used to estimate average contributions of various sources to the total absorbed RF-EMF dose of the brain and the whole body. Personal exposure was measured using a portable RF-EMF measurement device (ExpoM-RF) measuring 13 frequency bands ranging from 470 to 3600MHz. The participants carried the device for three consecutive days and kept a time-activity diary. In total, 90 adolescents aged 13 to 17years participated in the study conducted between May 2013 and April 2014. In addition, personal measurement values were combined with dose calculations for the use of wireless communication devices to quantify the contribution of various RF-EMF sources to the daily RF-EMF dose of adolescents. Main contributors to the total personal RF-EMF measurements of 63.2μW/m 2 (0.15V/m) were exposures from mobile phones (67.2%) and from mobile phone base stations (19.8%). WLAN at school and at home had little impact on the personal measurements (WLAN accounted for 3.5% of total personal measurements). According to the dose calculations, exposure from environmental sources (broadcast transmitters, mobile phone base stations, cordless phone base stations, WLAN access points, and mobile phones in the surroundings) contributed on average 6.0% to the brain dose and 9.0% to the whole-body dose. RF-EMF exposure of adolescents is dominated by their own mobile phone use. Environmental sources such as mobile phone base stations play a minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Electromagnetic Field on the Endocrine System in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangün, Özlem; Dündar, Bumin; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Büyükgebiz, Attila

    2015-12-01

    Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.

  20. Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, Blažena; Majláth, Igor; Kurimský, Juraj; Cimbala, Roman; Kosterec, Michal; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Raši, Tomáš; Majláthová, Viktória

    2018-05-01

    Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.

  1. Effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth rate and morphology of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhan-Garip, Ayse; Aksu, Burak; Akan, Zafer; Akakin, Dilek; Ozaydin, A Nilufer; San, Tangul

    2011-12-01

    To determine the effect of extremely low frequency (bacteria and to determine any morphological changes that might have been caused by ELF-EMF. Six bacterial strains, three Gram-negative and three Gram-positive were subjected to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT ELF-EMF for 6 h. To determine growth rate after ELF-EMF application, bacteria exposed to ELF-EMF for 3 h were collected, transferred to fresh medium and cultured without field application for another 4 h. Growth-rate was determined by optical density (OD) measurements made every hour. Morphological changes were determined with Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for two gram-negative and two gram-positive strains collected after 3 h of field application. A decrease in growth rate with respect to control samples was observed for all strains during ELF-EMF application. The decrease in growth-rate continued when exposed bacteria were cultured without field application. Significant ultrastructural changes were observed in all bacterial strains, which were seen to resemble the alterations caused by cationic peptides. This study shows that ELF-EMF induces a decrease in growth rate and morphological changes for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Current Understanding of the Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Tayaba; Kamat, Deepak

    2017-04-01

    There has been an exponential increase in the use of electronic devices over the past few decades. This has led to increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Electric fields result from differences in voltage, whereas magnetic fields result from the flow of electric current. Higher-frequency waves of EMF have more energy than lower-frequency waves, and thus generally tend to be more harmful. An EMF activates cellular stress response and also causes breaks in DNA strands. There are many methodological barriers to effectively measuring the associations of EMF and childhood cancers. The consensus from multiple studies is that there is no causal role of extremely low-frequency EMFs in childhood cancers, including brain cancer. A recent study showed a link between EMF radiation and the development of malignant tumors in rats. In light of that study, the American Academy of Pediatrics set out new recommendations to decrease the adverse effects of cellphone exposure on children. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(4):e172-e174.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Investigating short-term exposure to electromagnetic fields on reproductive capacity of invertebrates in the field situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijver, Martina G; Bolte, John F B; Evans, Tracy R; Tamis, Wil L M; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Musters, C J M; de Snoo, Geert R

    2014-01-01

    Organisms are exposed to electromagnetic fields from the introduction of wireless networks that send information all over the world. In this study we examined the impact of exposure to the fields from mobile phone base stations (GSM 900 MHz) on the reproductive capacity of small, virgin, invertebrates. A field experiment was performed exposing four different invertebrate species at different distances from a radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) transmitter for a 48-h period. The control groups were isolated from EMF exposure by use of Faraday cages. The response variables as measured in the laboratory were fecundity and number of offspring. Results showed that distance was not an adequate proxy to explain dose-response regressions. No significant impact of the exposure matrices, measures of central tendency and temporal variability of EMF, on reproductive endpoints was found. Finding no impact on reproductive capacity does not fully exclude the existence of EMF impact, since mechanistically models hypothesizing non-thermal-induced biological effects from RF exposure are still to be developed. The exposure to RF EMF is ubiquitous and is still increasing rapidly over large areas. We plea for more attention toward the possible impacts of EMF on biodiversity.

  4. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Karpowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W or general public (GP members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons. Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs, by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users. Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated. Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment.

  5. Development of oxygen sensors using zirconia solid electrolyte for fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiura, Nobuo; Endou, Yasuichi; Yamaura, Takayuki; Matui, Yoshinori; Niimi, Motoji; Hoshiya, Taiji; Kobiyama, Mamoru; Motohashi, Yoshinobu

    1999-01-01

    The oxygen potential in oxide fuel pellet is an important parameter to understand behavior of high burn up fuel and its integrity. Zirconia solid electrolyte which is durable under irradiation and high temperature is considered as candidate material for the oxygen potential. Combined use of solid electrolyte and Ni/NiO as a solid standard electrode will realize small size oxygen sensor which can be easily loaded in the fuel rod. Prototypes of the oxygen sensor made of these materials were irradiated with neutrons the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR), and characteristics of electromotive force (EMF) by sensors were examined under irradiation. For a prototype using zirconia solid electrolyte stabilized by Y 2 O 3 (YSZ), measured EMF under irradiation was nearly equivalent to the value under unirradiated condition, and very stable within a range of neutron fluence (E>1 MeV) up to 1.52 x 10 23 m -2 and for the time of 600 h. However, the measured EMFs were slightly smaller than the theoretical values. The reason for this decrease of the EMF was thought as due to insufficient adhesion forces between solid electrolyte and standard electrode. After modification of the sensor to increase adhesion force, EMF was measured again under irradiation. The results showed improvement of the characteristics of the sensor in which measured EMFs were almost equivalent to the theoretical values. (author)

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute to soil organic matter cycling in sub-boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lori A; Ward, Valerie; Jones, Melanie D

    2014-03-01

    Soils of northern temperate and boreal forests represent a large terrestrial carbon (C) sink. The fate of this C under elevated atmospheric CO2 and climate change is still uncertain. A fundamental knowledge gap is the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) and saprotrophic fungi contribute to C cycling in the systems by soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition. In this study, we used a novel approach to generate and compare enzymatically active EMF hyphae-dominated and saprotrophic hyphae-enriched communities under field conditions. Fermentation-humus (FH)-filled mesh bags, surrounded by a sand barrier, effectively trapped EMF hyphae with a community structure comparable to that found in the surrounding FH layer, at both trophic and taxonomic levels. In contrast, over half the sequences from mesh bags with no sand barrier were identified as belonging to saprotrophic fungi. The EMF hyphae-dominated systems exhibited levels of hydrolytic and oxidative enzyme activities that were comparable to or higher than saprotroph-enriched systems. The enzymes assayed included those associated with both labile and recalcitrant SOM degradation. Our study shows that EMF hyphae are likely important contributors to current SOM turnover in sub-boreal systems. Our results also suggest that any increased EMF biomass that might result from higher below-ground C allocation by trees would not suppress C fluxes from sub-boreal soils.

  7. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-03-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  8. Regulation requirements for the protection of workers against electromagnetic fields occurring in the work environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aniolczyk, H.; Zmyslony, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, electromagnetic fields (EMF), one of potentially hazardous physical factors occurring in the work environment, are subjected to compulsory surveillance. In 2001, the Directive issued by the Minister of Labor and Social Policy substantially changed the approach towards the protection of workers against EMF. The Directive regulates the whole range of EMF frequencies and electromagnetic radiation, namely from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, which means the possibility of assessing workers EMF exposure, determined by exposure index, along with the hygiene assessment of EMF sources, defined by protection zones. In 2003 - 2005, a number of amended executive and supplementary regulations were issued. However, it should be emphasized that in the process of their elaboration, striving after perfection, numerous incoherent and ambiguous provisions were adopted, which finally created difficulties in the interpretation of individual regulations. This is also linked with doubts and discussions on their practical application by services responsible for control, measurements and monitoring of working conditions under the exposure to EMF. In this work an attempt was made to clarify all issues and arrange them according to the faced problems. The authors also present proposals how to solve all these problems. (author)

  9. Non-thermal radio frequency and static magnetic fields increase rate of hemoglobin deoxygenation in a cell-free preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Muehsam

    Full Text Available The growing body of clinical and experimental data regarding electromagnetic field (EMF bioeffects and their therapeutic applications has contributed to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action. This study reports that two EMF modalities currently in clinical use, a pulse-modulated radiofrequency (PRF signal, and a static magnetic field (SMF, applied independently, increased the rate of deoxygenation of human hemoglobin (Hb in a cell-free assay. Deoxygenation of Hb was initiated using the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT in an assay that allowed the time for deoxygenation to be controlled (from several min to several hours by adjusting the relative concentrations of DTT and Hb. The time course of Hb deoxygenation was observed using visible light spectroscopy. Exposure for 10-30 min to either PRF or SMF increased the rate of deoxygenation occurring several min to several hours after the end of EMF exposure. The sensitivity and biochemical simplicity of the assay developed here suggest a new research tool that may help to further the understanding of basic biophysical EMF transduction mechanisms. If the results of this study were to be shown to occur at the cellular and tissue level, EMF-enhanced oxygen availability would be one of the mechanisms by which clinically relevant EMF-mediated enhancement of growth and repair processes could occur.

  10. Effect of kombucha on some trace element levels in different organs of electromagnetic field exposed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. Gharib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones have increased exponentially all over the world. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of kombucha (KT on some trace element levels of brain, spleen and intestine in male albino rats exposed to a 950 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF. Four experimental groups labelled as controls, EMF group, KT group and KT + EMF group were formed with six randomly chosen animals in each group. After EMF exposure for eight weeks and the animals were sacrificed by decapitation. Brain, spleen and intestine samples were collected for trace element analysis. The group of animals subjected to electromagnetic waves caused significant increases in iron copper levels and copper/zinc ratio accompanied with a decrease of zinc level in all studied organs. Combined treatment of kombucha with EMF resulted in a successful attenuation of these adverse effects of EMF. From present findings we can state that kombucha as a supplement has an ameliorative signs against the effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  11. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Melanogenesis through p-ERK and p-SAPK/JNK Pathways in Human Melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated frequency-dependent effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs on melanogenesis by melanocytes in vitro. Melanocytes were exposed to 2 mT EMFs at 30–75 Hz for 3 days before melanogenesis was examined. Exposure to ELF-EMFs at 50 and 60 Hz induced melanogenic maturation without cell damage, without changing cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity. Melanin content and tyrosinase activity of cells exposed to 50 Hz were higher than in controls, and mRNA expression of tyrosinase-related protein-2 was elevated relative to controls at 50 Hz. Phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (p-CREB levels were higher than controls in cells exposed to ELF-EMFs at 50–75 Hz. Immunohistochemical staining showed that melanocyte-specific markers (HMB45, Melan-A were strongly expressed in cells exposed to EMFs at 50 and 60 Hz compared to controls. Thus, exposure to ELF-EMFs at 50 Hz could stimulate melanogenesis in melanocytes, through activation of p-CREB and p-p38 and inhibition of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and phosphorylated stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The results may form the basis of an appropriate anti-gray hair treatment or be applied in a therapeutic device for inducing repigmentation in the skin of vitiligo patients.

  12. Determination of the main impurities formed after acid hydrolysis of soybean extracts and the in vitro mutagenicity and genotoxicity studies of 5-ethoxymethyl-2-furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Marina C; Picada, Jaqueline N; da Silva, Juliana; Garcia, Ana Letícia H; Papke, Débora K M; Grivicich, Ivana; Steppe, Martin; von Poser, Gilsane L; Teixeira, Helder F

    2016-09-10

    Soybean acid hydrolyzed extracts are raw-materials widely used for manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics products due to their high content of isoflavone aglycones. In the present study, the main sugar degradation products 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) and 5-ethoxymethyl-2-furfural (EMF) were quantitatively determined after acid hydrolysis of extracts from different soybean cultivars by a validated liquid chromatography method. The furanic compounds determined in samples cover the range of 0.16-0.21mg/mL and 0.22-0.33mg/mL for HMF and EMF, respectively. Complementarily, due to the scarce literature regarding the EMF toxicology, this study also assessed the EMF mutagenicity by the Salmonella/microsome test and genotoxicity by the comet assay. The results revealed that EMF did not show mutagenicity at the range of 50-5000μg/plate in S. typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102 and TA1535, but induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells at non-cytotoxic doses of 0.1-1.3mg/mL, mainly by oxidative stress mechanisms. Based on literature of HMF genotoxicity, and considering the EMF genotoxicity results herein shown, purification procedures to remove these impurities from extracts are recommended during healthcare products development to ensure the security of the products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Instruments to assess and measure personal and environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Chhavi R.; Redmayne, Mary; Abramson, Michael J.; Benke, Geza

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure of human populations is increasing due to the widespread use of mobile phones and other telecommunication and broadcasting technologies. There are ongoing concerns about potential short- and long-term public health consequences from RF-EMF exposures. To elucidate the RF-EMF exposure-effect relationships, an objective evaluation of the exposures with robust assessment tools is necessary. This review discusses and compares currently available RF-EMF exposure assessment instruments, which can be used in human epidemiological studies. Quantitative assessment instruments are either mobile phone-based (apps/software-modified and hardware-modified) or exposimeters. Each of these tool has its usefulness and limitations. Our review suggests that assessment of RF-EMF exposures can be improved by using these tools compared to the proxy measures of exposure (e.g. questionnaires and billing records). This in turn, could be used to help increase knowledge about RF-EMF exposure induced health effects in human populations.

  14. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David; Kuster, Niels; Schaer, Primo

    2010-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  15. DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Frauke; Schuermann, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland); Kuster, Niels [IT' IS Foundation, Zeughausstrasse 43, CH-8004 Zurich (Switzerland); Schaer, Primo, E-mail: primo.schaer@unibas.ch [Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 28, CH-4058 Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-01-05

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) were reported to affect DNA integrity in human cells with evidence based on the Comet assay. These findings were heavily debated for two main reasons; the lack of reproducibility, and the absence of a plausible scientific rationale for how EMFs could damage DNA. Starting out from a replication of the relevant experiments, we performed this study to clarify the existence and explore origin and nature of ELF-EMF induced DNA effects. Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. Consistently, the Comet effects correlated with a reduction of actively replicating cells and a concomitant increase of apoptotic cells in exposed cultures, whereas a combined Fpg-Comet test failed to produce evidence for a notable contribution of oxidative DNA base damage. Hence, ELF-EMF induced effects in the Comet assay are reproducible under specific conditions and can be explained by minor disturbances in S-phase processes and occasional triggering of apoptosis rather than by the generation of DNA damage.

  16. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  17. Analgesic effect of the electromagnetic resonant frequencies derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Velalopoulou, Anastasia P; Vadalouca, Athina N; Kalfakakou, Vicky P; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2012-12-01

    Exposure to various types of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) affects pain specificity (nociception) and pain inhibition (analgesia). Previous study of ours has shown that exposure to the resonant spectra derived from biologically active substances' NMR may induce to live targets the same effects as the substances themselves. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential analgesic effect of the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine. Twenty five Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group; intraperitoneal administration of morphine 10 mg/kg body wt; exposure of rats to resonant EMFs of morphine; exposure of rats to randomly selected non resonant EMFs; and intraperitoneal administration of naloxone and simultaneous exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs of morphine. Tail Flick and Hot Plate tests were performed for estimation of the latency time. Results showed that rats exposed to NMR spectrum of morphine induced a significant increase in latency time at time points (p spectrum of morphine. Our results indicate that exposure of rats to the resonant EMFs derived from the NMR spectrum of morphine may exert on animals similar analgesic effects to morphine itself.

  18. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to a complex mix of electromagnetic fields (EMF) of different frequencies that permeate our environment. Exposures to these EMF are increasing significantly as technology advances unabated and new applications are found. Technological progress in the broadest sense of the word has always been associated with various hazards and risks, both perceived and real. The industrial, commercial and household application on EMF is no exception. Throughout the world, the general public is concerned that exposure to EMF from such sources as high voltage power lines, broadcasting networks, mobile telephones and their base stations could lead to adverse health consequences, especially in children. As a result, the construction of new power lines and broadcasting and mobile telephone network has met with considerable opposition in many countries. Public exposure to EMF is regulated by a variety of voluntary and legal limits, together with various national safety standards. Guidelines are designed to avoid all identified hazards, from short and long term exposure, recommended limits. The aim of this paper is to report the summary of the actual scientific knowledge about the potential health effects and hazards due to man made EMF and the new tendencies of the social and political choices [it

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-García, Mónica Noemí; Arellanes-Robledo, Jaime; Aparicio-Bautista, Diana Ivette; Rodríguez-Segura, Miguel Ángel; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Godina-Nava, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated by histochemical, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 levels, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The application of the ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease of more than 50% of the number and the area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic lesions (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively) and glutathione S-transferase placental expression (P = 0.01). The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the cleaved caspase 3 levels were unaffected; however, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and cyclin D1 expression decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.03), as compared to the sham-exposure group. The application of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibits preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis process

  20. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Treviño Saúl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated by histochemical, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 levels, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Results The application of the ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease of more than 50% of the number and the area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic lesions (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively and glutathione S-transferase placental expression (P = 0.01. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the cleaved caspase 3 levels were unaffected; however, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and cyclin D1 expression decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.03, as compared to the sham-exposure group. Conclusion The application of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibits preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis process.

  1. Symptoms and the use of wireless communication devices: A prospective cohort study in Swiss adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeni, Anna, E-mail: anna.schoeni@unibas.ch [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Roser, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.roser@unibas.ch [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland); Röösli, Martin, E-mail: martin.roosli@unibas.ch [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH-4003 Basel (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Background: We investigated whether radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phones and other wireless devices or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context are associated with an increase in health symptom reports of adolescents in Central Switzerland. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 439 study participants (participation rate: 36.8%) aged 12–17 years, completed questionnaires about their mobile and cordless phone use, their self-reported symptoms and possible confounding factors at baseline (2012/2013) and one year later (2013/2014). Operator recorded mobile phone data was obtained for a subgroup of 234 adolescents. RF-EMF dose measures considering various factors affecting RF-EMF exposure were computed for the brain and the whole body. Data were analysed using a mixed-logistic cross-sectional model and a cohort approach, where we investigated whether cumulative dose over one year was related to a new onset of a symptom between baseline and follow-up. All analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. Results: Participation rate in the follow-up was 97% (425 participants). In both analyses, cross-sectional and cohort, various symptoms tended to be mostly associated with usage measures that are only marginally related to RF-EMF exposure such as the number of text messages sent per day (e.g. tiredness: OR:1.81; 95%CI:1.20–2.74 for cross-sectional analyses and OR:1.87; 95%CI:1.04–3.38 for cohort analyses). Outcomes were generally less strongly or not associated with mobile phone call duration and RF-EMF dose measures. Conclusions: Stronger associations between symptoms of ill health and wireless communication device use than for RF-EMF dose measures were observed. Such a result pattern does not support a causal association between RF-EMF exposure and health symptoms of adolescents but rather suggests that other aspects of extensive media use are related to symptoms. - Highlights: • This

  2. Symptoms and the use of wireless communication devices: A prospective cohort study in Swiss adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoeni, Anna; Roser, Katharina; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated whether radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phones and other wireless devices or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context are associated with an increase in health symptom reports of adolescents in Central Switzerland. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, 439 study participants (participation rate: 36.8%) aged 12–17 years, completed questionnaires about their mobile and cordless phone use, their self-reported symptoms and possible confounding factors at baseline (2012/2013) and one year later (2013/2014). Operator recorded mobile phone data was obtained for a subgroup of 234 adolescents. RF-EMF dose measures considering various factors affecting RF-EMF exposure were computed for the brain and the whole body. Data were analysed using a mixed-logistic cross-sectional model and a cohort approach, where we investigated whether cumulative dose over one year was related to a new onset of a symptom between baseline and follow-up. All analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. Results: Participation rate in the follow-up was 97% (425 participants). In both analyses, cross-sectional and cohort, various symptoms tended to be mostly associated with usage measures that are only marginally related to RF-EMF exposure such as the number of text messages sent per day (e.g. tiredness: OR:1.81; 95%CI:1.20–2.74 for cross-sectional analyses and OR:1.87; 95%CI:1.04–3.38 for cohort analyses). Outcomes were generally less strongly or not associated with mobile phone call duration and RF-EMF dose measures. Conclusions: Stronger associations between symptoms of ill health and wireless communication device use than for RF-EMF dose measures were observed. Such a result pattern does not support a causal association between RF-EMF exposure and health symptoms of adolescents but rather suggests that other aspects of extensive media use are related to symptoms. - Highlights: • This

  3. Electromagnetic fields and health complaints - interdisciplinary case evaluations in an environmental medicine counselling project; Elektromagnetische Felder und Gesundheitsbelastungen - Interdisziplinaere Fallabklaerungen im Rahmen eines umweltmedizinischen Beratungsprojektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huss, A.; Braun-Fahrlaender, C. [Inst. fuer Sozial- und Praeventivmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Kuechenhoff, J. [Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Basel (Switzerland); Bircher, A. [Kantonsspital Basel, Allergologie, Basel (Switzerland); Niederer, M. [Kantonales Lab., Basel (Switzerland); Tremp, J. [Amt fuer Umwelt und Energie, Liestal (Switzerland); Waeber, R. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit, Abt. Chemikalien, Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    Background: During 2001, persons who attributed their health problems to environmental exposures, e.g. electromagnetic fields (EMF), were counselled in an interdisciplinary environmental medicine pilot project in the Basel area. Methods: All participants had a medical and a psychological-psychiatric examination and were visited at home by an environmental hygienist. High and low frequency EMF measurements were conducted at the homes of those participants who attributed their health complaints specifically to EMF. The plausibility of a relation between health complaints and EMF exposure was discussed in joint case conferences. Plausibility was judged on the basis of the following criteria: EMF levels had to exceed a tenth of the Swiss threshold values to be considered in the case conference (low frequency: 10 V/m, 0.1 {mu}T, high frequency: 0.6 V/m). The exposure had to occur in an area where the participant spent at least several hours or more every day. Prerequisite was that the exposure occurred before the onset of symptoms. Results: 25 of 63 (40%) of participants suspected EMF as cause of their health complaints. All EMF measurements yielded fields below the Swiss threshold values. Despite of the difficulties in assessing an exposure-response relation in an individual case and the controversial scientific evidence related to health effects of EMF exposures, the project team concluded that in 8 of the 25 (32%) participants, at least one of the reported symptoms was plausibly related to the EMF exposure. An evaluation interview half a year after counselling yielded that around 45% of the participants reported that they had benefited from the project and their health problems had improved following participation. Conclusions: Although none of the threshold values was exceeded, the project team rated an EMF exposure a plausible cause of the reported health complaints of few participants. Due to the high complexity in these cases, only an interdisciplinary team is

  4. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. Methods This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations was assessed with a geospatial model (NISMap) and from indoor sources (cordless phone/WiFi) using parental self-reports. Parents also reported their children’s use of mobile or cordless phones. When children were seven years old, we evaluated sleep quality as measured with the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) filled in by parents. Of eight CSHQ subscales, we evaluated sleep onset delay, sleep duration, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness with logistic or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for child’s age and sex and indicators of socio-economic position of the parents. We evaluated the remaining three subscales (bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, sleep disordered breathing) as unrelated outcomes (negative control) because these were a priori hypothesised not to be associated with RF-EMF. Results Sleep onset delay, night wakenings, parasomnias and daytime sleepiness were not associated with residential exposure to RF-EMF from base stations. Sleep duration scores were associated with RF-EMF levels from base stations. Higher use mobile phones was associated with less favourable sleep duration, night wakenings and parasomnias, and also with bedtime resistance. Cordless phone use was not related to any of the sleeping scores. Conclusion Given the different results across the evaluated RF-EMF exposure sources and the observed association between mobile phone use and the negative control sleep scale, our study does not support the hypothesis that it is the exposure to RF-EMF that is detrimental to sleep quality in 7-year old children, but potentially other factors that are related to mobile phone

  5. Effects of 1950 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on Aβ processing in human neuroblastoma and mouse hippocampal neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongyeon; Kwon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Nam; Song, Kiwon

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. One of the well-known pathological markers of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (Aβ), and its plaques, in the brain. Recent studies using Tg-5XFAD mice as a model of AD have reported that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from cellular phones reduced Aβ plaques in the brain and showed beneficial effects on AD. In this study, we examined whether exposure to 1950 MHz RF-EMF affects Aβ processing in neural cells. We exposed HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to RF-EMF (SAR 6 W/kg) for 2 h per day for 3 days, and analyzed the mRNA and protein expression of the key genes related to Aβ processing. When exposed to RF-EMF, mRNA levels of APP, BACE1, ADAM10 and PSEN1 were decreased in HT22, but the mRNA level of APP was not changed in SH-SY5Y cells. The protein expression of APP and BACE1, as well as the secreted Aβ peptide, was not significantly different between RF-EMF–exposed 7w-PSML, HT22 and SH-SY5Y cells and the unexposed controls. These observations suggest that RF-EMF exposure may not have a significant physiological effect on Aβ processing of neural cells in the short term. However, considering that we only exposed HT22 and SH-SY5Y cells to RF-EMF for 2 h per day for 3 days, we cannot exclude the possibility that 1950 MHz RF-EMF induces physiological change in Aβ processing with long-term and continuous exposure.

  6. No adverse effects detected for simultaneous whole-body exposure to multiple-frequency radiofrequency electromagnetic fields for rats in the intrauterine and pre- and post-weaning periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Tomoyuki; Wang, Jianqing; Kawabe, Mayumi; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, So-ichi; Takahashi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, people are exposed to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with multiple frequencies. To evaluate the possible adverse effects of multifrequency RF EMFs, we performed an experiment in which pregnant rats and their delivered offspring were simultaneously exposed to eight different communication signal EMFs (two of 800 MHz band, two of 2 GHz band, one of 2.4 GHz band, two of 2.5 GHz band and one of 5.2 GHz band). Thirty six pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) 10-week-old rats were divided into three groups of 12 rats: one control (sham exposure) group and two experimental (low- and high-level RF EMF exposure) groups. The whole body of the mother rats was exposed to the RF EMFs for 20 h per day from Gestational Day 7 to weaning, and F 1 offspring rats (46–48 F1 pups per group) were then exposed up to 6 weeks of age also for 20 h per day. The parameters evaluated included the growth, gestational condition and organ weights of the dams; the survival rates, development, growth, physical and functional development, memory function, and reproductive ability of the F 1 offspring; and the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the F 2 rats. No abnormal findings were observed in the dams or F 1 offspring exposed to the RF EMFs or to the F 2 offspring for any of the parameters evaluated. Thus, under the conditions of the present experiment, simultaneous whole-body exposure to eight different communication signal EMFs at frequencies between 800 MHz and 5.2 GHz did not show any adverse effects on pregnancy or on the development of rats.

  7. Adaptive estimation of the electromotive force of the lithium-ion battery after current interruption for an accurate state-of-charge and capacity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waag, Wladislaw; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • New adaptive approach for the EMF estimation. • The EMF is estimated by observing the voltage change after the current interruption. • The approach enables an accurate SoC and capacity determination. • Real-time capable algorithm. - Abstract: The online estimation of battery states and parameters is one of the challenging tasks when battery is used as a part of the pure electric or hybrid energy system. For the determination of the available energy stored in the battery, the knowledge of the present state-of-charge (SOC) and capacity of the battery is required. For SOC and capacity determination often the estimation of the battery electromotive force (EMF) is employed. The electromotive force can be measured as an open circuit voltage (OCV) of the battery when a significant time has elapsed since the current interruption. This time may take up to some hours for lithium-ion batteries and is needed to eliminate the influence of the diffusion overvoltages. This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the EMF by considering the OCV relaxation process within only some first minutes after the current interruption. The approach is based on an online fitting of an OCV relaxation model to the measured OCV relaxation curve. This model is based on an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source (represents the EMF) in series with the parallel connection of the resistance and a constant phase element (CPE). Based on this fitting the model parameters are determined and the EMF is estimated. The application of this method is exemplarily demonstrated for the state-of-charge and capacity estimation of the lithium-ion battery in an electrical vehicle. In the presented example the battery capacity is determined with the maximal inaccuracy of 2% using the EMF estimated at two different levels of state-of-charge. The real-time capability of the proposed algorithm is proven by its implementation on a low-cost 16-bit microcontroller (Infineon XC2287)

  8. Conduct of a personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurement study: proposed study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radon Katja

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of new wireless communication technologies that emit radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF is ongoing, but little is known about the RF-EMF exposure distribution in the general population. Previous attempts to measure personal exposure to RF-EMF have used different measurement protocols and analysis methods making comparisons between exposure situations across different study populations very difficult. As a result, observed differences in exposure levels between study populations may not reflect real exposure differences but may be in part, or wholly due to methodological differences. Methods The aim of this paper is to develop a study protocol for future personal RF-EMF exposure studies based on experience drawn from previous research. Using the current knowledge base, we propose procedures for the measurement of personal exposure to RF-EMF, data collection, data management and analysis, and methods for the selection and instruction of study participants. Results We have identified two basic types of personal RF-EMF measurement studies: population surveys and microenvironmental measurements. In the case of a population survey, the unit of observation is the individual and a randomly selected representative sample of the population is needed to obtain reliable results. For microenvironmental measurements, study participants are selected in order to represent typical behaviours in different microenvironments. These two study types require different methods and procedures. Conclusion Applying our proposed common core procedures in future personal measurement studies will allow direct comparisons of personal RF-EMF exposures in different populations and study areas.

  9. [Electromagnetic fields of mobile telephone systems--thresholds, effects and risks for cochlear implant patients and healthy people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, F; Langer, J; Begall, K

    2008-11-01

    Every day life is detectably affected by manifold natural sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF), e. g. infrared radiation, light and the terrestrial magnetic field. However, there is still uncertainty about the consequences or hazards of artificial EMF, which emerge from mobile phone or wireless network (wireless local area network [WLAN]) services, for instance. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) defined corresponding thresholds for high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) in 2003. By observing those thresholds HF-EMF is thought to be innocent so far. However, there is still controversial discussion about induction of cancer or neurovegetative symptoms due to inconsistent study results. Patients with cochlea implants are of particular interest within the speciality of otorhinolaryngology due to specific hazards, which arise during mobile telephone use from the distance between brain and inductive metal implants (electrode) on the one hand and the electronic system of the cochlear implant and the source of HF-EMF on the other hand. Besides many studies about the impact of HF-EMF on common welfare, there are only very few surveys (n = 6) covering the effects on patients with cochlear implants. The purpose of this paper is to overview sources, thresholds and subsequently harmful or harmless effects of HFEMF. Due to the current state of knowledge about the impact of mobile phone use on health, we assume, that HF-EMF are harmless both for healthy people and patients with cochlea implants, provided that legal thresholds are observed.

  10. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells by zinc sulphate under electromagnetic field via the PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzatollah Fathi

    Full Text Available Zinc ion as an essential trace element and electromagnetic fields (EMFs has been reported to be involved in the regulation of bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs in the presence of EMF as a strategy in osteoporosis therapy. Alkaline phophatase (ALP activity measurement, calcium assay and expression of several osteoblastic marker genes were examined to assess the effect of ZnSO4 on the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs under EMF. The expression of cAMP and PKA was evaluated by ELISA. The expression of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 and reduced dickkopf1 (DKK1 genes were used to detect the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. It was found that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, resulted in an increase in the expression of osteogenic genes, ALP activity and calcium levels. EMF, in the presence of ZnSO4, increased the cAMP level and protein kinase A (PKA activity. Treatment of ADSCs with (MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor, or PKA inhibitor, significantly inhibited the promotion of osteogenic markers, indicating that the induction of osteogenesis was dependent on the ERK and PKA signaling pathways. Real-time PCR analysis showed that ZnSO4, in the presence of EMF, increased the mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Wnt1, Wnt3a, LRP5 and DKK1. In this study, it was shown that 0.432 μg/ml ZnSO4, in the presence of 50 Hz, 20 mT EMF, induced the osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs via PKA, ERK1/2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

  11. On assessing electromagnetic field (300 kmhz – 300mhz in a large industrial city on the basis of 3d modeling and instrumental measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. May

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on issues of modeling electromagnetic fields levels (EMF with frequency equal to 300 KMHz - 300 MHz which are created by television and radio broadcasting objects, radiolocation, and mobile communication in a large regional cen-ter, in geoinformation system environment. Our task was to estimate EMF levels on areas where apartment blocks were located; to assess energy flows at various floors, to determine zones in a city as per EMF levels; to verify the obtained results with the direct factor measuring. Our calculation included data on 2,011 EMF sources located on a city territory. We allowed for bulk parameters of 31,949 buildings including 17,307 apartment blocks, 3,160 administrative buildings, 307 pre-school children facilities and 105 secondary schools. We performed our calculations in city coordinate system at 109 thousand points. Each calculation created a picture of EMF spread in a plane at a set height which allowed us to determine exposure level at a control point as per "slice" re-sults and to build up a 3D contamination model. Approximately 80% of all the calculated results had EMF parameters within 0.1-10 safety criterion range. We spotted zones with maximum calculated EMF levels at 18-25 meters. Instrumental research proved high factor levels in these zones including those where levels exceeded safety criterion 4-6 times; it makes for certain vigilance in judgments on environmental safety for people who live on the examined territory permanently. The obtained data can be used for foundation of instrumental research points within the frameworks of specific research or social-hygienic monitoring as well as for consequent exposure and health risk assessment. The materials can be used in epidemiologic research for conjugate spatial analysis of energy flows and children and adults mortality.

  12. Electromagnetic Field Devices and Their Effects on Nociception and Peripheral Inflammatory Pain Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christina L; Teli, Thaleia; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2016-03-01

    Context • During cell-communication processes, endogenous and exogenous signaling affects normal and pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences, such as extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been shown to affect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein coupling receptors (GPCRs), downregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) activity, and downregulating inflammatory modulators, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) as well as the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). EMF devices could help clinicians who seek an alternative or complementary treatment for relief of patients chronic pain and disability. Objective • The research team intended to review the literature on the effects of EMFs on inflammatory pain mechanisms. Design • We used a literature search of articles published in PubMed using the following key words: low-frequency electromagnetic field therapy, inflammatory pain markers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), opioid receptors, G-protein coupling receptors, and enzymes. Setting • The study took place at the Wake Forest School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC, USA. Results • The mechanistic pathway most often considered for the biological effects of EMF is the plasma membrane, across which the EMF signal induces a voltage change. Oscillating EMF exerts forces on free ions that are present on both sides of the plasma membrane and that move across the cell surface through transmembrane proteins. The ions create a forced intracellular vibration that is responsible for phenomena such as the influx of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and the binding affinity of calmodulin (CaM), which is the primary transduction pathway to the secondary messengers, cAMP and cGMP, which have been found to influence inflammatory pain. Conclusions • An emerging body of evidence indicates the existence of a frequency

  13. Endogenous electromagnetic forces emissions during cell respiration as additional factor in cancer origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embi, Abraham A

    2016-01-01

    Seven decades ago, a seminal paper by Dr. Denham Harman in (J Gerontol 11(3):298-300, 1956), introduced a theory stating that there are good reasons for assuming that endogenous irradiation in the living cells could lead to cancer via an obscure mechanism. The main purpose of this manuscript is to shed some light in said mechanism by proposing a five-step eukaryotic cell cancer triggering cycle. In other words, a new factor is introduced, namely the recently found emissions of electromagnetic forces (EMFs) as a possible causing agent in diseases, including cancer. Introduced is an eukaryotic cell cancer inducing cycle. It includes five sequential steps of endogenous biological process that are backed by published scientific reports. It is a known fact that in order to achieve homeostasis, toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) i.e. H2O2 molecules are broken down by the protein enzyme catalase. During this reaction EMFs are generated (Embi in AIS Physics 2(3):226-230, 2016). The EMFs recording breakthrough was possible due to the introduction of a novel table top microscopy technique to detect EMFs by using Prussian Blue Stain and nano-sized iron particles. There are different roots in molecular and clinical biology through which DNA damage could be programmed, EMFs emitted (during cell respiration) are herein proposed as an additional cause.

  14. Long-Term Evolution Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Modulates the Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Qinghua; Lv, Bin; Wu, Tongning

    2017-05-01

    Long-term evolution (LTE) wireless telecommunication systems are widely used globally, which has raised a concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from LTE devices can change human neural function. To date, few studies have been conducted on the effect of exposure to LTE EMF. Here, we evaluated the changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) due to LTE EMF exposure. An LTE EMF exposure system with a stable power emission, which was equivalent to the maximum emission from an LTE mobile phone, was used to radiate the subjects. Numerical simulations were conducted to ensure that the specific absorption rate in the subject's head was below the safety limits. Exposure to LTE EMF reduced the spectral power and the interhemispheric coherence in the alpha and beta bands of the frontal and temporal brain regions. No significant change was observed in the spectral power and the inter-hemispheric coherence in different timeslots during and after the exposure. These findings also corroborated those of our previous study using functional magnetic resonant imaging.

  15. Reactive oxygen species levels and DNA fragmentation on astrocytes in primary culture after acute exposure to low intensity microwave electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Agata; Gulino, Marisa; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bellia, Paolo; Raciti, Giuseppina; Grasso, Rosaria; Musumeci, Francesco; Vanella, Angelo; Triglia, Antonio

    2010-03-31

    The exposure of primary rat neocortical astroglial cell cultures to acute electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the microwave range was studied. Differentiated astroglial cell cultures at 14 days in vitro were exposed for 5, 10, or 20min to either 900MHz continuous waves or 900MHz waves modulated in amplitude at 50Hz using a sinusoidal waveform and 100% modulation index. The strength of the electric field (rms value) at the sample position was 10V/m. No change in cellular viability evaluated by MTT test and lactate dehydrogenase release was observed. A significant increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation was found only after exposure of the astrocytes to modulated EMF for 20min. No evident effects were detected when shorter time intervals or continuous waves were used. The irradiation conditions allowed the exclusion of any possible thermal effect. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that even acute exposure to low intensity EMF induces ROS production and DNA fragmentation in astrocytes in primary cultures, which also represent the principal target of modulated EMF. Our findings also suggest the hypothesis that the effects could be due to hyperstimulation of the glutamate receptors, which play a crucial role in acute and chronic brain damage. Furthermore, the results show the importance of the amplitude modulation in the interaction between EMF and neocortical astrocytes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M; Brown, Tim W C

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  17. Electromagnetic effects - From cell biology to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Richard H W; Monsees, Thomas; Ozkucur, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In this review we compile and discuss the published plethora of cell biological effects which are ascribed to electric fields (EF), magnetic fields (MF) and electromagnetic fields (EMF). In recent years, a change in paradigm took place concerning the endogenously produced static EF of cells and tissues. Here, modern molecular biology could link the action of ion transporters and ion channels to the "electric" action of cells and tissues. Also, sensing of these mainly EF could be demonstrated in studies of cell migration and wound healing. The triggers exerted by ion concentrations and concomitant electric field gradients have been traced along signaling cascades till gene expression changes in the nucleus. Far more enigmatic is the way of action of static MF which come in most cases from outside (e.g. earth magnetic field). All systems in an organism from the molecular to the organ level are more or less in motion. Thus, in living tissue we mostly find alternating fields as well as combination of EF and MF normally in the range of extremely low-frequency EMF. Because a bewildering array of model systems and clinical devices exits in the EMF field we concentrate on cell biological findings and look for basic principles in the EF, MF and EMF action. As an outlook for future research topics, this review tries to link areas of EF, MF and EMF research to thermodynamics and quantum physics, approaches that will produce novel insights into cell biology.

  18. Calculation of electromagnetic force in electromagnetic forming process of metal sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Da; Liu Xuesong; Fang Kun; Fang Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a forming process that relies on the inductive electromagnetic force to deform metallic workpiece at high speed. Calculation of the electromagnetic force is essential to understand the EMF process. However, accurate calculation requires complex numerical solution, in which the coupling between the electromagnetic process and the deformation of workpiece needs be considered. In this paper, an appropriate formula has been developed to calculate the electromagnetic force in metal work-piece in the sheet EMF process. The effects of the geometric size of coil, the material properties, and the parameters of discharge circuit on electromagnetic force are taken into consideration. Through the formula, the electromagnetic force at different time and in different positions of the workpiece can be predicted. The calculated electromagnetic force and magnetic field are in good agreement with the numerical and experimental results. The accurate prediction of the electromagnetic force provides an insight into the physical process of the EMF and a powerful tool to design optimum EMF systems.

  19. Impact of one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode on personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbinello, Damiano; Röösli, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When moving around, mobile phones in stand-by mode periodically send data about their positions. The aim of this paper is to evaluate how personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) measurements are affected by such location updates. Exposure from a mobile phone handset (uplink) was measured during commuting by using a randomized cross-over study with three different scenarios: disabled mobile phone (reference), an activated dual-band phone and a quad-band phone. In the reference scenario, uplink exposure was highest during train rides (1.19 mW/m(2)) and lowest during car rides in rural areas (0.001 mW/m(2)). In public transports, the impact of one's own mobile phone on personal RF-EMF measurements was not observable because of high background uplink radiation from other people's mobile phone. In a car, uplink exposure with an activated phone was orders of magnitude higher compared with the reference scenario. This study demonstrates that personal RF-EMF exposure is affected by one's own mobile phone in stand-by mode because of its regular location update. Further dosimetric studies should quantify the contribution of location updates to the total RF-EMF exposure in order to clarify whether the duration of mobile phone use, the most common exposure surrogate in the epidemiological RF-EMF research, is actually an adequate exposure proxy.

  20. What advice to give when ELF is classified as a possible human carcinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repacholi, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project to address the health issues associated with exposure to EMF. This Project is intended to provide independent scientific assessment of health effects from exposure to EMF (0-300 GHz); identify gaps in knowledge requiring further research in order to improve health risk assessments; encourage focused, high quality research; and conduct formal WHO/IARC/ICNIRP health risk assessments after key research has been completed. The International EMF Project is currently reviewing research results and conducting risk assessments of exposure to static and extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. WHO will be conducting an evaluation of all health effects from ELF field exposure during 2002-3. This paper summarizes what is known about ELF exposure on childhood leukaemia, what the IARC classification means and how some national authorities have responded. In addition, WHO recommendations are given to provide guidance to national authorities wanting to protect their populations against EMF exposure. Whenever electricity is conducted through transmission lines, distribution lines or is used in appliances, both electric and magnetic fields exist close to the lines or appliances. The power frequency used is 50 or 60 Hz. Use of electric power has become part of everyday life. However, questions have been raised as to whether these and other ELF fields are carcinogenic or can produce any other effects on health

  1. Neurovegetative disturbances in workers exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortkiewicz, A.; Gadzicka, E.; Zmyslony, M.; Szymczak, W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the circulatory and nervous systems are composed of of electrically excitable tissues, it is plausible that they can be stimulated by electromagnetic fields (EMF). No clinical studies have as been carried out to explain whether and how occupational exposure to 50 Hz EMF can influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular function. The present project was undertaken to assess the the autonomic function in workers occupationally exposed to 50 Hz EMF, by analyzing the heart rate variability. The study group comprised 63 workers of switchyard substations, aged 22-67 years (39.2±10.0 years), and the control group 42 workers of radio link stations, aged 20-68 years (40.7±9.2 years), employed at workposts free from EMF exposure. The age range and employment duration in both groups did not differ significantly. To assess the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiac function, heart rate variability HRV) analysis was made based on 512 normal heart beats recorded at rest. The analysis, performed using fast Fourier transformation, concerned the time - and frequency-domain HRV parameters. Power spectrum in the very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency bands was determined. The relative risk of decreased HRV (STD R-R ) was significantly higher in the study group than in control (65% vs. 47%). It was concluded that occupational exposure to 50 Hz EMF could influence the neurovegetative regulation of the cardiovascular system. (author)

  2. Immune-Modulating Perspectives for Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Rosado

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs on the immune system have received a considerable interest, not only to investigate possible negative health impact but also to explore the possibility to favorably modulate immune responses. To generate beneficial responses, the immune system should eradicate pathogens while “respecting” the organism and tolerating irrelevant antigens. According to the current view, damage-associated molecules released by infected or injured cells, or secreted by innate immune cells generate danger signals activating an immune response. These signals are also relevant to the subsequent activation of homeostatic mechanisms that control the immune response in pro- or anti-inflammatory reactions, a feature that allows modulation by therapeutic treatments. In the present review, we describe and discuss the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF-EMF and pulsed EMF on cell signals and factors relevant to the activation of danger signals and innate immunity cells. By discussing the EMF modulating effects on cell functions, we envisage the use of EMF as a therapeutic agent to regulate immune responses associated with wound healing.

  3. Electromagnetic fields and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Neeta; Mathur, R.; Behari, J.

    1997-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have raised the possibility that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may be hazardous to human health, in particular by promotion or initiation of cancer. Recent reports have indicated increased cancer risk from industrial and domestic exposure to environmental ELF fields and to RF fields that are amplitude modulated at ELF. EMF fields have been reported to affect biological systems in various ways, affecting changes in the morphology and or functional behavior of cells, which have been observed in a variety of tissues. Although the mechanism of interaction of EMFs with living cells are not known, it has been proposed that they have multiple effects and can affect cell signalling, including modification of plasma membrane permeability and ion transport. Our findings suggest that EMFs can affect post translational modification of proteins such as poly ADP-ribosylation by epigenetic mechanism and that the effect of EMFs are highly specific regarding both the cell type and the frequency and amplification of the applied field. (author)

  4. Inferred demand and supply elasticities from a comparison of world oil models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the responses of oil supply and demand to prices and income in 11 world oil models that were compared in a recent Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) study. In May 1989, the EMF commenced a study of international oil supplies and demands (hereafter, EMF-11) to compare alternative perspectives on supply and demand issues and how these developments influence the level and direction of world oil prices. In analysing these issues, the EMF-11 working group relied partly upon results from 11 world oil models, using standardized assumptions about oil prices and gross domestic product (GDP). During the study, inferred price elasticities of supply and demand were derived from a comparison of results across different oil price scenarios with the same GDP growth path. Inferred income elasticities of demand were derived from a comparison of results across different economic growth scenarios with the same oil price-path. Together, these estimates summarize several important relationships for understanding oil markets. The first section provides some background on the EMF study and on general trends in the scenarios of interest that help to understand the results. Following sections explain the derivation and qualifications of the inferred estimates, report the results and summarize the key conclusions. (author)

  5. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Brown, Tim W. C.

    2015-01-01

    The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one's own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. PMID:26229540

  6. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Freudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed.

  7. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  8. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermáková, Eleonora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF), namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia or other diseases observed in newborns kept in incubators after the birth and the ELF EMF exposure in the incubator. The measured magnetic flux densities were compared with the reference values for this frequency range indicated in the European Union (EU) recommendations. The repeated measurements in incubators were made with a calibrated magnetometer EFA 300 in the frequency range of 5-30 kHz. Effective values of magnetic flux densities of ELF EMF were determined taking account of the reference values. The results of many repeated measurements showing the values of magnetic flux density in modern incubators with plastic supporting frame, were compared with those obtained in old type incubators with iron skeleton. A power frequency of 50 Hz was detected in the incubator and the ELF EMF values were by over two orders lower than the EU reference values. The paper emphasizes the need to take a special care of newborns kept in incubators even if only the sub-reference values are detected. The EU reference values are intended for the adult human population. A baby in an incubator has much smaller dimensions, higher electric conductivity and maybe trigger another mechanism of response to ELF EMF than that indicated in this paper.

  9. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  10. Electric and magnetic fields do not modify the biochemical properties of FRTL-5 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimida, A; Ferrarini, E; Agretti, P; De Marco, G; Grasso, L; Martinelli, M; Longo, I; Giulietti, D; Ricci, A; Galimberti, M; Siervo, B; Licitra, G; Francia, F; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P; Tonacchera, M

    2011-03-01

    Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) might be involved in human disease and numerous research and scientific reviews have been conducted to address this question. In particular thyroid structural and functional alterations caused by various forms of non-ionizing radiation have been described. The aim of this study was to analyze the possible effects of EMF on thyroid, in particular we analyzed the effects caused by a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) signal (900 MHz) on cultured thyroid cells (FRTL- 5). The experimental setup was designed in order to expose samples to a radiofrequency wave in well-controlled conditions. We used the FRTL-5 cell line, an epithelial monoclonal continuous cell line derived from Fisher rat thyroid tissue growing as monolayer, expressing the TSH receptor and the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). FRTL-5 were subsequently irradiate for 24, 48, and 96 h with EMF (800-900 MHz, power-frequency of mobile communication systems) and iodide uptake and cAMP production were measured. The irradiation of cells with EMF at 900 Mhz for 24, 48, and 96 h did not influence the level of cAMP production and was not able to modify iodide accumulation in FRTL- 5 cells with respect to basal conditions. In conclusion, EMF do not seem to be able to interfere with the biochemical properties of FRTL-5 cells in vitro.

  11. On electromagnetic forming processes in finitely strained solids: Theory and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. D.; Triantafyllidis, N.

    2009-08-01

    The process of electromagnetic forming (EMF) is a high velocity manufacturing technique that uses electromagnetic (Lorentz) body forces to shape sheet metal parts. EMF holds several advantages over conventional forming techniques: speed, repeatability, one-sided tooling, and most importantly considerable ductility increase in several metals. Current modeling techniques for EMF processes are not based on coupled variational principles to simultaneously account for electromagnetic and mechanical effects. Typically, separate solutions to the electromagnetic (Maxwell) and motion (Newton) equations are combined in staggered or lock-step methods, sequentially solving the mechanical and electromagnetic problems. The present work addresses these issues by introducing a fully coupled Lagrangian (reference configuration) least-action variational principle, involving magnetic flux and electric potentials and the displacement field as independent variables. The corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are Maxwell's and Newton's equations in the reference configuration, which are shown to coincide with their current configuration counterparts obtained independently by a direct approach. The general theory is subsequently simplified for EMF processes by considering the eddy current approximation. Next, an application is presented for axisymmetric EMF problems. It is shown that the proposed variational principle forms the basis of a variational integration numerical scheme that provides an efficient staggered solution algorithm. As an illustration a number of such processes are simulated, inspired by recent experiments of freely expanding uncoated and polyurea-coated aluminum tubes.

  12. Spin heat capacity of monolayer and AB-stacked bilayer MoS2 in the presence of exchange magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Mirabbaszadeh, Kavoos

    2017-04-01

    Dirac theory and Green's function technique are carried out to compute the spin dependent band structures and corresponding electronic heat capacity (EHC) of monolayer (ML) and AB-stacked bilayer (BL) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) two-dimensional (2D) crystals. We report the influence of induced exchange magnetic field (EMF) by magnetic insulator substrates on these quantities for both structures. The spin-up (down) subband gaps are shifted with EMF from conduction (valence) band to valence (conduction) band at both Dirac points in the ML because of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) which leads to a critical EMF in the K point and EHC returns to its initial states for both spins. In the BL case, EMF results split states and the decrease (increase) behavior of spin-up (down) subband gaps has been observed at both K and K‧ valleys which is due to the combined effect of SOC and interlayer coupling. For low and high EMFs, EHC of BL MoS2 does not change for spin-up subbands while increases for spin-down subbands.

  13. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardach, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  14. Investigations of a zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor in liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivai, Abu Khalid, E-mail: rivai.abukhalid@jaea.go.j [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Minoru, E-mail: mtakahas@nr.titech.ac.j [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Investigations of a magnesia-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor for oxygen control measurement in liquid lead were carried out. The fluid of Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reference electrode and a molybdenum wire as a working electrode to detect the output signal of the sensor were used. The Nernst equation was used to estimate the electromotive force (EMF) values theoretically. The temperatures of liquid lead were 500, 550 and 600 deg. C. The results showed that the injection gas temperatures did not affect the detected EMF, the sensor responded well to quick changes of oxygen activity in liquid lead, and the discrepancy between the measured and theoretical EMF of the oxygen sensor output signal was higher at 500 deg. C than at 550 and 600 deg. C.

  15. The Solubility of metal oxides in molten carbonates - why the acid-basic chemistry fails?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Niels; Qingfeng, Li; Borup, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    Solubilities of various metal oxides in molten Li/K carbonates have been measured at 650°C under carbon dioxide atmosphere. It is found that the solubility of NiO and PbO decreases with increasing lithium mole fraction and decreasing CO2 partial pressure. On the other hand, the emf measurement...... shows opposite effects, i.e., decreasing CO2 pressure leads to more negative emf values but increasing lithium content gives more positive emf values. This contradiction is explained by means of a complex formation model. The possible species for lead are proposed to be [Pb(CO3)2]-2 and/or [Pb(CO3) 3...

  16. Free energy of formation of lanthanum nickelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedharan, O.M.; Chandrasekharaiah, M.S.; Karkhanavala, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The ΔG 0 /sub f/ of La 2 NiO 4 (s) was determined from the measured emf in the range 1123 to 1373 0 K of the solid oxide electrolyte galvanic cell. The emf data were fitted to a linear equation by the method of least squares. From these data, the standard free-energy change, ΔG 0 , for the reaction NiO(s) + La 2 O 3 (s) = La 2 NiO 4 (s) was calculated. Combining these emf data with the best available free energy of formation data for NiO(s) and La 2 O 3 (s), the following expression for ΔG 0 /sub f/(La 2 NiO 4 (s)) was derived as ΔG 0 /sub f/(La 2 NiO 4 (s)/kJ mole -1 = -2057.0 + 322.8 x 10 -3 T +- 17.30

  17. Non-ionising electromagnetic environments on manned spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J R

    1989-08-01

    Future space travellers and settlers will be exposed to a variety of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Extrinsic sources will include solar and stellar fluxes, planetary fluxes, and supernovae. Intrinsic sources may include fusion and ion engines, EMFs from electrical equipment, radar, lighting, superconduction energy storage systems, magnetic bearings on gyroscopic control and orientation systems, and magnetic rail microprobe launch systems. Communication sources may include radio and microwave frequencies, and laser generating systems. Magnetic fields may also be used for deflection of radiation. There is also a loss of the normal Geomagnetic field (GMF) which includes static, alternating, and time-varying components. This paper reviews exposure limits and the biological effects of EMFs, and evidence for an electromagnetic sense organ and a relationship between man and the Geomagnetic field.

  18. The electrical and thermal properties of sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, N.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Adachi, G.; Shiokawa, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sodium sulfate mixed with lithium sulfate, yttrium sulfate, and silicon dioxide was prepared. The thermal and electrical properties of its phases were investigated. The Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 SiO 2 samples are similar to the Na 2 SO 4 -I phase (a high temperature phase), which is appreciably effective for Na + ionic conduction. Phase transformation was considerably suppressed by mixing. Electromotive force (EMF) was measured, using Na 2 SO 4 -Li 2 SO 4 -Y 2 (SO 4 ) 3 -SiO 2 as a solid electrolyte, by constructing an SO 2 gas concentration cell. The measured EMF's at 823 and 773 K were in fairly good accordance with the calculated EMF's for inlet SO 2 gas concentration between 30 ppm and 1%, and 500 ppm and 0.5% respectively

  19. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardach Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  20. Is it possible to indicate an ''electrosensitivity'' to an 50 Hz-magnetic field with an intensity of 10 {mu}T by the process of electrodermal activity (EDA)?; Laesst sich in der Hautleitfaehigkeit (EDA) bestimmter Menschen eine ''Elektrosensibilitaet'' auf ein 50 Hertz-Magnetfeld mit einer Intensitaet von 10 {mu}T abbilden?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study is to prove three hypotheses: 1) People who are very susceptible to EMF have a high ability to perceive small differences of stimuli (biological disposition). 2) People who are very susceptible to EMF have a high level of psychological or physiological stress as temporary conditions. 3) People who seem to be very susceptible to EMF have personal problems, and are not able to solve them otherwise (transference in terms of the theory of psychoanalysis). There were 96 volunteers without perception of any EM-field and 24 people with impairments of health on that were examined. Perceptual and mental tasks were used to differentiate individual performances under the influence of a 50 Hz-magnetic field with an intensity of 10 {micro}T. Positive findings may lead to the explanation of other environmental diseases. (orig.)

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Modelling the interaction of electromagnetic fields (10 MHz 10 GHz) with the human body: methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Numerical modelling of the interaction between electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the dielectrically inhomogeneous human body provides a unique way of assessing the resulting spatial distributions of internal electric fields, currents and rate of energy deposition. Knowledge of these parameters is of importance in understanding such interactions and is a prerequisite when assessing EMF exposure or when assessing or optimizing therapeutic or diagnostic medical applications that employ EMFs. In this review, computational methods that provide this information through full time-dependent solutions of Maxwell's equations are summarized briefly. This is followed by an overview of safety- and medical-related applications where modelling has contributed significantly to development and understanding of the techniques involved. In particular, applications in the areas of mobile communications, magnetic resonance imaging, hyperthermal therapy and microwave radiometry are highlighted. Finally, examples of modelling the potentially new medical applications of recent technologies such as ultra-wideband microwaves are discussed.

  2. Impacts of electromagnetic fields associated with marine and hydrokinetic surrogate technologies on fish movements and behaviors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claisse, Jeremy T. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pondella, Daniel J. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Chelsea M. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zahn, Laurel A. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Williams, Jonathan P. [Vantuna Research Group, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) and offshore wind devices are being developed and deployed in U.S. and international waters. Electric current flowing through subsea transmission cables associated with these devices will generate electromagnetic fields (EMF), which may interact with, and potentially impact, marine fishes. Some marine fishes can detect electric and/or magnetic fields and use them to navigate, orientate, and sense prey, mates and predators. Over the past five years there have been multiple comprehensive reviews and studies evaluating the potential vulnerability of marine fishes to EMF produced by MHK devices. Most documented effects involve sub-lethal behavioral responses of individual fish when in close proximity to EMF (e.g., fish being repelled by or attracted to fields). These reviews reach conclusions that the current state of research on this topic is still in its infancy and evaluations of potential impacts are associated with great uncertainty. A variety of MHK technologies are likely to be considered for deployment offshore of the Hawaiian Islands, and there is a need to be able to better predict and assess potential associated environmental impacts. The goal of this study was to provide a complementary piece to these previous reviews (e.g., Normandeau et al. 2011) by focusing on marine fish species in the Hawaii region. We compiled the relevant available information, then prioritized fish species as candidates for various paths of future research. To address this, we first developed a list of Hawaii Region Focal Species, which included fishes that are more likely to be sensitive to EMF. We then compiled species-specific information available in the literature on their sensitivity to EMF, as well as life history, movement and habitat use information that could inform an analysis of their likelihood of encountering EMF from subsea cables associated with MHK devices. Studies have only documented EMF sensitivity in 11 of the marine fish

  3. Harmonic Analysis on Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor Based on Advanced Commutation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Ji

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between current, back electromotive force (back-EMF, and torque for permanent-magnet brushless DC (PM BLDC motors under advanced commutation control from the perspective of harmonics. Considering that the phase current is the influencing factor of both torque and torque ripple, this paper firstly analyzes the effects of advanced commutation on phase current and current harmonics. And then, based on the harmonics of the phase current and back-EMF, the torque harmonic expressions are deduced. The expressions reveal the relationship of harmonic order between the torque, phase current, and back-EMF and highlight the different contribution of individual torque harmonic to the total torque ripple. Finally, the proposed harmonic analysis method is verified by the experiments with different speed and load conditions.

  4. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  5. Electric and magnetic fields research and public information dissemination program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) Research and Public Information Dissemination (RAPID) Program was authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (enacted October 24, 1992) to determine whether or not exposure to EMF produced by the generation, transmission, and use of electric energy affects human health. Two Federal agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), have primary responsibility for the program, but other Federal agencies are key participants as well. This program requires that Federal appropriations be matched by contributions from non-Federal sources. The authorized level of funding for the program was $65 million over a 5-year period (fiscal years 1993-1997 inclusive). For EMF RAPID to be a fully funded program, $32.5 million over 5 years will have to be appropriated by Congress and matched by non-Federal contributions.

  6. Methods for oxygen/uranium ratio determination in substoichiometric uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, V.G.; Godin, Yu.G.; S'edin, Yu.D.; Kosykh, V.G.; Nepryakhin, A.M.; Komarenko, F.F.; Kutyreva, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Investigations are performed into a possibility to use the methods of thermal gravimetric analysis, gas chromatography, hydration-dehydration, and e.m.f. of high-temperature solid-electrode galvanic cell for determining O-U atomic ratio in UO 2-x . It is shown that the investigated methods have an analysis error of ± 0.001 O/U units. However, the e.m.f. method, which feature a high accuracy near stoichiometry can be applied only within the limits of UO 2-x homogeneity. A possibility is shown to expend the area of e.m.f. method application during the analysis of substoichiometric uranium dioxide. 9 refs.; 1 tab

  7. Odor and Noise Intolerance in Persons with Self-Reported Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Nordin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lack of confirmation of symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF and triggered by EMF exposure has highlighted the role of individual factors. Prior observations indicate intolerance to other types of environmental exposures among persons with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS. This study assessed differences in odor and noise intolerance between persons with EHS and healthy controls by use of subscales and global measures of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS and the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS. The EHS group scored significantly higher than the controls on all CSS and NSS scales. Correlation coefficients between CSS and NSS scores ranged from 0.60 to 0.65 across measures. The findings suggest an association between EHS and odor and noise intolerance, encouraging further investigation of individual factors for understanding EMF-related symptoms.

  8. America's Stonehenge, (A.S.), Its "Window into the Past," Jung's "Reincarnations," and Problems Like "A Wonderful Mind" Are Associated With Time-recurret Natural Phenomena Monitored By Native Americans Impacting Religous Zealotry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kimbereley E.; McLeod, Roger D.

    2002-04-01

    Phenomena detected at A.S. in North Salem, N.H. are associated with: positive ionic charges, inclement weather, periodicities that are daily, weekly, earth-moon related, but not with the full moon, seasonal annual and longer cyclicities, exceedingly faint lotus-blossom-blue light "tubes" traveling along electromagnetic field (EMF) lines, incorrect beliefs about reincarnation, and a multitude of aspects of schizophrenia as popularized in the movie "A Wonderful Mind". EgyptAir Flight 990, 10/99, documented approximately 90 seconds of the copilot's repeated phrase "I rely on God." Spiritual Gnostic, Cathar-Amerindian mistaken "reincarnations" and other esoteric mystical visions and unions, teenagers or other psychologically bizarre behaviors and all of the above are related to detectable or documented time variations of the EMF; Amerindians say schizoid behavior, supernatural beings, or advanced ideas are "Manitou" aspects of the Great Spirit, our EMF!

  9. Julia Roberts, Precognition, America’s Stonehenge, (A.S.), Detecting Information From the Past, Mistaking It For “Spirit,” and Defusing Martyrdom Practices Among Religious Zealots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo

    2001-11-01

    Julia Roberts claimed to have had a precognitive dream about an orangutan giving her a full-body embrace, in the special about orangutans by the PBS's NY channel 13. When such events do occur for anyone, my research suggests the equivalent of spatial diffraction pattern information about an event can propagate in a backward sense through time. A sufficiently energized transponder is needed, and an appropriately sensitive receiver. Equivalent information from the past is detectable at A.S. Individuals ``experiencing" reincarnation may actually have been impacted by naturally occurring EMF, upon which information-conveying signals from the past have been superimposed. Individuals ``possessed" by spirits could actually be detecting unsettling signals. Native American world-view holds blameless deranged individuals, stating that Tseka'bec or the Great Spirit, perhaps EMF, is at fault. Zealots' expectations of a glorious reincarnation could be defused if rage is an artifact of EMF experiences. Society should attempt such a persuasion.

  10. Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field Map of Timisoara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefu, N.; Solyom, I.; Arama, A.

    2015-12-01

    There are many electromagnetic field (EMF) sources nowadays acting simultaneously, especially in urban areas, making the theoretical estimation of electromagnetic power at ground level very difficult. This paper reports on EMF maps built with measurements collected in Timisoara, at various radiofrequencies. A grid of 15×15 squares was built (approximate resolution 400m x 400m) and measurements of the average and maximum values of the electric field E, magnetic field H and total power density S at 0.9, 1.8 and 2.4 GHz were collected in every node of the grid. Positions of the nodes in terms of latitude and longitude were also collected. Maps were built presenting the spatial distribution of the measured quantities over Timisoara. Potential influences of EMF on public health are discussed.

  11. [Electormagnetic field of the mobile phone base station: case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieńkowski, Paweł; Zubrzak, Bartłomiej; Surma, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents changes in the electromagnetic field intensity in a school building and its surrounding after the mobile phone base station installation on the roof of the school. The comparison of EMF intensity measured before the base station was launched (electromagnetic background measurement) and after starting its operation (two independent control measurements) is discussed. Analyses of measurements are presented and the authors also propose the method of the electromagnetic field distribution adjustment in the area of radiation antennas side lobe to reduce the intensity of the EMF level in the base station proximity. The presented method involves the regulation of the inclination. On the basis of the measurements, it was found that the EMF intensity increased in the building and its surroundings, but the values measured with wide margins meet the requirements of the Polish law on environmental protection.

  12. 50-60 Hz electric and magnetic field effects on cognitive function in humans: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasson, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time perception, as determined by electroencephalographic methods and performance measures. Overall, laboratory studies, which have investigated the acute effects of power frequency fields on cognitive functioning in humans are heterogeneous, in terms of both electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure and the experimental design and measures used. Results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret with regard to functional relevance for possible health risks. Statistically significant differences between field and control exposure, when they are found, are small, subtle, transitory, without any clear dose-response relationship and difficult to reproduce. The human performance or event related potentials (ERPs) measures that might specifically be affected by EMF exposure, as well as a possible cerebral structure or function that could be more sensitive to EMF, cannot be better determined. (author)

  13. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  14. Effect of low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the Escherichia coli growth for application in riverbank filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Rossitah; Abustan, Ismail; Arshad, Mohd Rizal; Kamal, Nurul Hana Mokhtar

    2017-10-01

    A 50 Hz low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) could give removal effect on the growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the riverbank filtration (RBF) was studied. The LF-EMF strengths were varied from 2 to 10 mT using coil column induce magnetic fields. For this study, two different columns with a diameter of 50 mm and 80 mm were applied; 1.5mm copper wires with the number of turns between 300 to 600 turns. Water samples were flowed into the column at flowrate of 50mL/min with temperature in range of 28-30°C. This study, it was found that the LF-EMF has significant removal effects on E. coli growth, where the removal of 100% of E. coli at 6 mT and 8 mT after 6 hrs exposed. Moreover, for shorter exposure period of 3 hrs exposed, 82% of E. coli removal were detected in 80 mm column for 8 mT and 10 mT magnetic field. These findings indicate that the application of LF-EMF is able to decrease the E. coli, can be and efficient in E. coli growth from river water intake. Thus, the results from this study proved that the utilization of LF-EMF is able to decrease the concentrations of E. coli, and contributes in slowing down their growth. Also, it can be indicated that the LF-EMF kill a part of E. coli exposed in the river water with the large magnetic field and long-time exposure.

  15. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallastegi, Mara; Guxens, Mònica; Jiménez-Zabala, Ana; Calvente, Irene; Fernández, Marta; Birks, Laura; Struchen, Benjamin; Vrijheid, Martine; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández, Mariana F; Torrent, Maties; Ballester, Ferrán; Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Guerra, David; González, Julián; Röösli, Martin; Santa-Marina, Loreto

    2016-02-18

    Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood) Project, a prospective cohort study. Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models) and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements) were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks). Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Radiofrequency (RF) exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap) are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children and adolescents, this will enable to evaluate the complex

  16. The pattern of the electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones in motor vehicle driving simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Politański

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The paper reports the results of the determinations of UMTS EMF distributions in the driver's cab of motor vehicle simulators. The results will serve as the basis for future research on the influence of EMF emitted by mobile phones on driver physiology. Materials and Methods: Two motor vehicle driving simulators were monitored, while an EMF source was placed at the driver's head or on the dashboard of the motor vehicle driving simulator. For every applied configuration, the maximal electric field strength was measured, as were the values at 16 points corresponding to chosen locations on a driver's or passenger's body. Results: When the power was set for the maximum (49 mW, a value of 27 V/m was measured in the vicinity of the driver's head when the phone was close to the head. With the same power, when the phone was placed on the dashboard, the measured maximum was 15.2 V/m in the vicinity of the driver's foot. Similar results were obtained for the passenger. Significant perturbations in EMF distribution and an increase in electric field strength values in the motor vehicle driving simulator were also observed in comparison to free space measurements, and the electric field strength was up to 3 times higher inside the simulator. Conclusions: This study can act as the basis of future studies concerning the influence of the EMF emitted by mobile phones on the physiology of the driver. Additionally, the authors postulate that it is advisable to keep mobile phones at a distance from the head, i.e. use, whenever possible, hands-free kits to reduce EMF exposure, both for drivers and passengers.

  17. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE IN EMERGING MARKETS AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF ADR ISSUING EMERGING MARKET FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Ficici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the value implications of good corporate governance for a sample of 54 ADR issuing emerging market firms (EMFs from 9 countries primarily located in the regions of Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America and the and employs recently constructed company composite corporate governance metric along with some alternative corporate governance measures associated with the origin of the issuing firm. Although the ADR literature primarily focuses on the impact of subscription to US disclosure requirements we contend that company and country specific corporate governance standards play a significant role in the risk reduction and ensuing value capture.  The fundamental inquiry in this study has the following foci: The primary focus is on the impact of corporate governance structures on firm performance as to whether adherence to standards creates market value for ADR issuing EMFs.  Do good corporate governance practices affect the value of EMFs? The secondary focus is concerned with whether the impact of corruption level and legal system in a firm’s home country affect the corporate structures of EMFs thus affecting the market value of firms.  In this study, we utilize Tobin’s q as the measure of firm performance/market value.  Our findings suggest that there is a significant correlation between corporate governance structures of ADR issuing EMFs and their market values and/or performances.  The results also indicate that the level of corruption and legal structures in home countries of EMFs strongly impact the corporate governance structures of these firms and sequentially affect their market values. Therefore, this research further contributes to the scholarly findings and suppositions that corporate structures of firms do create consequences on firm value.

  18. Non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on offshore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, G.M.; Heaton, B.

    1996-01-01

    The concern over the effects of occupational exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) has greatly increased in recent years. A great deal of knowledge is known about the thermal effects of radiofrequency EMF's and at the moment, many epidemiological and laboratory studies are being performed on extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) EMF's. Some studies have reported an increased risk of leukaemia and other cancers in children living close to overhead power cables and power industry electrical workers. Wertheimer and Leeper reported cancer links in children residing near overhead power cables as early as 1979 and many subsequent studies have continued to make similar associations. These studies suggest that prolonged exposure to higher than normal magnetic fields increases the occurrence of certain cancers in both children and adults. The most common associations are between EMF's and leukaemia, other haematopoetic cancers, brain cancers, central nervous system cancers or melanomas. Studies of adults living near overhead lines by Youngson et al. and working in the electricity industry by Armstrong et al. and Savitz and Loomis have also shown associations with certain cancers. The epidemiological studies are incomplete in several areas and many have been openly criticized. As yet, there is no conclusive laboratory evidence but studies are ongoing. The Hendee and Boteler study suggested that 'EMF's might be cancer promoters but are unlikely to be cancer initiators'. In addition to ELF studies, there have been many reports investigating exposure to EMF's from visual display units with equivocal results. Laboratory studies have reported conflicting results and as yet the hazard, if any, is still uncertain. Reports have also recorded exposure levels of operators in broadcast radio stations showing a variety of levels dependent on the occupation. In December 1992, the Commission of the European Communities proposed a council Directive on

  19. Thermophysical Properties Measurement of High-Temperature Liquids Under Microgravity Conditions in Controlled Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Mizuno, Akotoshi; Hibiya, Taketoshi; Kawauchi, Hiroya; Murai, Kentaro; Takahashi, Suguru

    2012-01-01

    Microgravity conditions have advantages of measurement of surface tension and viscosity of metallic liquids by the oscillating drop method with an electromagnetic levitation (EML) device. Thus, we are preparing the experiments of thermophysical properties measurements using the Materials-Science Laboratories ElectroMagnetic-Levitator (MSL-EML) facilities in the international Space station (ISS). Recently, it has been identified that dependence of surface tension on oxygen partial pressure (Po2) must be considered for industrial application of surface tension values. Effect of Po2 on surface tension would apparently change viscosity from the damping oscillation model. Therefore, surface tension and viscosity must be measured simultaneously in the same atmospheric conditions. Moreover, effect of the electromagnetic force (EMF) on the surface oscillations must be clarified to obtain the ideal surface oscillation because the EMF works as the external force on the oscillating liquid droplets, so extensive EMF makes apparently the viscosity values large. In our group, using the parabolic flight levitation experimental facilities (PFLEX) the effect of Po2 and external EMF on surface oscillation of levitated liquid droplets was systematically investigated for the precise measurements of surface tension and viscosity of high temperature liquids for future ISS experiments. We performed the observation of surface oscillations of levitated liquid alloys using PFLEX on board flight experiments by Gulfstream II (G-II) airplane operated by DAS. These observations were performed under the controlled Po2 and also under the suitable EMF conditions. In these experiments, we obtained the density, the viscosity and the surface tension values of liquid Cu. From these results, we discuss about as same as reported data, and also obtained the difference of surface oscillations with the change of the EMF conditions.

  20. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino

    2018-04-01

    The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma cytokine profile in tropical endomyocardial fibrosis: predominance of TNF-a, IL-4 and IL-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S Bossa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of immune/inflammatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of tropical endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF has been suggested by the finding of early blood and myocardial eosinophilia. However, the inflammatory activation status of late-stage EMF patients is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in plasma samples from late stage EMF patients. Cytokine levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, Interferon (IFN-γ, Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 were assayed in plasma samples from 27 EMF patients and compared with those of healthy control subjects. All EMF patients displayed detectable plasma levels of at least one of the cytokines tested. We found that TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-10 were each detected in at least 74% of tested sera, and plasma levels of IL-10, IL-4, and TNF-α were significantly higher than those of controls. Plasma levels of such cytokines positively correlated with each other. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory/Th2circulating cytokine profile in EMF is consistent with the presence of a persistent inflammatory stimulus. On the other hand, the detection of increased levels of TNF-α may be secondary to the cardiovascular involvement observed in these patients, whereas IL-4 and IL-10 may have been upregulated as a homeostatic mechanism to buffer both production and deleterious cardiovascular effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further studies might establish whether these findings play a role in disease pathogenesis.

  2. Getting to the root of the matter: Landscape implications of plant-fungal interactions for tree migration in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, R. E.; Bennett, A.; Breen, A. L.; Hollingsworth, T. N.; Taylor, D. L.; Chapin, T.; Rupp, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Forecasting change in forest cover across Alaska tundra is critical to predicting regional ecosystem services, including climate feedbacks such as carbon storage. Controls over seedling establishment govern forest development and migration potential. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), obligate symbionts of all Alaskan tree species, are particularly important to seedling establishment, yet their significance to landscape vegetation change is largely unknown. We used ALFRESCO, a landscape model of wildfire and vegetation dynamics, to explore whether EMF inoculum potential influences patterns of tundra afforestation and associated flammability. Using two downscaled CMIP3 General Circulation Models (ECHAM5 and CCCMA) and a mid-range emissions scenario (A1B) at a 1 km2 resolution, we compared simulated tundra afforestation rates and flammability from four parameterizations of EMF effects on seedling establishment and growth from 2000-2100. Modeling predicted an 8.8-18.2% increase in forest cover from 2000 to 2100. Simulations that explicitly represented landscape variability in EMF inoculum potential showed up to a 2.8% reduction in afforestation due to low inoculum potential limiting seedling growth. This reduction limited fuel availability and thus, cumulative area burned. Regardless of inclusion of EMF effects in simulations, landscape flammability was lower for simulations driven by the wetter and cooler CCCMA model than the warmer and drier ECHAM5 model, while tundra conversion to forest was greater. Results suggest abiotic factors are the primary driver of tree migration. Simulations including EMF effects, a biotic factor, yielded more conservative estimates of landcover change across Alaska that better-matched empirical estimates from the previous century.

  3. Perception of mobile phone and base station risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Earle, Timothy C; Gutscher, Heinz; Keller, Carmen

    2005-10-01

    Perceptions of risks associated with mobile phones, base stations, and other sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF) were examined. Data from a telephone survey conducted in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland are presented (N = 1,015). Participants assessed both risks and benefits associated with nine different sources of EMF. Trust in the authorities regulating these hazards was assessed as well. In addition, participants answered a set of questions related to attitudes toward EMF and toward mobile phone base stations. According to respondents' assessments, high-voltage transmission lines are the most risky source of EMF. Mobile phones and mobile phone base stations received lower risk ratings. Results showed that trust in authorities was positively associated with perceived benefits and negatively associated with perceived risks. People who use their mobile phones frequently perceived lower risks and higher benefits than people who use their mobile phones infrequently. People who believed they lived close to a base station did not significantly differ in their level of risks associated with mobile phone base stations from people who did not believe they lived close to a base station. Regarding risk regulation, a majority of participants were in favor of fixing limiting values based on the worst-case scenario. Correlations suggest that belief in paranormal phenomena is related to level of perceived risks associated with EMF. Furthermore, people who believed that most chemical substances cause cancer also worried more about EMF than people who did not believe that chemical substances are that harmful. Practical implications of the results are discussed.

  4. Spatial electromagnetic field intensity modelling of global system for mobile communication base stations in the Istanbul Technical University Ayazaga campus area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Kubra; Denli, Hayri Hakan

    2018-05-07

    The rapid development of the global system for mobile communication services and the consequent increased electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to the human body have generated debate on the potential danger with respect to human health. The many research studies focused on this subject have, however, not provided any certain evidence about harmful consequences due to mobile communication systems. On the other hand, there are still views suggesting such exposure might affect the human body in different ways. To reduce such effects to a minimum, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has declared boundary values for the energy released by the base stations, which are the main source of the electromagnetic fields. These values are accepted by many countries in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to create EMF intensity maps for the area covered by Istanbul Technical University (ITU) and find areas of potential risk with regard to health considering the current situation and future trends. In this study, the field intensities of electromagnetic signals issued at the frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz were measured in V/m at 29 pre-specified survey points using a spectrum analyzer (Spectran HF-6065). Geographic information systems and spatial interpolation techniques were used to produce EMF intensity maps. Three different spatial interpolation methods, minimum mean square error, Radial Basis and Empirical Bayesian Kriging, were compared. The results were geographically analyzed and the measurements expressed as heat maps covering the study area. Using these maps, the values measured were compared with the EMF intensity standards issued by ICNIRP. The results showed that the exposure levels to the EMF intensities were all within the ICNIRP limits at the ITU study area. However, since the EMF intensity level with respect to human health is not known, it is not possible to confirm if these levels are safe or not.

  5. Spatial electromagnetic field intensity modelling of global system for mobile communication base stations in the Istanbul Technical University Ayazaga campus area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubra Boz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the global system for mobile communication services and the consequent increased electromagnetic field (EMF exposure to the human body have generated debate on the potential danger with respect to human health. The many research studies focused on this subject have, however, not provided any certain evidence about harmful consequences due to mobile communication systems. On the other hand, there are still views suggesting such exposure might affect the human body in different ways. To reduce such effects to a minimum, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP has declared boundary values for the energy released by the base stations, which are the main source of the electromagnetic fields. These values are accepted by many countries in various parts of the world. The aim of this study was to create EMF intensity maps for the area covered by Istanbul Technical University (ITU and find areas of potential risk with regard to health considering the current situation and future trends. In this study, the field intensities of electromagnetic signals issued at the frequencies of 900 and 1800 MHz were measured in V/m at 29 pre-specified survey points using a spectrum analyzer (Spectran HF-6065. Geographic information systems and spatial interpolation techniques were used to produce EMF intensity maps. Three different spatial interpolation methods, minimum mean square error, Radial Basis and Empirical Bayesian Kriging, were compared. The results were geographically analyzed and the measurements expressed as heat maps covering the study area. Using these maps, the values measured were compared with the EMF intensity standards issued by ICNIRP. The results showed that the exposure levels to the EMF intensities were all within the ICNIRP limits at the ITU study area. However, since the EMF intensity level with respect to human health is not known, it is not possible to confirm if these levels are safe

  6. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gallastegi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol describes the methodologies used for characterising exposure of children to EMF-NIR in the INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente- Environment and Childhood Project, a prospective cohort study. Methods/Design Indirect (proximity to emission sources, questionnaires on sources use and geospatial propagation models and direct methods (spot and fixed longer-term measurements and personal measurements were conducted in order to assess exposure levels of study participants aged between 7 and 18 years old. The methodology used varies depending on the frequency of the EMF-NIR and the environment (homes, schools and parks. Questionnaires assessed the use of sources contributing both to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF and Radiofrequency (RF exposure levels. Geospatial propagation models (NISMap are implemented and validated for environmental outdoor sources of RFs using spot measurements. Spot and fixed longer-term ELF and RF measurements were done in the environments where children spend most of the time. Moreover, personal measurements were taken in order to assess individual exposure to RF. The exposure data are used to explore their relationships with proximity and/or use of EMF-NIR sources. Discussion Characterisation of the EMF-NIR exposure by this combination of methods is intended to overcome problems encountered in other research. The assessment of exposure of INMA cohort children and adolescents living in different regions of Spain to the full frequency range of EMF-NIR extends the characterisation of environmental exposures in this cohort. Together with other data obtained in the project, on socioeconomic and family characteristics and development of the children

  7. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Visual Learning & Memory and Anatomical Structures of the Brain in Male Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Tekieh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans in modern societies expose to substantially elevated levels of electromagnetic field (EMF emissions with different frequencies.The neurobiological effects of EMF have been the subject of debate and intensive research over the past few decades. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of EMF on visual learning and anatomical dimensions of the hippocampus and the prefrontal area (PFA in male Rhesus monkeys. Materials and Methods:In this study, four rhesus monkeys were irradiated by 0.7 microtesla ELF-EMF either at 5 or 30 Hz, 4 h a day, for 30 days. Alterations in visual learning and memory were assessed before and after irradiation phase by using a box designed that cchallenging animals for gaining rewards Also, the monkeys’ brains were scanned by using MRI technique one week before and one week after irradiation. The monkeys were anesthetized by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (10–20 mg/kg and xylazine (0.2–0.4 mg/kg, and scanned with a 3-Tesla Magnetom, in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using T2 weight­ed protocol with a slice thickness of 3 mm. The anatomical changes of hippocampus and the prefrontal area (PFA was measured by volumetric study. Results: Electromagnetic field exposure at a frequency of 30 Hz reduced the number of correct responses in the learning process and delayed memory formation in the two tested monkeys. While, ELF-EMF at 5 Hz had no effect on the visual learning and memory changes. No anatomical changes were found in the prefrontal area and the hippocampus at both frequencies. Conclusion: ELF-EMF irradiation at 30 Hz adversely affected visual learning and memory, pprobably through these changes apply through effects on other factors except changes in brain structure and anatomy.

  8. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  9. Magnetic-property changes in epitaxial metal-film sandwiches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    Epitaxial metal-film sandwiches (EMFS) containing Pd or Cr, have been prepared between single-crystal Ag or Au. The modified Pd/Cr show major changes in physical properties. Pd has a stretched lattice parameter in Au-Pd-Au, which combines with a tetragonal distortion to cause exchange enhancements up to 28,000 and spin-fluctuation temperatures of 1 to 10 K. In Au-Cr-Au, Cr takes up the fcc structure, leading to superconductivity due to a high N(E/sub F/). These results are contrasted to data for Ag-Pd-Ag and Ag-Cr-Ag EMFS

  10. Analysis of global warming stabilization scenarios. The Asian-Pacific Integrated Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, Mikiko; Morita, Tsuneyuki; Masui, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and climatic impacts of the EMF 19 emission scenarios. A reference scenario, three emission scenarios targeting 550 ppmv atmospheric concentration, and three tax scenarios are analyzed. The profiles of energy consumption and economic losses of each policy scenario are compared to the reference scenario. The model also estimates that global mean temperature will increase 1.7-2.9 C in 2100, and the sea level will rise 40-51 cm, compared to the 1990 levels under the EMF scenarios. Impacts on food productivity and malaria infection are estimated to be very severe in some countries in the Asian region

  11. EUROPEAN MONETARY FUND - BETWEEN ILLUSION AND FUTURE INSTRUMENT FOR EUROPEAN FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firtescu Bogdan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The finance crises that culminate with the Greece situation shows that majority of European countries are facing balance-of-payments difficulties and it is clear that actual mechanism couldnt face the situation. This paper wants to highlight some of the proposals related to the development mechanisms, such the creation of the European Monetary Fund or the design of the European Mechanism for Financial Stability (EMFS, which could include the EMF, showing also the actual mechanism of financing through International Monetary Fund (IMF.Some pro and counter arguments are furthermore taken into discussion.

  12. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Ward, Jeffrey A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.

    2012-05-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.3.1.1 Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report, we provide a description of the methods and results of experiments conducted in FY 2010-FY 2011 to evaluate potential responses of selected aquatic organisms. Preliminary EMF laboratory experiments during FY 2010 and 2011 entailed exposures with representative fish and invertebrate species including juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). These species were selected for their ecological, commercial, and/or recreational importance, as well as their potential to encounter an MHK device or transmission cable during part or all of their life cycle. Based on previous studies, acute effects such as mortality were not expected to occur from EMF exposures. Therefore, our measurement endpoints focused on behavioral responses (e.g., detection of EMF, interference with feeding behavior, avoidance or attraction to EMF), developmental changes (i.e., growth and survival from egg or larval stage to juvenile), and exposure markers indicative of physiological responses to stress. EMF intensities during the various tests ranged from 0.1 to 3 millitesla, representing a range of upper bounding conditions reported in the literature. Experiments to date have shown there is little evidence to indicate distinct or extreme behavioral responses in the presence of elevated EMF for the species tested. Several developmental and physiological responses were observed in the fish exposures, although most were not

  13. An alternating voltage battery with two salt-water oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellati, Rinaldo; Soldà, Roberto

    2001-05-01

    We built a simple alternating voltage battery that periodically reverses value and sign of its electromotive force (emf). This battery consists of two coupled concentration salt-water oscillators that are phase shifted by initially extracting some drops of salt solution from one of the two oscillators. Although the actual frequency (period: ˜30 s) and emf (˜±55 mV) is low, our battery is suitable to demonstrate a practical application of oscillating systems in the physical, chemical, or biological laboratory for undergraduates. Interpretation of the phenomenon is given.

  14. Delayed consequences of biological action of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.G.

    2000-01-01

    Based on available data the real possibility of development of delayed effects in people of long-term electromagnetic fields (EMF) exposure is considered. It is shown that is a relation between long-term EMF-exposure and development of the breast cancer, brain tumors, leukemia and neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Analysis of up-to-date publications permit to conclude that this problem is urgent and further researches of the conditions promoting the development of delayed effects are required [ru

  15. Efficiency of homopolar generators without ferromagnetic circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    E.m.f. and weights of homopolar generators (HG) without a ferromagnetic circuit and of similar generator with a ferromagnetic circuit are compared at equal armature diameters and armature rotative speed. HG without ferromagnetic cuircuit of disk and cylinder types with hot and superconducting excitation winding are considered. Areas of the most reasonable removal of a ferromagnetic circuit in the HG layout are found. The plots of relationships between the e.m.f. and HG weight that permit to estimate the efficiency of ''nonferrite'' HG constructions are presented

  16. Lead activity in Pb-Sb-Bi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kholkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the study of lead thermodynamic activity in the Pb-Sb-Bi alloys. The method for EMF measurements of the concentration cell: (–Pb|KCl-PbCl2¦¦KCl-PbCl2|Pb-(Sb-Bi(+ was used. The obtained concentration dependences of the galvanic cell EMF are described by linear equations. The lead activity in the ternary liquid-metal alloy demonstrates insignificant negative deviations from the behavior of ideal solutions.

  17. On the Motion of the Field of a Permanent Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leus, Vladimir; Taylor, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A description is given of a series of recent experiments using a rotating magnetic circuit comprising a permanent magnet ring and yoke, and a stationary conductor in the air gap between the ring and yoke. The EMF induced in this case cannot be described by a simple application of Faraday's flux law. This is because the magnetic flux in the air gap…

  18. Design and experimentation of an empirical multistructure framework for accurate, sharp and reliable hydrological ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, G.; Anctil, F.; Roy, R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper outlines the design and experimentation of an Empirical Multistructure Framework (EMF) for lumped conceptual hydrological modeling. This concept is inspired from modular frameworks, empirical model development, and multimodel applications, and encompasses the overproduce and select paradigm. The EMF concept aims to reduce subjectivity in conceptual hydrological modeling practice and includes model selection in the optimisation steps, reducing initial assumptions on the prior perception of the dominant rainfall-runoff transformation processes. EMF generates thousands of new modeling options from, for now, twelve parent models that share their functional components and parameters. Optimisation resorts to ensemble calibration, ranking and selection of individual child time series based on optimal bias and reliability trade-offs, as well as accuracy and sharpness improvement of the ensemble. Results on 37 snow-dominated Canadian catchments and 20 climatically-diversified American catchments reveal the excellent potential of the EMF in generating new individual model alternatives, with high respective performance values, that may be pooled efficiently into ensembles of seven to sixty constitutive members, with low bias and high accuracy, sharpness, and reliability. A group of 1446 new models is highlighted to offer good potential on other catchments or applications, based on their individual and collective interests. An analysis of the preferred functional components reveals the importance of the production and total flow elements. Overall, results from this research confirm the added value of ensemble and flexible approaches for hydrological applications, especially in uncertain contexts, and open up new modeling possibilities.

  19. Effects of repeated 9 and 30-day exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on social recognition behavior and estrogen receptors expression in olfactory bulb of Wistar female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Mondragón, C; Arriaga-Avila, V; Martínez-Abundis, E; Barrera-Mera, B; Mercado-Gómez, O; Guevara-Guzmán, R

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the short- and long-term effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on social recognition behavior and expression of α- and β-estrogen receptors (ER). Rats were exposed to 60-Hz electromagnetic fields for 9 or 30 days and tested for social recognition behavior. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assays were performed to evaluate α- and β-ER expression in the olfactory bulb of intact, ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized+estradiol (E2) replacement (OVX+E2). Ovariectomization showed impairment of social recognition after 9 days of EMF exposure and a complete recovery after E2 replacement and so did those after 30 days. Short EMF exposure increased expression of β-ER in intact, but not in the others. Longer exposure produced a decrease in intact but an increase in OVX and OVX+E2. Our findings suggest a significant role for β-estrogen receptors and a lack of effect for α-estrogen receptors on a social recognition task. EMF: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ERs: estrogen receptors; OB: olfactory bulb; OVX: ovariectomized; OVX + E 2 : ovariectomized + estradiol replacement; IEI: interexposure interval; β-ER: beta estrogen receptor; E 2 : replacement of estradiol; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; WB: Western blot; PBS: phosphate-buffer saline; PB: phosphate-buffer.

  20. An Electromagnetic Gauge Technique for Measuring Shocked Particle Velocity in Electrically Conductive Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, David; Yoshinaka, Akio

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic velocity (EMV) gauges are a class of film gauges which permit the direct in-situ measurement of shocked material flow velocity. The active sensing element, typically a metallic foil, requires exposure to a known external magnetic field in order to produce motional electromotive force (emf). Due to signal distortion caused by mutual inductance between sample and EMV gauge, this technique is typically limited to shock waves in non-conductive materials. In conductive samples, motional emf generated in the EMV gauge has to be extracted from the measured signal which results from the combined effects of both motional emf and voltage changes from induced currents. An electromagnetic technique is presented which analytically models the dynamics of induced current between a copper disk moving as a rigid body with constant 1D translational velocity toward an EMV gauge, where both disk and gauge are exposed to a uniform external static magnetic field. The disk is modelled as a magnetic dipole loop where its Foucault current is evaluated from the characteristics of the fields, whereas the EMV gauge is modelled as a circuit loop immersed in the field of the magnetic dipole loop, the intensity of which is calculated as a function of space and, implicitly, time. Equations of mutual induction are derived and the current induced in the EMV gauge loop is solved, allowing discrimination of the motional emf. Numerical analysis is provided for the step response of the induced EMV gauge current with respect to the Foucault current in the moving copper sample.

  1. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes…

  2. “Triple M” Effect: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain Increased Dental Amalgam Microleakage after Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mehdizadeh, A.R.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we introduce “Triple M” effect, a new evidence-based theory which can explain the accelerated microleakage of dental amalgam fillings after exposure to different sources of electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, there are saliva-filled tiny spaces between amalgam and the tooth. Exposure of the oral cavity to RF-EMFs increases the energy of these small amounts of saliva. Due to the small mass of saliva in these tiny spaces, a small amount of energy will be required for heating. Moreover, reflection of the radiofrequency radiation on the inner walls of the tiny spaces causes interference which in turn produces some “hot spots” in these spaces. Finally, formation of gas bubbles in response to increased temperature and very rapid expansion of these bubbles will accelerate the microleakage of amalgam. Experiments that confirm the validity of this theory are discussed. PMID:29732349

  3. Evaluation of the mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on serum iron parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetkin, Murat; Demirel, Can; Kızılkan, Neşe; Aksoy, Nur; Erbağcı, Hülya

    2017-03-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) created by mobile phones during communication have harmful effects on different organs. It was aimed to investigate the effects of an EMF created by a mobile phone on serum iron level, ferritin, unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity within a rat experiment model. A total of 32 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into the control, sham, mobile phone speech (2h/day) and stand by (12 h/day) groups. The speech and stand by groups were subjected to the EMF for a total of 10 weeks. No statistically significant difference was observed between the serum iron and ferritin values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups than the control and sham groups (p>0.05). The unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron capacity values of the rats in the speech and stand by groups were significantly lower in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). It was found that exposure to EMF created by mobile phones affected unsaturated iron binding capacity and total iron binding capacity negatively.

  4. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 2 of a cross-sectional study with measured radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Blettner, M; Kowall, B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from mobile phone base stations was related to various health disturbances. METHODS: For the investigation people living mainly...

  5. Getting to the root of the matter: landscape implications of plant-fungal interactions for tree migration in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Hewitt; Alec P. Bennett; Amy L. Breen; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; D. Lee Taylor; F. Stuart Chapin; T. Scott Rupp

    2016-01-01

    Context   Forecasting the expansion of forest into Alaska tundra is critical to predicting regional ecosystem services, including climate feedbacks such as carbon storage. Controls over seedling establishment govern forest development and migration potential. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), obligate symbionts of all Alaskan tree species, are...

  6. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people; Presentacion del proyecto MobiKids: Tecnologias de la comunicacion, exposiciones ambientales y riesgo de tumores cerebrales en gente joven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-07-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  7. Conductivity, transport number measurements and hydration thermodynamics of BaCe0.2Zr0.7Y(0.1 − ξ)NiξO(3 − δ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Wang, Hsiang-Jen

    2011-01-01

    pressures, as well as the emf technique. The compounds exhibit p-type conduction in oxidizing atmosphere, and ionic conduction elsewhere. The oxide ion contribution of the conductivity is negligible only for temperatures below 600 °C. The determination of hydration enthalpies, our second goal, was achieved...

  8. Comparison of average global exposure of population induced by a macro 3G network in different geographical areas in France and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Varsier, Nadège; Niksic, Stevan; Kocan, Enis; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Milinkovic, Jelena; Gati, Azeddine; Person, Christian; Wiart, Joe

    2016-09-01

    This article is the first thorough study of average population exposure to third generation network (3G)-induced electromagnetic fields (EMFs), from both uplink and downlink radio emissions in different countries, geographical areas, and for different wireless device usages. Indeed, previous publications in the framework of exposure to EMFs generally focused on individual exposure coming from either personal devices or base stations. Results, derived from device usage statistics collected in France and Serbia, show a strong heterogeneity of exposure, both in time, that is, the traffic distribution over 24 h was found highly variable, and space, that is, the exposure to 3G networks in France was found to be roughly two times higher than in Serbia. Such heterogeneity is further explained based on real data and network architecture. Among those results, authors show that, contrary to popular belief, exposure to 3G EMFs is dominated by uplink radio emissions, resulting from voice and data traffic, and average population EMF exposure differs from one geographical area to another, as well as from one country to another, due to the different cellular network architectures and variability of mobile usage. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:382-390, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (pphone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Creating poloidal flux in a tokamak plasma with low frequency waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, R.K.; Capewell, D.L.; Bellan, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Using a fully toroidal, collisionless, low frequency model, we show that low amplitude, circularly polarized waves can, depending on antenna geometry (i) drive the toroidal EMF necessary to sustain a tokamak reactor, or (ii) shift the internal current profile. Measurements on a small tokamak to test (ii) agree with the model predictions. (orig.)

  11. Temperature measurement error due to the effects of time varying magnetic fields on thermocouples with ferromagnetic thermoelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermocouples with ferromagnetic thermoelements (iron, Alumel, Nisil) are used extensively in industry. We have observed the generation of voltage spikes within ferromagnetic wires when the wires are placed in an alternating magnetic field. This effect has implications for thermocouple thermometry, where it was first observed. For example, the voltage generated by this phenomenon will contaminate the thermocouple thermal emf, resulting in temperature measurement error

  12. Degradation mechanisms of the graphite electrode in C6/LiFePO4 batteries unraveled by a non-destructive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Danilov, D.L.; Gao, L.; Yang, Yong; Notten, P.

    2016-01-01

    C6/LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries have been cycled at various temperatures (20 and 60◦C) and State-of-Charge (SoC) ranges (0–30, 35–65, 70–100% and 0–100%). Electromotive force (emf) curves have regularly been determined by regression extrapolation of the measured voltage discharge curves. A

  13. Classroom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    dard search engines. Therefore, it is worthwhile to describe the design of this analogous device, namely the `Zero Resistance Ammeter' (ZRA). 1. General Circuit to Measure Current and Po- tential Difference. Consider a circuit consisting of a battery of emf E and internal resistance r connected to a resistance R. (Figure 1).

  14. "Triple M" Effect: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain Increased Dental Amalgam Microleakage after Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh; Mortazavi, S A R; Mehdizadeh, A R

    2018-03-01

    A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we introduce "Triple M" effect, a new evidence-based theory which can explain the accelerated microleakage of dental amalgam fillings after exposure to different sources of electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, there are saliva-filled tiny spaces between amalgam and the tooth. Exposure of the oral cavity to RF-EMFs increases the energy of these small amounts of saliva. Due to the small mass of saliva in these tiny spaces, a small amount of energy will be required for heating. Moreover, reflection of the radiofrequency radiation on the inner walls of the tiny spaces causes interference which in turn produces some "hot spots" in these spaces. Finally, formation of gas bubbles in response to increased temperature and very rapid expansion of these bubbles will accelerate the microleakage of amalgam. Experiments that confirm the validity of this theory are discussed.

  15. Exposure of Extremely-Low Frequency (ELF magnetic field may cause human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic exposure of non-ionizing extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF is considered as a health hazard due to its adverse effects on human body such as generation of any type of cancer. Stem cells are appropriate models to assess the effects of ELF-EMF on other cell lines and human beings. Materials and methods: Adipose tissue has been known as source of multi potent stromal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs which can be obtained in less invasive method and in large amounts; so adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were used in this study. Effect of ELF-EMF (intensities of 0.5 and 1 mT and 50 Hz on proliferation rate of hADSCs was assessed in 20 and 40 min per day for 7 days. Trypan blue assay was performed to assess cell proliferation rate. Result: The results shown that 0.5 and 1 mT magnetic fields can promote the proliferation rate of adipose derived hMSCs according to the duration of exposure. Conclusion: These outcomes could approve the effect of ELF-EMF on cancer induction; although the effective mechanisms in this process are still unknown.

  16. Non-ionizing radiation as threat in daily life | Syaza | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a field of combination between electric and magnetic field. While electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can be divided into ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). This article review of published scientific studies about NIR and its effect on the human body. From this review, it is found that NIR ...

  17. Electromagnetic Fields and Human Health: Fundamental and Applied Research. Proceeding of the International Conference (3rd) Held in Moscow and St. Petersburg, Russia, September 17-25 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-28

    male rats ( 170 –200 g) were studied in natural conditions. The first group of animals was exposed 10 times (4 h daily) to EMF with the predominant...due to electromagnetic fields, quite recently in Italy a dedicated law ( Decreto Interministeriale (DI) no. 381/98) has been given off. The objective has

  18. MF magnitude does not affect body condition, pro-oxidants and anti-oxidants in Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    Pylons of utility lines are commonly used by breeding birds as structures for supporting their nests. Nesting near power lines, however, exposes adult birds and their offspring to the electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) produced by the current. Therefore, we searched for possible relationships

  19. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on the Blood Brain Barrier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Persson, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    ...) in the 91 5-2450 MHz range on the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in rats. Male and female Fischer rats were exposed to continuous wave or pulse-modulated EMF, with different pulse powers and times up to 960 minutes...

  20. Immunomodulatory effects of L-carnitine and q10 in mouse spleen exposed to low-frequency high-intensity magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, Hossam M.M.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.A.; El-Mahdy, Mohamad A.; Ramadan, Laila A.; Hamada, Farid M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we have investigated the bioeffects of repeated exposure to low-frequency (50 Hz) high-intensity (20 mT; 200 G) electromagnetic field (EMF) on some immune parameters in mice. The animals were exposed to EMF daily for 30 min three times per week for 2 weeks. We also studied the possible immunomodulatory effects of two anti-radical substances known to have non-specific immunostimulant effects namely, L-carnitine (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.) and Q10 (200 mg/kg body weight, p.o.). Both drugs were given 1 h prior to each EMF exposure. Immune endpoints included total body weight, spleen/body weight ratio, splenocytes viability, total and differential white blood cell (WBCs; lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils) counts, as well as the lymphocyte proliferation induced by the mitogens; phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin-A (Con-A) and lipoploysaccharide (LPS). Magnetic field decreased splenocyte viability, WBCs count, as well as mitogens-induced lymphocyte proliferation. L-carnitine, but not Q10 could ameliorate the adverse effects of EMF on the vast majority of the immune parameters tested, suggesting a possible immunoprotective role of L-carnitine under the current experimental conditions

  1. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  2. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P, E-mail: hlai@u.washington.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  3. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Kamp, I. van; Kelfkens, G.; Schipper, M.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Lebret, E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS) and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on

  4. Synchronous Switching of Non-Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines between Inverter to Grid Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Ronggang; Xu, Dianguo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    tracking. Furthermore, the method of switching the NLSPMSMs from grid to inverter drives, which is named as backward switching is also proposed. No position sensors are used, and the extended ElectroMotive Force (EMF) based position sensorless control algorithm is adopted during inverter drive. Experiments...

  5. Model-Independent Diffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Könemann, Patrick

    just contain a list of strings, one for each line, whereas the structure of models is defined by their meta models. There are tools available which are able to compute the diff between two models, e.g. RSA or EMF Compare. However, their diff is not model-independent, i.e. it refers to the models...

  6. Did Indians of the Americas Preserve Linguistic Place-names Like Willimantic, CT, Indicating Some Islamic Interactions and Applied Physics Use, Before Columbus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crory, Erica; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2007-10-01

    Modern Peruvians document: ``Ñari Huallac is the name of the town in the north of Peru (Piura) where our families come from. The words Ñari Huallac mean Serpent God, [editorial emphasis by underlining script is added], and are some of the few words which remain from the ancient Tallan civilization.'' Tallan seems related to The God, Allah, of Islam, as are Alaska, Allagash, Illinois, Willimantic, CT, and, in Maine, Metallak, Mollocket and Millinocket, Allahpatah, of Florida, and Allegheny of Pennsylvania. With this significance lies the partially concealed evidence that all three monotheistic faiths, during the times indicated by the language, understood there was a fundamental connection between The God, and what we would call today the electromagnetic field, EMF, of Mother Earth. Metallak: Doctor (at) The God (Spirit-signal, EMF), an ecclesiastical title, like Willimantic, The God Spirit-signal (where there is a) doctor. Alaska: The God Jesus Christ Spirit-signal (EMF). Millinocket: Adherent of The God monk Cathar, provides a reference date of about 1250 A.D. Illinois: The God Spirit-signal (EMF-detecting) monk. Mollocket asserted ownership of western Maine, until 1816. What did she know of importance from her war-hostage days in Boston?

  7. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Li, Haoyu; Liu, Xingbin; Zhang, Yuhui; Xie, Ronghua; Huang, Chunhui; Hu, Jinhai; Deng, Gang

    2016-10-14

    First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2-60 m³/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  8. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  9. Electromagnetic and structural analyses of the vacuum vessel and plasma facing components for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Xufeng; Song, Yuntao; Li, Jun; Lu, Mingxuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The electromagnetic and structural responses of VV and PFCs for EAST are analyzed. • A detailed finite element model of the VV including PFCs is established. • The two most dangerous scenarios, major disruptions and downward VDEs are considered. • The distribution patterns of eddy currents, EMFs and torques on PFCs are analyzed. -- Abstract: During plasma disruptions, time-varying eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel (VV) and Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of EAST. Additionally, halo currents flow partly through these structures during the vertical displacement events (VDEs). Under the high magnetic field circumstances, the resulting electromagnetic forces (EMFs) and torques are large. In this paper, eddy currents and EMFs on EAST VV, PFCs and their supports are calculated by analytical and numerical methods. ANSYS software is employed to evaluate eddy currents on VV, PFCs and their structural responses. To learn the electromagnetic and structural response of the whole structure more accurately, a detailed finite element model is established. The two most dangerous scenarios, major disruptions and downward VDEs, are examined. It is found that distribution patterns of eddy currents for various PFCs differ greatly, therefore resulting in different EMFs and torques. It can be seen that for certain PFCs the transient reaction force are severe. Results obtained here may set up a preliminary foundation for the future dynamic response research of EAST VV and PFCs which will provide a theoretical basis for the future engineering design of tokamak devices

  10. Mathematical field models of brushless DC motors with permanent magnets and their comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Matyuschenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of JMAG-Designer 12 the author performed a comparative analysis of the calculation of the EMF, cogging torque and electromagnetic torque of brushless motor with permanent magnets in two-dimensional and three-dimensional formulation of the problem.

  11. Case-Control Study on Occupational Exposure to Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and the Association with Meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Carlberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF was in 2002 classified as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at WHO based on an increased risk for childhood leukemia. In case-control studies on brain tumors during 1997–2003 and 2007–2009 we assessed lifetime occupations in addition to exposure to different agents. The INTEROCC ELF-EMF Job-Exposure Matrix was used for associating occupations with ELF-EMF exposure (μT with meningioma. Cumulative exposure (μT-years, average exposure (μT, and maximum exposed job (μT were calculated. Results. No increased risk for meningioma was found in any category. For cumulative exposure in the highest exposure category 8.52+ μT years odds ratio (OR = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.7–1.2, and p linear trend = 0.45 were calculated. No statistically significant risks were found in different time windows. Conclusion. In conclusion occupational ELF-EMF was not associated with an increased risk for meningioma.

  12. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, T.V.

    1998-04-14

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle. 23 figs.

  13. Determination of oxygen potentials and O/M ratios of oxide nuclear reactor fuels by means of an automated solid state galvanic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toci, F.; Cambini, M.

    1987-01-01

    An automated version of the electromotive force (emf) cell for the determination of oxygen activities and oxygen to metal ratios of oxide nuclear reactor fuel, irradiated or not, is reported together with some measurements. 9 figs., 17 refs. In appendix a method is described for preparing suitable electrolyte crucibles

  14. 75 FR 32509 - Notice Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving Proposed No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... S-RELAP5 for the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Chapter 15 realistic large- break LOCA in the... a request or petition for hearing (even in instances in which the participant, or its counsel or... Commission (NRC)-approved topical report (TR) EMF-2103(P)(A), Revision 0, ``Realistic Large-Break LOCA [Loss...

  15. Photoconductivity and photomagnetic electromotive force in InSb thin samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosanov, O.; Chonanova, O.G.; Annamamedov, A.G.; Padalko, A.G.; Redzhepov, M.

    1987-01-01

    Photoconductivity and photomagnetic effect in crossed electric and magnetic fields in thin (4 and 20 μm) InSb monocrystalline layers obtained from the melt by oriented crystallization are investigated. Possibility of controlling photomagnetic emf value by variation of the current value and polarity is shown

  16. Controlling An Inverter-Driven Three-Phase Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, C.

    1984-01-01

    Control system for three-phase permanent-magnet motor driven by linecommutated inverter uses signals generated by integrating back emf of each phase of motor. High-pass filter network eliminates low-frequency components from control loop while maintaining desired power factor.

  17. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... plants grown from exposed seeds to 3 mT intensity indicating that EMFs increases genetic ... (516 62, LEYBOLD, Germany) with a B-probe type of hall sound. Applied magnetic ..... *Significant from control at 0.05 level (t-test).

  18. The effect of exposure of rats during prenatal period to radiation spreading from mobile phones on renal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Recep; Tumkaya, Levent; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Kalkan, Yıldıray; Yilmaz, Adnan; Şahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) produced by mobile phones on the renal development of prenatal rats. Histopathological changes and apoptosis in the kidneys, together with levels of urea, creatinine and electrolyte in serum were determined. A total of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Pregnant rats were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an EMF-exposed group. The study group was exposed to 900-MHz of EMF during the first 20 days of pregnancy, while the control group was unexposed to EMF. Sections obtained from paraffin blocks were stained for caspase-3 by immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. Mild congestion and tubular defects, and dilatation of Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues of rats in the exposed group. Apoptosis was evaluated using anti-caspase-3; stronger positive staining was observed in the renal tubular cells in the study group than those of the control group. Although there was a significant difference between the study and control groups in terms of K+ level (p0.05). Our study shows that the electromagnetic waves propagated from mobile phones have harmful effects on the renal development of prenatal rats.

  19. Intraoperative observation of changes in cochlear nerve action potentials during exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Vittorio; Mandalà, Marco; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Sacchetto, Luca; Colletti, Liliana

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of devices generating electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concerns as to the possible effects of this technology on humans. The auditory system is the neural organ most frequently and directly exposed to electromagnetic activity owing to the daily use of mobile phones. In recent publications, a possible correlation between mobile phone usage and central nervous system tumours has been detected. Very recently a deterioration in otoacoustic emissions and in the auditory middle latency responses after intensive and long-term magnetic field exposure in humans has been demonstrated. To determine with objective observations if exposure to mobile phone EMF affects acoustically evoked cochlear nerve compound action potentials, seven patients suffering from Ménière's disease and undergoing retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy were exposed to the effects of mobile phone placed over the craniotomy for 5 min. All patients showed a substantial decrease in amplitude and a significant increase in latency of cochlear nerve compound action potentials during the 5 min of exposure to EMF. These changes lasted for a period of around 5 min after exposure. The possibility that EMF can produce relatively long-lasting effects on cochlear nerve conduction is discussed and analysed in light of contrasting previous literature obtained under non-surgical conditions. Limitations of this novel approach, including the effects of the anaesthetics, craniotomy and surgical procedure, are presented in detail.

  20. Effects of 1.84 GHz radio-frequency electromagnetic field on sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    Key words: 1.84 GHz, radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF), epididymis, ... Author(s) agree that this article remains permanently open access under the terms of the ..... mouse testis after the long-term administration of nickel in feed.

  1. Behavioral in-effectiveness of high frequency electromagnetic field in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Balwant P; Umathe, Sudhir N; Chavan, Jagatpalsingh G

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation was carried out with an objective to study the influence of high frequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) on anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression-like behavior. For exposure to HF-EMF, non-magnetic material was used to fabricate the housing. Mice were exposed to HF-EMF (2.45GHz), 60min/day for 7 or 30 or 60 or 90 or 120days. The exposure was carried out by switching-on inbuilt class-I BLUETOOTH device that operates on 2.45GHz frequency in file transfer mode at a peak density of 100mW. Mice were subjected to the assessment of anxiety, OCD and depression-like behavior for 7 or 30 or 60 or 90 or 120days of exposure. The anxiety-like behavior was assessed by elevated plus maze, open field test and social interaction test. OCD-like behavior was assessed by marble burying behavior, whereas depression-like behavior was assessed by forced swim test and tail suspension test. The present experiment demonstrates that up to 120days of exposure to HF-EMF does not produce anxiety, OCD and depression-like behavior in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Widmer, F.; Muñoz, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, like in planetary magnetospheres, as that of Mercury, energetic electrons are often found near current sheets, which hint at electron acceleration by magnetic reconnection. Unfortunately, electron acceleration by reconnection is not well understood yet, in particular, acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection. We have investigated electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection, described by MHD simulations, via test particle calculations. In order to avoid resolving all relevant turbulence scales down to the dissipation scales, a mean-field turbulence model is used to describe the turbulence of sub-grid scales and their effects via a turbulent electromotive force (EMF). The mean-field model describes the turbulent EMF as a function of the mean values of current density, vorticity, magnetic field as well as of the energy, cross-helicity, and residual helicity of the turbulence. We found that, mainly around X-points of turbulent reconnection, strongly enhanced localized EMFs most efficiently accelerated electrons and caused the formation of power-law spectra. Magnetic-field-aligned EMFs, caused by the turbulence, dominate the electron acceleration process. Scaling the acceleration processes to parameters of the Hermean magnetotail, electron energies up to 60 keV can be reached by turbulent plasmoid reconnection through the thermal plasma.

  3. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Henry C; Singh, Narendra P

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  4. Use of portable exposure meters for comparing mobile phone base station radiation in different types of areas in the cities of Basel and Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbinello, D.; Huss, A.; Beekhuizen, J.; Vermeulen, R.; Röösli, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) are highly variable and differ considerably within as well as between areas. Exposure assessment studies characterizing spatial and temporal variation are limited so far. Our objective was to evaluate sources of data variability and the

  5. Electromagnetic fields and safety : information and risk perception in Spanish population; Campos electromagneticos y salud: informacion y percepcion del riesgo en la poblacion espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.; Guillen, V.

    2005-07-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about both the information the general population in Spain has on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the public risk perception regarding the exposure to non-ionizing EMF emitting sources. The aims of the present preliminary survey were to assess what the Spanish population knew about EMF, to explore their health risk perception associated with the exposure to commonly used sources of non-ionizing radiation; and to know their risk perception regarding cell towers. A total number of 801 adult participants, randomly selected answered a telephone interview based on a 13-item semi-structured questionnaire. Sixty-nine per cent of the interviewees reported having no knowledge about electromagnetic fields. Up to 88.9% mentioned to have a little or no information at all on the health effects of EMF. Comparing risk perception regarding several commonly used devices, mobile telephones and microwave ovens were associated with a higher heath risk than TV and computers. Of those who believed that the devices mentioned were linked with health problems, 40.7% associated them with cancer. Regarding base stations, 52.1% of the sample envisioned such sources as a health risk, and of those who believed so, the majority linked the proximity of base stations with cancer. Gender differences were observed in risk perception. (Author) 16 refs.

  6. 77 FR 71104 - Determination of Reasonable Rates and Terms for Noncommercial Broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... full-time students 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Level 1 =20% Feature Music programming: Population count..., Composers and Publishers (``ASCAP''); SESAC, Inc.; Broadcast Music, Inc. (``BMI''); Educational Media Foundation (``EMF''); Music Reports, Inc. (``MRI''); National Public Radio, the Public Broadcasting Service...

  7. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Since cell phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), this study tested the hypothesis that cell phones placed near the heart may interfere with the electrical rhythm of the heart or affect the blood pressure. Following informed consent, eighteen randomly selected apparently healthy male volunteers ...

  8. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies

  9. German wide cross sectional survey on health impacts of electromagnetic fields in the view of general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Heyer, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The proportion of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany who assume health impacts of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is assessed. Moreover, factors associated with this risk perception are examined. METHODS: A 7% random sample was drawn from online lists of all the GPs working in Germany...

  10. A Pictorial Approach to Lenz's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a pictorial approach to Lenz's law that involves following four steps and drawing three pictures to determine the direction of the current induced by a changing magnetic flux. Lenz's law accompanies Faraday's law, stating that, for a closed conducting loop, the induced emf (electromotive force) created by a changing magnetic…

  11. Determination of the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the percentages of peripheral blood leukocytes and histology of lymphoid organs of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicekcibasi, Aynur E.; Salbacak, A.; Buyukmumcu, M.; Okudan, N.; Celik, I.; Ozkan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the effects of very weak, extremely low frequency (50Hz) electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the relative spleen weight, lymphoid organ histology, peripheral blood leukocyte and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase positive (ANAE-positive) lymphocyte percentages of mouse. The study was carried out in the Scientific Research and Application Center of Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey in 2005. A total of 120 Swiss albino mice were divided into 6 groups (20 in each group). The experimental animals were exposed to 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 uT flux intensities (rms) of EMF at 50 Hz for 40 days. In the exposure groups with 20 animals, the body weight (BW) increased gradually in higher field intensities and reached at peak level in the 4 uT and then slightly decreased. The relative spleen weight (% of BW) was not affected. The ELF-EMF treatment did not cause any significant change in lymphocyte, monocyte and ANA-positive lymphocyte ratios, whereas percentages of neutropholis and basophiles changed non-linearly. Any change in the lymphoid organ histology which attributable to the field effect, was not observed in the exposure groups. Extremely frequency-EMF exposure with the flux intensities between 1-5 uT for 40 days did not cause any effect on the relative spleen weight, lymphoid organ histology, leukocyte and ANAE-positive lymphocyte percentages of the mouse. (author)

  12. 77 FR 1514 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Technical Specification (TS) 3.4.5, ``RCS Leakage Detection Instrumentation,'' consistent with the NRC... monitoring system are the only operable reactor coolant leakage detection monitoring systems. The modified... Methodology for Pressurized Water Reactors,'' and add EMF-2103(P)(A), ``Realistic Large Break LOCA Methodology...

  13. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice : an expert consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Pita; Knol, Anne B; Petersen, Arthur C; Lebret, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against

  14. Different roles of electromagnetic field experts when giving policy advice: an expert consultation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.; Knol, A.B.; Petersen, A.C.; Lebret, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The overall evidence for adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at levels of exposure normally experienced by the public is generally considered weak. However, whether long-term health effects arise remains uncertain and scientific policy advice is therefore given against

  15. Environmental Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Exposure at Home, Mobile and Cordless Phone Use, and Sleep Problems in 7-Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke; van Eijsden, Manon; Guxens, Monica; Beekhuizen, Johan; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vrijkotte, Tania; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated if exposure to RF-EMF was associated with reported quality of sleep in 2,361 children, aged 7 years. METHODS: This study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort study. When children were about five years old, school and

  16. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  17. The Bioelectromagnetics Society Annual Meeting (11th) Held at Tucson, Arizona on June 18-22, 1989: Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    blocker or a Ca + + chelator) to validate the test procedure. Behaviors assessed include the percent correct of first 8 choices, the number of choices...enough sleep, asthenia, sleepiness, eye pain, ear noise, and eyelid tremor ). The estimation of the possible harmful EMF influence on the population’s...35 ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ......... .. 78 KERATINOCYTES ................ .. 11 ENZYME CONCENTRATION: BETA - LASER ....... ................... 3

  18. Semi-quantitative proteomics of mammalian cells upon short-term exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniar, A. (Arnold); C. Laffeber; B. Eppink (Berina); K. Bezstarosti (Karel); D.H. Dekkers (Dick); H. Woelders (Henri); A.P.M. Zwamborn; J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); J.H.G. Lebbink (Joyce); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe potential effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMFs), such as those emitted by power-lines (in extremely low frequency range), mobile cellular systems and wireless networking devices (in radio frequency range) on human health have been intensively researched and debated.

  19. The impact of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields on chronic well-being in young people--a cross-sectional study based on personal dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Sabine; Thomas, Silke; Heumann, Christian; von Kries, Rüdiger; Radon, Katja

    2011-01-01

    A possible influence of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure on health outcomes was investigated in various studies. The main problem of previous studies was exposure assessment. The aim of our study was the investigation of a possible association between RF EMF and chronic well-being in young persons using personal dosimetry. 3022 children and adolescents were randomly selected from the population registries of four Bavarian cities in Germany (participation 52%). Personal interview data on chronic symptoms, socio-demographic characteristics and potential confounders were collected. A 24-h radio frequency exposure profile was generated using a personal dosimeter. Exposure levels over waking hours were expressed as mean percentage of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference level. Half of the children and nearly every adolescent owned a mobile phone which was used only for short durations per day. Measured exposure was far below the current ICNIRP reference levels. The most reported chronic symptom in children and adolescents was fatigue. No statistically significant association between measured exposure and chronic symptoms was observed. Our results do not indicate an association between measured exposure to RF EMF and chronic well-being in children and adolescents. Prospective studies investigating potential long-term effects of RF EMF are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electromagnetic fields and safety : information and risk perception in Spanish population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.; Guillen, V.

    2005-01-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about both the information the general population in Spain has on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the public risk perception regarding the exposure to non-ionizing EMF emitting sources. The aims of the present preliminary survey were to assess what the Spanish population knew about EMF, to explore their health risk perception associated with the exposure to commonly used sources of non-ionizing radiation; and to know their risk perception regarding cell towers. A total number of 801 adult participants, randomly selected answered a telephone interview based on a 13-item semi-structured questionnaire. Sixty-nine per cent of the interviewees reported having no knowledge about electromagnetic fields. Up to 88.9% mentioned to have a little or no information at all on the health effects of EMF. Comparing risk perception regarding several commonly used devices, mobile telephones and microwave ovens were associated with a higher heath risk than TV and computers. Of those who believed that the devices mentioned were linked with health problems, 40.7% associated them with cancer. Regarding base stations, 52.1% of the sample envisioned such sources as a health risk, and of those who believed so, the majority linked the proximity of base stations with cancer. Gender differences were observed in risk perception. (Author) 16 refs

  1. Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC). Seventh annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990--91 CIRRPC's program included efforts to improve interagency coordination on ionizing radiation risk assessments, a review of the reported health risks to humans from exposure to extremely low- frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF/EMF), and increased coordination with national and international organizations such as NCRP and ICRP

  2. Sliding-Mode Observer for Speed and Position Sensorless Control of Linear-PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazraji Saeed Masoumi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sliding-mode observer that utilizes sigmoid function for speed and position sensorless control of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM. In conventional sliding mode observer method there are the chattering phenomenon and the phase lag. Thus, in order to avoid the usage of the low pass filter and the phase compensator based on back EMF, in this paper a sliding mode observer with sigmoid function for detecting the back EMF in a PMLSM is designed to estimate the speed and the position of the rotor. Most of conventional sliding mode observers use sign or saturation functions which need low pass filter in order to detect back electromotive force (back EMF. In this paper a sigmoid function is used instead of discontinuous sign function to decrease undesirable chattering phenomenon. By reducing the chattering, detecting of the back EMF can be made directly from switching signal without any low pass filter. Thus the delay time in the proposed observer is eliminated because of the low pass filter. Furthermore, there is no need to compensate phase fault in position and speed estimating of linear-PMSM. Advantages of the proposed observer have been shown by simulation with MATLAB software.

  3. Torque ripple minimization in a doubly salient permanent magnet motors by skewing the rotor teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, N.K.; Sekharbabu, A.R.C.; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor using a simple method, which utilizes the results obtained from the 2-D FE analysis. The optimum skewing angle is obtained as 12-15 o for the least ripple torque without much reduction in the back-emf

  4. Method and apparatus for sensorless operation of brushless permanent magnet motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Tillasthanam V.

    1998-01-01

    A sensorless method and apparatus for providing commutation timing signals for a brushless permanent magnet motor extracts the third harmonic back-emf of a three-phase stator winding and independently cyclically integrates the positive and negative half-cycles thereof and compares the results to a reference level associated with a desired commutation angle.

  5. Presentation of the project MobiKids Communication technologies, environmental exposures and risk of brain tumors in young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Alguacil, J.; Aragones, N.; Morales, M.; Carretero, G.; Ferreras, E.; Kinci, L.; Kogevinas, M.; Pollan, M.; Solis, R.; Vriheid, M.; Zumel, A.

    2011-01-01

    MOBI-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL, Barcelona, aims to assess the possible relationship between exposure in children and adolescents to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from communication technologies (RF - and extremely low frequency - ELF) and the risk of developing a brain tumor. It also investigated the effects of other risk factors, including environmental exposures in childhood and in utero.

  6. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field radiation: a preliminary study case in Bangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Wan Nor Liza Mahadi; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohd Amirul Nizam Mohd Thari; Mohd Azizi Jali; Ahmad Fadhil Ahmad Sanusi

    2008-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields radiation is known to be hazardous if amount received is excessive. The primary sources of ELF EMF are from the electricity supply system such as transmission line, substation, transformers and switch gears. Due to limited space, many substations were built very close to the residential area. A study was carried out in the selected houses located in Bangi, Selangor which located close to the TNB substation. The study was made in two conditions, before the area fully occupied and after the resident moved into the house. The aim of the study is for assessing the strength of ELF EMF that emitted by the substation. This study was also conducted to assess the potential exposure received by personnel living in the house. The surveys were carried out using PMM model EHP50A and EMDEX instruments based on standard measurement procedures and protocol recommended by IEEE. Results obtained were compared against the permissible exposure limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).This paper highlights some of the findings at the study site. Results obtained suggest that ELF EMF radiation varies with location and the magnetic fields strength measured near the source of ELF EMF was found to be higher than the normal environment. (Author)

  7. Waves of change: immunomodulation of the innate immune response by low frequency electromagnetic field exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golbach, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated possible modulatory roles of low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMFs) exposure on the innate immune system. Recent decades have seen a huge increase in the use of electronic devices that nowadays enable us to communicate with distant family, enjoy

  8. Low-frequency electromagnetic fields do not alter responses of inflammatory genes and proteins in human monocytes and immune cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, M.; Kleijn, de S.; Cuppen, J.J.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields (LF EMF) on human health are the subject of on-going research and serious public concern. These fields potentially elicit small effects that have been proposed to have consequences, either positive or negative, for biological systems. To reveal

  9. Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetotherapy on proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasi, Francesca; Sanna, Samuele; Paolini, Alessandro; Alquati, Marco; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Corti, Maurizio Enrico; Liberto, Riccardo Di; Cialdai, Francesca; Monici, Monica; Nano, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) applied in magnetotherapy have frequency lower than 100 Hz and magnetic field intensity ranging from 0.1 to 20 mT. For many years, the use of magnetotherapy in clinics has been increasing because of its beneficial effects in many processes, e.g., skin diseases, inflammation and bone disorders. However, the understanding of the microscopic mechanisms governing such processes is still lacking and the results of the studies on the effects of ELF-EMFs are controversial because effects derive from different conditions and from intrinsic responsiveness of different cell types.In the present study, we studied the biological effects of 1.5 h exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to EMFs with frequencies of 5 and 50 Hz and intensity between 0.25 and 1.6 mT. Our data showed that the magnetic treatment did not produce changes in cell viability, but gave evidence of a sizeable decrease in proliferation at 24 h after treatment. In addition, immunofluorescence experiments displayed an increase in tubulin expression that could foreshadow changes in cell motility or morphology. The decrease in proliferation with unchanged viability and increase in tubulin expression could be consistent with the triggering of a transdifferentiation process after the exposure to ELF-EMFs.

  10. XXIst century magnetotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the state of the art therapeutic application of magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in treatment of various medical problems - from pain relief to musculoskeletal trauma, to vascular and endocrine disorders. The paper describes problems related to physical parameters of used fields, biophysical dosimetry, clinical protocols, and safety of the device operators. Clinical benefits and mechanisms of action are also discussed.

  11. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol

  12. The effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on the chromosomal instability in bleomycin treated fibroblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yang Jee; Lee, Joong Won; Kim, Gye Eun; Chung, Hai Won

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the effect of Extremely Low Frequency ElectroMagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) on the frequency of MicroNuclei (MN), aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by BLeoMycin (BLM) in human fibroblast cells, a 60 Hz ELF-EMF of 0.8 mT field strength was applied either alone or with BLM throughout the culture period and a micronucleus-centromere assay was performed. Our results indicate that the frequencies of MN, aneuploidy and chromosomal rearrangement induced by BLM increased in a dose-dependent manner. The exposure of cells to 0.8 mT ELF-EMF followed by BLM exposure for 3 hours led to significant increases in the frequencies of MN and aneuploidy compared to BLM treatment for 3 hours alone (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between field exposed and sham exposed control cells. The obtained results suggest that low density ELF-EMF could act as enhancer of the initiation process of BLM rather than as an initiator of mutagenic effects in human fibroblast

  13. Cogging Torque Reduction by Slot-Opening Shift for Permanent Magnet Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ting; Huang, Shoudao; Gao, Jian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an effective cogging torque reduction method based on shifting the slot-openings is presented. Stator teeth are divided into groups and proper slot-opening shift is applied for each group. The cogging torque can then be greatly reduced while the back-EMF waveforms remain symmetrical...

  14. Rodríguez et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015) 12(6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    induced responses in the Comet assay were dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected. On the other hand, the data obtained in this investigation suggest that exposure to pulsed EMFs or SMFs produced by the therapeutic device had no influence ...

  15. Endomyocardial Fibrosis in Northern Nigerian Girl | Aliyu | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is a disease of the tropics and subtropics; and the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy. In Nigeria, it is more common in the rain forest zone; though few case reports have been documented in the Northern part of Nigeria; it is often more common amongst adolescents and young ...

  16. Does acute radio-frequency electromagnetic field exposure affect visual event-related potentials in healthy adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalecki, Anna; Loughran, Sarah P; Verrender, Adam; Burdon, Catriona A; Taylor, Nigel A S; Croft, Rodney J

    2018-05-01

    To use improved methods to address the question of whether acute exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) affects early (80-200 ms) sensory and later (180-600 ms) cognitive processes as indexed by event-related potentials (ERPs). Thirty-six healthy subjects completed a visual discrimination task during concurrent exposure to a Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like, 920 MHz signal with peak-spatial specific absorption rate for 10 g of tissue of 0 W/kg of body mass (Sham), 1 W/kg (Low RF) and 2 W/kg (High RF). A fully randomised, counterbalanced, double-blind design was used. P1 amplitude was reduced (p = .02) and anterior N1 latency was increased (p = .04) during Exposure compared to Sham. There were no effects on any other ERP latencies or amplitudes. RF-EMF exposure may affect early perceptual (P1) and preparatory motor (anterior N1) processes. However, only two ERP indices, out of 56 comparisons, were observed to differ between RF-EMF exposure and Sham, suggesting that these observations may be due to chance. These observations are consistent with previous findings that RF-EMF exposure has no reliable impact on cognition (e.g., accuracy and response speed). Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing of Common Electromagnetic Environments for Risk of Interference with Cardiac Pacemaker Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tiikkaja

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Modern pacemakers are well shielded against external EMFs, and workers with a pacemaker can most often return to their previous work after having a pacemaker implanted. However, an appropriate risk assessment is still necessary after the implantation of a pacemaker, a change of its generator, or major modification of its programming settings.

  18. Attitude stabilization of a spacecraft equipped with large electrostatic protection screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, D. Yu.; Tikhonov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    A satellite with a system of three electrostatic radiation protection (ERP) screens is under consideration. The screens are constructed as electrostatically charged toroidal shields with characteristic size of order equal to 100 m. The interaction of electric charge with the Earth's magnetic field (EMF) give rise to the Lorentz torque acting upon a satellite attitude motion. As the sizes of ERP system are large, we derive the Lorentz torque taking into account the complex form of ERP screens and gradient of the EMF in the screen volume. It is assumed that the satellite center of charge coincides with the satellite mass center. The EMF is modeled by the straight magnetic dipole. In the paper we investigate the usage of Lorentz torque for passive attitude stabilization for satellite in a circular equatorial orbit. Mathematical model for attitude dynamics of a satellite equipped with ERP interacting with the EMF is derived and first integral of corresponding differential equations is constructed. The straight equilibrium position of the satellite in the orbital frame is found. Sufficient conditions for stability of satellite equilibrium position are constructed with the use of the first integral. The gravity gradient torque is taken into account. The satellite equilibrium stability domain is constructed.

  19. Flux Redux: The Spinning Coil Comes around Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Daniel; Dietz, Eric; Zou, Xueli; Ard, Christopher; Lee, Jaydie; Kaneshiro, Chris; Blanton, Robert; Sun, Steven

    2017-01-01

    An essential laboratory exercise for our lower-division electromagnetism course involves the measurement of Earth's local magnetic field from the emf induced in a rotating coil of wire. Although many methods exist for the measurement of Earth's field, this one gives our students some practical experience with Faraday's law. The apparatus we had…

  20. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.