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Sample records for emerging pestiviruses doomed

  1. Cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV): emerging pestiviruses doomed to extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhans, Ernst; Bachofen, Claudia; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a Flaviviridae pestivirus, is arguably one of the most widespread cattle pathogens worldwide. Each of its two genotypes has two biotypes, non-cytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). Only the ncp biotype of BVDV may establish persistent infection in the fetus when infecting a dam early in gestation, a time point which predates maturity of the adaptive immune system. Such fetuses may develop and be born healthy but remain infected for life. Due to this early initiation of fetal infection and to the expression of interferon antagonistic proteins, persistently infected (PI) animals remain immunotolerant to the infecting viral strain. Although only accounting for some 1% of all animals in regions where BVDV is endemic, PI animals ensure the viral persistence in the host population. These animals may, however, develop the fatal mucosal disease, which is characterized by widespread lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. Cp BVD virus, in addition to the persisting ncp biotype, can be isolated from such animals. The cp viruses are characterized by unrestrained genome replication, and their emergence from the persisting ncp ones is due to mutations that are unique in each virus analyzed. They include recombinations with host cell mRNA, gene translocations and duplications, and point mutations. Cytopathic BVD viruses fail to establish chains of infection and are unable to cause persistent infection. Hence, these viruses illustrate a case of "viral emergence to extinction" - irrelevant for BVDV evolution, but fatal for the PI host. © INRA, EDP Sciences, 2010.

  2. Emerging pestiviruses infecting domestic and wildlife hosts.

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    Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1990 s there were just three recognized species in the pestivirus genus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), border disease virus (BDV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Subsequently BVDV were divided into two different species, BVDV1 and BVDV2 and four additional putative pestivirus species have been identified, based on phylogenetic analysis. The four putative pestivirus specices, listed in chronological order of published reports, are Giraffe (isolated from one of several giraffes in the Nanyuki District of Kenya suffering from mucosal disease-like symptoms), HoBi (first isolated from fetal bovine serum originating in Brazil and later from samples originating in Southeast Asia), Pronghorn (isolated from an emaciated blind pronghorn antelope in the USA), and Bungowannah (isolated following an outbreak in pigs, resulting in still birth and neonatal death, in Australia). In addition to the emergence of putative new species of pestivirus, changes in host and virulence of recognized or 'classic' pestiviruses have led to reevaluation of disease control programs and management of domestic and wildlife populations.

  3. [Pestivirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2011-12-01

    Members of the genus Pestivirus, are causative agents of economically important diseases for livestock and wild animals that occur worldwide, such as bovine viral diarrhea, classical swine fever, and border disease of sheep. Pestivirus have novel insertions of host genes in the viral genome and functions of unique viral proteins, N(pro) and E(rns), related to the pathogenicity although genomic structure is closely related to the other viruses of Flaviviridae family, especially hepatitis C virus. In this review, recent studies on the molecular basis of pathogenicity of pestivirus infections were summarized.

  4. HoBi-like viruses: an emerging group of pestiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Pestivirus is composed by four important pathogens of livestock: bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2 (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus of sheep (BDV). BVDV are major pathogens of cattle and infection results in significant economic losse...

  5. Hobi emergent pestivirus: Its impact in animal health and importance as a contaminant in biotechnological products

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Hobi-like” viruses are a group of emerging Pestiviruses which affect cattle and water buffaloes and are common contaminants of biological products. After the first detection from Brazilian samples in Germany in 2004, several Hobi-like isolates have been reported in Italy and some countries of Asia....

  6. Novel Pestivirus Species in Pigs, Austria, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Benjamin; Schwarz, Lukas; Högler, Sandra; Riedel, Christiane; Sinn, Leonie; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till

    2017-07-01

    A novel pestivirus species was discovered in a piglet-producing farm in Austria during virologic examinations of congenital tremor cases. The emergence of this novel pestivirus species, provisionally termed Linda virus, in domestic pigs may have implications for classical swine fever virus surveillance and porcine health management.

  7. Comparison of the performance of five different immunoassays to detect specific antibodies against emerging atypical bovine pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Liu, Lihong

    2013-01-01

    Bovine pestiviruses represent a considerably variable group. In addition to the two accepted species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, a number of atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected both in foetal calf sera and in field samples. The sera collected during the initial six weeks of experimental...... infection of calves with atypical pestivirus, BVDV-1 and a combination of both viruses have been examined by routine and new diagnostic tests to validate their robustness and sensitivity. As expected, virus neutralization tests using homologous virus were able to differentiate the two groups infected...... by BVDV-1 or atypical pestivirus, whereas the animals inoculated with a mixture of these two viruses had a reaction pattern very similar to the homologous virus alone. It was found that immunoassays using whole virus and polyclonal antibodies are the most robust, but all tests examined were able to detect...

  8. Genome sequence of a novel Hobi-like pestivirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Wenwen; Yang, Leilei; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2012-11-01

    Hobi-like pestivirus is a novel pestivirus species first isolated in 2004. Here, we report the genome sequence of a Hobi-like pestivirus strain isolated from contaminated MDBK cells in China. The sequence information is important for surveillance of this emerging animal infectious disease worldwide.

  9. Genome Sequence of a Novel Hobi-Like Pestivirus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Li; Li, Wenliang; Zhang, Wenwen; Yang, Leilei; Jiang, Jieyuan

    2012-01-01

    Hobi-like pestivirus is a novel pestivirus species first isolated in 2004. Here, we report the genome sequence of a Hobi-like pestivirus strain isolated from contaminated MDBK cells in China. The sequence information is important for surveillance of this emerging animal infectious disease worldwide.

  10. Persistent infection caused by Hobi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Elia, Gabriella; Cavaliere, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Fasanella, Antonio; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-04-01

    A calf persistently infected by Hobi-like pestivirus was monitored for about 6 months, displaying clinical signs typical of bovine viral diarrhea virus persistent infection and shedding the virus through all body secretions, with maximal titers detected in urine. This report provides new insights into the pathogenesis of the emerging pestivirus.

  11. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

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    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics.

  12. Molecular archaeology of Flaviviridae untranslated regions: duplicated RNA structures in the replication enhancer of flaviviruses and pestiviruses emerged via convergent evolution.

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    Dmitri J Gritsun

    Full Text Available RNA secondary structures in the 3'untranslated regions (3'UTR of the viruses of the family Flaviviridae, previously identified as essential (promoters or beneficial (enhancers for replication, have been analysed. Duplicated enhancer elements are revealed as a global feature in the evolution of the 3'UTR of distantly related viruses within the genera Flavivirus and Pestivirus. For the flaviviruses, duplicated structures occur in the 3'UTR of all four distantly related ecological virus subgroups (tick-borne, mosquito-borne, no known vector and insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFV. RNA structural differences distinguish tick-borne flaviviruses with discrete pathogenetic characteristics. For Aedes- and Culex-associated ISFV, secondary RNA structures with different conformations display numerous short ssRNA direct repeats, exposed as loops and bulges. Long quadruplicate regions comprise almost the entire 3'UTR of Culex-associated ISFV. Extended duplicated sequence and associated RNA structures were also discovered in the 3'UTR of pestiviruses. In both the Flavivirus and Pestivirus genera, duplicated RNA structures were localized to the enhancer regions of the 3'UTR suggesting an adaptive role predominantly in wild-type viruses. We propose sequence reiteration might act as a scaffold for dimerization of proteins involved in assembly of viral replicase complexes. Numerous nucleotide repeats exposed as loops/bulges might also interfere with host immune responses acting as a molecular sponge to sequester key host proteins or microRNAs.

  13. Molecular Archaeology of Flaviviridae Untranslated Regions: Duplicated RNA Structures in the Replication Enhancer of Flaviviruses and Pestiviruses Emerged via Convergent Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, Dmitri J.; Jones, Ian M.; Gould, Ernest A.; Gritsun, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    RNA secondary structures in the 3′untranslated regions (3′UTR) of the viruses of the family Flaviviridae, previously identified as essential (promoters) or beneficial (enhancers) for replication, have been analysed. Duplicated enhancer elements are revealed as a global feature in the evolution of the 3′UTR of distantly related viruses within the genera Flavivirus and Pestivirus. For the flaviviruses, duplicated structures occur in the 3′UTR of all four distantly related ecological virus subgroups (tick-borne, mosquito-borne, no known vector and insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFV). RNA structural differences distinguish tick-borne flaviviruses with discrete pathogenetic characteristics. For Aedes- and Culex-associated ISFV, secondary RNA structures with different conformations display numerous short ssRNA direct repeats, exposed as loops and bulges. Long quadruplicate regions comprise almost the entire 3′UTR of Culex-associated ISFV. Extended duplicated sequence and associated RNA structures were also discovered in the 3′UTR of pestiviruses. In both the Flavivirus and Pestivirus genera, duplicated RNA structures were localized to the enhancer regions of the 3′UTR suggesting an adaptive role predominantly in wild-type viruses. We propose sequence reiteration might act as a scaffold for dimerization of proteins involved in assembly of viral replicase complexes. Numerous nucleotide repeats exposed as loops/bulges might also interfere with host immune responses acting as a molecular sponge to sequester key host proteins or microRNAs. PMID:24647143

  14. The Molecular Biology of Pestiviruses.

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    Tautz, Norbert; Tews, Birke Andrea; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses are among the economically most important pathogens of livestock. The biology of these viruses is characterized by unique and interesting features that are both crucial for their success as pathogens and challenging from a scientific point of view. Elucidation of these features at the molecular level has made striking progress during recent years. The analyses revealed that major aspects of pestivirus biology show significant similarity to the biology of human hepatitis C virus (HCV). The detailed molecular analyses conducted for pestiviruses and HCV supported and complemented each other during the last three decades resulting in elucidation of the functions of viral proteins and RNA elements in replication and virus-host interaction. For pestiviruses, the analyses also helped to shed light on the molecular basis of persistent infection, a special strategy these viruses have evolved to be maintained within their host population. The results of these investigations are summarized in this chapter. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection and identification of the atypical bovine pestiviruses in commercial foetal bovine serum batches.

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    Hongyan Xia

    Full Text Available The recently emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses have been detected in commercial foetal bovine serum (FBS of mainly South American origin so far. It is unclear how widely the viruses are presented in commercial FBS of different geographic origins. To further investigate the possible pestivirus contamination of commercially available FBS batches, 33 batches of FBS were obtained from ten suppliers and analysed in this study for the presence of both the recognised and the atypical bovine pestiviruses. All 33 batches of FBS were positive by real-time RT-PCR assays for at least one species of bovine pestiviruses. According to the certificate of analysis that the suppliers claimed for each batch of FBS, BVDV-1 was detected in all 11 countries and BVDV-2 was detected exclusively in the America Continent. The atypical pestiviruses were detected in 13 batches claimed to originate from five countries. Analysis of partial 5'UTR sequences showed a high similarity among these atypical bovine pestiviruses. This study has demonstrated, for the first time that commercial FBS batches of different geographic origins are contaminated not only with the recognised species BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, but also with the emerging atypical bovine pestiviruses.

  16. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald B; Meyers, Gregor; Bukh, Jens; Gould, Ernest A; Monath, Thomas; Scott Muerhoff, A; Pletnev, Alexander; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Stapleton, Jack T; Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul

    2017-08-01

    We propose the creation of seven new species in the genus Pestivirus (family Flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format Pestivirus X. Only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (Classical swine fever virus) and Pestivirus D (Border disease virus). The seven new species (and example isolates) would be Pestivirus E (pronghorn pestivirus), Pestivirus F (Bungowannah virus), Pestivirus G (giraffe pestivirus), Pestivirus H (Hobi-like pestivirus), Pestivirus I (Aydin-like pestivirus), Pestivirus J (rat pestivirus) and Pestivirus K (atypical porcine pestivirus). A bat-derived virus and pestiviruses identified from sheep and goat (Tunisian sheep pestiviruses), which lack complete coding region sequences, may represent two additional species.

  17. Pestiviruses: old enemies and new challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genesis for this special issue on pestiviruses was a joint meeting on pestiviruses organized by the US BVDV Symposia Committee and the European Society for Veterinary Virology that was held October 14 and 15, 2014. The theme of the meeting was “Pestiviruses: Old enemies and new challenges”. Th...

  18. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus as a Novel Type of Pestivirus in Pigs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Han, Zhiyong; Li, Jun; Huang, Yunzhen; Yang, Jiongfeng; Ding, Hongxing; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhu, Mengjiao; Zhang, Yangyi; Liao, Jiedan; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2017-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses. A growing number of novel pestiviruses has been discovered in domestic and wild species in the last two decades. Recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) linked with the development of congenital tremor (CT) in neonatal pigs was described in Europe and the Americas. Here, the first Asian APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence was assembled from serum samples from newborn piglets affected with CT in Southern China, and termed APPV_GD. 14 organ samples from affected piglets were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to investigate the tissue tropism of APPV, and 135 serum samples from pigs from 10 farms were used for identifying APPV in adult pigs. The highest genome loads were found in submaxillary lymph nodes, and PCR-based detection showed that APPV genomes were present in seven samples from five farms. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full-length genomes of the pestiviruses, and APPV_GD appeared on a new branch with another newly discovered APPV. Nucleotide identity analysis demonstrated that APPV_GD shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with a German APPV. Bayesian inference was performed using 25 partial sequences of the APPV NS5B gene (528 bp) isolated from four countries in recent years. According to this analysis, the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of the current APPV strains might have emerged in Germany and then diversified and spread to Asia, the Americas, and other countries in Europe. However, the result of bayesian inference could change when more APPV strains are isolated in the future. The present study is the first to report APPV in China and infers the origin and dissemination of the current strains of the virus. PMID:28553280

  19. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus as a Novel Type of Pestivirus in Pigs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses. A growing number of novel pestiviruses has been discovered in domestic and wild species in the last two decades. Recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV linked with the development of congenital tremor (CT in neonatal pigs was described in Europe and the Americas. Here, the first Asian APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence was assembled from serum samples from newborn piglets affected with CT in Southern China, and termed APPV_GD. 14 organ samples from affected piglets were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to investigate the tissue tropism of APPV, and 135 serum samples from pigs from 10 farms were used for identifying APPV in adult pigs. The highest genome loads were found in submaxillary lymph nodes, and PCR-based detection showed that APPV genomes were present in seven samples from five farms. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full-length genomes of the pestiviruses, and APPV_GD appeared on a new branch with another newly discovered APPV. Nucleotide identity analysis demonstrated that APPV_GD shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with a German APPV. Bayesian inference was performed using 25 partial sequences of the APPV NS5B gene (528 bp isolated from four countries in recent years. According to this analysis, the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA of the current APPV strains might have emerged in Germany and then diversified and spread to Asia, the Americas, and other countries in Europe. However, the result of bayesian inference could change when more APPV strains are isolated in the future. The present study is the first to report APPV in China and infers the origin and dissemination of the current strains of the virus.

  20. Surveillance of Bungowannah pestivirus in the upper Midwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahante, J E; Zhang, J W; Rossow, K; Zimmerman, J J; Murtaugh, M P

    2014-08-01

    Pestiviruses, a genetically and antigenically highly diverse group, include one of the most historically significant swine pathogens, that is, classical swine fever virus. In Australia, investigations into swine outbreaks characterized by neonatal mortality, stillbirths and mummified foetuses resulted in the discovery of a new pestivirus, Bungowannah virus. This finding raised the possibility that Bungowannah virus, or a variant thereof, was circulating in swine herds elsewhere in the World. If so, it raised the possibility of a pestivirus emerging as a new swine disease with unknown consequences for animal health and food safety. Thus, we developed three specific qRT-PCR assays to evaluate tissue samples from undiagnosed cases of abortion or respiratory disease for evidence of Bungowannah virus. Examination of 64 samples collected between the Fall of 2007 and Spring of 2010 tested negative for all three genes examined. We conclude that Bungowannah-like pestivirus is unlikely to be present in swine in the upper Midwestern USA. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. A need to define characteristics to be used in the taxonomy of the expanding pestivirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2013-01-01

    The relatively high rate of genetic drift observed with pestiviruses results not only in the emergence of new species but also in heterogeneity within recognized species. The grouping of pestiviruses into species was first based on host and to a lesser extent on clinical presentation, then later by antigenic comparisons and more recently genetic comparisons. Subgrouping within species is a more recent taxonomic development and has been based primarily on genetic comparisons. While there are a number of publications proposing new species within the Pestivirus genus or new subgroups within recognized pestivirus species, there is no consensus on the criteria required to declare a new species and subgroup. Defining the criteria used for segregation of species and subgroups within a species is important because differentiating viral species and subspecies and determining the regions in which they are endemic has profound implications for eradication efforts, the design of vaccines and for regulation of trade in livestock and animal derived products, such as fetal bovine serum. This review outlines criteria used for differentiating species within the different genera of the Flaviviridae, compares criteria previously used for differentiating pestiviruses and discusses the need for the development of a unified system for defining species and subgroups within the Pestivirus genus.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Pestivirus Strain PG-2, a Second Member of the Tentative Pestivirus Species Giraffe

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schweizer, Matthias; Postel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of bovine pestivirus strain PG-2. The sequence data from this virus showed that PG-2 is closely related to the giraffe pestivirus strain H138. PG-2 and H138 belong to one pestivirus species that should be considered an approved member of the genus Pestivirus.

  3. Mucosal disease-like syndrome in a calf persistently infected by Hobi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bozzetta, Elena; Cavaliere, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-08-01

    A calf persistently infected with Hobi-like pestivirus displayed severe clinical signs and subsequently died. Gross lesions and histopathological changes were suggestive of hemorrhagic and necrotic inflammation involving several tissues. A Hobi-like pestivirus pair was isolated from the dead calf, i.e., cytopathogenic (CP) and noncytopathogenic (NCP) strains strictly related to each other and to Italian prototype isolates at the genetic level. Two biotype-specific real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays determined the time of the emergence of the CP virus as 1 month before the calf's death. This highest RNA titers were reached in lymphoid and nervous system tissues, whereas only traces of CP viral RNA were found in blood. In contrast, great NCP virus loads were present in all tissues and biological fluids. The present report provides new insights into the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of this emerging group of pestiviruses. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Hopes doomed for French photovoltaic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piro, P.

    2013-01-01

    The photovoltaic industry has lost 15000 jobs in 2 years in France and the emergency measures taken by French authorities seem to be not sufficient to curb the trend. Some measures have led to delay or even cancel some projects while what is the most important today is to generate enough activity in small and intermediate enterprises to safeguard jobs

  5. Is Humanity Doomed? Insights from Astrobiology

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    Seth D. Baum

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Astrobiology, the study of life in the universe, offers profound insights into human sustainability. However, astrobiology is commonly neglected in sustainability research. This paper develops three topics connecting astrobiology to sustainability: constraints on what zones in the universe are habitable, the absence of observations of extraterrestrial civilizations, and the physical fate of the universe. These topics have major implications for our thinking and action on sustainability. While we may not be doomed, we must take certain actions to sustain ourselves in this universe. The topics also suggest that our current sustainability efforts may be of literally galactic importance.

  6. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs. PMID:25811683

  7. Comparison of the cross-antibody response induced in sheep by inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 and Hobi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Colao, Valeriana; Cavaliere, Nicola; Lovero, Angela; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-06-01

    Hobi-like pestivirus, a new tentative species within genus Pestivirus, was firstly detected in foetal bovine serum batches and later associated to respiratory distress and reproductive failures in cattle. In the present study, the cross-antibody response between bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and the emerging pestivirus was evaluated in the sheep model. Ten sheep were immunised against BVDV-1 or Hobi-like pestivirus using inactivated preparations and the induced antibody responses were evaluated against the homologous and heterologous viruses. The results showed that heterologous antibody titres were significantly lower than the homologous ones, thus suggesting the need to develop specific vaccines against the emerging pestiviral species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Circulation of multiple subtypes of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 with no evidence for HoBi-like pestivirus in cattle herds of southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanave, G; Decaro, N; Lucente, M S; Guercio, A; Cavaliere, N; Purpari, G; Padalino, I; Larocca, V; Antoci, F; Marino, P A; Buonavoglia, C; Elia, G

    2017-06-01

    Pestiviruses of cattle include bovine viral diarrhoea 1 (BVDV-1) and 2 (BVDV-2) plus an emerging group, named HoBi-like pestivirus. In the present paper, the results of an epidemiological survey for pestiviruses circulating in cattle in southern Italy are presented. Molecular assays carried out on a total of 924 bovine samples detected 74 BVDV strains, including 73 BVDV-1 and 1 BVDV-2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis carried out on partial 5'UTR and N pro sequences revealed the presence of 6 different subtypes of BVDV-1 and a single BVDV-2c strain. BVDV-1 displayed a high level of genetic heterogeneity, which can have both prophylactic and diagnostic implications. In addition, the detection of BVDV-2c highlights the need for a continuous surveillance for the emergence of new pestivirus strains in cattle farms in southern Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of a novel pestivirus originating from a pronghorn antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcek, S; Ridpath, J F; Van Campen, H; Cavender, J L; Warg, J

    2005-03-01

    A unique pestivirus, isolated from a pronghorn antelope (Antilocopra americana), was characterized. Serum neutralization studies suggested that this virus was antigenically related to pestiviruses. Genomic characteristics, unique to pestiviruses, indicated that this virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus. These characteristics included the organization of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR), the presence and length of a viral Npro coding region, conservation of cysteine residues in Npro, conservation of predicted amino acid sequences flanking the cleavage sites between viral polypeptides Npro and C and between C and Erns and conservation of predicted hydrophobicity plots of Npro protein. While this data indicated the virus belongs to the Pestivirus genus, phylogenetic analysis in 5'-UTR, Npro and E2 regions suggested that it is the most divergent of the pestiviruses identified to date. This conclusion was also supported by the amino acid identity in coding regions. The corresponding values were much lower for the comparison of pronghorn pestivirus to other pestivirus genotypes than only between previous recognized genotypes. These results suggest the virus isolated from pronghorn antelope represents a new pestivirus genotype. It also represents the only pestivirus genotype first isolated from New World wildlife.

  10. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1, type 2 and HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Viviana; Losurdo, Michele; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Eleonora; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    HoBi-like pestiviruses are emerging pestiviruses that infect cattle causing clinical forms overlapping to those induced by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2. As a consequence of their widespread distribution reported in recent years, molecular tools for rapid discrimination among pestiviruses infecting cattle are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay, based on the TaqMan technology, for the rapid and unambiguous characterisation of all bovine pestiviruses, including the emerging HoBi-like strains. The assay was found to be sensitive, specific and repeatable, ensuring detection of as few as 10(0)-10(1) viral RNA copies. No cross-reactions between different pestiviral species were observed even in samples artificially contaminated with more than one pestivirus. Analysis of field samples tested positive for BVDV-1, BVDV-2 or HoBi-like virus by a nested PCR protocol revealed that the developed TaqMan assay had equal or higher sensitivity and was able to discriminate correctly the viral species in all tested samples, whereas a real-time RT-PCR assay previously developed for HoBi-like pestivirus detection showed cross-reactivity with few high-titre BVDV-2 samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence of pestivirus RNA in human virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasawa, R; Tomiyama, T

    1994-01-01

    We examined live virus vaccines against measles, mumps, and rubella for the presence of pestivirus RNA or of pestiviruses by reverse transcription PCR. Pestivirus RNA was detected in two measles-mumps-rubella combined vaccines and in two monovalent vaccines against mumps and rubella. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the PCR products indicated that a modified live vaccine strain used for immunization of cattle against bovine viral diarrhea is not responsible for the contamination of the vaccines. Images PMID:8077414

  12. Hobi-like pestivirus in aborted bovine fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivirus control/eradication programs in cattle herds.

  13. Genetic and antigenic characterization of an atypical pestivirus isolate, a putative member of a novel pestivirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeier, Horst; Strebelow, Günther; Depner, Klaus; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2004-12-01

    The genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae currently consists of four different main species: Classical swine fever virus, Bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2 and Border disease virus. A fifth tentative species is represented by an isolate from a giraffe. In this study, a completely new pestivirus, isolated from a batch of fetal calf serum that was collected in Brazil, is described. It is proposed that the isolate D32/00_'HoBi' may constitute a novel sixth pestivirus species, because it is genetically, as well as antigenically, markedly different from all other pestiviruses. Based on the entire N(pro)- and E2-encoding sequences, identities of pestivirus species were determined. Similarly, cross-neutralization and binding studies using antisera and mAbs revealed marked antigenic differences between D32/00_'HoBi' and all other pestiviruses.

  14. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald B.; Meyers, Gregor; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (Classical swine fever virus) and Pestivirus D (Border disease virus). The seven new species (and example isolates...

  15. Genetic stability of pestivirus genomes cloned into BACs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse

    pestivirus genomes to demonstrate the suitability of the BAC vector for harbouring pestivirus genomes. Two BAC clones, comprising the complete genomes of BDV Gifhorn (pBeloGif3) and CSFV Paderborn (pBeloPader10) were passaged 15 times in E.coli representing at least 360 bacteria generations. From 15th...

  16. Complete genome sequence of a novel pestivirus from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Pestivirus from Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Paul; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Postel, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of pestivirus strain Aydin/04-TR, which is the prototype of a group of similar viruses currently present in sheep and goats in Turkey. Sequence data from this virus showed that it clusters separately from the established and previously proposed tentative pestivirus species.

  18. Proposed revision to the taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald B.; Meyers, Gregor; Bukh, Jens; Gould, Ernest A.; Monath, Thomas; Muerhoff, A. Scott; Pletnev, Alexander; Rico-Hesse, Rebecca; Stapleton, Jack T.; Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We propose the creation of seven new species in the genus Pestivirus (family Flaviviridae) in addition to the four existing species, and naming species in a host-independent manner using the format Pestivirus X. Only the virus species names would change; virus isolates would still be referred to by their original names. The original species would be re-designated as Pestivirus A (original designation Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1), Pestivirus B (Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2), Pestivirus C (C...

  19. Siim Nestor soovitab : Tallinn Doom Night vol.1. Odessa Pop / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2006-01-01

    Soome doom-metal ansambel Reverend Bizarre üritusel "Tallinn Doom Night vol.1" 8. dets. klubis Rockstar's. Indipoppi viljelev Rootsi duo My Darling Yoy! üritusel "Odessa Pop" 9. dets. Tallinnas klubis KuKu

  20. Science Centers in the Electronic Age: Are We Doomed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L., Ed.; West, Robert M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This issue is a debate-discussion concerning science centers in the electronic age. The articles are based on presentations made at the Science Center World Congress (1st, Heureka, Finland, June 13-17, 1996). The four articles are: (1) "Lessons from Laboratorio dell'Immaginario Scientifico" (Andrea Bandelli); (2) "The Doom-Shaped Thing in the…

  1. An E2-Substituted Chimeric Pestivirus With DIVA Vaccine Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Nielsen, Jens

    An advantage of the use of chimeric pestiviruses as modified live vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) resides in their capacity to be manipulated to achieve the characteristics desired for safe and efficacious DIVA vaccines. We have recently generated a new chimeric virus, Riems26_E2gif...... vaccinated pigs were protected. This new chimeric pestivirus represents a C-strain based DIVA vaccine candidate that can be differentiated based on CSFV E2 specific antibodies....

  2. Hobi-Like Pestivirus in Aborted Bovine Fetuses

    OpenAIRE

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-01-01

    An outbreak of abortion affecting multiparous cows was associated with Hobi-like pestivirus infection. Viral RNA and antigens were detected in the tissues of two aborted fetuses. Molecular assays for other common abortogenic agents tested negative. At the genetic level, the Hobi-like pestivirus displayed the closest relatedness to Italian, Australian, and South American viruses, whereas it diverged from the prototype Thai isolate. These findings may have important implications for the pestivi...

  3. Molecular characterization of Doom pigs using microsatellite markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... 3020. Afr. J. Biotechnol. Table 1. Microsatellite analysis in Doom pig population. Panel. Locus. Size range. (bp). Parameter. Na. Ne. PIC. Ho. He. I. FIS. HWE ... 145-161. 4. 2.5641. 0.6422. 0.7000. 0.6100. 1.1097. -0.1475. 3.3NS. Panel 3. SO218. 193-201. 5. 2.0769. 0.4850. 0.5556. 0.5185. 1.0507. -0.0714.

  4. Clinical presentation resembling mucosal disease associated with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus in a field outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) And Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses (‘HoBi’-like pestiviruses) were iden...

  5. Genetic diversity of Brazilian bovine pestiviruses detected between 1995 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestivirus infections in ruminants result in significant economic losses worldwide. The etiological agents are three species from the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Border Disease Virus (BDV), and an atypical pestivirus named HoB...

  6. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eLarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linneus 1758 includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies and North America (caribou subspecies. Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2 closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the

  7. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990's. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of reindeer

  8. Pestivirus infection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Reindeer species (Rangifer tarandus, Linnaeus, 1758) includes wild and semi-domesticated ruminants belonging to Capreaolinae subfamily of Cervidae family reared in Eurasia (reindeer subspecies) and North America (caribou subspecies). Herding of reindeer has a great historical, socio-economic and ecological importance, especially to indigenous ethnic minorities. Infectious disease threats may therefore impact not solely the animal population driving it to further extinction and irreversible alterations to the wild environments of northern hemisphere, but also add to cultural changes observed as negative impact of globalization. Introduction of new technologies to control of reindeer migration between dwindling pasture areas and intensification of reindeer husbandry may facilitate the intra- and interspecies transmission of pathogens. The role of the reindeer as a potential BVDV reservoir has been studied, however, the number of publications is rather limited. The observed seroprevalences of the virus varied significantly between different geographical regions with different epidemiological situation. Most frequently limited number of animals studied and the differences in the sensitivities and specificities of the diagnostic test used could have also influenced on the differences between the studies. No pestivirus has been ever detected in free-ranging reindeer, however, a putative pestivirus strain named V60-Krefeld has been isolated from reindeer kept at a German Zoo in the 1990’s. The virus was characterized as border disease virus type 2 (BDV-2) closely related to German ovine strains. The cross-neutralization studies of the semi-domesticated reindeer sera from Sweden suggested infection with a strain related to BDV-1 or BDV-2. The available data indicates that reindeer might be infected by a endemic species-specific BDV-like strain. However, the interspecies transmission of BVDV from domestic animals should not be excluded, since the susceptibility of

  9. Evidence for Tunisian-Like Pestiviruses Presence in Small Ruminants in Italy Since 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulli, S; Purpari, G; Agnello, S; Di Marco, P; Di Bella, S; Volpe, E; Mira, F; de Aguiar Saldanha Pinheiro, A C; Vullo, S; Guercio, A

    2017-08-01

    The genus Pestivirus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, includes ssRNA+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in pigs, cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic and wild ruminants. Like most of the RNA viruses, pestivirus has high genome variability with practical consequences on disease epidemiology, diagnosis and control. In addition to the officially recognized species in the genus Pestivirus, such as BVDV-1, BVDV-2, BDV and CSFV, other pestiviruses have been detected. Furthermore, most of the ruminant pestiviruses show low or absent species specificity observed in serological tests and are able to infect multiple species. Particularly, small ruminants are receptive hosts of the most heterogeneous group of pestiviruses. The aim of this study was to carry out the molecular characterization of pestiviruses isolated from sheep and goats in Sicily, Italy. Phylogenetic analysis of two viral genomic regions (a fragment of 5'-UTR and the whole N pro regions) revealed the presence of different pestivirus genotypes in the analysed goat and sheep herds. Two of five viral isolates were clustered with BVDV-1d viruses, a strain widespread in Italy, but never reported in Sicily. The other three isolates formed a distinct cluster with high similarity to Tunisian isolates, recently proposed as a new pestivirus species. This represents the first evidence for Tunisian-like pestivirus presence in small ruminants in Italy. Furthermore, one of the isolates was collected from a goat, representing the first isolation of Tunisian-like pestivirus from this species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Genetic and antigenic characterization of Bungowannah virus, a novel pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, P D; Frost, M J; King, K R; Finlaison, D S; Hornitzky, C L; Gu, X; Richter, M; Reimann, I; Dauber, M; Schirrmeier, H; Beer, M; Ridpath, J F

    2015-08-05

    Bungowannah virus, a possible new species within the genus Pestivirus, has been associated with a disease syndrome in pigs characterized by myocarditis with a high incidence of stillbirths. The current analysis of the whole-genome and antigenic properties of this virus confirms its unique identity, and further suggests that this virus is both genetically and antigenically remote from previously recognized pestiviruses. There was no evidence of reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are generally considered to be pan-reactive with other viruses in the genus, and there was little cross reactivity with polyclonal sera. Subsequently, a set of novel mAbs has been generated which allow detection of Bungowannah virus. The combined data provide convincing evidence that Bungowannah virus is a member of the genus Pestivirus and should be officially recognized as a novel virus species. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transmission of a pestivirus infection in a population of Pyrenean chamois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioz, Maryline; Loison, Anne; Gibert, Philippe; Dubray, Dominique; Menaut, Pierre; Le Tallec, Bertrand; Artois, Marc; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2007-01-17

    Outbreaks of a previously unrecorded disease have recently affected Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) populations across the mountain range. A pestivirus was hypothesized to be the cause of this emerging disease and this type of virus can cross the species barrier and be transmitted to or from wildlife. Using an epidemiological survey conducted from 1995 to 2004 at Orlu, France, we characterized the virus and analyzed its transmission. A phylogenetic analysis of viral sequences and virus neutralization tests showed that the virus belonged to the newly described border disease virus-4 group. The increase of seroprevalence with age indicated that infection can occur at any age and resulted in lifelong immunity. Overall, 70.3% of 323 samples were positive for anti-p80 antibodies and 10.2% of 167 samples showed viremia, as demonstrated by either positive ELISA antigen test or RT-PCR. Infection has thus been widespread in this population since 1995, whereas no mass mortality or clinical signs have been observed. Incidence and seroprevalence varied seasonally and according to number of individuals aged less than 2 years old in the population, so viral transmission was dependent on host population age structure. We propose that the virus is now endemic in this population and is likely detrimental for reproduction and juveniles. Further investigation is needed to estimate the impact of pestivirus on host population dynamics and the risk of cross-transmission to farm animals.

  12. Control of pestivirus infections in the management of wildlife populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of host-specificity allow pestiviruses to infect domestic livestock as well as captive and free-ranging wildlife, posing unique challenges to different stakeholders. While current control measures for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are focused only on cattle, increased attention on the ...

  13. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse

    Aim Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for generation of modified pestiviruses. We have recently reported a full genome amplification strategy for direct recovery of infectious pestivirus (Rasmussen et al., 2008). This comprised rescue of BDV strain “Gifhorn” from a full......-length RT-PCR amplicon demonstrating that long RT-PCR can be used for direct generation of an infectious pestivirus. The strategy is not limited to amplification of BDV “Gifhorn”, but can be further utilized for amplification of a diverse selection of pestivirus strains and for the generation of modified...... was reverse transcribed to cDNA at 50C for 90 minutes using SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). Full-length PCR amplification was performed using primers specific for the extreme 5’- and 3’-ends of the viral genomes. A T7 promoter was incorporated in the 5’-primers for direct in vitro...

  14. Complete genome sequence of pronghorn virus, a pestivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence of Pronghorn virus, a member of the Pestivirus genus of the Flaviviridae, was determined. The virus, originally isolated from a pronghorn antelope, had a genome of 12,287 nucleotides with a single open reading frame of 11,694 bases encoding 3898 amino acids....

  15. Atypical pestivirus and severe respiratory disease in calves, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Cirone, Francesco; Cordioli, Paolo; Camero, Michele; Sciarretta, Rossana; Losurdo, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-08-01

    In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.

  16. Serological survey for antibodies against pestiviruses in sheep in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestiviruses including Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1 (BVDV1), BVDV-2 and Border Disease Virus (BDV) have been reported in sheep populations worldwide. These viruses are not strictly host specific and can also infect cattle, goats, swine and wild ruminants. In sheep, clinical signs are related t...

  17. Effects of methodology and analysis strategy on robustness of pestivirus phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Xia, Hongyan; Baule, Claudia; Belák, Sándor; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of pestiviruses is a useful tool for classifying novel pestiviruses and for revealing their phylogenetic relationships. In this study, robustness of pestivirus phylogenies has been compared by analyses of the 5'UTR, and complete N(pro) and E2 gene regions separately and combined, performed by four methods: neighbour-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference (BI). The strategy of analysing the combined sequence dataset by BI, ML, and MP methods resulted in a single, well-supported tree topology, indicating a reliable and robust pestivirus phylogeny. By contrast, the single-gene analysis strategy resulted in 12 trees of different topologies, revealing different relationships among pestiviruses. These results indicate that the strategies and methodologies are two vital aspects affecting the robustness of the pestivirus phylogeny. The strategy and methodologies outlined in this paper may have a broader application in inferring phylogeny of other RNA viruses.

  18. Evaluation of commercial ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against bovine atypical pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse

    A group of emerging bovine pestiviruses becomes a possible threat to Bovine Viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) control and eradication programs in the countries of their origin and in the new continents due to the lack of validated detection methods. The use of ELISA kits may be acheaper, time saving...... and less laborious option allowing screening for antibodies in large populations. Since test specific for emerging and new BVDV strains are still under preparation, the purpose of this work was to evaluate available BVDV antibody ELISA assays for their ability to detect antibodies against Hobi-like viruses....... Analysis of a panel of sera obtained from calves experimentally inoculated with Hobi-like virus (isolated from a calf from Thailand) and BVDV type 1 strain using five different ELISA kits in comparison to neutralization test was performed. The specificity and sensitivity of the tests depended greatly...

  19. [Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum] / David Feest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feest, David, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus : Perceptions of Loss, Decline and Doom in the Baltic Sea - Untergangsvorstellungen im Ostseeraum. Berlin : Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004. (Die Ostseeregione: Nördliche Dimensionen - Europäische Perspektiven. 1)

  20. HoBi-like viruses – the typical 'atypical bovine pestivirus'

    Science.gov (United States)

    HoBi-like viruses, also referred to as bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) and atypical pestivirus, have been proposed as a new putative bovine pestivirus species. These viruses were first identified in the last decade and are currently distributed in at least three continents. Published findings...

  1. The pestivirus Erns glycoprotein interacts with E2 in both infected cells and mature virions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, Catalin; Zitzmann, Nicole; Dwek, Raymond A.; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2003-01-01

    E rns is a pestivirus envelope glycoprotein indispensable for virus attachment and infection of target cells. Unlike the other two envelope proteins E1 and E2, E rns lacks a transmembrane domain and a vast quantity is secreted into the medium of infected cells. The protein is also present in fractions of pure pestivirus virions, raising the important and intriguing question regarding the mechanism of its attachment to the pestivirus envelope. In this study a direct interaction between E rns and E2 glycoproteins was demonstrated in both pestivirus-infected cells and mature virions. By co- and sequential immunoprecipitation we showed that an E rns -E2 heterodimer is assembled very early after translation of the viral polyprotein and before its processing is completed. Our results suggest that E rns is attached to the pestivirus envelope via a direct interaction with E2 and explain the role of E rns in the initial virus-target cell interaction

  2. Detection of a newly described pestivirus of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Kai; Jung, Sandra; Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Gibert, Philippe; Gauthier, Dominique; Hars, Jean

    2005-07-01

    A pestivirus was detected and characterized in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) originating from the French part of the Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analysis of the pestivirus was done on the basis of a fragment from the 5' noncoding region including 22 published nucleotide sequences of different pestivirus strains. Our strain was grouped within the clade of border disease viruses (BDV). However, it had an intermediate position between clade BDV and classical swine fever viruses representing a basal position to BDV strains of domestic sheep. Our strain was grouped as a sister unit to a novel pestivirus (Chamois-1) recently described from chamois in Spain. Therefore, we postulate that this virus occurs in the entire population of Pyrenean chamois. On the basis of the phylogenetic grouping of this isolate, a postulated cross-species transmission of pestivirus from domestic sheep to chamois via shared pastures seems to be unlikely.

  3. Discovery of a novel putative atypical porcine pestivirus in pigs in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Yuan, Fangfeng; Chen, Zhenhai; Hesse, Richard A; Gauger, Phillip C; Clement, Travis; Fang, Ying; Anderson, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Pestiviruses are some of the most significant pathogens affecting ruminants and swine. Here, we assembled a 11 276 bp contig encoding a predicted 3635 aa polyprotein from porcine serum with 68 % pairwise identity to that of a recently partially characterized Rhinolophus affinis pestivirus (RaPV) and approximately 25-28 % pairwise identity to those of other pestiviruses. The virus was provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Metagenomic sequencing of 182 serum samples identified four additional APPV-positive samples. Positive samples originated from five states and ELISAs using recombinant APPV Erns found cross-reactive antibodies in 94 % of a collection of porcine serum samples, suggesting widespread distribution of APPV in the US swine herd. The molecular and serological results suggest that APPV is a novel, highly divergent porcine pestivirus widely distributed in US pigs.

  4. Genetic and antigenic characterization of novel pestivirus genotypes: implications for classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becher, Paul; Avalos Ramirez, Ramiro; Orlich, Michaela; Cedillo Rosales, Sibilina; Koenig, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias; Stalder, Hanspeter; Schirrmeier, Horst; Thiel, Heinz-Juergen

    2003-01-01

    Currently, the genus Pestivirus comprises the four approved species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), BVDV-2, Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and Border disease virus (BDV) and one tentative fifth species represented by a single strain (H138) isolated from a giraffe in Kenya more than 30 years ago. To further address the issue of heterogeneity of pestiviruses we have determined the entire N pro and E2 coding sequences for several new pestivirus isolates. Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis revealed that one pestivirus isolated in the 1990s in Africa is closely related to strain H138. Moreover, several novel pestiviruses isolated from sheep group together with the previously described strain V60 (Reindeer-1) isolated from a reindeer, whereas one ovine pestivirus strain (Gifhorn) significantly differs from all previously described pestiviruses, including BDV. We propose to term these mainly sheep-derived pestiviruses BDV-2 (V60-like isolates) and BDV-3 (Gifhorn); consequently, the 'classical' BDV isolates should be termed BDV-1. As an additional criterion for segregation of pestiviruses, the antigenic relatedness of pestivirus isolates covering all observed major genotypes was studied by cross-neutralization assays. Analysis of the antigenic similarities indicated the presence of seven major antigenic groups corresponding to BVDV-1, BVDV-2, CSFV, BDV-1, BDV-2, BDV-3, and 'giraffe'. Taking into account the host origin, the lack of differences concerning the course of disease, and the results of our genetic and antigenic analyses, we suggest that BDV-1, BDV-2, and BDV-3 should be considered as major genotypes within the species BDV

  5. A nested PCR approach for unambiguous typing of pestiviruses infecting cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Amorisco, Francesca; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Cordioli, Paolo; Parisi, Antonio; Lelli, Rossella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-01

    An atypical pestivirus ('Hobi'-like pestivirus, putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3, BVDV-3) was identified firstly in contaminated foetal calf serum batches and isolated subsequently from an outbreak of respiratory disease in a cattle herd in Italy. The isolation of the novel pestivirus from animals affected clinically posed concerns about the validity of BVDV eradication programs, considering that 'Hobi'-like pestivirus (BVDV-3) is undetected or mistyped by the molecular diagnostic tools currently employed. In this paper, the development of a nested PCR (nPCR) assay for unambiguous typing of all bovine pestiviruses is reported. The assay consisted of a first-round amplification using an oligonucleotide pair which binds to conserved sequences located in the 5' untranslated region and capsid gene, followed by a heminested PCR using virus-specific forward primers. The assay performances were evaluated analytically, showing good sensitivity and specificity. By analysis of 100 BVDV-positive samples typed using a nPCR assay discriminating ruminant pestiviruses, five samples recognised previously as BVDV-2 were not typed when submitted to the new assay (n=2) or reacted as 'Hobi'-like pestivirus BVDV-3 (n=3). Sequence analysis of the first-round amplification products showed that the untyped strains were border disease viruses, whereas the other three strains were true 'Hobi'-like viruses. The development of a molecular assay able to identify simultaneously all bovine pestiviruses known currently will help warrant biosafety of live vaccines and other biological products and assess the molecular epidemiology of 'Hobi'-like pestivirus, thus leading to the improvement of the eradication programs through unambiguous typing of pestiviruses infecting cattle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical Presentation Resembling Mucosal Disease Associated with 'HoBi'-like Pestivirus in a Field Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M N; Mósena, A C S; Simões, S V D; Almeida, L L; Pessoa, C R M; Budaszewski, R F; Silva, T R; Ridpath, J F; Riet-Correa, F; Driemeier, D; Canal, C W

    2016-02-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Border disease virus (BDV). Recently, atypical pestiviruses ('HoBi'-like pestiviruses) were identified in batches of contaminated foetal calf serum and in naturally infected cattle with and without clinical symptoms. Here, we describe the first report of a mucosal disease-like clinical presentation (MD) associated with a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus occurring in a cattle herd. The outbreak was investigated using immunohistochemistry, antibody detection, viral isolation and RT-PCR. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis of 5'NCR, N(pro) and E2 regions of the RT-PCR positive samples showed that four different 'HoBi'-like strains were circulating in the herd. The main clinical signs and lesions were observed in the respiratory and digestive systems, but skin lesions and corneal opacity were also observed. MD characteristic lesions and a pestivirus with cytopathic biotype were detected in one calf. The present study is the first report of a MD like presentation associated with natural infection with 'HoBi'-like pestivirus. This report describes the clinical signs and provides a pathologic framework of an outbreak associated with at least two different 'HoBi'-like strains. Based on these observations, it appears that these atypical pestiviruses are most likely underdiagnosed in Brazilian cattle. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Identification of Natural Infections in Sheep/Goats with HoBi-like Pestiviruses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H; Kan, Y; Yao, L; Leng, C; Tang, Q; Ji, J; Sun, S

    2016-10-01

    The natural infections of HoBi-like pestiviruses in cattle have been reported in South America, Europe and Asia. In China, although the detections of HoBi-like pestivirus have been reported, the epidemiological investigation was limited. From January 2014 to October 2015, several flocks of sheep/goats in Henan province in central China suffered respiratory diseases which were recovered slowly after antibiotics treatment. To test whether it is the HoBi-like pestivirus caused this symptom, 49 serum samples and 22 nasal swabs were then collected for analysis by serology and RT-PCR. Serological result revealed that prevalence of pestivirus in small ruminants was 12.2% (6/49) in central China. Sequence analysis of partial 5'-UTR nucleotides of pestivirus-positive samples suggested that HoBi-like pestivirus might have circulated in sheep/goats of China for a period and have evolved into new genotype clusters. It is apparent that the study provides the molecular evidence of natural infections in goat/sheep species with HoBi-like pestiviruses in China. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Mechanism of action of a pestivirus antiviral compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginski, Scott G.; Pevear, Daniel C.; Seipel, Marty; Sun, Siu Chi Chang; Benetatos, Christopher A.; Chunduru, Srinivas K.; Rice, Charles M.; Collett, Marc S.

    2000-01-01

    We report here the discovery of a small molecule inhibitor of pestivirus replication. The compound, designated VP32947, inhibits the replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cell culture at a 50% inhibitory concentration of approximately 20 nM. VP32947 inhibits both cytopathic and noncytopathic pestiviruses, including isolates of BVDV-1, BVDV-2, border disease virus, and classical swine fever virus. However, the compound shows no activity against viruses from unrelated virus groups. Time of drug addition studies indicated that VP32947 acts after virus adsorption and penetration and before virus assembly and release. Analysis of viral macromolecular synthesis showed VP32947 had no effect on viral protein synthesis or polyprotein processing but did inhibit viral RNA synthesis. To identify the molecular target of VP32947, we isolated drug-resistant (DR) variants of BVDV-1 in cell culture. Sequence analysis of the complete genomic RNA of two DR variants revealed a single common amino acid change located within the coding region of the NS5B protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. When this single amino acid change was introduced into an infectious clone of drug-sensitive wild-type (WT) BVDV-1, replication of the resulting virus was resistant to VP32947. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of the NS5B proteins derived from WT and DR viruses expressed and purified from recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells confirmed the drug sensitivity of the WT enzyme and the drug resistance of the DR enzyme. This work formally validates NS5B as a target for antiviral drug discovery and development. The utility of VP32947 and similar compounds for the control of pestivirus diseases, and for hepatitis C virus drug discovery efforts, is discussed. PMID:10869440

  9. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of a novel chimeric pestivirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Reimann, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    A chimeric pestivirus of border disease virus Gifhorn and bovine viral diarrhea virus CP7 (Meyers et al., 1996) was constructed. Virulence, immunogenicity and vaccine properties of the chimeric virus were studied in a vaccination–challenge experiment in pigs. The chimeric virus proved...... to be avirulent and neither chimeric virus nor viral RNA was detected in serum after vaccination. The safety of the vaccine was tested by horizontal transmission to sentinel pigs, which remained uninfected. The vaccine efficacy was examined by challenge infection with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) Eystrup...

  10. Pestivirus is a common contaminant in maedi-visna and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckert, R A; Power, C A; Briscoe, M R

    1992-01-01

    Eight different laboratory stocks of maedi-visna or caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus were examined for the presence of pestiviruses by a fixed-cell immunoperoxidase assay with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. All of the viral stocks examined were found to contain noncytopathic pestivirus contaminants. The panel of monoclonal antibodies could not type the isolates as being more related to bovine virus diarrhea virus or border disease virus. However, the results did indicate that all isolates were not the same, except for two from the same laboratory where the source of pestivirus contamination may have been common. PMID:1335836

  11. Propagating Collective Hope in the Midst of Environmental Doom and Gloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Environmental educators recognize the importance of empowering children and adults, yet environmental education operates within a grand narrative of environmental gloom and doom. Growing evidence exists that children feel hopeless about the future of the planet. Given relationships between hope and agency, the question arises of how to propagate…

  12. Structures and Functions of Pestivirus Glycoproteins: Not Simply Surface Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fun-In Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses, which include economically important animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, possess three envelope glycoproteins, namely Erns, E1, and E2. This article discusses the structures and functions of these glycoproteins and their effects on viral pathogenicity in cells in culture and in animal hosts. E2 is the most important structural protein as it interacts with cell surface receptors that determine cell tropism and induces neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. All three glycoproteins are involved in virus attachment and entry into target cells. E1-E2 heterodimers are essential for viral entry and infectivity. Erns is unique because it possesses intrinsic ribonuclease (RNase activity that can inhibit the production of type I interferons and assist in the development of persistent infections. These glycoproteins are localized to the virion surface; however, variations in amino acids and antigenic structures, disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, and RNase activity can ultimately affect the virulence of pestiviruses in animals. Along with mutations that are driven by selection pressure, antigenic differences in glycoproteins influence the efficacy of vaccines and determine the appropriateness of the vaccines that are currently being used in the field.

  13. Structures and Functions of Pestivirus Glycoproteins: Not Simply Surface Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fun-In; Deng, Ming-Chung; Huang, Yu-Liang; Chang, Chia-Yi

    2015-06-29

    Pestiviruses, which include economically important animal pathogens such as bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, possess three envelope glycoproteins, namely Erns, E1, and E2. This article discusses the structures and functions of these glycoproteins and their effects on viral pathogenicity in cells in culture and in animal hosts. E2 is the most important structural protein as it interacts with cell surface receptors that determine cell tropism and induces neutralizing antibody and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. All three glycoproteins are involved in virus attachment and entry into target cells. E1-E2 heterodimers are essential for viral entry and infectivity. Erns is unique because it possesses intrinsic ribonuclease (RNase) activity that can inhibit the production of type I interferons and assist in the development of persistent infections. These glycoproteins are localized to the virion surface; however, variations in amino acids and antigenic structures, disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, and RNase activity can ultimately affect the virulence of pestiviruses in animals. Along with mutations that are driven by selection pressure, antigenic differences in glycoproteins influence the efficacy of vaccines and determine the appropriateness of the vaccines that are currently being used in the field.

  14. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in Brazilian pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mósena, A C S; Weber, M N; da Cruz, R A S; Cibulski, S P; da Silva, M S; Puhl, D E; Hammerschmitt, M E; Takeuti, K L; Driemeier, D; de Barcellos, D E S N; Canal, C W

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a putative new pestivirus species, provisionally named as Atypical Porcine Pestivirus (APPV), was associated with the congenital tremor in piglets in North America and consequently in Europe and Asia. The present research aimed to describe the detection and characterization of APPV employing NS5B gene partial sequencing, gross pathology and histologic examination of piglets displaying congenital tremor from two different farms of Southern Brazil. No gross lesions were observed, and the histological findings revealed moderate vacuolization of the white matter of the cerebellum. RT-PCR followed by DNA sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of APPV in samples from the two farms, which the samples were distinct in nature. Phylogenetic reconstruction reinforced the high genetic variability within the APPVs previously reported. This is the first report of APPV in South America suggesting that this new group of viruses may be widespread in swine herds in other countries as it is in Brazil. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Characterisation of a pestivirus isolated from persistently infected mousedeer (Tragulus javanicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøndahl, C.; Uttenthal, Åse; Houe, Hans

    2003-01-01

    '-untranslated region and the E2 gene of pestivirus. The RT-PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Mousedeer A was positive in virus isolation on three occasions (days 1, 19 and 40) and by RT-PCR. The sister and mother of Mousedeer A were also found virus positive by isolation and RT-PCR. Mousedeer A, its...... of antibodies and the virus positive family members documented that the mousedeer were persistently infected with a pestivirus. The father of A probably had an acute infection resulting in antibodies to pestivirus and viral clearance. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the mousedeer...... pestivirus was closely related to BVDV Type 1f. The existences of persistently infected animals in non-domestic species have great implications for BVDV eradication campaigns in cattle....

  16. Genotypes of Pestivirus RNA detected n anti influenza virus vaccines for human use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giangaspero

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine polyvalent human influenza virus vaccines were tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for the presence of pestivirus RNA. Samples were selected from manufacturers in Europe and the USA. Three samples of the nine vaccines tested (33.3% gave positive results for pestivirus RNA. The 5´-untranslated genomic region sequence of the contaminant pestivirus RNA was analysed based on primary nucleotide sequence homology and on secondary sequence structures characteristic to genotypes. Two sequences belonged to Pestivirus type-1 (bovine viral diarrhoea virus [BVDV] species, genotypes BVDV-1b and BVDV-1e. These findings confirm previous reports, suggesting an improvement in preventive measures against contamination of biological products for human use.

  17. Phylogenetic and genomic characterization of a novel atypical porcine pestivirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Wen, W; Hao, G; Hu, Y; Chen, H; Qian, P; Li, X

    2018-02-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has been considered a novel pestivirus and causative agent of congenital tremor type A-II. An APPV CH-GX2016 strain was characterized from newly born piglets with clinical symptoms of congenital tremor in Guangxi, China. The genome of APPV CH-GX 2016 strain was 11,475 bp in length and encoded a polyprotein composed of the 3,635 amino acids. This genome sequence exhibited 88.0% to 90.8% nucleotide sequence homology with other APPV reference sequences in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis further showed that APPV CH-GX is a novel pestivirus compared with previously described classical pestivirus strains. Therefore, APPV is present in pigs in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Sam Illingworth, Paul Wake & Esperanza Miyake - ‘DOOM: From Pixel to Plastic (and back again)’

    OpenAIRE

    Illingworth, Samuel; Wake, Paul; miyake mmu ac uk, e.

    2017-01-01

    Concerned with the relation of the digital and the analogue, our paper takes the insights of video game studies as its starting point in a consideration of Jonathan Ying’s Doom: The Board Game (Fantasy Flight, 2016), exploring issues of immersion, community, and identity as they translate from the digital to the analogue in the implementation of the longstanding Doom franchise.As Frans Mäyrä remarks, “the release of shooter game Doom in 1993 by id Software is heralded as a landmark event by m...

  19. Epidemiology of Pestivirus infection in wild ungulates of the French South Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Letellier, Carine; Caij, Brigitte; Gauthier, Dominique; Jean, Nicolas; Shaffii, Anahita; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-27

    Inter-species transmission is often incriminated in the epidemiology of Pestivirus diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Pestivirus in some mountain wild ungulates and to determine their role in Pestivirus transmission, as mountain pastures are a place where cohabitations between wild and domestic ungulates are particularly high. Between 2003 and 2007, a longitudinal epidemiological study was carried out on hunted ungulates in the French Hautes-Alpes department. Pestivirus-specific antibodies against p80 protein (also named NS3) common to all Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus (BDV) were found in 45.9% (95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 40.5-51.3%) of the 343 tested chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). In addition, mouflons (Ovis gmelinii musimon) were shown for the first time to be strongly infected (61.1%; CI95%: 38.6-83.6) by a Pestivirus. These serological ELISA results were confirmed by comparative virus neutralization tests, performed on seven Pestivirus strains by using 15 seropositive samples. The highest antibody titers were directed against 2 BDV strains (Av and 33s strains), rather than BDV-4, a strain responsible for Pyrenean-chamois epizooties. Virus neutralization tests confirm a BDV circulation in wild ungulates in the French South Alps. However, no Pestivirus RNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in serum and spleen samples from seronegative animals and no virus was isolated from those samples either. Efforts should be made to improve the protocol in order to be able to isolate and characterize the local strain. Finally, the oldness (age) and femaleness (gender) increase the risk of seroconversion in chamois. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pestiviruses infections at the wild and domestic ruminants interface in the French Southern Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Duquesne, Véronique; Adam, Gilbert; Belleau, Eric; Gauthier, Dominique; Champion, Jean-Luc; Saegerman, Claude; Thiéry, Richard; Dubois, Eric

    2015-02-25

    In alpine pasture, interspecies transmission has recently been incriminated in the epidemiology of pestivirus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate pestivirus infections in wild and domestic ruminants sharing pastures in the French Southern Alps. Animal sera were screened for pestivirus antibodies against the pestivirus NS3 protein by a commercial blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 38 domestic herds tested were positive for pestivirus-specific antibodies. Individual sero-prevalence reached 76.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: [74.2-78.8%]) of the 1383 sheep tested. For wild ruminants, 38.7% (95% CI: [33.8-43.9%]) of the 369 chamois tested, 28.7% (95% CI: [17.4-38.1%]) of the 72 roe deer, and 22.2% (95% CI: [6.5-37.9%]) of the 27 mouflons were seropositive. Virus screening was carried out on spleen samples from hunted wild animals (n=160) and from 15 domestic ruminants (clinically suspected to be persistently infected animals), by a conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Three pestivirus strains were isolated from the sheep samples positive by RT-PCR. The viruses were classified in the BDV-3, BDV-Tunisian and BDV-6 genotypes. For the first time, one strain (RUPI-05 strain) was isolated from an alpine chamois and clustered in the BDV-6 genotype, showing in the 5'-UTR region 92% of identity with the ovine isolate from the same area. Thus, an active circulation of pestiviruses was demonstrated in both wild and domestic ungulates from the French Southern Alps. The results suggest that interspecies transmission between sheep and chamois probably occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Temporal dynamics of ‘HoBi’-like pestivirus quasispecies in persistently infected calves generated under experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoBi’-like virus is an atypical group within the Pestivirus genus that is implicated in economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. Pestivirus strains exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses) in infected animals and the viral populations making up t...

  2. Identification and epidemiology of a rare HoBi-like pestivirus strain in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Rahman, M S; Khan, S U; Mikolon, A; Gurley, E S; Osmani, M G; Shanta, I S; Paul, S K; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Islam, A; Desmond, J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Azim, T; Luby, S P; Zeidner, N; Rahman, M Z

    2014-06-01

    The genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. A new putative pestivirus species tentatively named as either 'HoBi-like pestivirus' or BVDV-3 has recently been identified in Brazil, Italy and Thailand. Despite reports of serological evidence of BVDV in Bangladesh, the types of the virus circulating in cattle have not been identified. We conducted surveillance in cattle from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals to characterize BVDV in cattle of Bangladesh. We tested serum for BVDV using an antigen-capture ELISA. Of 638 cattle samples, 3% (16/638) tested positive for BVDV antigen. The ELISA-positive samples were selected for further molecular detection and characterization of BVDV. Molecular analysis of the partial 5' untranslated region (UTR) nucleotide sequences of BVDV-positive samples identified the rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 virus circulating in cattle of Bangladesh. The identification of this rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 strain in Bangladesh warrants further surveillance to evaluate its impact on livestock production. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Seroprevalence and characterization of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danuser, R; Vogt, H-R; Kaufmann, Th; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

    2009-03-01

    The seroprevalence of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland was determined. In 5'059 sera of sheep from 382 herds, 503 sera of goats from 54 herds and 109 sera of alpacas and lamas from 53 herds, population prevalences of 16.1% (sheep), 25.4% (goats) and 4.6% (new world camelids), respectively, were found. In order to determine the source of infection, the serological reactions were further characterized by cross-neutralization against two pestiviruses representing the genotypes BVDV (Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus)-1 and BDV (Border Disease Virus)-1. Based on the ratio of respective antibody titres, 56.1% of the infections in sheep were induced by a BDV-1, 12.9% by a BVDV-1 and 31.0% by an unresolved pestivirus. In goats, the corresponding proportions were 23.4%, 10.2% and 66.4%, respectively. In Alpacas and Lamas, the source of infection of 1 animal was BDV-1 and that of 4 seropositive animals remained unresolved. In view of the phylogenetic relationship between pestiviruses, the unresolved source of infection is most probably attributable to other pestivirus genotypes circulating in small ruminants and new world camelids. Due to the predominance of pestiviral genotypes other than BVDV-1, the risk of transmission of BVDV from persistently infected small ruminants and new world camelids to cattle appears to be moderate, apart from close direct contact in mixed animal husbandry, communal pasturing and grazing in the Alps.

  4. Retrospective study of pestivirus infection in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) and other ungulates in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Cabezón, Oscar; Rosell, Rosa; Fernández-Sirera, Laura; Allepuz, Alberto; Lavín, Santiago

    2011-04-21

    In 2001 a new Pestivirus (Family Flaviviridae) was associated with an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Molecular characterization assigned this virus to the Border Disease Virus (BDV) cluster, BDV-4 genotype. A retrospective study was performed in archived sera and spleen of 74 Pyrenean chamois and in archived sera of 28 mouflon (Ovis ammon), 56 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 43 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 29 fallow deer (Dama dama) from the Pyrenees between the years 1990 and 2000. Thirty six of 74 (48.6%) sera of Pyrenean chamois, one of mouflon and one of red deer were positive by an ELISA antibody test. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on 26 seropositive chamois, one mouflon and one red deer, using five pestivirus strains. An ELISA antigen test was performed on 37 seronegative chamois and yielded positive results in one chamois and inconclusive result in two. RT-PCR and virus isolation performed on spleen samples from these three animals gave positive results in the positive and one inconclusive animal. Sequence analysis in the 5' unstranslated region revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. Virological and serological data of the present study indicate that BDV infection has been present in the chamois population since at least 1990, 11 years before the first outbreak of disease. Therefore, the emergence of the disease in 2001 is apparently due to other factors rather than the introduction of a new virus in the chamois population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brefeldin A inhibits pestivirus release from infected cells, without affecting its assembly and infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macovei, Alina; Zitzmann, Nicole; Lazar, Catalin; Dwek, Raymond A.; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2006-01-01

    The enveloped bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. While considerable information has been gathered on virus entry into the host cell, genome structure and protein function, little is known about pestivirus morphogenesis and release from cells. Here, we analyzed the intracellular localization, N-glycan processing and secretion of BVDV using brefeldin A (BFA), which blocks protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and causes disruption of the Golgi complex with subsequent fusion of its cis and medial cisternae with the ER. BFA treatment of infected cells resulted in complete inhibition of BVDV secretion and increased co-localization of the envelope glycoproteins with the cis-Golgi marker GM 130. Processing of the N-linked glycans was affected by BFA, however, virus assembly was not perturbed and intracellular virions were fully infectious, suggesting that trafficking beyond the cis-Golgi is not a prerequisite for pestivirus infectivity

  6. Identification of a novel virus in pigs--Bungowannah virus: a possible new species of pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, P D; Frost, M J; Finlaison, D S; King, K R; Ridpath, J F; Gu, X

    2007-10-01

    In 2003 an outbreak of sudden deaths occurred in 3-4-week-old piglets on a farm in New South Wales, Australia. There was a marked increase in the birth of stillborn foetuses. Pathological changes consisted of a multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis. A viral infection was suspected but a wide range of known agents were excluded. A modified sequence independent single primer amplification (SISPA) method was used to identify a novel virus associated with this outbreak. Conserved 5'UTR motifs, the presence of a putative N(pro) coding region and limited antigenic cross-reactivity with other members of the Pestivirus genus, support the placement of this virus in the Pestivirus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'UTR, N(pro) and E2 coding regions showed this virus to be the most divergent pestivirus identified to date.

  7. Isolation and molecular characterisation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Ahmed O; Goyal, Sagar M; Chander, Yogesh; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Tamam, Sabry M; Madbouly, Hanafy M

    2013-06-01

    Nine fetuses and neonates from sheep and goats in Egypt were screened for pestiviruses using immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two goat kids with typical border disease (BD) were positive for pestivirus infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using polyclonal anti-BDV serum but not when four different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used. On inoculation in MDBK cells, a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was isolated from one of the two kids. PCR amplification followed by sequencing of the 5'-UTR region confirmed it as BVDV subtype 1b. Although the circulating virus in Egypt is considered to be BVDV 1a, this report confirms the existence of BVDV 1b in addition to BVDV 1a. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt and is probably the second report worldwide of a goat kid showing central nervous signs associated with border disease.

  8. Complementation studies with the novel "Bungowannah" virus provide new insights in the compatibility of pestivirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Wegelt, Anne; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2011-09-30

    In recent years several atypical pestiviruses have been described. Bungowannah virus is the most divergent virus in this group. Therefore, heterologous complementation was used to clarify the phylogenetic relationship and to analyze the exchangeability of genome regions encoding structural proteins. Using a BVDV type 1 backbone, chimeric constructs with substituted envelope proteins E(rns), E1 and E2, were investigated. While all constructs replicated autonomously, infectious high titer chimeric virus could only be observed after exchanging the complete E1-E2 encoding region. The complementation of E1 and E2 alone resulted only in replicons. Complementation of BVDV-E(rns) was only efficient if Bungowannah virus-E(rns) was expressed from a bicistronic construct. Our data provide new insights in the compatibility of pestivirus proteins and demonstrate that heterologous complementation could be useful to characterize new pestiviruses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brefeldin A inhibits pestivirus release from infected cells, without affecting its assembly and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macovei, Alina; Zitzmann, Nicole; Lazar, Catalin; Dwek, Raymond A; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2006-08-04

    The enveloped bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Pestivirus genus within the Flaviviridae family. While considerable information has been gathered on virus entry into the host cell, genome structure and protein function, little is known about pestivirus morphogenesis and release from cells. Here, we analyzed the intracellular localization, N-glycan processing and secretion of BVDV using brefeldin A (BFA), which blocks protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and causes disruption of the Golgi complex with subsequent fusion of its cis and medial cisternae with the ER. BFA treatment of infected cells resulted in complete inhibition of BVDV secretion and increased co-localization of the envelope glycoproteins with the cis-Golgi marker GM 130. Processing of the N-linked glycans was affected by BFA, however, virus assembly was not perturbed and intracellular virions were fully infectious, suggesting that trafficking beyond the cis-Golgi is not a prerequisite for pestivirus infectivity.

  10. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full-genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2010-01-01

    -Gifhorn genome was generated by long RTPCR and then RNA transcripts derived from this amplicon were used to rescue infectious virus. Here, we have now used this full-genome amplification strategy for efficient and robust amplification of three additional pestivirus strains: the vaccine strain C and the virulent...... Paderborn strain of Classical swine fever virus plus the CP7 strain of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stable single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived....

  11. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  12. Genetic diversity of pestivirus isolates in cattle from Western Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberg, Andrea; Fernández, Sandra Revilla; Vogl, Claus; Vilcek, Stefan; Matt, Monika; Fink, Maria; Köfer, Josef; Schöpf, Karl

    2009-03-30

    The genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) isolates in infected cattle from Tyrol and Vorarlberg (Austria) was investigated. Blood samples were collected within the compulsory Austrian BVDV control programme during 2005 and 2006. The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and partially the N-terminal autoprotease (N(pro)) were amplified by one-step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the PCR products were subsequently sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis based on 5'-UTR and N(pro) sequences demonstrated that almost all isolates (307/310) were of the BVDV-1 genotype. They were clustered into eight different subtypes, here listed by their frequency of occurrence: BVDV-1h (143), BVDV-1f (79), BVDV-1b (41), BVDV-1d (28), BVDV-1e (6), BVDV-1a (4), BVDV-1g (3) and BVDV1-k (3). Two pestivirus isolates were typed as BVDV-2 and one isolate as BDV closely related to Gifhorn strain (BDV-3). Correlation among isolates could only be observed at the farm level, i.e., within a herd. However, no correlation between the genetic and geographical distances could be observed above the farm level. Because of the wide distribution of certain BVDV-1 subtypes and the low prevalence of herd-specific strains, a determination of tracing routes of infection was not possible. Furthermore, recombination events were not detected.

  13. DIVA vaccine properties of the live chimeric pestivirus strain CP7_E2gif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Rangelova, Desislava Yordanova; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Live modified vaccines to protect against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), based on chimeric pestiviruses, have been developed to enable serological Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). In this context, the chimeric virus CP7_E2gif vaccine candidate is unique as it does...

  14. Efficacy of a novel antiviral compound to inhibit replication of multiple pestivirus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pestiviruses are economically important pathogens of livestock. An aromatic cationic compound (DB772) has previously been shown to inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in vitro at concentrations lacking cytotoxic side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the scope of anti...

  15. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms

  16. Absence of circulation of Pestivirus between wild and domestic ruminants in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, J; García-Bocanegra, I; Arenas-Montes, A; Berriatua, E; Espunyes, J; Carbonero, A; Rosell, R; Marco, I; Cabezón, O

    2016-02-27

    Ruminant pestiviruses (family Flaviviridae) affect both wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, causing reproductive disorders and severe economic losses. Wild (n=1442) and domestic (n=373) ruminants from southern Spain were tested for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses. Seropositivity was detected by both ELISA and virus neutralisation test in 1/892 (0.1 per cent) red deer, 29/125 (23.2 per cent) cattle and 17/157 (10.8 per cent) sheep. Pestivirus-specific antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) genotypes 1, 4 and 5 were detected. Significantly higher antibody titres to BDV-4 compared with BVDV-NADL were found in one cattle farm. Results indicate that wild ruminants may act as spillover hosts from domestic ruminants, and therefore they do not represent a risk for domestic ruminants in southern Spain. The wide distribution of pestiviruses among sheep and cattle suggests that transmission between these species may occur. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses: New Insights from Ultrastructural Studies of Strain Giraffe-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Jan; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; König, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge on the morphogenesis of pestiviruses is limited due to low virus production in infected cells. In order to localize virion morphogenesis and replication sites of pestiviruses and to examine intracellular virion transport, a cell culture model was established to facilitate ultrastructural studies. Based on results of virus growth kinetic analysis and quantification of viral RNA, pestivirus strain Giraffe-1 turned out to be a suitable candidate for studies on virion generation and export from culture cells. Using conventional transmission electron microscopy and single-tilt electron tomography, we found virions located predominately in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in infected cells and were able to depict the budding process of virions at ER membranes. Colocalization of the viral core protein and the envelope glycoprotein E2 with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was demonstrated by immunogold labeling of cryosections. Moreover, pestivirions could be shown in transport vesicles and the Golgi complex and during exocytosis. Interestingly, viral capsid protein and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were detected in multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which implies that the endosomal compartment plays a role in pestiviral replication. Significant cellular membrane alterations such as those described for members of the Flavivirus and Hepacivirus genera were not found. Based on the gained morphological data, we present a consistent model of pestivirus morphogenesis. PMID:24352462

  18. Towards a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of pestivirus antibodies in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Fimme J; Jelsma, Tinka; Fijten, Helmi; Achterberg, René P; Loeffen, Willie L A

    2016-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious and lethal disease in swine. Serological tests for the diagnosis of CSF need not only to detect antibodies against CSFV, but also need to differentiate these from antibodies against other pestiviruses. To investigate the possibilities of specific peptide-based serology, various synthetic peptides that represent a well-described linear epitope of the CSFV E2 protein (TAVSPTTLR) were used to test the viability of a peptide-based suspension array for the detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in swine. The results show that N-terminally biotinylated peptides can bind to avidin conjugated beads, and function in detection of the corresponding monoclonal antibody WH303. There are indications that the length of the spacer between epitope and biotin affect the efficiency of the peptide-antibody interaction. A protocol was established that enables probing for antibodies in porcine sera, where neutravidin-blocking of serum and the use of empty control beads for normalization was crucial. With a set of porcine sera with antibodies against various pestiviruses, the proof of concept of a peptide-based suspension array for specific detection of antibodies against pestiviruses in porcine sera was demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautto, Arja H; Alenius, Stefan; Mossing, Torgny; Becher, Paul; Belák, Sándor; Larska, Magdalena

    2012-04-23

    Herding semi-domesticated reindeer has economic and social value for Sami people in the northern territories of Fennoscandia. However, with the intensification of reindeer husbandry, interspecies transmission of pathogens between reindeer and domestic animals may become a problem, especially for countries such as Sweden, Norway, and Finland where pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus have been eradicated in domestic ruminants. This study, which included 1158 Swedish reindeer, showed relatively high prevalence of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) (32%) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) (53%). Adult animals were more often seropositive for BVDV and BoHV-1 (50% and 78%, respectively) than were calves (18 and 11%, respectively). While the seroprevalence of alphaherpesvirus was similar in different herding districts, pestivirus seropositivity was highest in the South and diminished towards the North of the Swedish reindeer herding area. High correlation of the seropositivity against both pathogens at both individual and herd levels may indicate possible mutual synergetic effects and may be explained by the immunosuppressive nature of the viruses. While alphaherpesvirus seroprevalence was probably related to putative cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2), the pestivirus infecting reindeer remains undefined. The virus neutralisation test of reindeer sera using different pestivirus strains, revealed higher titres against Border disease virus strains like 137/4 (BDV-1) and Reindeer-1 (BDV-2) than against BVDV-1. However, the virus was not identified by real time RT-PCR in any of the samples (n=276) from seronegative reindeers. The study showed that pestivirus and alphaherpesvirus infections are endemic in the Swedish reindeer population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular identification of a new pestivirus associated with increased mortality in the Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Ana; Aduriz, Gorka; Gómez, Nieves; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Lavin, Santiago; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge R; Marco, Ignasi

    2004-10-01

    Pestivirus infection was identified in 16 of 17 chamois during an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in northeastern Spain in 2001-02. By analysis of the 5' noncoding regions of the virus, we assigned it to the border disease virus cluster with pairwise similarity values ranging from 82.1% to 88.1%. It will be important to investigate the association of this pestivirus with disease in Pyrenean chamois.

  1. Seroprevalence of pestivirus in four species of alpine wild ungulates in the High Valley of Susa, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olde Riekerink, R G M; Dominici, A; Barkema, H W; de Smit, A J

    2005-07-01

    Wildlife, once infected, can serve as a reservoir of infectious diseases that form a constant threat to domestic livestock. To make control and eradication programs successful in the long-term, presence of pestivirus in wildlife populations should be monitored. The goal of this study was to investigate seroprevalence of pestivirus in four alpine wild ungulates in the High Valley of Susa, north-west Italy. Species studied were: red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). A further goal was using virus neutralisation tests (VNT) for four strains of pestivirus in chamois and wild boar. Three hundred and seventy-five serum samples collected during the hunting season of 1999 were tested for pestivirus specific antibodies. Positive sera of chamois and wild boar were subsequently tested in a VNT with four major subtypes of pestivirus, and virus isolation was performed. No antibodies were found in the 73 samples of roe deer, while 7 (12.5%), 8 (5.9%) and 28 (25.5%) of 56, 136 and 110 samples of wild boar, red deer and chamois were ELISA-positive, respectively. Different ranges of titers were found in the VNT and no pestivirus was isolated in the ELISA-positive wild boar and chamois samples. Several possibilities, which might explain the high seroprevalence in chamois are discussed. Pestivirus antibodies were found in three out of four large alpine ungulates in the High Valley of Susa. Seroprevalence was particularly high in chamois. Further investigation is needed to characterise the pestiviruses that circulate in these animals.

  2. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  3. Experimental inoculation of calves with atypical Hobi-like pestivirus shows pattern similar to BVDV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse

    of experimental inoculation of European cattle with atypical pestivirus. The experiment included 4 groups of 5 calves each inoculated with: BVDV-1 (Ho916), Hobi-like pestivirus (Th/04_KhonKaen), a mixture of both viruses or EaglesMEM (control animals). Th/04_KhonKaen induced milder clinical signs than observed......, lymphocytes and granulocytes in blood on PID 2 correlated to the onset of viraemia. Animals started to seroconvert on PID 14, however the level of anti- Th/04_KhonKaen antibodies was significantly lower that the level of anti-BVDV-1 antibodies, probably due to the specificity of the test used. The experiment...... studies show that the viruses which were thought to be restricted to South America and Southeast Asia, may have reached other continents, including Europe. The pathogenesis of the infection with Hobi-like viruses has not yet been fully elucidated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the course...

  4. Concurrent peste des petits ruminants virus and pestivirus infection in stillborn twin lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kul, O; Kabakci, N; Ozkul, A; Kalender, H; Atmaca, H T

    2008-03-01

    Concurrent infection with peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and pestivirus was diagnosed in stillborn twin lambs. With the flock history, the findings of epidermal syncytial cells and necrotizing bronchitis/bronchiolitis prompted testing for PPRV infection, and PPRV antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the skin, lungs, kidneys, rumen, and thymus. Macroscopic anomalies that were typical of border disease included scoliosis, brachygnathism, prognathism, arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and hairy fleece; pestiviral antigen was detected by IHC in the brain, liver, lungs, and kidneys. Tissues from both lambs were positive by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for PPRV and pestivirus. To the authors' knowledge, PPR has not been reported previously as a congenital infection or in combination with pestiviral infection.

  5. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses.

  6. Sequence-based comparative study of classical swine fever virus genogroup 2.2 isolate with pestivirus reference strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Chandra, Tribhuwan; Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; Saxena, Arpit; Chaudhary, Dheeraj; Kumar, Ajay; Pandey, Awadh Bihari

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim to compare and establish the genetic relatedness between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genogroup 2.2 isolate and pestivirus reference strains. The available complete genome sequences of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 strain and other pestivirus reference strains were retrieved from GenBank. The complete genome sequence, complete open reading frame, 5' and 3' non-coding region (NCR) sequences were analyzed and compared with reference pestiviruses strains. Clustal W model in MegAlign program of Lasergene 6.0 software was used for analysis of genetic heterogeneity. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA 6.06 software package. The complete genome sequence alignment of CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate and reference pestivirus strains showed 58.9-72% identities at the nucleotide level and 50.3-76.9% at amino acid level. Sequence homology of 5' and 3' NCRs was found to be 64.1-82.3% and 22.9-71.4%, respectively. In phylogenetic analysis, overall tree topology was found similar irrespective of sequences used in this study; however, whole genome phylogeny of pestivirus formed two main clusters, which further distinguished into the monophyletic clade of each pestivirus species. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 isolate placed with the CSFV Eystrup strain in the same clade with close proximity to border disease virus and Aydin strains. CSFV/IND/UK/LAL-290 exhibited the analogous genomic organization to those of all reference pestivirus strains. Based on sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, the isolate showed close homology to Aydin/04-TR virus and distantly related to Bungowannah virus.

  7. Efficacy of an antiviral compound to inhibit replication of multiple pestivirus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Marley, M Shonda; Ridpath, Julia F; Neill, John D; Boykin, David W; Kumar, Arvind; Givens, M Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Pestiviruses are economically important pathogens of livestock. An aromatic cationic compound (DB772) has previously been shown to inhibit bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1 in vitro at concentrations lacking cytotoxic side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the scope of antiviral activity of DB772 among diverse pestiviruses. Isolates of BVDV 2, border disease virus (BDV), HoBi virus, pronghorn virus and Bungowannah virus were tested for in vitro susceptibility to DB772 by incubating infected cells in medium containing 0, 0.006, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5 or 25μM DB772. The samples were assayed for the presence of virus by virus isolation and titration (BDV and BVDV 2) or PCR (HoBi, pronghorn and Bungowannah viruses). Cytotoxicity of the compound was assayed for each cell type. Complete inhibition of BVDV 2, BDV, and Pronghorn virus was detected when DB772 was included in the culture media at concentrations of 0.20μM and higher. In two of three tests, a concentration of 0.05μM DB772 was sufficient to completely inhibit HoBi virus replication. Bungowannah virus was completely inhibited at a concentration of 0.01μM DB772. Thus, DB772 effectively inhibits all pestiviruses studied at concentrations >0.20μM. As cytotoxicity is not evident at these concentrations, this antiviral compound potentially represents an effective preventative or therapeutic for diverse pestiviruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure of a Pestivirus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 Clarifies Its Role in Cell Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel El Omari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enveloped viruses have developed various adroit mechanisms to invade their host cells. This process requires one or more viral envelope glycoprotein to achieve cell attachment and membrane fusion. Members of the Flaviviridae such as flaviviruses possess only one envelope glycoprotein, E, whereas pestiviruses and hepacivirus encode two glycoproteins, E1 and E2. Although E2 is involved in cell attachment, it has been unclear which protein is responsible for membrane fusion. We report the crystal structures of the homodimeric glycoprotein E2 from the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1 at both neutral and low pH. Unexpectedly, BVDV1 E2 does not have a class II fusion protein fold, and at low pH the N-terminal domain is disordered, similarly to the intermediate postfusion state of E2 from sindbis virus, an alphavirus. Our results suggest that the pestivirus and possibly the hepacivirus fusion machinery are unlike any previously observed.

  9. Presence of atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) genomes in newborn piglets correlates with congenital tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postel, Alexander; Hansmann, Florian; Baechlein, Christine; Fischer, Nicole; Alawi, Malik; Grundhoff, Adam; Derking, Sarah; Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Herder, Vanessa; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael; Becher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses belonging to the continuously growing family Flaviviridae. A genetically very distinct pestivirus was recently discovered in the USA, designated atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, a screening of 369 sera from apparently healthy adult pigs demonstrated the existence of APPV in Germany with an estimated individual prevalence of 2.4% and ~10% at farm level. Additionally, APPV genomes were detected in newborn piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT), but genomes were absent in unaffected piglets. High loads of genomes were identified in glandular epithelial cells, follicular centers of lymphoid organs, the inner granular cell layer of the cerebellum, as well as in the trigeminal and spinal ganglia. Retrospective analysis of cerebellum samples from 2007 demonstrated that APPV can be found in piglets with CT of unsolved aetiology. Determination of the first European APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence revealed 88.2% nucleotide identity to the APPV sequence from the USA. APPV sequences derived from different regions in Germany demonstrated to be highly variable. Taken together, the results of this study strongly suggest that the presence of APPV genomes in newborn piglets correlates with CT, while no association with clinical disease could be observed in viremic adult pigs. PMID:27292119

  10. Pestivirus in alpine wild ruminants and sympatric livestock from the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, X; López-Olvera, J R; Marco, I; Rosell, R; Colom-Cadena, A; Soto-Heras, S; Lavín, S; Cabezón, O

    2016-06-04

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Border disease virus (BDV) were investigated at the wildlife-livestock interface in the distribution area of chamois in the Cantabrian Mountains, North-Western Spain. From 2010 to 2014, sera from sympatric wild (n=167) and domestic (n=272) ruminants were analysed for pestivirus antibodies by cELISA, virus neutralisation test (VNT) and for the presence of pestiviral RNA using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Results showed a higher seroprevalence in cattle (59.4 per cent, 13/13 of herds) than in domestic small ruminants (5.9 per cent sheep, 2/8 of flocks; 0 per cent goats of 4 flocks) and wildlife (10.8 per cent in red deer, 0 per cent in roe deer and 0 per cent in Cantabrian chamois). High VNT titres were detected in two cattle herds, suggesting the circulation of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. BVDV-1 RNA was detected in one cattle calf by RT-PCR and sequencing. Conversely to other similar grazing systems, sheep flocks did not play a relevant role in the pestivirus epidemiology in this region. Pestivirus infections in wild ruminants were sporadic and most probably dependent on a domestic source. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Direct recovery of infectious Pestivirus from a full-length RT-PCR amplicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro, and the result......This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro......, and the resulting RNA transcripts were electroporated into ovine cells. Infectious virus was obtained after one cell culture passage. The rescued viruses had a phenotype similar to the parental Border Disease virus strain. Therefore, direct generation of infectious pestiviruses from full-length RT-PCR cDNA products...

  12. Structure of a Pestivirus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 Clarifies Its Role in Cell Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Kamel; Iourin, Oleg; Harlos, Karl; Grimes, Jonathan M.; Stuart, David I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Enveloped viruses have developed various adroit mechanisms to invade their host cells. This process requires one or more viral envelope glycoprotein to achieve cell attachment and membrane fusion. Members of the Flaviviridae such as flaviviruses possess only one envelope glycoprotein, E, whereas pestiviruses and hepacivirus encode two glycoproteins, E1 and E2. Although E2 is involved in cell attachment, it has been unclear which protein is responsible for membrane fusion. We report the crystal structures of the homodimeric glycoprotein E2 from the pestivirus bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1) at both neutral and low pH. Unexpectedly, BVDV1 E2 does not have a class II fusion protein fold, and at low pH the N-terminal domain is disordered, similarly to the intermediate postfusion state of E2 from sindbis virus, an alphavirus. Our results suggest that the pestivirus and possibly the hepacivirus fusion machinery are unlike any previously observed. PMID:23273918

  13. Experimental infection of cattle, sheep and pigs with 'Hobi'-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Moreno, Ana; Armenise, Carlo; Losurdo, Michele; Camero, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cordioli, Paolo; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-03-23

    To date, limited information is available on the ability of 'Hobi'-like pestiviruses (putative bovine viral diarrhoea 3) to infect and cause disease in animal species traditionally affected by pestiviruses. In order to obtain new insights into host range and pathogenic potential of this atypical pestivirus, BVDV-seronegative calves (n=5), lambs (n=5) and piglets (n=5) were experimentally infected with the European 'Hobi'-like strain Italy-1/10-1, whereas two animals per species served as uninfected controls. Appearance of clinical signs, leukopenia, viremia, viral shedding and seroconversion were monitored for 28 days post-infection. Calves and lambs were successfully infected, displaying respiratory signs (nasal discharge), moderate hyperthermia and leukopenia, viremia and viral shedding through the nasal and faecal routes. Antibody responses were observed in both animal species by ELISA and virus neutralisation assays. In contrast, inoculated piglets did not display any clinical signs nor leukopenia and viral RNA was not detected in any biological samples. Nevertheless, the presence of detectable antibodies by virus neutralisation accounted for a successful, albeit limited infection of these animals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A structural model of pestivirus E(rns) based on disulfide bond connectivity and homology modeling reveals an extremely rare vicinal disulfide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, J.P.M.; Veelen, van P.A.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Ru, de A.H.; Meloen, R.H.; Hulst, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Erns is a pestivirus envelope glycoprotein and is the only known viral surface protein with RNase activity. Erns is a disulfide-linked homodimer of 100 kDa; it is found on the surface of pestivirus-infected cells and is secreted into the medium. In this study, the disulfide arrangement of the nine

  15. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of a combined nucleotide sequence dataset for genetic characterization of a novel pestivirus, SVA/cont-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Xia, Hongyan; Baule, Claudia; Belák, Sándor

    2009-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) and Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2) are two recognised bovine pestivirus species of the genus Pestivirus. Recently, a pestivirus, termed SVA/cont-08, was detected in a batch of contaminated foetal calf serum originating from South America. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the SVA/cont-08 virus shares 15-28% higher sequence identity to pestivirus D32/00_'HoBi' than to members of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of SVA/cont-08 with other pestiviruses, a molecular dataset of 30 pestiviruses and 1,896 characters, comprising the 5'UTR, N(pro) and E2 gene regions, was analysed by two methods: maximum likelihood and Bayesian approach. An identical, well-supported tree topology was observed, where four pestiviruses (SVA/cont-08, D32/00_'HoBi', CH-KaHo/cont, and Th/04_KhonKaen) formed a monophyletic clade that is closely related to the BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 clades. The strategy applied in this study is useful for classifying novel pestiviruses in the future.

  16. Natural infection of cattle with an atypical 'HoBi'-like pestivirus--implications for BVD control and for the safety of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Karl; Kampa, Jaruwan; Alenius, Stefan; Persson Wadman, Annie; Baule, Claudia; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Belák, Sándor

    2007-01-01

    During a study on Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) epidemiology in Thailand, a pestivirus was detected in serum from a calf. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis showed that this virus was closely related to a recently described atypical pestivirus (D32/00_'HoBi') that was first isolated from a batch of foetal calf serum collected in Brazil. The results from virus neutralisation tests performed on sera collected from cattle in the herd of the infected calf, showed that these cattle had markedly higher antibody titres against the atypical pestivirus 'HoBi' than against Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus types 1 and 2, or Border Disease Virus. The results also supported, consequently, the results from the molecular analysis, and demonstrated that a 'HoBi'-like pestivirus had been introduced to, and was now circulating in the herd. This study is the first to report a natural infection in cattle with a virus related to this atypical pestivirus, and it suggests that this group of pestiviruses may already be spread in cattle populations. The findings have implications for BVD control and for the biosafety of vaccines and other biological products produced with foetal calf serum. Consequently, these atypical pestiviruses should be included in serological assays, and any diagnostic assay aimed at detection of pestiviruses in biological products or animals should be tested for its ability to detect them.

  17. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Magstadt, Drew R; Schwartz, Kent J; Dohlman, Tyler; Schleining, Jennifer A; Patterson, Abby R; Visek, Callie A; Victoria, Joseph G

    2016-01-01

    Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1) detect potential pathogen(s) in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2) develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control) by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets) to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets). The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41), mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  18. Identification of a Divergent Lineage Porcine Pestivirus in Nursing Piglets with Congenital Tremors and Reproduction of Disease following Experimental Inoculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey L Arruda

    Full Text Available Congenital tremors is a sporadic disease of neonatal pigs characterized by action-related repetitive myoclonus. A majority of outbreaks of congenital tremors have been attributed to an unidentified virus. The objectives of this project were to 1 detect potential pathogen(s in samples from piglets with congenital tremors and 2 develop an infection model to reproduce disease. Using next-generation sequencing, a divergent lineage pestivirus was detected in piglets with congenital tremors. The virus was originally most closely related to a bat pestivirus but is now more closely related to a recently published novel porcine pestivirus provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus. A quantitative real-time PCR detected the virus in samples from neonatal piglets with congenital tremors from two separate farms, but not in samples from unaffected piglets from the same farm. To fulfill the second objective, pregnant sows were inoculated with either serum containing the pestivirus or PBS (control by intravenous and intranasal routes simultaneously with direct inoculation of fetal amniotic vesicles by ultrasound-guided surgical technique. Inoculations were performed at either 45 or 62 days of gestation. All sows inoculated with the novel pestivirus farrowed piglets affected with congenital tremors while PBS-inoculated control piglets were unaffected. Tremor severity for each piglet was scored from videos taken 0, 1 and 2 days post-farrowing. Tremor severity remained relatively constant from 0 to 2 days post-farrowing for a majority of piglets. The prevalence of congenital tremors in pestivirus-inoculated litters ranged from 57% (4 out of 7 affected piglets to 100% (10 out of 10 affected piglets. The virus was consistently detected by PCR in tissues from piglets with congenital tremors but was not detected in control piglets. Samples positive by PCR in greater than 90% of piglets sampled included brainstem (37 out of 41, mesenteric lymph node (37 out of 41

  19. Detection and genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazilian lots of fetal bovine serum collected from 2006 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle L. Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study performed a genetic identification of pestiviruses contaminating batches of fetal bovine serum (FBS produced in Brazil from 2006 to 2014. Seventy-three FBS lots were screened by a RT-PCR targeting the 5’untranslated region (UTR of the pestivirus genome. Thirty-nine lots (53.4% were positive for pestivirus RNA and one contained infectious virus. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5’UTR revealed 34 lots (46.6% containing RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1, being 23 BVDV-1a (5’ UTR identity 90.8-98.7%, eight BVDV-1b (93.9-96.7% and three BVDV-1d (96.2- 97.6%. Six lots (8.2% contained BVDV-2 (90.3-100% UTR identity being two BVDV-2a; three BVDV-2b and one undetermined. Four FBS batches (5.5% were found contaminated with HoBi-like virus (98.3 to 100%. Five batches (6.8% contained more than one pestivirus. The high frequency of contamination of FBS with pestivirus RNA reinforce the need for systematic and updated guidelines for monitoring this product to reduce the risk of contamination of biologicals and introduction of contaminating agents into free areas.

  20. Recombinant pestivirus E2 glycoproteins prevent viral attachment to permissive and non permissive cells with different efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfor, A S; Wakeley, P R; Drew, T W; Paton, D J

    2014-08-30

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an economically important animal pathogen, which like other pestiviruses has similar molecular biological features to hepaciviruses, including human Hepatitis C virus. The pestivirus E2 glycoproteins are the major target for virus-neutralising antibodies, as well as playing a role in receptor binding and host range restriction. In this study, recombinant E2 glycoproteins (rE2) derived from three different pestivirus species were examined for their inhibitory effects on pestivirus infectivity in cell culture. Histidine-tagged rE2 glycoproteins of BVDV type 2 strain 178003, BVDV type 1 strain Oregon C24V and CSFV strain Alfort 187 were produced in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells and purified under native conditions. The ability of rE2 glycoprotein to inhibit the infection of permissive cells by both homologous and heterologous virus was compared, revealing that the inhibitory effects of rE2 glycoproteins correlated with the predicted similarity of the E2 structures in the recombinant protein and the test virus. This result suggests that the sequence and structure of E2 are likely to be involved in the host specificity of pestiviruses at their point of uptake into cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genomic and antigenic relationships between two 'HoBi'-like strains and other members of the Pestivirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mósena, Ana Cristina S; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Silveira, Simone; Silva, Mariana S; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2017-10-01

    'HoBi'-like viruses comprise a putative new species within the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. 'HoBi'-like viruses have been detected worldwide in batches of fetal calf serum, in surveillance programs for bovine pestiviruses and from animals presenting clinical signs resembling bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-associated diseases. To date, few complete genome sequences of 'HoBi'-like viruses are available in public databases. Moreover, detailed analyses of such genomes are still scarce. In an attempt to expand data on the genetic diversity and biology of pestiviruses, two genomes of 'HoBi'-like viruses recovered from Brazilian cattle were described and characterized in this study. Analysis of the whole genome and antigenic properties of these two new 'HoBi'-like isolates suggest that these viruses are genetically close to recognized pestiviruses. The present data provide evidence that 'HoBi'-like viruses are members of the genus Pestivirus and should be formally recognized as a novel species.

  2. What Level Design Elements Determine Flow? : How Light and Objects Guide the Player in Overwatch and Doom

    OpenAIRE

    Eliasson, David

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a comparative study between Overwatch (2016) and Doom (2016) to determine how these fast-paced games facilitate flow in their gameplay. The second chapter looks at formal definitions of flow and level design to establish a vocabulary for following chapters. Through formal analysis the level designs of both games are then examined to establish what elements in them guide players and keep the flow in gameplay. The thesis also examines how the initial gameplay design princip...

  3. The viral envelope is not sufficient to transfer the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to a related pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Maria; Reimann, Ilona; Schirrmeier, Horst; Kirkland, Peter D; Beer, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Bungowannah virus is the most divergent pestivirus, and both origin and reservoir host have not been identified so far. We therefore performed in vitro tropism studies, which showed that Bungowannah virus differs remarkably from other pestiviruses. Interestingly, cell lines of vervet monkey, mouse, human and even of bat origin were susceptible. This broad in vitro tropism was not observed for a chimeric bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) expressing all structural proteins of Bungowannah virus. The viral envelope was not sufficient to completely transfer the cell tropism of Bungowannah virus to another pestivirus, and viral RNA replication was either markedly reduced or not detectable in a number of different cell lines for the tested BVDV strain and the chimera. We therefore suggest that the replication machinery together with the viral envelope is responsible for the unique broad cell tropism of Bungowannah virus. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus: new software for genotyping based on the palindromic nucleotide substitutions method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Apicella, Claudio; Harasawa, Ryô

    2013-09-01

    The genus Pestivirus from the family Flaviviridae is represented by four established species; Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1); Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2); Border disease virus (BDV); and Classical swine fever virus (CSFV); as well a tentative species from a Giraffe. The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Pestivirus RNA has been described as a new, simple and practical method for genotyping. New software is described, also named PNS, that was prepared specifically for this PNS genotyping procedure. Pestivirus identification using PNS was evaluated on five hundred and forty-three sequences at genus, species and genotype level using this software. The software is freely available at www.pns-software.com. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F; Dargatz, David A

    2017-01-01

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2; predominant host: cattle), Border disease virus (BDV; predominant host: sheep), and pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovine pestivirus called HoBi-like virus has been detected in cattle and water buffalo in South America, Asia, and Europe. To date, no isolations of HoBi-like viruses from U.S. cattle have been reported. To assess exposure, 2,000 cattle sera, collected between 2014 and 2015 as part of the U.S. brucellosis surveillance program, were tested for antibodies against BVDV-1, BVDV-2, and HoBi-like viruses. In addition, RNA was extracted and tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the presence of pestiviruses; all samples tested negative. The percent of VN-positive samples was 91.3% for BVDV-1, 89.3% for BVDV-2, and 84.9% for HoBi-like viruses. Because the 3 bovine pestiviruses are antigenically cross-reactive, the comparative level of antibody against each pestivirus species was determined. Based on comparative titers, samples were segregated into 6 categories: no titers (7.6%), titers clearly higher against BVDV-1 (22.2%), titers substantially higher against BVDV-2 (9.1%), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 titers equivalent but substantially higher than HoBi titers (25.7%), titers substantially higher against HoBi-like viruses (0%), and equivocal (35.4%). Titers tended to be higher against BVDV-1 than BVDV-2. However, the overall percentage of animals with titers below levels considered protective against acute bovine pestivirus infection were ~11% for BVDV-1, 12% BVDV-2, and 18% for HoBi-like virus.

  6. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Diaz-Pulido

    Full Text Available Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance.In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata, colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated.These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  7. Doomed to drown? Sediment dynamics in the human-controlled floodplains of the active Bengal Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly G. Rogers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (Bengal Delta in Bangladesh has been described as a delta in peril of catastrophic coastal flooding because sediment deposition on delta plain surfaces is insufficient to offset rates of subsidence and sea level rise. Widespread armoring of the delta by coastal embankments meant to protect crops from flooding has limited natural floodplain deposition, and in the tidally dominated delta, dikes lead to rapid compaction and lowered land surface levels. This renders the deltaic floodplains susceptible to flooding by sea level rise and storm surges capable of breaching poorly maintained embankments. However, natural physical processes are spatially variable across the delta front and therefore the impact of dikes on sediment dispersal and morphology should reflect these variations. We present the first ever reported sedimentation rates from the densely populated and human-controlled floodplains of the central lower Bengal Delta. We combine direct sedimentation measurements and short-lived radionuclides to show that transport processes and lateral sedimentation are highly variable across the delta. Overall aggradation rates average 2.3 ± 9 cm y–1, which is more than double the estimated average rate of local sea level rise; 83% of sampled sites contained sediment tagged with detectable 7 Be, indicating flood-pulse sourced sediments are widely delivered to the delta plain, including embanked areas. A numerical model is then used to demonstrate lateral accretion patterns arising from 50 years of sedimentation delivered through smaller order channels. Dominant modes of transport are reflected in the sediment routing and aggradation across the lower delta plain, though embankments are major controls on sediment dynamics throughout the delta. This challenges the assumption that the Bengal Delta is doomed to drown; rather it signifies that effective preparation for climate change requires consideration of how infrastructure

  8. The carbon curse: Are fuel rich countries doomed to high CO2 intensities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrichs, Jörg; Inderwildi, Oliver R.

    2013-01-01

    The carbon curse is a new theory, related to but distinct from the resource curse. It states that fossil-fuel rich countries tend to follow more carbon-intensive developmental pathways than [if they were] fossil-fuel poor countries, due to a hitherto unappreciated syndrome of causal mechanisms. First, fuel rich countries emit significant amounts of CO 2 in the extraction of fuel and through associated wasteful practices such as gas flaring. Second, easy access to domestic fuel in such countries leads to crowding-out effects for their energy mix and economic structure (for example, abundant oil may displace other fuels from the energy mix and lead to the “Dutch Disease”). Third, fuel abundance weakens the economic incentive to invest in energy efficiency. Fourth, governments in fuel rich countries are under considerable pressure to grant uneconomic fuel consumption subsidies, which further augments the carbon intensity of their economic output. Due to the combined effect of these causal mechanisms, it is genuinely difficult for fuel rich countries to evade carbon-intensive developmental pathways. And yet there are remarkable exceptions like Norway. Such positive outliers indicate that the carbon curse is not destiny when appropriate policies are adopted. - Highlights: • Fuel rich countries appear doomed to high carbon intensity, for four reasons. • First, extractive emissions; and, second, fuel-related crowding-out effects. • Third, weaker incentives to invest in improvements of energy efficiency. • Fourth, significant pressure to grant uneconomic fuel consumption subsidies. • But the carbon curse is not destiny, as indicated by positive outliers like Norway

  9. X-ray structure of the pestivirus NS3 helicase and its conformation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorici, M Alejandra; Duquerroy, Stéphane; Kwok, Jane; Vonrhein, Clemens; Perez, Javier; Lamp, Benjamin; Bricogne, Gerard; Rümenapf, Till; Vachette, Patrice; Rey, Félix A

    2015-04-01

    Pestiviruses form a genus in the Flaviviridae family of small enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. Viral replication in this family requires the activity of a superfamily 2 RNA helicase contained in the C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3). NS3 features two conserved RecA-like domains (D1 and D2) with ATPase activity, plus a third domain (D3) that is important for unwinding nucleic acid duplexes. We report here the X-ray structure of the pestivirus NS3 helicase domain (pNS3h) at a 2.5-Å resolution. The structure deviates significantly from that of NS3 of other genera in the Flaviviridae family in D3, as it contains two important insertions that result in a narrower nucleic acid binding groove. We also show that mutations in pNS3h that rescue viruses from which the core protein is deleted map to D3, suggesting that this domain may be involved in interactions that facilitate particle assembly. Finally, structural comparisons of the enzyme in different crystalline environments, together with the findings of small-angle X-ray-scattering studies in solution, show that D2 is mobile with respect to the rest of the enzyme, oscillating between closed and open conformations. Binding of a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog locks pNS3h in a conformation that is more compact than the closest apo-form in our crystals. Together, our results provide new insight and bring up new questions about pNS3h function during pestivirus replication. Although pestivirus infections impose an important toll on the livestock industry worldwide, little information is available about the nonstructural proteins essential for viral replication, such as the NS3 helicase. We provide here a comparative structural and functional analysis of pNS3h with respect to its orthologs in other viruses of the same family, the flaviviruses and hepatitis C virus. Our studies reveal differences in the nucleic acid binding groove that could have implications for understanding the

  10. Complete Genomic Sequence of Border Disease Virus, a Pestivirus from Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Paul; Orlich, Michaela; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    1998-01-01

    The genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae comprises three established species, namely, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), and border disease virus from sheep (BDV). In this study, we report the first complete nucleotide sequence of BDV, that of strain X818. The genome is 12,333 nucleotides long and contains one long open reading frame encoding 3,895 amino acids. The 5′ noncoding region (NCR) of BDV X818 consists of 372 nucleotides and is thus similar in length to the 5′ NCR reported for other pestiviruses. The 3′ NCR of X818 is 273 nucleotides long and thereby at least 32 nucleotides longer than the 3′ NCR of pestiviruses analyzed thus far. Within the 3′ NCR of BDV X818, the sequence motif TATTTATTTA was identified at four locations. The same repeat was found at two or three locations within the 3′ NCR of different CSFV isolates but was absent in the 3′ NCR of BVDV. Analysis of five additional BDV strains showed that the 3′ NCR sequences are highly conserved within this species. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of X818 with the ones of other pestiviruses allowed the prediction of polyprotein cleavage sites which were conserved with regard to the structural proteins. It has been reported for two BVDV strains that cleavage at the nonstructural (NS) protein sites 3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B is mediated by the NS3 serine protease and for each site a conserved leucine was found at the P1 position followed by either serine or alanine at P1′ (N. Tautz, K. Elbers, D. Stoll, G. Meyers, and H.-J. Thiel, J. Virol. 71:5415–5422, 1997; J. Xu, E. Mendez, P. R. Caron, C. Lin, M. A. Murcko, M. S. Collett, and C. M. Rice, J. Virol. 71:5312–5322). Interestingly, P1′ of the predicted NS5A/5B cleavage site of BDV is represented by an asparagine residue. Transient expression studies demonstrated that this unusual NS5A/5B processing site is efficiently cleaved by the NS3 serine protease of BDV. PMID

  11. Evaluation of envelope glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus as antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and atypical bovine pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Xia, Hongyan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Liu, Lihong; Belák, Sándor

    2012-11-01

    Atypical bovine pestiviruses are related antigenically and phylogenetically to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2), and may cause the same clinical manifestations in animals. Glycoprotein E(rns) of an atypical bovine pestivirus Th/04_KhonKaen was produced in a baculovirus expression system and was purified by affinity chromatography. The recombinant E(rns) protein was used as an antigen in a microsphere immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against BVDV-1 and atypical bovine pestivirus. The diagnostic performance of the new method was evaluated by testing a total of 596 serum samples, and the assay was compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Based on the negative/positive cut-off median fluorescence intensity (MFI) value of 2800, the microsphere immunoassay had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100% compared to ELISA. The immunoassay was able to detect antibodies against both BVDV-1 and the atypical pestivirus. This novel microsphere immunoassay has the potential to be multiplexed for simultaneous detection of antibodies against different bovine pathogens in a high-throughput and economical way. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal dynamics of 'HoBi'-like pestivirus quasispecies in persistently infected calves generated under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Canal, Cláudio W; Bayles, Darrell O; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-01-02

    'HoBi'-like virus is an atypical group within the Pestivirus genus that is implicated in economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. Pestivirus strains exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses) in infected animals and the viral populations making up the quasispecies differ widely in size and diversity in each animal. In the present study the viral quasispecies circulating in persistently infected (PI) calves, generated and maintained under experimental conditions using two different 'HoBi'-like strains, was observed over time. An increase in genetic variability and the development of certain mutations was observed over time. Mutations observed included the loss of a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the E2 region and the change of specific residues in E1/E2. It is hypothesized that these changes may be the results on continued adaption of the pestivirus to individual hosts. This is the first study characterizing variation in the viral swarms of animals persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses over time. Studies of the shifts in PI viral swarms will contribute to our understanding of the host and viral mechanisms that function in the maintenance of pestivirus persistent infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a HoBi-...

  14. Challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and moused...

  15. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a H...

  16. A serosurvey for ruminant pestivirus exposure conducted using cattle sera collected for brucellosis surveillance in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of ruminant pestivirus are currently circulating in the United States (U.S.): Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 (predominant host cattle), Border disease virus (BDV) (predominant host sheep) and the Pronghorn virus (sporadically detected in wild ruminants). A third bovin...

  17. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-01-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed

  18. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease Npro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H.

    2014-01-01

    Pestivirus N pro is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N pro blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N pro' s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N pro -GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N pro proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N pro' s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N pro does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N pro' s autoproteolysis is studied using N pro -GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N pro prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position

  19. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease Npro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer; Ruggli, Nicolas; Choi, Kyung H

    2014-03-01

    Pestivirus N(pro) is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N(pro) blocks the host׳s interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N(pro׳)s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N(pro)-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N(pro) proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N(pro׳)s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N(pro) does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jimin, E-mail: jimin.wang@yale.edu; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo, E-mail: yorgo.modis@yale.edu

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  1. A survey of antibodies to pestivirus in sheep in the Republic of Ireland

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    O'Neill Ronan G

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 1,448 adult ewes in 91 flocks, representing all 26 counties in the Republic of Ireland, were examined for pestivirus antibodies using a commercially available ELISA which detected IgG1 antibody to border disease virus. Eighty-one sheep (5.6% in 42 flocks (46.0% were antibody-positive. Within infected flocks, the mean seroprevalence level was 11.4% with a range of 6.3% to 30.0%. The highest antibody prevalence was detected in sheep from central lowland counties of Ireland. Comparative neutralisation testing of 42 ELISA-positive sera detected geometric mean antibody titres of 136 to the NADL strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV, 92 to the Moredun strain of border disease virus and 21 to the 137/4 strain of border disease virus. These results suggest that BVDV may be the major ruminant pestivirus infecting sheep in Ireland. Although there are high numbers of infected flocks, many sheep within such flocks remain antibody-negative and are at risk of giving birth to lambs with congenital border disease.

  2. Congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is associated with disease and viral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lukas; Riedel, Christiane; Högler, Sandra; Sinn, Leonie J; Voglmayr, Thomas; Wöchtl, Bettina; Dinhopl, Nora; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till; Lamp, Benjamin

    2017-01-06

    In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR. A genomic sequence and seven partial sequences were determined and revealed a 90% identity to the US APPV sequences and 92% identity to German sequences. In confirmation with previous reports, APPV genomes were identified in different body fluids and tissues including the CNS of diseased piglets. APPV could be isolated from a "shaking piglet", which was incapable of consuming colostrum, and passaged on different porcine cells at very low titers. To assess the antibody response a blocking ELISA was developed targeting NS3. APPV specific antibodies were identified in sows and in PCR positive piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT). APPV genomes were detected continuously in piglets that gradually recovered from CT, while the antibody titers decreased over a 12-week interval, pointing towards maternally transmitted antibodies. High viral loads were detectable by qRT-PCR in saliva and semen of infected young adults indicating a persistent infection.

  3. Serum neutralization as a differential serological test for classical swine fever virus and other pestivirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.

  4. Detection of antibodies against pestivirus in sheep with history of reproductive disorder in the State of São Paulo

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    Natália Carrillo Gaeta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Gaeta N.C., Rizzo H., Meira Jr E.B.S., Pituco E.M., Okuda L.H., Ribeiro C.P. & Gregory L. [Detection of antibodies against pestivirus in sheep with history of reproductive disorder in the State of São Paulo.] Detecção de anticorpos anti-pestivírus em ovinos com histórico de problema reprodutivo no Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(2:153-156, 2016. Departamento de Clínica Médica. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. E-mail: natalia.gaeta@hotmail.com Pestivirus are responsible for reproductive disorders in sheep and, although they are widely studied in other countries, Brazil lacks information on the prevalence of virus in sheep flocks. To investigate the occurrence of pestiviruses in the State of São Paulo, 268 samples of serum sheep with a history of reproductive problems from 28 properties were collected. Using virusneutralization as the diagnostic technique, it was found two (1% positive animals, with antibody titer of 20, with both females showing a history of reproductive problems, one with neonatal death and another, showing uterine secretion. Two properties studied showed reactive animals (7%. In five of these (18%, bovine co-creation was observed. There were no associations between any reagent animals and the risk factors studied. This work is one of the pioneers in the study of the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in Brazilian sheep flocks. The low frequency and low viral titer observed suggest that pestivirus are not an important agent related to the presence of reproductive disorders in sheep herds.

  5. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using a Virus Type-Specific Peptide Based on a Subdomain of Envelope Protein Erns for Serologic Diagnosis of Pestivirus Infections in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langedijk, J. P. M.; Middel, W. G. J.; Meloen, R. H.; Kramps, J. A.; de Smit, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Peptides deduced from the C-terminal end (residues 191 to 227) of pestivirus envelope protein Erns were used to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure specifically antibodies against different types of pestiviruses. The choice of the peptide was based on the modular structure of the Erns protein, and the peptide was selected for its probable independent folding and good exposure, which would make it a good candidate for an antigenic peptide to be used in a diagnostic test. A solid-phase peptide ELISA which was cross-reactive for several types of pestivirus antibodies and which can be used for the general detection of pestivirus antibodies was developed. To identify type-specific pestivirus antibodies, a liquid-phase peptide ELISA, with a labeled, specific classical swine fever virus (CSFV) peptide and an unlabeled bovine viral diarrhea virus peptide to block cross-reactivity, was developed. Specificity and sensitivity of the liquid-phase peptide ELISA for CSFV were 98 and 100%, respectively. Because the peptide is a fragment of the Erns protein, it can be used to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals when a vaccine based on the E2 protein, which is another pestivirus envelope protein, is used. PMID:11230402

  6. Generation of calves persistently infected with HoBi-like pestivirus and comparison of methods for detection of these persistent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermann, F V; Falkenberg, S M; Vander Ley, B; Decaro, N; Brodersen, B W; Harmon, A; Hessman, B; Flores, E F; Ridpath, J F

    2014-11-01

    The identification and elimination of persistently infected (PI) cattle are the most effective measures for controlling bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and the emerging HoBi-like viruses. Here, colostrum-deprived calves persistently infected with HoBi-like pestivirus (HoBi-like PI calves) were generated and sampled (serum, buffy coat, and ear notches) on the day of birth (DOB) and weekly for 5 consecutive weeks. The samples were subjected to diagnostic tests for BVDV--two reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays, two commercial real-time RT quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), two antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ACE), and immunohistochemistry (IHC)--and to HoBi-like virus-specific RT-PCR and RT-qPCR assays. The rate of false negatives varied among the calves. The HoBi-like virus-specific RT-PCR detected HoBi-like virus in 83%, 75%, and 87% of the serum, buffy coat, and ear notch samples, respectively, while the HoBi-like RT-qPCR detected the virus in 83%, 96%, and 62%, respectively. In comparison, the BVDV RT-PCR test had a higher rate of false negatives in all tissue types, especially for the ear notch samples (missing detection in at least 68% of the samples). The commercial BVDV RT-qPCRs and IHC detected 100% of the ear notch samples as positive. While ACE based on the BVDV glycoprotein E(rns) detected infection in at least 87% of ear notches, no infections were detected using NS3-based ACE. The BVDV RT-qPCR, ACE, and IHC yielded higher levels of detection than the HoBi-like virus-specific assays, although the lack of differentiation between BVDV and HoBi-like viruses would make these tests of limited use for the control and/or surveillance of persistent HoBi-like virus infection. An improvement in HoBi-like virus tests is required before a reliable HoBi-like PI surveillance program can be designed. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Neurological disorder associated with pestivirus infection in sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescador Caroline Argenta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-month-old lamb showing signs of severe neurological disease characterized by muscular tremors, hypermetria, and motor incoordination was submitted to the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. At necropsy, the major findings were a marked reduction of the size of the cerebellum and bilateral dilatation of the lateral ventricles. Microscopically, areas of cellular disorganization in the cerebellar cortex, reduction of the granular layer of cerebellum associated with decreased density of cells, and the presence of large cytoplasmic vacuoles in the molecular layer were observed. Neurons of the gray matter of the brain and macrophages of the mesenteric lymph nodes stained positively by the immunohistochemistry test using the monoclonal antibody 15C5 against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus. Taken together, those results are consistent with a pestivirus infection, either Border Disease Virus (BDV or BVDV.

  8. Identification of atypical porcine pestivirus infection in swine herds in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K; Wu, K; Liu, J; Ge, S; Xiao, Y; Shang, Y; Ning, Z

    2017-08-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) have been detected in swine herds from the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and most recently in Austria, suggesting a wide geographic distribution of this novel virus. Here, for the first time, we reported APPV infection in swine herds in China. Newborn piglets from two separate swine herds in Guangdong province were found showing typical congenital tremors in July and August 2016. RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed APPV infection occurred. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Chinese APPV strains, GD1 and GD2, formed independent branch from the USA, Germany and the Netherlands. Nucleotide identities between members of the APPV ranged between 83.1% and 83.5%, and this showed APPV is highly diverse. It is apparent that this provides the first molecular evidence of APPV infection in swine herds in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Hobi-like pestivirus: both biotypes isolated from a diseased animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Pinto, Pierfrancesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Sciarretta, Rossana; Cirone, Francesco; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-09-01

    A Hobi-like pestivirus pair consisting of cytopathogenic (cp) and non-cytopathogenic (noncp) strains, Italy 83/10cp and Italy 83/10ncp, was isolated from the lung of a heifer that died of respiratory disease. The noncp and cp viruses were isolated on Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells and separated by plaque purification and end point dilution. Analysis of the nearly full-length genomes revealed that the two viruses were very closely related to each other and to the noncp Hobi-like strain Italy 1/10-1, which had been isolated a few weeks earlier from the same herd. One major difference between noncp and cp viruses concerned the presence of a cellular Jiv sequence in the 3' domain of the NS2-encoding region of the cp strain. This is the first study, to our knowledge, reporting the isolation and molecular characterization of a Hobi-like virus pair.

  10. Autocatalytic activity and substrate specificity of the pestivirus N-terminal protease N{sup pro}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottipati, Keerthi; Acholi, Sudheer [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States); Ruggli, Nicolas [Institute of Virology and Immunology, CH-3147 Mittelhäusern (Switzerland); Choi, Kyung H., E-mail: kychoi@utmb.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0647 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Pestivirus N{sup pro} is the first protein translated in the viral polypeptide, and cleaves itself off co-translationally generating the N-terminus of the core protein. Once released, N{sup pro} blocks the host's interferon response by inducing degradation of interferon regulatory factor-3. N{sup pro'}s intracellular autocatalytic activity and lack of trans-activity have hampered in vitro cleavage studies to establish its substrate specificity and the roles of individual residues. We constructed N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins that carry the authentic cleavage site and determined the autoproteolytic activities of N{sup pro} proteins containing substitutions at the predicted catalytic sites Glu22 and Cys69, at Arg100 that forms a salt bridge with Glu22, and at the cleavage site Cys168. Contrary to previous reports, we show that N{sup pro'}s catalytic activity does not involve Glu22, which may instead be involved in protein stability. Furthermore, N{sup pro} does not have specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site even though this residue is conserved throughout the pestivirus genus. - Highlights: • N{sup pro'}s autoproteolysis is studied using N{sup pro}-GFP fusion proteins. • N-terminal 17 amino acids are dispensable without loss of protease activity. • The putative catalytic residue Glu22 is not involved in protease catalysis. • No specificity for Cys168 at the cleavage site despite evolutionary conservation. • N{sup pro} prefers small amino acids with non-branched beta carbons at the P1 position.

  11. Uncoupling of Protease trans-Cleavage and Helicase Activities in Pestivirus NS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fengwei; Lu, Guoliang; Li, Ling; Gong, Peng; Pan, Zishu

    2017-11-01

    The nonstructural protein NS3 from the Flaviviridae family is a multifunctional protein that contains an N-terminal protease and a C-terminal helicase, playing essential roles in viral polyprotein processing and genome replication. Here we report a full-length crystal structure of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS) at a 2.35-Å resolution. The structure reveals a previously unidentified ∼2,200-Å 2 intramolecular protease-helicase interface comprising three clusters of interactions, representing a "closed" global conformation related to the NS3-NS4A cis -cleavage event. Although this conformation is incompatible with protease trans -cleavage, it appears to be functionally important and beneficial to the helicase activity, as the mutations designed to perturb this conformation impaired both the helicase activities in vitro and virus production in vivo Our work reveals important features of protease-helicase coordination in pestivirus NS3 and provides a key basis for how different conformational states may explicitly contribute to certain functions of this natural protease-helicase fusion protein. IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses encode helicases to aid their RNA genome replication and transcription by unwinding structured RNA. Being naturally fused to a protease participating in viral polyprotein processing, the NS3 helicases encoded by the Flaviviridae family viruses are unique. Therefore, how these two enzyme modules coordinate in a single polypeptide is of particular interest. Here we report a previously unidentified conformation of pestivirus NS3 in complex with its NS4A protease cofactor segment (PCS). This conformational state is related to the protease cis -cleavage event and is optimal for the function of helicase. This work provides an important basis to understand how different enzymatic activities of NS3 may be achieved by the coordination between the protease and helicase through different

  12. 绝对好玩 今年非玩不可的游戏——Doom3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘泽申

    2004-01-01

    第一款2D FPS(第一人称射击)游戏:Wolf 3D,第款25D FPS游戏Doom;第一款3D FPS游戏:Quake:第一款支持硬件加速的3D FPS游戏:Quake 2……尽管这些游戏的名字各异,诞生的年代也不尽相同.但他们都出自同一个开发商——id Software,2004年8月3日.id Software为我们带来了他们酝酿多年的新作——Doom3。

  13. Bungowannah virus--a probable new species of pestivirus--what have we found in the last 10 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, P D; Read, A J; Frost, M J; Finlaison, D S

    2015-06-01

    Bungowannah virus was discovered following an outbreak of stillbirths and sudden death in young pigs. Affected animals consistently showed a myocardopathy with signs of cardiac failure. After virus isolation and PCR investigations were unsuccessful, direct fetal inoculation was undertaken. Nucleic acid purified from serum from infected fetuses was subjected to sequence-independent single-primer amplification and nucleic acid sequencing. Sequences consistent with a pestivirus were obtained. The entire genome was identified but was genetically remote from the recognized pestivirus species. This virus was not recognized by pan-pestivirus reactive monoclonal antibodies but was subsequently detected in cell cultures by immunoperoxidase staining using convalescent sow serum. Experimental infections of sows at different stages of gestation reproduced the myocarditis syndrome. Pre-weaning losses of 70 and 29% were observed following infection at days 35 and 90, respectively. Piglets infected at day 35 were shown to be persistently infected, while chronic infections were observed after fetal infection at day 55. Chronically infected piglets showed growth retardation and were viremic for up to 7 months. Myocarditis was associated with infection in late gestation (day 90). Non-pregnant sheep and cattle have been experimentally infected but with no evidence of disease. Infection of pregnant cattle in early gestation resulted in both maternal and fetal infection, but all infected fetuses mounted an antibody response to the virus. Analysis of the nucleic acid sequence confirmed that Bungowannah has a number of changes not observed in other pestiviruses. Genes encoding some of the structural proteins remain fully functional when inserted into a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) backbone. Cell culture-based studies have shown that Bungowannah virus will grow in cells extending from humans to bats as well as farm animals.

  14. HoBi-like pestivirus experimental infection in pregnant ewes: Reproductive disorders and generation of persistently infected lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Varello, Katia; Patruno, Giovanni; Camero, Michele; Sciarra, Marina; Occhiogrosso, Leonardo; Tempesta, Maria; Iulini, Barbara; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-08-05

    In order to evaluate sheep as experimental model to test the efficacy of HoBi-like pestivirus vaccines for cattle, 10 sheep at different stages of pregnancy (30 or 50 days) were experimentally infected with the Italian prototype isolate Italy-1/10-1. Irrespective of the stage of pregnancy, virus inoculation resulted in reproductive failures, consisting of abortion, stillbirths or birth of weak or persistently infected (PI) lambs. Aborted fetuses, stillborn and dead lambs displayed extensive histopathological changes, consisting of hemorrhages, congestion and mononuclear infiltration in major organs. Pestiviral antigens were detected by immunohistochemistry in most tissues with remarkable signals in lungs and kidneys. PI lambs were constantly viremic, shed the virus through the nasal secretions and feces and, in all cases but one, did not have detectable HoBi-like pestivirus antibodies before the assumption of colostrum. The single seropositive infected lamb showed low-titer viremia and viral shedding that ceased only several weeks after the 3-month observation period. The study proves that sheep are susceptible to the reproduction failures caused by HoBi-like pestivirus infection and can serve as a suitable model for the evaluation of the fetal protection induced by homologous experimental vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Variation in pestivirus growth in testicle primary cell culture is more dependent on the individual cell donor than cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Gómez-Romero, Ninnet; Herring, Andy D; Canal, Cláudio W; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-03-01

    The causes of bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Host factors are also involved as different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to BRDC. Infection with bovine pestiviruses, including bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV1), BVDV2 and 'HoBi'-like viruses, is linked to the development of BRDC. The aim of the present study was to compare the growth of different bovine pestiviruses in primary testicle cell cultures obtained from taurine, indicine and mixed taurine and indicine cattle breeds. Primary cells strains, derived from testicular tissue, were generated from three animals from each breed. Bovine pestivirus strains used were from BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, BVDV-2a and 'HoBi'-like virus. Growth was compared by determining virus titers after one passage in primary cells. All tests were run in triplicate. Virus titers were determined by endpoint dilution and RT-qPCR. Statistical analysis was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Tukey's Multiple Comparison Test (P˂0.05). Significant differences in virus growth did not correlate with cattle breed. However, significant differences were observed between cells derived from different individuals regardless of breed. Variation in the replication of virus in primary cell strains may reflect a genetic predisposition that favors virus replication.

  16. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruses from recognized pestivirus species bovine viral diarrhea 1 (BVDV-1) and BVDV-2 and the proposed pestivirus species HoBi-like virus infect primarily cattle. Exposure of cattle to these viruses can lead to either acute or persistent infections depending on the timing and status of the animal ...

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a virus type-specific peptide based on a subdomain of envelope protein e(rns) for serologic diagnosis of pestivirus infections in swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langedijk, J.P.; Middel, W.G.; Meloen, R.H.; Kramps, J.A.; Smit, de J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Peptides deduced from the C-terminal end (residues 191 to 227) of pestivirus envelope protein Erns were used to develop enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure specifically antibodies against different types of pestiviruses. The choice of the peptide was based on the modular structure

  18. Species characterization in the genus Pestivirus according to palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5'-untranslated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2011-06-01

    The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of the Pestivirus genome have been considered for taxonomical segregation of the species, through the evaluation of 534 strains. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, species have been identified within the genus, determining genetic distances between species isolates, clarifying borderline and multirelated sequences, and characterizing and clustering the Pestivirus strains showing unexpected genomic sequences. Nine genomic groups have been identified: the species Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Border disease virus (BDV) and Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and the tentative species Pronghorn, Giraffe, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 3 (BVDV-3) (HoBi group), Border disease virus 2 (BDV-2) (Italian small ruminant isolates) and Bungowannah. Palindromic positions have been characterized according to changes in nucleotide base-pairs identifying low variable positions (LVP) including base-pairs present in less than 80% of the genus. The determination of divergence between single strain sequences or genetic groups was obtained easily by comparing base-pairing combinations from aligned secondary structures. This provided clear information such as the level of heterogeneity within a species, the relatedness between species, or facilitating the characterization and clustering of specific strains. The BVDV-1 and BDV species resulted heterogeneous, showing isolates located on a borderline in the species. Within the BVDV-2 species, two main genogroups were identified, with strains showing common sequence characteristics to both groups (multirelated strains). They could be allocated correctly by quantitative analysis. Similarly, the relation between CSFV and BDV species appeared very clearly. Also in this case, ambiguous strain sequences could be clustered in the

  19. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A‐II in Newborn Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ad de Groof

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently‐described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV. Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested. Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR‐negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV‐infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR‐negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long‐term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans‐placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A‐II in piglets.

  20. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jimin; Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-01-01

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. PMID:24725935

  1. Lipid Binding of the Amphipathic Helix Serving as Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberle, Daniel; Oetter, Kay-Marcus; Meyers, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Pestiviruses express a peculiar protein named Erns representing envelope glycoprotein and RNase, which is important for control of the innate immune response and persistent infection. The latter functions are connected with secretion of a certain amount of Erns from the infected cell. Retention/secretion of Erns is most likely controlled by its unusual membrane anchor, a long amphipathic helix attached in plane to the membrane. Here we present results of experiments conducted with a lipid vesicle sedimentation assay able to separate lipid-bound from unbound protein dissolved in the water phase. Using this technique we show that a protein composed of tag sequences and the carboxyterminal 65 residues of Erns binds specifically to membrane vesicles with a clear preference for compositions containing negatively charged lipids. Mutations disturbing the helical folding and/or amphipathic character of the anchor as well as diverse truncations and exchange of amino acids important for intracellular retention of Erns had no or only small effects on the proteins membrane binding. This result contrasts the dramatically increased secretion rates observed for Erns proteins with equivalent mutations within cells. Accordingly, the ratio of secreted versus cell retained Erns is not determined by the lipid affinity of the membrane anchor.

  2. A new type of intracellular retention signal identified in a pestivirus structural glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Sandra; Aberle, Daniel; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S; Meyers, Gregor

    2012-08-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins into intracellular organelles is crucial for cell function. Viruses exploit intracellular transport and retention systems to concentrate envelope proteins at the site of virus budding. In pestiviruses, a group of important pathogens of pigs and ruminants closely related to human hepatitis C virus, the E(rns) protein translated from the viral RNA is secreted from the infected cells and found in the serum of infected animals. Secretion of the protein is regarded as crucial for its function as a viral virulence factor associated with its RNase activity. However, ∼95% of the E(rns) molecules are retained within the infected cell. Fusion of different E(rns) fragments to the C terminus of CD72 allowed identification of a retention signal within the C-terminal 65 aa of the viral protein. This C-terminal sequence represents its membrane anchor and folds into an amphipathic helix binding in-plane to the membrane surface. Residues L183, I190, and L208 are important for intracellular location of E(rns). Presentation of the retention signal on the cytoplasmic instead of the luminal face of the ER membrane in CD8α fusion proteins still led to retention. Thus, E(rns) contains in its C-terminal amphipathic helix an intracellular retention signal that is active on both faces of the membrane.

  3. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus: A Possible Cause of Congenital Tremor Type A-II in Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groof, Ad; Deijs, Martin; Guelen, Lars; van Grinsven, Lotte; van Os-Galdos, Laura; Vogels, Wannes; Derks, Carmen; Cruijsen, Toine; Geurts, Victor; Vrijenhoek, Mieke; Suijskens, Janneke; van Doorn, Peter; van Leengoed, Leo; Schrier, Carla; van der Hoek, Lia

    2016-10-04

    Congenital tremor type A-II in piglets has been regarded as a transmissible disease since the 1970s, possibly caused by a very recently-described virus: atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Here, we describe several strains of APPV in piglets with clinical signs of congenital tremor (10 of 10 farms tested). Piglets on a farm with no history of congenital tremor were PCR-negative for the virus. To demonstrate a causal relationship between APPV and disease, three gilts were inoculated via intramuscular injection at day 32 of pregnancy. In two of the three litters, vertical transmission of the virus occurred. Clinical signs of congenital tremor were observed in APPV-infected newborns, yet also two asymptomatic carriers were among the offspring. Piglets of one litter were PCR-negative for the virus, and these piglets were all without congenital tremors. Long-term follow up of farm piglets born with congenital tremors showed that the initially high viremia in serum declines at five months of age, but shedding of the virus in feces continues, which explains why the virus remains present at affected farms and causes new outbreaks. We conclude that trans-placental transmission of APPV and subsequent infection of the fetuses is a very likely cause of congenital tremor type A-II in piglets.

  4. Lipid Binding of the Amphipathic Helix Serving as Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aberle

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses express a peculiar protein named Erns representing envelope glycoprotein and RNase, which is important for control of the innate immune response and persistent infection. The latter functions are connected with secretion of a certain amount of Erns from the infected cell. Retention/secretion of Erns is most likely controlled by its unusual membrane anchor, a long amphipathic helix attached in plane to the membrane. Here we present results of experiments conducted with a lipid vesicle sedimentation assay able to separate lipid-bound from unbound protein dissolved in the water phase. Using this technique we show that a protein composed of tag sequences and the carboxyterminal 65 residues of Erns binds specifically to membrane vesicles with a clear preference for compositions containing negatively charged lipids. Mutations disturbing the helical folding and/or amphipathic character of the anchor as well as diverse truncations and exchange of amino acids important for intracellular retention of Erns had no or only small effects on the proteins membrane binding. This result contrasts the dramatically increased secretion rates observed for Erns proteins with equivalent mutations within cells. Accordingly, the ratio of secreted versus cell retained Erns is not determined by the lipid affinity of the membrane anchor.

  5. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5' untranslated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2007-12-01

    The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Pestivirus RNA have been considered for taxonomical segregation of species, through the evaluation of 430 genomic sequences. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, six species have been identified: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Border disease virus (BDV), the tentative species Giraffe and a new proposed taxon named Pronghorn. The first step was qualitative and consisted in the characterization of the different positions of the three stems and loops in the 5' UTR sequences of all the strains under consideration belonging to the genus. Secondary structure sequences showing divergent base-pair combinations have been aligned for comparison. Palindromic positions have been characterized according to changes in nucleotide base-pairs identifying low-variable positions (LVP) including base-pairs present in less than 80% of the genus. The second step was quantitative, allowing the identification of genomic groups by clustering the base-pair combinations according to LVP. Relatedness among types was evaluated to identify homogeneous groups. Cross comparisons between types within the genus have been evaluated by computing the divergence percentage thus clarifying borderline and multirelated sequences.

  6. Substituted 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridines: a novel chemical class of pestivirus inhibitors that targets a hot spot for inhibition of pestivirus replication in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiu, Simone; Pürstinger, Gerhard; Stallinger, Sylvia; Vrancken, Robert; Haegeman, Andy; Koenen, Frank; Leyssen, Pieter; Froeyen, Mathy; Neyts, Johan; Paeshuyse, Jan

    2014-06-01

    2,6-Bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine (BBP/CSFA-0) was identified in a CPE-based screening as a selective inhibitor of the in vitro bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) replication. The EC50-values for the inhibition of BVDV-induced cytopathic (CPE) effect, viral RNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus were 0.3±0.1μM, 0.05±0.01μM and 0.3±0.04μM, respectively. Furthermore, BBP/CSFA-0 inhibits the in vitro replication of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) with an EC50 of 0.33±0.25μM. BBP/CSFA-0 proved in vitro inactive against the hepatitis C virus, that belongs like BVDV and CSFV to the family of Flaviviridae. Modification of the substituents on the two 1H-benzimidazole groups of BBP resulted in analogues equipotent in anti-BVDV activity (EC50=0.7±0.1μM), devoid of cytotoxicity (S.I.=142). BBP resistant BVDV was selected for and was found to carry the I261M mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Likewise, BBP-resistant CSFV was selected for; this variant carries either an I261N or a P262A mutation in NS5B. Molecular modeling revealed that I261 and P262 are located in a small cavity near the fingertip domain of the pestivirus polymerase. BBP-resistant BVDV and CSFV proved to be cross-resistant to earlier reported pestivirus inhibitors (BPIP, AG110 and LZ37) that are known to target the same region of the RdRp. BBP did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp but inhibited the activity of BVDV replication complexes (RCs). BBP interacts likely with the fingertip of the pestivirus RdRp at the same position as BPIP, AG110 and LZ37. This indicates that this region is a "hot spot" for inhibition of pestivirus replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Professor Wheeler and the crack of doom: Closed cosmologies in the 5-d Kaluza-Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzner, R.A.; Mezzacappa, A.

    1986-01-01

    We study the classical and the quantum structures of certain 5-d Kaluza-Klein cosmologies. These models were chosen because their 4-d restriction is a closed, radiation-dominated, homogeneous, isotropic cosmology in the usual sense. The extra (field) dimension is taken to be a circle. In these models the solution starts from a 5-d curvature singularity with infinite circumference for the circle and zero volume for the 3-space. It evolves in finite proper time to a solution with zero dimension for the extra field direction. In the 5-vacuum case this is not a curvature singularity, but is a singularity of the congruence describing the physics, and in particular, the solution cannot causally be extended to the future of this point. In the 5-vacuum case this event coincides with the maximum of expansion of the 5-space. In the 5-dust cases, this point is a real 5-d curvature singularity. By adjustment it can be made to occur before or after the maximum of 3-expansion. The solution stops at that instant, but the 4-cosmology reveals no pathology up to the crack of doom. The quantum behavior is identical in these respects to the classical one

  8. Detection of atypical porcine pestivirus in semen from commercial boar studs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, I R H; Arruda, P H; Visek, C A; Victoria, J G; Patterson, A R; Krull, A C; Schwartz, K J; de Oliveira, L G; Arruda, B L

    2018-04-01

    Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) has recently been identified as a cause of congenital tremor (CT) in pigs and has been detected in semen and preputial swabs from boars that were known to be clinically affected with CT. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to 1) detect the presence of APPV in semen, preputial fluids and preputial swabs from adult boars by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and 2) genetically characterize a subset of positive samples to better understand the ecology of APPV in commercial boar studs and the potential risk of transmission of APPV via semen. A total of 597 samples of semen, preputial fluid and preputial swabs each representing a different boar were obtained from four commercial boar studs located in three different states in the United States. Viral RNA was detected by qRT-PCR in 90 samples (15.08%; 90/597), with the greatest per cent positive from preputial swabs (23.81%; 5/21) followed by preputial fluid (22.81%; 26/114) and semen (12.91%; 59/457). The mean cycle quantification (Cq) between sample types was similar while eleven semen samples had Cq values lower than 27.0 corresponding to approximately 2 × 10 6  copies/ml. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the Npro gene, different viral strains can be on the same farm at the same and different times. This is the first report of detection of APPV in semen from commercial boar studs. Studies investigating the role of semen in the transmission of APPV and production of CT are needed. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Efficacy of chimeric Pestivirus vaccine candidates against classical swine fever: protection and DIVA characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eblé, P L; Geurts, Y; Quak, S; Moonen-Leusen, H W; Blome, S; Hofmann, M A; Koenen, F; Beer, M; Loeffen, W L A

    2013-03-23

    Currently no live DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF) are available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chimeric pestivirus vaccine candidates (CP7_E2alf, Flc11 and Flc9) are able to protect pigs against clinical signs, and to reduce virus shedding and virus transmission, after a challenge with CSF virus (CSFV), 7 or 14 days after a single intramuscular vaccination. In these vaccine candidates, either the E2 or the E(rns) encoding genome region of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus strain were combined with a cDNA copy of CSFV or vice versa. Furthermore, currently available serological DIVA tests were evaluated. The vaccine candidates were compared to the C-strain. All vaccine candidates protected against clinical signs. No transmission to contact pigs was detected in the groups vaccinated with C-strain, CP7_E2alf and Flc11. Limited transmission occurred in the groups vaccinated with Flc9. All vaccine candidates would be suitable to stop on-going transmission of CSFV. For Flc11, no reliable differentiation was possible with the current E(rns)-based DIVA test. For CP7_E2alf, the distribution of the inhibition percentages was such that up to 5% false positive results may be obtained in a large vaccinated population. For Flc9 vaccinated pigs, the E2 ELISA performed very well, with an expected 0.04% false positive results in a large vaccinated population. Both CP7_E2alf and Flc9 are promising candidates to be used as live attenuated marker vaccines against CSF, with protection the best feature of CP7_E2alf, and the DIVA principle the best feature of Flc9. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DIVA vaccine properties of the live chimeric pestivirus strain CP7_E2gif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rosen, Tanya; Rangelova, Desislava; Nielsen, Jens; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse

    2014-06-04

    Live modified vaccines to protect against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), based on chimeric pestiviruses, have been developed to enable serological Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). In this context, the chimeric virus CP7_E2gif vaccine candidate is unique as it does not include any CSFV components. In the present study, the DIVA vaccine properties of CP7_E2gif were evaluated in comparison to the conventional live attenuated Riemser C-strain vaccine. Sera and tonsil samples obtained from pigs immunised with these two vaccines were analysed. No viral RNA was found in serum after vaccination with CP7_E2gif, whereas some serum samples from C-strain vaccinated animals were positive. In both vaccinated groups, individual viral RNA-positive tonsil samples were detected in animals euthanised between 7 and 21 days post vaccination. Furthermore, serum samples from these animals, together with archival samples from pigs vaccinated with CP7_E2gif and subsequently CSFV challenged, were analysed for specific antibodies using ELISAs and for homologous neutralising antibodies. In animals vaccinated with CP7_E2gif, neutralising antibodies were detected from day 10. However, the sera remained negative for anti-CSFV E2-specific antibodies whereas pigs vaccinated with C-strain seroconverted against CSFV by 14 days after vaccination, as determined by a CSFV-E2 specific blocking ELISA. One week after subsequent CSFV challenge, a strong anti-CSFV E2 reaction was detected in CP7_E2gif vaccinated pigs and anti-E(rns) antibodies were detected from 10 days after infection. In conclusion, CP7_E2gif has the potential to be used as a DIVA vaccine in combination with detection of anti-CSFV E2-specific antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental infections of the porcine foetus with Bungowannah virus, a novel pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlaison, Deborah S; Cook, Roger W; Srivastava, Mukesh; Frost, Melinda J; King, Katherine R; Kirkland, Peter D

    2010-07-29

    In 2003 an outbreak of sudden deaths occurred in 2-3-week-old pigs on a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. There was a marked increase in the birth of stillborn pigs and preweaning losses associated with a multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis with myonecrosis. The aim of this study was to amplify any infectious agents present in field material to aid the detection and identification of the causative agent of the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC). Foetuses were directly inoculated in utero with tissue extracts from field cases of PMC at 56-60, 70-84 or 85-94 days of gestation and euthanased 7-28 days later. The IgG concentration in foetal sera/body fluids was measured, hearts were examined by light microscopy and selected hearts were examined by electron microscopy. An infectious agent was detected in tissues from cases of PMC and its identification as the novel pestivirus Bungowannah virus has recently been reported (Kirkland et al., 2007). Sow sera, foetal tissues and foetal sera/body fluids were tested for Bungowannah virus RNA by qRT-PCR and antibody by peroxidase-linked assay. Bungowannah virus was detected in numerous organs of the porcine foetus. Following direct foetal exposure it is probable that this virus spreads by direct intra-uterine transmission to adjacent foetuses and by trans-uterine transmission to the dam. Data were obtained for both the replication of the virus in the porcine foetus and the humoral immune response in the foetus and sow. Crown Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis C virus NS3 protein polynucleotide-stimulated nucleoside triphosphatase and comparison with the related pestivirus and flavivirus enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzich, J A; Tamura, J K; Palmer-Hill, F; Warrener, P; Grakoui, A; Rice, C M; Feinstone, S M; Collett, M S

    1993-01-01

    Sequence motifs within the nonstructural protein NS3 of members of the Flaviviridae family suggest that this protein possesses nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) and RNA helicase activity. The RNA-stimulated NTPase activity of this protein from prototypic members of the Pestivirus and Flavivirus genera has recently been established and enzymologically characterized. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the NS3 protein from a member of the third genus of Flaviviridae, human hepatitis C virus (HCV), also possesses a polynucleotide-stimulated NTPase activity. Characterization of the purified HCV NTPase activity showed that it exhibited reaction condition optima with respect to pH, MgCl2, and salt identical to those of the representative pestivirus and flavivirus enzymes. However, each NTPase also possessed several unique properties when compared with one another. Notably, the profile of polynucleotide stimulation of the NTPase activity was distinct for the three enzymes. The HCV NTPase was the only one whose activity was significantly enhanced by a deoxyribopolynucleotide. Additional distinguishing features among the three enzymes relating to the kinetic properties of their NTPase activities are discussed. These studies provide a foundation for investigation of the putative RNA helicase activity of these proteins and for further study of the role of the NS3 proteins of members of the Flaviviridae in the replication cycle of these viruses. Images PMID:8396675

  13. Crystal structure of the pestivirus envelope glycoprotein E(rns) and mechanistic analysis of its ribonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Thomas; Bontems, Francois; Vonrhein, Clemens; Vaney, Marie-Christine; Bricogne, Gerard; Rümenapf, Till; Rey, Félix A

    2012-05-09

    Pestiviruses, which belong to the Flaviviridae family of RNA viruses, are important agents of veterinary diseases causing substantial economical losses in animal farming worldwide. Pestivirus particles display three envelope glycoproteins at their surface: E(rns), E1, and E2. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of E(rns), the ribonucleolytic activity of which is believed to counteract the innate immunity of the host. The structure reveals a three-dimensional fold corresponding to T2 ribonucleases from plants and fungi. Cocrystallization experiments with mono- and oligonucleotides revealed the structural basis for substrate recognition at two binding sites previously identified for T2 RNases. A detailed analysis of poly-U cleavage products using (31)P-NMR and size exclusion chromatography, together with molecular docking studies, provides a comprehensive mechanistic picture of E(rns) activity on its substrates and reveals the presence of at least one additional nucleotide binding site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available During March to May 2000, 48 carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus were collected on winter pastures and calving grounds from two herds in western Finnmark and two herds in eastern Finnmark, northern Norway. The animals were autopsied and blood and tissue samples were collected for serology (alphaherpes- and pestivirus; virus neutralization test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; parapoxvirus; B2L gene investigations. Autopsy revealed that 39 of 48 animals (81% had died of emaciation. Parapoxvirus-specific DNA was detected in samples from 6 of 48 animals (12.5%; liver, parotid salivary gland and/or pulmonary lymph nodes. A DNA sequence of 376 base pairs from a PCR amplicon obtained from a liver sample from one animal showed 98-99% identity with orf virus strain Orf-11 and reindeer parapoxvirus isolates from Norway and Finland (1992 and 1994, 92-93% similarity with pseudocowpoxvirus and 87% similarity with bovine papular stomatitis virus. Alphaherpes- and pestivirus antibodies were detected in 10% and 33% of the animals, respectively. These results indicates that parapoxvirus, presumably orf-virus, is present among reindeer also in Finnmark, although contagious ecthyma has never been reported in reindeer in this important reindeer herding area. Furthermore, they show that herpes- and pestiviruses are still endemic in reindeer herds in Finnmark. The nature of these viruses and their impact on reindeer health and reproduction and reindeer herding economy should be further addressed, as well as the possibility that these viruses may be transferred between reindeer and domestic animals in this region.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: I løpet av perioden mars-mai 2000 ble 48 reinsdyrkadavre (Rangifer tarandus tarandus samlet inn fra vinterbeiter og kalvingsområder fra to flokker i Vest-Finnmark og to i Øst-Finnmark, Norge. Dyrene ble obdusert, og blod og vevsprøver ble samlet for påvisning av antistoffer mot

  15. Host factors that interact with the pestivirus N-terminal protease, Npro, are components of the ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Matthew; Donaszi-Ivanov, Andras; Pollen, Sean; Dalmay, Tamas; Saalbach, Gerhard; Powell, Penny P

    2014-09-01

    The viral N-terminal protease N(pro) of pestiviruses counteracts cellular antiviral defenses through inhibition of IRF3. Here we used mass spectrometry to identify a new role for N(pro) through its interaction with over 55 associated proteins, mainly ribosomal proteins and ribonucleoproteins, including RNA helicase A (DHX9), Y-box binding protein (YBX1), DDX3, DDX5, eIF3, IGF2BP1, multiple myeloma tumor protein 2, interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (IEBP3), guanine nucleotide binding protein 3, and polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (PABP-1). These are components of the translation machinery, ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs), and stress granules. Significantly, we found that stress granule formation was inhibited in MDBK cells infected with a noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain, Kyle. However, ribonucleoproteins binding to N(pro) did not inhibit these proteins from aggregating into stress granules. N(pro) interacted with YBX1 though its TRASH domain, since the mutant C112R protein with an inactive TRASH domain no longer redistributed to stress granules. Interestingly, RNA helicase A and La autoantigen relocated from a nuclear location to form cytoplasmic granules with N(pro). To address a proviral role for N(pro) in RNP granules, we investigated whether N(pro) affected RNA interference (RNAi), since interacting proteins are involved in RISC function during RNA silencing. Using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) silencing with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) followed by Northern blotting of GAPDH, expression of N(pro) had no effect on RNAi silencing activity, contrasting with other viral suppressors of interferon. We propose that N(pro) is involved with virus RNA translation in the cytoplasm for virus particle production, and when translation is inhibited following stress, it redistributes to the replication complex. Although the pestivirus N-terminal protease, N(pro), has been shown to have an important role in degrading IRF3 to

  16. An avirulent chimeric Pestivirus with altered cell tropism protects pigs against lethal infection with classical swine fever virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, Ilona; Depner, Klaus; Trapp, Sascha; Beer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    A chimeric Pestivirus was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) [J. Virol. 70 (1996) 8606]. After deletion of the envelope protein E2-encoding region, the respective sequence of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain Alfort 187 was inserted in-frame resulting in plasmid pA/CP7 E 2alf. After transfection of in vitro-transcribed CP7 E 2alf RNA, autonomous replication of chimeric RNA in bovine and porcine cell cultures was observed. Efficient growth of chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus, however, could only be demonstrated on porcine cells, and in contrast to the parental BVDV strain CP7, CP7 E 2alf only inefficiently infected and propagated in bovine cells. The virulence, immunogenicity, and 'marker vaccine' properties of the generated chimeric CP7 E 2alf virus were determined in an animal experiment using 27 pigs. After intramuscular inoculation of 1 x 10 7 TCID 50 , CP7 E 2alf proved to be completely avirulent, and neither viremia nor virus transmission to contact animals was observed; however, CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected from day 11 after inoculation. In addition, sera from all animals reacted positive in an E2-specific CSFV-antibody ELISA, but were negative for CSFV-E RNS -specific antibodies as determined with a CSFV marker ELISA. After challenge infection with highly virulent CSFV strain Eystrup, pigs immunized with CP7 E 2alf were fully protected against clinical signs of CSFV infection, viremia, and shedding of challenge virus, and almost all animals scored positive in a CSFV marker ELISA. From our results, we conclude that chimeric CP7 E 2alf may not only serve as a tool for a better understanding of Pestivirus attachment, entry, and assembly, but also represents an innocuous and efficacious modified live CSFV 'marker vaccine'

  17. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszynski, Jack A

    2006-01-01

    Consciousness remains one of the major unsolved problems in science. How do the feelings and sensations making up conscious experience arise from the concerted actions of nerve cells and their associated synaptic and molecular processes? Can such feelings be explained by modern science, or is there an entirely different kind of explanation needed? And how can this seemingly intractable problem be approached experimentally? How do the operations of the conscious mind emerge out of the specific interactions involving billions of neurons? This book seeks answers to these questions on the underlying assumption that consciousness can be understood using the intellectual potential of modern physics and other sciences. There are a number of theories of consciousness, some based on classical physics while others require the use of quantum concepts. The latter ones have drawn criticism from the parts of the scientific establishment while simultaneously claiming that classical approaches are doomed to failure. The cont...

  18. Serologic and virologic investigations into pestivirus infection in wild and domestic ruminants in the Pyrenees (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, I; Rosell, R; Cabezón, O; Beneria, M; Mentaberre, G; Casas, E; Hurtado, A; López-Olvera, J R; Lavín, S

    2009-08-01

    An outbreak of disease associated to a border disease virus was described in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain in 2002. Sera and/or spleen samples from 57 mouflon, 15 red deer, 21 roe deer, 3 fallow deer, 55 sheep, 32 cattle, and 68 goats sharing the chamois habitat were studied. An antibody ELISA test yielded an inconclusive result in 2 mouflon and positive results in 5 goat sera. Comparative virus neutralization tests were performed on the 2 inconclusive mouflons, 3 of the 5 seropositive goats, 55 sheep and 32 cattle, using 6 pestivirus strains. Positive results were obtained in 1 mouflon, 2 goats, 69% of sheep and 78% of cattle. Virological investigations performed with an antigen ELISA test yielded negative results in 21 goats and 39 mouflons, the result in 1 mouflon being inconclusive. PCR performed on 12 goats and the inconclusive mouflon gave negative results. These results suggested that it is unlikely that chamois BDV is infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

  19. Distinct roles for the IIId2 sub-domain in pestivirus and picornavirus internal ribosome entry sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcocks, Margaret M; Zaini, Salmah; Chamond, Nathalie; Ulryck, Nathalie; Allouche, Delphine; Rajagopalan, Noemie; Davids, Nana A; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Hadsbjerg, Johanne; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Roberts, Lisa O; Sargueil, Bruno; Belsham, Graham J; Locker, Nicolas

    2017-12-15

    Viral internal ribosomes entry site (IRES) elements coordinate the recruitment of the host translation machinery to direct the initiation of viral protein synthesis. Within hepatitis C virus (HCV)-like IRES elements, the sub-domain IIId(1) is crucial for recruiting the 40S ribosomal subunit. However, some HCV-like IRES elements possess an additional sub-domain, termed IIId2, whose function remains unclear. Herein, we show that IIId2 sub-domains from divergent viruses have different functions. The IIId2 sub-domain present in Seneca valley virus (SVV), a picornavirus, is dispensable for IRES activity, while the IIId2 sub-domains of two pestiviruses, classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and border disease virus (BDV), are required for 80S ribosomes assembly and IRES activity. Unlike in SVV, the deletion of IIId2 from the CSFV and BDV IRES elements impairs initiation of translation by inhibiting the assembly of 80S ribosomes. Consequently, this negatively affects the replication of CSFV and BDV. Finally, we show that the SVV IIId2 sub-domain is required for efficient viral RNA synthesis and growth of SVV, but not for IRES function. This study sheds light on the molecular evolution of viruses by clearly demonstrating that conserved RNA structures, within distantly related RNA viruses, have acquired different roles in the virus life cycles. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Characterization of thymus-associated lymphoid depletion in bovine calves acutely or persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 or HoBi-like pestivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Shollie M; Bauermann, Fernando V; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-11-01

    Naïve pregnant cattle exposed to pestiviruses between 40-125 days of gestation can give birth to persistently infected (PI) calves. Clinical presentation and survivability, in PI cattle, is highly variable even with the same pestivirus strain whereas the clinical presentation in acute infections is more uniform with severity of symptoms being primarily a function of virulence of the infecting virus. The aim of this study was to compare thymic depletion, as measured by comparing the area of the thymic cortex to the medulla (corticomedullary ratio), in acute and persistent infections of the same pestivirus isolate. The same general trends were observed with each pestivirus isolate. Thymic depletion was observed in both acutely and persistently infected calves. The average thymic depletion observed in acutely infected calves was greater than that in age matched PI calves. PI calves, regardless of infecting virus, revealed a greater variability in amount of depletion compared to acutely infected calves. A trend was observed between survivability and depletion of the thymus, with PI calves surviving less than 5 weeks having lower corticomedullary ratios and greater depletion. This is the first study to compare PI and acutely infected calves with the same isolates as well as to evaluate PI calves based on survivability. Further, this study identified a quantifiable phenotype associated with potential survivability.

  1. Prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies and risk factors in dairy goats from the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available t The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of anti-pestivirus antibodies in dairy goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba state, Northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the flock-level prevalence. A total of 1,092 dairy goats from 110 flocks randomly selected in the county of Monteiro, Paraíba state, during March 2009 to March 2010, were used. In each selected flock a epidemiological questionnaire was applied to verify the occurrence of possible factors that could be associated with the flock-level prevalence. For the serological diagnosis of Pestivirus infection the serum neutralization test, using the BVDV-1 NADL strain, was carried out. Flock-level prevalence was 6.36% (95% CI = 2.60% – 12.67% and animal-level prevalence was 0.82% (95% CI = 0.38% – 1.56%. Not to perform vermifugation (odds ratio = 10.49; p = 0.035 and to perform navel cut and disinfection (odds ratio = 12.73; p = 0.034 were identified as risk factors. These results indicate viral circulation in dairy goats in the semiarid region of the Paraíba state.

  2. A Novel, Highly Selective Inhibitor of Pestivirus Replication That Targets the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeshuyse, Jan; Leyssen, Pieter; Mabery, Eric; Boddeker, Nina; Vrancken, Robert; Froeyen, Matheus; Ansari, Israrul H.; Dutartre, Hélène; Rozenski, Jef; Gil, Laura H. V. G.; Letellier, Carine; Lanford, Robert; Canard, Bruno; Koenen, Frank; Kerkhofs, Pierre; Donis, Ruben O.; Herdewijn, Piet; Watson, Julia; De Clercq, Erik; Puerstinger, Gerhard; Neyts, Johan

    2006-01-01

    We report on the highly potent and selective antipestivirus activity of 5-[(4-bromophenyl)methyl]-2-phenyl-5H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine (BPIP). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) for inhibition of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-induced cytopathic effect formation was 0.04 ± 0.01 μM. Comparable reduction of viral RNA synthesis (EC50 = 0.12 ± 0.02 μM) and production of infectious virus (EC50 = 0.074 ± 0.003 μM) were observed. The selectivity index (ratio of 50% cytostatic concentration/EC50) of BPIP was ∼2,000. BPIP was inactive against the hepatitis C virus subgenomic replicon and yellow fever virus but demonstrated weak activity against GB virus. Drug-resistant mutants were at least 300-fold less susceptible to BPIP than wild-type virus; showed cross-resistance to N-propyl-N-[2-(2H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-ylthio)ethyl]-1-propanamine (VP32947), and carried the F224S mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). When the F224S mutation was introduced into an infectious clone, the drug-resistant phenotype was obtained. BPIP did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp, but did inhibit the activity of replication complexes (RCs). Computational docking revealed that F224 is located at the top of the finger domain of the polymerase. Docking of BPIP in the crystal structure of the BVDV RdRp revealed aromatic ring stacking, some hydrophobic contacts, and a hydrogen bond. Since two structurally unrelated compounds, i.e., BPIP and VP32947, target the same region of the BVDV RdRp, this position may be expected to be critical in the functioning of the polymerase or assembly of the RC. The potential of BPIP for the treatment of pestivirus and hepacivirus infections is discussed. PMID:16352539

  3. Kinetics of single and dual infection of calves with an Asian atypical bovine pestivirus and a highly virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larskaa, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Riitho, Victor

    2012-01-01

    . Co-infection with both viruses led to prolonged fever in comparison to singlestrain inoculated groups and simultaneous replication of concurrent viruses in blood and in the upper respiratory tract. Following the infections all the calves seroconverted against homologous strains. Atypical pestiviruses......) and an Asianatypicalbovinepestivirus (Th/04_KhonKaen) in naïve calves, in comparison to singleinfections. Milder clinical signs were observed in the animals infected with single Th/04_KhonKaen strain. Leukocytopenia and lymphocytopenia were observed in all infected groups at a similar level which correlated with the onset of viraemia...... pose a serious threat to livestock health and BVDV eradication, since they may have the potential to be widely spread in cattle populations without being detected and differentiated from other BVDV infections....

  4. Afyon, Konya ve Eskişehir İllerinde Keçilerde Pestivirus ve Parainfluenzavirus Tip 3 Enfeksiyonlarının Serolojik Olarak Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    Gür, S; Erol, N; Yapıcı, O

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada sağlıklı ve respiratorik-reprodüktif bozukluklar görülen keçi sürülerinde Pestivirus ve Parainfluenzavirus 3 (PI-3) enfeksiyonları serolojik olarak araştırıldı. Afyonkarahisar, Konya ve Eskişehir illerindeki 7 sürüden toplam 1346 kan örneği elde edildi. Mikronötralizasyon test sonucuna göre, sürü bazında pestivirus spesifik antikorların %35.2 ile %78.8 arasında değiştiği belirlenirken PI-3 için %17.5 ile %62 aralığında olduğu tespit edildi. Toplamda, 933 (%69.3) ve 584 (%43.3) ke...

  5. Is the string theory doomed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, H.; Daninos, F.; Bachas, C.

    2007-01-01

    Since its beginning, in the sixties, the string theory has succeeded in overcoming a lot of theoretical difficulties but now the complete absence of experimental validation entertains doubts about its ability to represent the real world and questions its hegemony in today's theoretical physics. Other space-time theories like the twistors, or the non-commutative geometry, or the loop quantum gravity, or the causal dynamics triangulation might begin receiving more attention. Despite all that, the string theory can be given credit for 4 achievements. First, the string theory has provided a consistent quantum description of gravity. Secondly, the string theory has built a theoretical frame that has allowed the unification of the 4 basic interactions. Thirdly, the string theory applied to astrophysics issues has demonstrated that the evaporation of a black hole does not necessarily lead to a loss of information which comforts the universality of the conservation of the quantity of information in any system and as a consequence put a fatal blow to the so-called paradox observed in black holes. Fourthly, the string theory has given a new and original meaning on the true nature of space-time. (A.C.)

  6. Development and evaluation of a truncated recombinant NS3 antigen-based indirect ELISA for detection of pestivirus antibodies in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Mishra, Niranjan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Nema, Ram Kumar; Behera, Sthita Pragnya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect ELISA using the helicase domain of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) NS3 protein instead of full-length NS3 protein for detection of BVDV and BDV antibodies in sheep and goats and its validation by comparing its sensitivity and specificity with virus neutralization test (VNT) as the reference test. The purified 50 kDa recombinant NS3 protein was used as the coating antigen in the ELISA. The optimal concentration of antigen was 320 ng/well at a serum dilution of 1:20 and the optimal positive cut-off optical density value was 0.40 based on test results of 418 VNT negative sheep and goat sera samples. When 569 serum samples from sheep (463) and goats (106) were tested, the ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.71% and specificity of 94.59% with BVDV VNT. A good correlation (93.67%) was observed between the two tests. It showed a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 86.6% with VNT in detecting BDV antibody positive or negative samples. This study demonstrates the efficacy of truncated recombinant NS3 antigen based ELISA for seroepidemiological study of pestivirus infection in sheep and goats.

  7. 3-(imidazo[1,2-a:5,4-b']dipyridin-2-yl)aniline inhibits pestivirus replication by targeting a hot spot drug binding pocket in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiu, Simone; Leyssen, Pieter; Froeyen, Mathy; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Neyts, Johan; Paeshuyse, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The compound 3-(imidazo[1,2-a:5,4-b']dipyridin-2-yl)aniline (CF02334) was identified as a selective inhibitor of the cytopathic effect (CPE) caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a virus-cell-based assay. The EC50-values for inhibition of CPE, viral RNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus progeny were 13.0 ± 0.6 μM, 2.6 ± 0.9 μM and 17.8 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. CF02334 was found to be inactive in the hepatitis C subgenomic replicon system. CF02334-resistant BVDV was obtained and was found to carry the N264D mutation in the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Molecular modeling revealed that N264D is located in a small cavity near the fingertip domain of the pestivirus polymerase. CF02334-resistant BVDV was proven to be cross-resistant to BPIP, AG110 and LZ37, inhibitors that have previously been described to target the same region of the BVDV RdRp. CF02334 did not inhibit the in vitro activity of recombinant BVDV RdRp, but did inhibit the activity of BVDV replication complexes. Taken together, these observations indicate that CF02334 likely interacts with the fingertip of the pestivirus RdRp at the same position as BPIP, AG110 and LZ37, which marks this region of the viral polymerase as a "hot spot" for inhibition of pestivirus replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of a Hobi-like virus in archival samples suggests circulation of this emerging pestivirus species in Europe prior to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first reported incidence of Hobi-like viruses in Europe dates to a 2010 outbreak of respiratory disease in cattle in Italy. In this study, a Hobi-like virus was detected in archival samples, collected in 2007 in Italy from a cattle herd displaying respiratory disease, during the validation of a...

  9. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  10. Field and laboratory evidence that Bungowannah virus, a recently recognised pestivirus, is the causative agent of the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlaison, Deborah S; King, Katherine R; Frost, Melinda J; Kirkland, Peter D

    2009-05-12

    In 2003 an outbreak of sudden deaths occurred in 2-3-week-old piglets on a piggery in New South Wales, Australia. There was a marked increase in the birth of stillborn piglets and preweaning losses associated with a multifocal non-suppurative myocarditis with myonecrosis. The aim of this study was to review existing data and to undertake further investigations of specimens from naturally infected pigs to provide evidence to support the hypothesis that Bungowannah virus, a recently recognised pestivirus, causes the porcine myocarditis syndrome (PMC). Sera collected from gilts and sows from affected and unaffected units were tested for Bungowannah virus antibody by a peroxidase-linked assay and Bungowannah virus RNA by qRT-PCR in selected cases. Stillborn piglets from affected and an unaffected unit were also tested for Bungowannah virus antibody and RNA. Body fluid IgG levels and the incidence of myocardial lesions in these stillborn piglets are summarised. Tissue sections from stillborn piglets with myocarditis/myonecrosis were examined for Bungowannah virus RNA by in situ hybridisation. A clear temporal association between the occurrence of PMC on a unit or module and exposure to Bungowannah virus was identified by serological tests in both breeding aged animals and stillborn pigs. In addition, at the individual animal level on affected units, Bungowannah virus RNA was detected in stillborn piglets in large amounts by qRT-PCR and in association with myocardial lesions by in situ hybridisation. The examination of field material from cases of PMC by serology, qRT-PCR and in situ hybridisation provides strong indirect evidence that Bungowannah virus is the causative agent for PMC.

  11. The pestivirus N terminal protease N(pro redistributes to mitochondria and peroxisomes suggesting new sites for regulation of IRF3 by N(pro..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jefferson

    Full Text Available The N-terminal protease of pestiviruses, N(pro is a unique viral protein, both because it is a distinct autoprotease that cleaves itself from the following polyprotein chain, and also because it binds and inactivates IRF3, a central regulator of interferon production. An important question remains the role of N(pro in the inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, apoptotic signals induced by staurosporine, interferon, double stranded RNA, sodium arsenate and hydrogen peroxide were inhibited by expression of wild type N(pro, but not by mutant protein N(pro C112R, which we show is less efficient at promoting degradation of IRF3, and led to the conclusion that N(pro inhibits the stress-induced intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through inhibition of IRF3-dependent Bax activation. Both expression of N(pro and infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV prevented Bax redistribution and mitochondrial fragmentation. Given the role played by signaling platforms during IRF3 activation, we have studied the subcellular distribution of N(pro and we show that, in common with many other viral proteins, N(pro targets mitochondria to inhibit apoptosis in response to cell stress. N(pro itself not only relocated to mitochondria but in addition, both N(pro and IRF3 associated with peroxisomes, with over 85% of N(pro puncta co-distributing with PMP70, a marker for peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisomes containing N(pro and IRF3 associated with ubiquitin. IRF3 was degraded, whereas N(pro accumulated in response to cell stress. These results implicate mitochondria and peroxisomes as new sites for IRF3 regulation by N(pro, and highlight the role of these organelles in the anti-viral pathway.

  12. The pestivirus N terminal protease N(pro) redistributes to mitochondria and peroxisomes suggesting new sites for regulation of IRF3 by N(pro.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Matthew; Whelband, Matthew; Mohorianu, Irina; Powell, Penny P

    2014-01-01

    The N-terminal protease of pestiviruses, N(pro) is a unique viral protein, both because it is a distinct autoprotease that cleaves itself from the following polyprotein chain, and also because it binds and inactivates IRF3, a central regulator of interferon production. An important question remains the role of N(pro) in the inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, apoptotic signals induced by staurosporine, interferon, double stranded RNA, sodium arsenate and hydrogen peroxide were inhibited by expression of wild type N(pro), but not by mutant protein N(pro) C112R, which we show is less efficient at promoting degradation of IRF3, and led to the conclusion that N(pro) inhibits the stress-induced intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through inhibition of IRF3-dependent Bax activation. Both expression of N(pro) and infection with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) prevented Bax redistribution and mitochondrial fragmentation. Given the role played by signaling platforms during IRF3 activation, we have studied the subcellular distribution of N(pro) and we show that, in common with many other viral proteins, N(pro) targets mitochondria to inhibit apoptosis in response to cell stress. N(pro) itself not only relocated to mitochondria but in addition, both N(pro) and IRF3 associated with peroxisomes, with over 85% of N(pro) puncta co-distributing with PMP70, a marker for peroxisomes. In addition, peroxisomes containing N(pro) and IRF3 associated with ubiquitin. IRF3 was degraded, whereas N(pro) accumulated in response to cell stress. These results implicate mitochondria and peroxisomes as new sites for IRF3 regulation by N(pro), and highlight the role of these organelles in the anti-viral pathway.

  13. A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellen, Christopher U T; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2007-06-01

    The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5' UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5' UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently.

  14. A Distinct Group of Hepacivirus/Pestivirus-Like Internal Ribosomal Entry Sites in Members of Diverse Picornavirus Genera: Evidence for Modular Exchange of Functional Noncoding RNA Elements by Recombination▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellen, Christopher U. T.; de Breyne, Sylvain

    2007-01-01

    The 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5′ UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5′ UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently. PMID:17392358

  15. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Diabetic Emergencies Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  16. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  17. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  18. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  19. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  20. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  1. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  2. MBA: Is the Traditional Model Doomed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lataif, Louis E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents 13 commentaries on a previously published case study about the value of a Master's of Business Administration to employers today. Critiques center on the case study method, theory-practice gap, and value of practical experience and include international perspectives. (SK)

  3. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  4. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  5. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  6. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  7. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  8. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  9. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  10. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  11. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  12. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  13. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  14. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  15. Emerging animal viruses: real threats or simple bystanders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The list of animal viruses has been frequently added of new members raising permanent concerns to virologists and veterinarians. The pathogenic potential and association with disease have been clearly demonstrated for some, but not for all of these emerging viruses. This review describes recent discoveries of animal viruses and their potential relevance for veterinary practice. Dogs were considered refractory to influenza viruses until 2004, when an influenza A virus subtype H3N8 was transmitted from horses and produced severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds in Florida/USA. The novel virus, named canine influenza virus (CIV, is considered now a separate virus lineage and has spread among urban canine population in the USA. A new pestivirus (Flaviviridae, tentatively called HoBi-like pestivirus, was identified in 2004 in commercial fetal bovine serum from Brazil. Hobi-like viruses are genetically and antigenically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and induce similar clinical manifestations. These novel viruses seem to be widespread in Brazilian herds and have also been detected in Southeast Asia and Europe. In 2011, a novel mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus, named Schmallenberg virus (SBV, was associated with fever, drop in milk production, abortion and newborn malformation in cattle and sheep in Germany. Subsequently, the virus disseminated over several European countries and currently represents a real treat for animal health. The origin of SBV is still a matter of debate but it may be a reassortant from previous known bunyaviruses Shamonda and Satuperi. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, family Hepeviridae is a long known agent of human acute hepatitis and in 1997 was first identified in pigs. Current data indicates that swine HEV is spread worldwide, mainly associated with subclinical infection. Two of the four HEV genotypes are zoonotic and may be transmitted between swine and human by contaminated water and undercooked pork meat. The

  16. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  17. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  18. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  19. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  20. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  1. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  2. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  3. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  4. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  5. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  6. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  7. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  8. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  9. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  10. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  12. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  13. Emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, major efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) were focused on tasks associated with completion and incorporation of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of NRA SR in emergency planning and crisis management. Construction of the ERC had begun based on NRA SR's knowledge, as well as recommendations of Regulatory Assistance Management Group (RAMG) International Mission in 1993 and follow-up missions in 1994. Early in 1994, re-construction of selected rooms had been done and early in 1995, supported by the UK and U.S.A. Government's funding, technical equipment was purchased. The equipment was necessary for ERC operation as tools to improve NRA SR readiness for the management of emergency situations at nuclear installations. NRA SR commenced operation of the Centre in April 1995. The Centre has been on-line connected to a teledosimetric system of Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in Trnava. The basic software for assessment of radiation consequences of a NPP accident was supplied were also focused on cooperation with state administration authorities and organizations which were involved in an emergency planning structure. In September 1995, staffing of the ERC was completed and parallel, the first document concerning the ERC prime task, i.e. activities and procedures of of NRA SR Crisis crew in case of an accident at a nuclear installation on the territory of the Slovak Republic, was approved by the NRA SR's Management. In the period that is being assessed, NRA SR made significant progress in events classification and emergency planning terminology in order to unify the above between both the Slovak NPPs

  14. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines...... of the international business press. This reflects that companies such as Mittal and Tata (India), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Haier and Lenovo (PRC), Embraer (Brazil), SAPMiller (South Africa), and Cemex (Mexico) are foraying ever deeper into the international economy and increasingly investing...... countries. Apart from a few early pioneering studies (Lecraw 1977; Lall 1983; Wells 1983; Agarwal 1985) only few studies have been made so far of outward investment from emerging and developing economies. This is in spite of the fact that the value of outward FDI stock from developing countries reached USD...

  15. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  16. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  17. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  18. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    According the conception of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA), and the obtained experience from exercises, and as well as on the basis of recommendations of international missions, the NRA SR started, in 1997 the ERC extension. The new room enable the work for radiation protection group, reactor safety and logistic group separately. At the same time special room was build for work of the NECRA Technical Support Group of the Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents of the SR.This group co-operates closely with ERC while evaluation the situation, and by using the information system of the NRA and database of ERC to generate the conditions of nuclear facilities in once of emergency. Extension of the mentioned rooms was carried out. The financing by the European Union helped to build the project RAMG. In this way the NRA gained a working site which, with its equipment and parameters belongs to the top working sites of regulatory bodies of developed European countries. The NRA preparation of exercise and special staff education was carried out in 1997, for employees of the NRA and members of Emergency Headquarters (EH) for work in ERC in case of nuclear installation accident. The task of education of member of EH was their preparation for carrying out three exercises. These exercises are described. In the area of emergency preparedness, in accordance with inspection plan of the Office, 7 team inspections were carried out in individual localities; in NPP Bohunice, two in NPP Mochovce and one in Bohunice Conditioning Centre for radioactive wastes. Solution of the task of development of science and technology in the area of 'Development of technical and programme means for analyses of accidents and solutions of crisis situations'continued in 1997. Another regulations were elaborated for activity of members of EH of the NRA. The following was was carried out: selection of data for transfer and the

  19. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  20. Is it an Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  1. Generation of Modified Pestiviruses by Targeted Recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Friis, Martin Barfred; Risager, Peter Christian

    involves targeted modification of viral cDNA genomes, cloned within BACs, by Red/ET recombination-mediated mutagenesis in E.coli DH10B cells. Using recombination-mediated mutagenesis for the targeted design, the work can be expedited and focused in principal on any sequence within the viral genome...

  2. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  3. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  4. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  5. Emergency Contraception Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website ...

  6. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  7. Plenty of gloom and doom at the bottom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-07-01

    The relationship between humans and technology is often viewed as a debate between technophobes who oppose technology, irrespective of its benefits, and technophiles who think that all technology is good. Chris Toumey prefers the cyborg point of view.

  8. Impending Doom: The Loss of Diversification before a Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libin Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present four methods of assessing the diversification potential within a stock market, and two of these are based on principal component analysis. They were applied to the Australian stock exchange for the years 2000 to 2014 and all show a consistent picture. The potential for diversification declined almost monotonically in the three years prior to the 2008 financial crisis, leaving investors poorly diversified at the onset of the Global Financial Crisis. On one of the four measures, the diversification potential declined even further in the 2011 European debt crisis and the American credit downgrade.

  9. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Gazprom in Europe: a Business Doomed to Fail?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Aurelie

    2014-07-01

    The construction of what is nowadays called European energy policy is an ongoing process that officially started with the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1951, and has not yet been entirely finalized. It took several decades to move from a Community composed of six countries to a policy - not fully fledged - intended to strengthen as much as possible cohesion between 28 EU member states in the energy sector. The European gas sector has been progressively liberalized since the 1990's. The leitmotivs of European energy policy have been and continue to be the opening-up of national gas markets, the enhancement of both competition and transparency, and the struggle against monopolies. The Third Energy Package creates, among others, the concept of European network codes, applied throughout Europe. The European Union (EU) has also developed a European energy policy based on three pillars: security of supply, environment, and competitiveness. The history of Gazprom, a long-standing economic partner of Europe, is a series of constant adaptations - with varying degrees of success-to both European market conditions and dialogue with all parties involved in the gas business across the continent. The Russian company thrived during the 1990's and 2000's in an environment where the main characteristics inherited from the 1970's and the 1980's were retained (i.e. long-term contracts with prices indexed to substitute energy prices-primarily oil-and destination clauses in a context of low competition) while any new opportunity, generally offered by the liberalization and opening-up of national gas markets, was constantly sized up. The company has encountered some difficulties; adaptation is not always that easy. Consequently, some Gazprom officials regularly ask whether European energy policy is a policy intended to challenge Russia and Gazprom. Adaptation is challenging as it brings into question the former business model. Furthermore, some of these challenges are specific to Gazprom; other competitors are not affected or at least less affected by them. There is little chance that the new European gas model will be adapted to Gazprom, but recognizing a few specificities and resolving structural problems seem to be necessary to facilitate cooperation both at the economic and the political level. The major difficulty is that all this occurs at a time when the wider EU-Russia energy dialogue is highly fraught due to severe tensions between the EU and the Russian Federation. (author)

  11. Emergency care of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Heatley, J Jill

    2007-05-01

    Raptors may present with a variety of conditions, such as trauma, debilitation, and disease, that necessitate emergency care. Emergency treatment should prioritize stabilization of the patient. Diagnostic testing should be delayed until feasible based on patient status. This article reviews emergency medicine in raptors, including appropriate handling and restraint, hospitalization, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, supportive care, and common emergency presentations.

  12. Medical Emergencies in Goa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa's roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs) were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%), which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17%) and fever related (17%). Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa. PMID:20606921

  13. Lack of evidence for the presence of emerging HoBi-like viruses in North American fetal bovine serum lots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The detection of HoBi-like virus in fetal bovine serum (FBS) labeled as United States of America (USA) origin, but packaged in Europe, raised concerns that HoBi-like virus may have entered the USA. In this study, 90 lots of FBS originating in North America (NA) were screened for pestivirus antigen ...

  14. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  15. Emergency control; Kawalan kecemasan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: plans and actions taken in emergency condition. It covers four main elements in planning, command, control center, emergency plans, continuous training and practices.

  16. Emergency care of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T H

    1998-09-01

    Common reptile emergencies are reviewed in this article and the fundamentals of emergency care are provided. Important points include obtaining a complete history and husbandry review, physical examination, diagnostic tests, fluid support, anesthetics, and antibiotics.

  17. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  18. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  19. Emergency Nurses Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Join ENA Today! Membership in the Emergency Nurses Association offers a variety of benefits and allows ... a part of more than 42,000 emergency nurses working together to promote safe practice and safe ...

  20. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  1. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  2. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  3. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  4. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  5. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  6. Airborne Platforms for Emergency Communications and Reconnaissance in Domestic Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    primarily focused in the areas of tourism , port operations, and educational services. 3 Telecommunications are foundational in our nation’s...concerted effort to successfully integrate these airborne platforms into domestic disaster response operations must be undertaken, or we are doomed to

  7. The nuclear emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  8. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  9. Update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wing Kay; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers. Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

  10. [Oncological emergencies in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoeşu, Diana; Dumea, Mihaela; Durchi, Simona; Apostoae, F; Olaru, G; Ciolan, Mioara; Popa, O; Corlade-Andrei, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    to assess the profile and the characteristic of oncological patients, establishing management in patients with neoplasia presented in the emergency department (ED), the analysis of short-term movements in patients with neoplasia whilst in the ED. we performed a retrospective study on nonrandomized consecutive cases. The lot analysis included 1315 oncological patients admitted in the Emergency Department of the Clinical Emergency Hospital "St. Spiridon" Iaşi, in the period June 1st, 2009 - May 31st, 2010. 23.12% of the patients had high suspicion of neoplasia at the first visit to the ED. 67.07% of patients were in metastatic stage disease located as follows: liver metastasis 37.59%, lung metastasis 18.36%, lymph node metastasis 13, 29%. After processing the data there were found statistically significant correlations between the age of patients and the documented/suspected diagnosis of neoplasia (p = 0.01) in the sense that a neoplasia diagnosis in emergency was more frequent in people of young age. It should be mentioned that other studies rarely mention first diagnosis of neoplasia in emergency department with presence of complications. 1315 oncological patients presented in ED, almost a quarter of which presented high suspicion of neoplasia (still without histopathological confirmation) when in ED (23.12%). Most of them were aged male patients (over 65 years old), with tumors of the digestive system. A significant proportion (almost 60%) of these patients ended up in emergency due to complications and the therapy intended life support and pain management. Some of these patients were directed to further exploring and emergency outpatient therapy while 75% of patients were hospitalized after stabilization. Although we expected that the frequency of complications to be higher in patients previously diagnosed with cancer, data analysis showed no statistically significant differences (p = NS) between the rate of complications in patients previously diagnosed with

  11. Train operation in emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on train operation theories and methods in the context of emergencies. It examines and assesses a range of aspects—including the definition of a railway emergency, transport organization modes in emergencies, calculating railway transport capacity in emergencies, line planning in emergencies, train re-pathing in emergencies and train re-scheduling in emergencies—that are urgently needed in the railway transportation field, which faces the serious challenge of dealing with emergencies worldwide. The book highlights the latest research results in an integrated and systematic way, and the methodology presented is oriented on real-world problems, allowing it to be used not only directly in railway operational management, but also as the point of departure for further applications or theoretical research. As such, the book will be of considerable interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of traffic and transportation engineering.>.

  12. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  13. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  14. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  15. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  16. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  17. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  18. Emergências hipertensivas Hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As urgências e as emergências hipertensivas são ocorrências clínicas que podem representar mais de 25% dos atendimentos a urgências médicas. O médico deverá estar habilitado a diferenciá-las, pois o prognóstico e o tratamento são distintos. Estima-se que 3% de todas as visitas às salas de emergência decorrem de elevações significativas da pressão arterial. Nos quadros relacionados a estes atendimentos, a emergência hipertensiva é a entidade clínica mais grave que merece cuidados intensivos. É caracterizada por pressão arterial marcadamente elevada e sinais de lesões de órgãos-alvo (encefalopatia, infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina instável, edema agudo de pulmão, eclâmpsia, acidente vascular encefálico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar os principais pontos sobre o seu apropriado diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada busca por artigos originais com os unitermos "crise hipertensiva" e "emergência hipertensiva" nas bases de dados Pubmed e MedLine nos últimos dez anos. As referências disponíveis destes artigos foram verificadas. Os artigos foram identificados e revisados e o presente estudo condensa os principais resultados descritos. Para esta revisão foram considerados ensaios clínicos em língua inglesa, estudos retrospectivos e artigos de revisão. A crise hipertensiva é a entidade clínica com aumento súbito da PA (> 180 x 120 mmHg, acompanhada por sintomas, que podem ser leves (cefaléia, tontura, zumbido ou graves (dispnéia, dor precordial, coma e até morte, com ou sem lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo. Se os sintomas forem leves e sem lesão aguda de órgãos alvos, define-se a urgência hipertensiva. Se o quadro clínico apresentar risco de vida e refletir lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo têm-se, então, a emergência hipertensiva. Muitos pacientes também apresentam uma PA elevada demais, por não usarem suas medicações, tratando-se apenas de hipertensão arterial sistêmica crônica n

  19. The Emergence of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  20. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  1. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  2. Emergency presurgical visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  3. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  4. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  5. Radiology in emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present

  6. Emergent Collaboration on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Daniel; Razmerita, Liana; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the organizing elements that foster emergent collaboration within large-scale communities on online social platforms like Twitter. This study is based on a case study of the #BlackLivesMatter social movement and draws on organizing dynamics and online social network literature...... foster emergent collaboration in social movements using Twitter....

  7. Educational program emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Tragic university shootings have prompted administrators of higher education institutions to re-evaluate their emergency preparedness plans and take appropriate measures for preventing and responding to emergencies. To review the literature and identify key components needed to prevent shootings at higher education institutions in the United States, and in particular, institutions housing radiologic science programs. Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were retrieved electronically and reviewed from a convenience sample of accredited radiologic science programs provided by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology Web site. The review of the 28 emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings.

  8. Management of Radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Gil, E.; San Nicolas, J.; Lazuen, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Spain has a system of planning and response to emergency situations that is structured and coordinated by the General Directorship of civil Defense of the Ministry of the Interior and in which all levels of the Public Administration. state, autonomous and municipal-and owners of potentially hazardous activities participate. Activities involving a nuclear or radiological risk have specific emergency plans whose general principles are based on the general emergency system and whose technical bases are consistent with international practices and recommendations. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear actively participates in the design, implementation and activation of these plans, and for this purpose has an organization superimposed on its ordinary working organization that is activated in the event of an accident, as well as an Emergency Room specifically designed to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies. (Author)

  9. Emergence in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence is a term used in many contexts in current science; it has become fashionable. It has a traditional usage in philosophy that started in 1875 and was expanded by J. S. Mill (earlier, under a different term and C. D. Broad. It is this form of emergence that I am concerned with here. I distinguish it from uses like ‘computational emergence,’ which can be reduced to combinations of program steps, or its application to merely surprising new features that appear in complex combinations of parts. I will be concerned specifically with ontological emergence that has the logical properties required by Mill and Broad (though there might be some quibbling about the details of their views. I restrict myself to dynamical systems that are embodied in processes. Everything that we can interact with through sensation or action is either dynamical or can be understood in dynamical terms, so this covers all comprehensible forms of emergence in the strong (nonreducible sense I use. I will give general dynamical conditions that underlie the logical conditions traditionally assigned to emergence in nature.The advantage of this is that, though we cannot test logical conditions directly, we can test dynamical conditions. This gives us an empirical and realistic form of emergence, contrary those who say it is a matter of perspective.

  10. Training for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1993-01-01

    There are specific boundary conditions where preparedness for in-plant emergency management is as necessary and useful as is the training for the management of design-based accidents. The shift personnel has to be trained to cope particularly with the difficult and demanding initial phase of an emergency, and care must be taken to be very close to reality. Only thus can weak points be discovered and removed by pinpointed measures such as organisational changes, optimization of emergency management procedures, or hardware conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  12. Create an Emergency Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... models take up less space in your kit. Cell phone. Always carry a cell phone and let people know where you are going ... pump in your emergency kit. Remember that despite safety standards and careful monitoring, these devices can fail. ...

  13. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  14. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  15. 7. Emergency contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    individually on each day after satisfying the selection criteria. ... thought the pills can work up to a maximum of 24 hours. The main source of information was from friends (80%). ... 6 – 10 years .... emergency contraceptive pills among Swedish.

  16. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  17. Emergency management at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockholts, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    In the past years, all kind of activities in the field of emergency management have been taken in order to handle accidents. In the scope of this paper, emergencies are those accidents that may lead to severe releases of oil and gas, whereby also attention is paid to collisions between offshore installations and drifting objects and the situation where people fall overboard. Case histories show that coping with these serious accidents is not always as effective and successful as intended. The stage from being aware of the risks, to being prepared to cope with the consequences, to actually being capable to combat is long and consists of many elements. This paper will deal with the general approach of emergency management, the development of automated tools for decision support on emergencies as well as some fate and effect models

  18. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerch, Michael M.; Hansen, Mickel J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology

  19. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Helden van, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases is a compilation of selected papers presented at the International Wildlife Tuberculosis Conference, held from 9 to 12 September 2012 in Skukuza, South Africa.

  20. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  1. Imaging of gynecologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Matthias W.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD; Kubik, Rahel A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain related to the female genital organs is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Gynecological emergencies are diseases of the female reproductive system that are potentially life-threatening and peril the sexual function and fertility. In the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain, a wide variety of differential diagnoses needs to be considered depending on the age of the patient and a concomitant pregnancy. There is significant clinical overlap with gastrointestinal emergencies. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in diagnosing the cause of the pain and the planning of the therapy. The aim of this review is to illustrate the significant role of imaging in frequently encountered gynecologic emergencies.

  2. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID Washington...

  3. Football emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be called upon to intervene medically when a football player succumbs to a severe ... including safety and security services, emergency and primary health care medical ..... of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005.

  4. Emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, A.

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons have usually taken two tracks: The traditional approach has concentrated on a potential proliferant's perceived need for nuclear technology and possibly weapons; a second approach has targeted the supply side of the proliferation equation. The issue being examined in this book---emerging nuclear suppliers---falls between these two approaches. The potential proliferants have emerged as possible unrestrained suppliers of nuclear materials and technology. They threaten the entire nonproliferation regime by their exporting, not their weapons development. Analyzing and understanding the issue of emerging suppliers requires a refined definition of suppliers in general. The simple dichotomy of traditional versus emerging suppliers is no longer an adequate framework for analysis. Suppliers differ significantly in their technical capabilities, experience, and regime involvement, and these distinctions result in different nuclear export policies

  5. Transfusion Related Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Megan Boysen; Tran, Min-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This exercise is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents and medical students) and learners from other specialties (internal medicine, family medicine, anesthesia). Introduction: About 85 million red blood cell units are transfused worldwide each year. Transfusion reactions can complicate up to 8% of blood transfusions and can range from benign to life threatening. An emergency physician must be able to discuss the risks and benefits of blood transfusion...

  6. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  7. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Dang, C

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...

  8. Design of emergency shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturing of an emergency movable shield in the hot laboratories center is urgently needed for the safety of personnel in case of accidents or spilling of radioactive materials. In this report, a full design for an emergency shield is presented and the corresponding dose rates behind the shield for different activities (from 1 mCi to 5 Ci) was calculated by using micro shield computer code. 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Emergency response workers workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapeev, S.A.; Glukhikh, E.N.; Tyurin, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A training workshop entitled Current issues and potential improvements in Rosatom Corporation emergency prevention and response system was held in May-June, 2012. The workshop combined theoretical training with full-scale practical exercise that demonstrated the existing innovative capabilities for radiation reconnaissance, diving equipment and robotics, aircraft, emergency response and rescue hardware and machinery. This paper describes the activities carried out during the workshop [ru

  10. Planning for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper aims to stimulate discussions between nuclear engineers and the radiological protection professions in order to facilitate planning for nuclear emergencies. A brief review is given of the response to nuclear accidents. Studying accidents can lead to prevention, but some effort must be put into emergency response. Such issues as decontamination and decommissioning, socio-economic consequences, education and training for nuclear personnel and exercises and drills, are raised. (UK)

  11. Emerging technologies in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satava, R.M.; Gaspari, A.; Di Lorenzo, N.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous acceleration and changes in scientific discovery and progress are presently occurring. These important emerging technologies that will affect the practicing surgeon within the next 10 to 20 years are illustrated in detail in this volume. Its purpose is not to review clinical experience of the common surgical practice of the past decade, but to outline and illustrate the future trends. International experts in this field demonstrate emerging procedures and significant advances. (orig.)

  12. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  13. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  14. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  15. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  17. Radiological emergencies - planning and preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    This information and training film in three parts deals with the technical background for emergency planning, emergency planning concepts and emergency preparedness. It describes the technical characteristics of radiological emergencies on which important emergency planning concepts are based and the purpose of those concepts. The film also demonstrates how emergency organizations must work together to ensure adequate preparedness. The programme reflects the standards, guidance and recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  18. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  19. Emergency reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To smoothen the emergency operation of the control rod in a BWR type reactor and to eliminate the external discharge of radioactively contaminated water. Constitution: A drain receiving tank is connected through a scram valve to the top of a cylinder which is containing a hydraulic piston connected to a trombone-shaped control rod and an accumulator is connected through another scram valve to the bottom of the cylinder. The respective scram valves are constructed to be opened by the reactor emergency shutdown signal from a reactor control system in such a manner that drain valve and a vent valve of the tank normally opened at the standby time are closed after approx. 10 seconds from the opening of the scram valves. In this manner, back pressure is not applied to the hydraulic piston at the emergency time, thereby smoothly operating the control rod. (Sikiya, K.)

  20. The emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, a growing amount of attention has been paid to a small group of mostly developing countries that have come to be called the emerging nuclear suppliers. Argentina and Brazil, China and South Korea, India and Pakistan, Spain and Yugoslavia have frequently been mentioned in this category. Their actual and potential nuclear export dealings and policies have been the subject of academic writings and policy papers, of scholarly symposia and exchanges at meetings of the traditional nuclear suppliers. With foundation and other support, UCLA's Center for International and Strategic Affairs has begun a major project to develop a database on the transactions, policies, and export control institutions of the emerging suppliers. This chapter provides some guidelines for policy toward the emerging nuclear suppliers

  1. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  2. Emergent geometry of membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-13

    In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  3. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  4. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  5. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  6. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, N.; Sogalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  7. Preparing for Emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance....... Sixteen physicians (7 experienced surgeons and 9 novice physicians) performed an EC on a low-fidelity model and a cadaver. Two blinded raters assessed video recordings of performances using the assessment tool. RESULTS: We found a high interrater reliability, based on a Pearson's r (0.81), and good...

  8. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Several severe radiological emergencies were reviewed to determine the likely range of conditions which must be coped with by a mobile teleoperator designed for emergencies. The events reviewed included accidents at TMI (1978), SL-1 (1961), Y-12 (1958), Bethesda (1982), Chalk River (1952 and 1958), Lucens (1969). The important conditions were: radiation fields over 10,000 R/h, severe contamination, possible critical excursion, possible inert atmosphere, temperatures from 50 0 C to -20 0 C, 100% relative humidity, 60-cm-high obstacles, stairs, airlocks, darkness, and lack of electric power

  9. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  10. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergency operation determination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi.

    1993-01-01

    The system of the present invention can determine an emergency operation coping with abnormal events occurring during nuclear plant operation without replying on an operator's judgement. That is, the system of the present invention comprises an intelligence base which divides and classifies the aims of the plant operation for the function, structure and operation manual and puts them into network. Degree of attainment for the extend of the status normality is determined on every aim of operation based on various kinds of measured data during plant operation. For a degree of attainment within a predetermined range, it is judged that an emergency operation is possible although this is in an abnormal state. Degree of emergency is determined by a fuzzy theory based on the degree of attainment, variation coefficient for the degree of attainment and the sensitivity to external disturbance as parameters. Priority for the degree of emergency on every operation aims is determined by comparison. Normality is successively checked for the determined operation aims. As a result, equipments as objects of abnormality suppressing operation are specified, and the operation amount of the equipments as objects are determined so that the measuring data are within a predetermined range. (I.S.)

  12. Biodosimetry: emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry assays are the only methods available for ascertaining and estimating biological dose for suspected over-exposures and manage radiological emergency situations. These methods also plays a major role in medical management and triage. In the eventuality of radiological emergency, it becomes inevitable to provide care for exposed individuals. However, large numbers of unexposed individuals or those with clinically insignificant doses are to be screened off for effective medical management of those who really need the specialized medical attention. Majority of individuals involved in radiological accidents may not need any medical attention but will need ascertainment of dose estimation and counselling. The decision making and counselling is possible only with the evidence of dose estimation. Though Biodosimetry procedures-are known for their inherent delay, since radiation effects are very slow in nature, give ample time for such investigations to be completed without any hurry to take medical actions in most cases. High throughput facilities in the state of the art Biodosimetry lab established at HS and EG, BARC has helped us to address many small scale radiological emergencies in the past. These experiences also helped the lab to prepare itself for large scale scenario and support the emergency management with continually improving preparedness and indigenous development of facilities. (author)

  13. Emerging Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Communities of practice are emerging as an innovative approach to faculty development. While collaborative learning is becoming popular in the classroom, autonomy and individualism continue to dominate the culture of higher education for faculty. However, as we begin to recognize that old solutions to new problems are no longer effective, there is…

  14. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...

  15. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  16. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  17. Costs of Emergency Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All RSS Feeds ACEP In the News Multimedia Image Gallery ACEP Video ACEP Radio ACEP Ads Resources Statistics & Reports Health Policy Campaigns Published Letters Journalism Awards Fact Sheets Social Media Contact Us Site Body Main Content Annals of Emergency Medicine | EMAF Website | ...

  18. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  19. Financing emerging energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent i ncome

  20. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  1. Emerging Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraussl, R.G.W.; Logher, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance and risk-return characteristics of three major emerging art markets: Russia, China, and India. According to three national art market indices, built by hedonic regressions based on auction sales prices, the geometric annual returns are 10.00%, 5.70%, and 42.20%

  2. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  3. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  4. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  5. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  6. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  7. [Enterostomy post emergency enterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, S; Velicu, D; Gheorghiu, L; Duţescu, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a clinical approach regarding 43 resection of intestine, performed in emergency condition, terminated as enterostomy, with represent 20% of enterectomyes performed in emergency condition and 1.6% of urgent operations. The decision of enterostomy has been taken in the conditions of peritoneal sepsis, occlusion or the association of the two circumstances. The results are comparatively analyzed between the cases with enterostomy that has been made from the beginning (66% success, 33% gone wrong), and those with enterostomy made at the second intervention (14% success, 86% gone wrong). One discusses problems of leading, technique and post-operating nursing. The intestinal reintegration has been made possible at 16 patients after a timing of three of four weeks.

  8. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  9. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  10. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  11. [Hospital emergency rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Pere; Mòdol, Josep Maria

    2003-05-17

    Overuse of hospital emergency rooms (HERs) is parallel to their controversy. To understand this problem, some concepts should be first clarified. In HERs, there are some intrinsic aspects which are directly related to the emergency itself and thus cannot be modified (intermittent patient flow, need to prioritize, difficulty to achieve a rapid diagnosis, influence of time on treatment, value of clinical follow up, patient's expectations, impact of HER on the overall hospital working dynamics). On the other hand, there are some extrinsic aspects which indeed are not related to HER itself but are rather historically associated with it (precarious structure, delay on admission, lack of privacy, inadequate triage of cases, lack of professionalization); these latter aspects may be potentially modified and should be reconsidered.

  12. [Ambulance in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Fikret; Ergun, Alper

    2002-07-01

    The ambulance service is very important in emergency medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the new governing statuate of private ambulance service and to propose some new ideas. We examinated the new governing statuate of private ambulance service, rules of patient transporte between the hospitals and reports written by SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers. We concluded that SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers have a iot of problems especially at the rules of patient transport between the hospitals and there are some defiencies at the new governing statuate of private ambulance service. We concluded that it is necesssary to manage all the ambulance services in one center; all the private ambulance services have to have a specialist and all these must be determinated by the special rules. Key words: Regulation ofprivate ambulance, emergency head maintanence, ambulance services

  13. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  14. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  15. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  16. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  17. Web Science emerges

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The relentless rise in Web pages and links is creating emergent properties, from social networks to virtual identity theft, that are transforming society. A new discipline, Web Science, aims to discover how Web traits arise and how they can be harnessed or held in check to benefit society. Important advances are beginning to be made; more work can solve major issues such as securing privacy and conveying trust.

  18. Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...... in which this disagreement can be reconciled through recognition of other EMNC advantages, particularly abilities to leverage country-specific assets, and possession and development of dynamic capabilities. Finally, we identify a set of core themes in the recent literature on strategic asset...

  19. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A.

    1997-01-01

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  20. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kricka, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home test...

  1. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  2. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  3. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nuclear medicine in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, L.; Rambaldi, P.F.; Cuccurullo, V.; Varetto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The role of a procedure depends not only on its own capabilities but also on a cost/effective comparison with alternative technique giving similar information. Starting from the definition of emergency as a sudden unexpected occurrence demanding immediate action, the role of nuclear medicine (NM) is difficult to identify if it is not possible to respond 24h a day, 365 days a year, to clinical demands. To justify a 24 h NM service it is necessary to reaffirm the role in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the spiral CT era, to spread knowledge of the capabilities of nuclear cardiology in reliability diagnosis myocardial infraction (better defining admission and discharge to/from the emergency department), to increase the number of indications. Radionuclide technique could be used as first line, alternative, complementary procedures in a diagnostic tree taking into account not only the diagnosis but also the connections with prognosis and therapy in evaluating cerebral pathologies, acute inflammation/infection, transplants, bleeding, trauma, skeletal, hepatobiliary, renal and endocrine emergencies, acute scrotal pain

  5. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick

    2007-01-01

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  6. Emergency Victim Care. A Textbook for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    This textbook for emergency medical personnel should be useful to fire departments, private ambulance companies, industrial emergency and rescue units, police departments, and nurses. The 30 illustrated chapters cover topics such as: (1) Emergency Medical Service Vehicles, (2) Safe Driving Practices, (3) Anatomy and Physiology, (4) Closed Chest…

  7. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  8. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  9. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  10. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  11. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  12. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  13. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  14. Emergency response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrilo, D.; Dias de la Cruz, F.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study is estimated, on the basis of a release category (PWR4) and several accident scenarios previously set up, the emergency response efficacy obtained in the application of different response strategies on each of the above mentioned scenarios. The studied strategies contemplate the following protective measures: evacuation, shelter and relocation. The radiological response has been obtained by means of CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) code, and calculated in terms of absorbed dose equivalent (Whole body and thyroid), as well as early and latent biological effects. (author)

  15. Dangerous goods emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a general overview of the State of Western Australia including: the legal framework of the Dangerous Goods and Emergency response management scenarios (which consist mainly of fuel products such as LP gas); particular problems unique to the Western Australian environment; what has been done to overcome those problems. Western Australia has an area of about two and a half million square kilometers. The demography of the State is such that the population is concentrated in the south-west corner of the State with isolated pockets, mainly associated with mineral development but also associated with agriculture, scattered throughout the State

  16. CSN's New Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendin, P.

    2005-01-01

    During the month of July 2005 the physical renovation works and technological updating of the basic infrastructures of the CSN Emergency Room (SALEM) were finished, allowing the Room to now have greater functionality and a broader technical capacity. Nevertheless, the technological improvement process of SALEM will reach its full potential within the next few years, once the installation currently underway of the new information integration and monitoring systems and the decision making support systems have been completed. This article describes the improvements introduced to the Room and the objectives pursued in this renovation project to convert the SALEM into a new generation room in accordance with its current technological context. (Author) 4 refs

  17. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  18. German emergency management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the margin and start-up value concepts (according to ICRP 40 and EU-ordinances) are explained, and it is demonstrated that the two concepts are combinable. The combined concept has the advantage of immediately providing, if required, intervention levels for the various measures to be taken, and of obliging those persons concerned with emergency protection to study and quantify, already at the planning stage, the influence of a range of accident conditions on the decision on measures. In this context, the use of computerized decision support systems which are currently being developed is indispensable. (orig./DG) [de

  19. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna Maija; Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin

    2015-01-01

    peripartum hysterectomies reached 211, yielding an incidence rate of 3.5/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0) births. Finland had the highest prevalence (5.1) and Norway the lowest (2.9). Primary indications included an abnormally invasive placenta (n = 91, 43.1%), atonic bleeding (n = 69, 32.......7%), uterine rupture (n = 31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n = 12, 5.7%), and other indications (n = 8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum...

  20. Wind emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.; Buckner, M.R.; Mueller, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The WIND system is an automated emergency response system for real-time predictions of the consequences of liquid and airborne releases from SRP. The system consists of a minicomputer and associated peripherals necessary for acquisition and handling of large amounts of meteorological data from a local tower network and the National Weather Service. The minicomputer uses these data and several predictive models to assess the impact of accidental releases. The system is fast and easy to use, and output is displayed both in tabular form and as trajectory map plots for quick interpretation. The rapid response capabilities of the WIND system have been demonstrated in support of SRP operations

  1. On-site emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating organization and is based on the Code of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as on arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau and - outlines the basis and content of an emergency plan - describes the emergencies postulated for emergency planning purposes - describes the responsibilities, the organization and the procedures of the operating organization to cope with emergency situations and the liaison between the operating organization, the regulatory body and public authorities - describes the facilities and equipment which should be available to cope with emergency sitauations - describes the measures and actions to be taken when an emergency arises in order to correct abnormal plant conditions and to protect the persons on-and off-site - describes the aid to be given to affected personnel - describes the aspects relevant to maintaining the emergency plan and organization in operational readiness. (orig./RW)

  2. Plan for radiological emergencies situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Figueroa, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective for the Emergencies plan it is to reestablish the stock that they should be executed by the regulatory Entity in Guatemala during a real potential radiological emergency situation in the national territory

  3. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency . What should I expect during an emergency situation? Many things we depend on daily may not ... 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, 1-800-622-9010. ...

  4. Ideas Production in Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Luintel, Kul B; Kahn, Mosahid

    2012-01-01

    We model 'new ideas' production in a panel of 17 emerging countries. Our results reveal: (i) ideas production is duplicative, (ii) externality associated with domestic knowledge stocks is of above unit factor proportionality, (iii) OECD countries raise the innovation-bar for emerging countries, (iv) there is no significant knowledge diffusion across emerging countries, and (v) growth in emerging countries appear far from a balanced growth path.

  5. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru

    1996-01-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  6. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  7. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  10. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  11. Emergency contraception: clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasier, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Emergency contraception (EC) is widely used to prevent unwanted pregnancy. This review considers the safety and efficacy of three commonly used methods -- levonorgestrel (LNG-EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) and the copper intrauterine device. All are extremely safe, and side effects are minimal. Concerns about increased risks of ectopic pregnancy after EC use have proved unfounded, and possible teratogenic effects seem unlikely. Although the true effectiveness of EC is impossible to estimate, recent research suggests that LNG-EC prevents around 50% of expected pregnancies in women using the method within 72 h of intercourse, whereas UPA appeared to prevent almost two thirds of pregnancies. Emergency intrauterine device insertion probably prevents over 95% of pregnancies. However, although improved accessibility of EC has clearly led to increased use, it does not appear to have had any public health benefit in reducing unintended pregnancy rates. Most of the data on sexual behavior following improved access to EC do not show any detrimental effect on subsequent use of other more effective methods of contraception or on the incidence of unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted infection. However, unless these other methods of contraception are also made easily available from pharmacies, improved access to EC risks unlinking its use with use of subsequent ongoing contraception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergency Teacher Certification. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Elizabeth A.

    Emergency certification involves the issuance of teaching licenses to individuals who have not completed a traditional college or university teacher education program. This two-page information review examines the problems arising from emergency certification and its relationship to student achievement. Some alternatives to emergency certification…

  13. Emergency Health Services Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    This annotated bibliography contains books, journal articles, visual aids, and other documents pertaining to emergency health care, which are organized according to: (1) publications dealing with day-to-day health emergencies that occur at home, work, and play, (2) documents that will help communities prepare for emergencies, including natural…

  14. Training teams for emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstal, A.M.; Johnston, J.H.; Oser, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Emergency management (EM), the decision making involved in directing the relief operation after a disaster or otherwise catastrophic accident is an issue of great public and private concern because of the high stakes involved. Due to the nature of emergencies, and especially mass emergencies, EM

  15. NLM Emergency Access Initiative: FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facebook Visit us on Twitter Visit us on Youtube Emergency Access Initiative Home | Journals | Books | Online Databases | FAQs Take Short Survey FAQ What is the Emergency Access Initiative? The Emergency Access Initiative (EAI) is a collaborative partnership between NLM and participating publishers to

  16. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to their prescribing habits and knowledge about the drug and in relation to frequency and profile of women arriving for care at hospital emergency departments in Piedmont and requesting prescription for the morning-after pill. This cross-sectional survey involved 29 hospital emergency departments in Piedmont where no gynecologists are on active duty. The survey instrument was a 24-item questionnaire. Analysis of responses revealed that in the physicians’ opinion the vast majority of requests came from Italian nationals (97% ranging in age from 18 to 30 years (76%, single and not cohabiting with a partner (60%, and nulliparous (64.0%. Women mostly request EC for first-time and the most common reasons were condom breakage or slippage. Just over half the physicians (52% stated that emergency contraception prescription was not an appropriate part of care provided at an emergency department and 72% stated they felt uneasy about prescribing emergency contraception. The survey also revealed gaps in physician knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of emergency contraception pills.

  17. Emergency Contraception: a survey of Hospital Emergency Departments Staffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization defines emergency contraception (EC as a means to prevent unwanted pregnancy. In countries where EC is dispensed behind the counter, emergency departments are a preferred point of care for its prescription and dispensing. In light of this situation and as no studies on emergency contraception in emergency departments in Italy have been conducted to date, this study was designed with a view to analyze the responses of emergency room physicians in relation to their prescribing habits and knowledge about the drug and in relation to frequency and profile of women arriving for care at hospital emergency departments in Piedmont and requesting prescription for the morning-after pill. This cross-sectional survey involved 29 hospital emergency departments in Piedmont where no gynecologists are on active duty. The survey instrument was a 24-item questionnaire. Analysis of responses revealed that in the physicians’ opinion the vast majority of requests came from Italian nationals (97% ranging in age from 18 to 30 years (76%, single and not cohabiting with a partner (60%, and nulliparous (64.0%. Women mostly request EC for first-time and the most common reasons were condom breakage or slippage. Just over half the physicians (52% stated that emergency contraception prescription was not an appropriate part of care provided at an emergency department and 72% stated they felt uneasy about prescribing emergency contraception. The survey also revealed gaps in physician knowledge about the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of emergency contraception pills.

  18. Part I. Emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  19. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  20. Emergency exercise ''Mosel 90''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency exercise for the environs of the nuclear power plant CPN de Cattenom was performed from April, 5th to 7th, 1990. Administration and operational personnel from Luxembourg, Saarland, and Rhineland-Palatinate (RP) participated in the combined staff and field exercise; the competent French authority, la Prefecture de Metz, played the role of the licencee. While each responsible authority tested its alarm -and response plan and trained its personnel, a major aim of the off-site exercise was to investigate and improve the methods of communication in this border region location; the outer planning zone (radius 25 km) of the French reactors encompasses parts of Luxembourg and of the two German states mentioned above. Preparation and scenario of the exercise will be explained and lessons learned will be discussed

  1. Emergent Computation Emphasizing Bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Emergent Computation is concerned with recent applications of Mathematical Linguistics or Automata Theory. This subject has a primary focus upon "Bioinformatics" (the Genome and arising interest in the Proteome), but the closing chapter also examines applications in Biology, Medicine, Anthropology, etc. The book is composed of an organized examination of DNA, RNA, and the assembly of amino acids into proteins. Rather than examine these areas from a purely mathematical viewpoint (that excludes much of the biochemical reality), the author uses scientific papers written mostly by biochemists based upon their laboratory observations. Thus while DNA may exist in its double stranded form, triple stranded forms are not excluded. Similarly, while bases exist in Watson-Crick complements, mismatched bases and abasic pairs are not excluded, nor are Hoogsteen bonds. Just as there are four bases naturally found in DNA, the existence of additional bases is not ignored, nor amino acids in addition to the usual complement of...

  2. Upgrading France's emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moures, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In France as elsewhere, the Chernobyl accident spurred a new stage in the development of nuclear safety. In the months following the accident, France's Minister of Industry launched a campaign to strengthen research and safety measures to: prevent reactor accidents; reinforce the concept of quality in operations; train staff, in areas such as crisis management; systematically review plans, installations and techniques related to crisis management; study accident containment procedures. There was also a systematic review of communication links with authorities and outside emergency organizations during the critical phase of an accident. On the operational level regulatory monitoring procedures were reorganized and reinforced. France has not opted for the permanent presence of on-site inspectors, but rather for the total, continuous responsibility of the power plant operator, with the safety authority intervening at frequent intervals. A major programme was also established to increase capabilities for investigation and intervention in a radioactive environment in nuclear installations. (author)

  3. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Implementation of Emerging Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba, F. J.; Orlien, Vibeke; Mota, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    safety are presented and discussed with an ultimate goal to explore strategies for their implementation in the food industry. Novel thermal and nonthermal technologies have shown clear environmental benefits by improving the overall energy efficiency of the process and reducing the use of nonrenewable......Novel processing technologies have been gaining interest among food researchers due to their lower impact on nutritional and sensory properties of the products compared to the conventional thermal techniques. In this chapter some of the most well-studied (eg, high-pressure processing, pulsed...... electric fields, ohmic heating, microwave, and ultrasound) emerging technologies are briefly reviewed. Most of these technologies have found niche applications in the food industry, replacing or complementing conventional preservation technologies. Thereby, data on commercialization, energy, and microbial...

  5. Communication in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masao

    1996-01-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ''the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others'' are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  6. Emerging treatments in alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Choudhary, Sonal; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    Alopecia is a common concern encountered in the medical practice. Treatment approach varies according to the type and severity of alopecia. However, available treatment options have limited efficacy and several adverse effects. Presently, there are different treatment options being studied to overcome these limitations. Additionally, cellular pathways involved in the pathophysiology of alopecia are further being clarified to potentially target pathogenic molecules. We searched the literature for recently published articles discussing new treatment options as well as mechanisms involved in alopecia. We discuss the use of stem cells, growth factors, cellular pathways and robotic hair transplant, among other emerging therapies used for alopecia. Future looks very promising and new effective treatments such as janus kinase inhibitors could possibly be available for alopecia areata. The stem-cell technology is advancing and companies involved in hair follicle neogenesis are starting clinical trials on patients with androgenetic alopecia.

  7. Emergency planning knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, A.; Vamanu, D.

    1996-01-01

    This book is an essay in dealing with the risks and consequences of disruptive events in some emblematical enterprises of our time. The striking relevance of the variability factor in emergency management makes it difficult to encompass the entire difficulty in a fully generic, streamlined discourse. That is why, while trying its best to extract generic pieces of wisdom from the varied experience reported in the exploding literature around that deals with the subject, this text would rather focus on a few case histories at hand, that may more eloquently, if implicitly, illustrate authors' stand. The three projects that served the purpose - ETH-NUMERISK, MONITOT.HSK, and ETH-CHEMRISK - are components of a research project in the Swiss academic and educational environment. figs., tabs., refs,

  8. Emergent traffic jams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M.

    1995-01-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)∼t -3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results

  9. Emergent traffic jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Kai; Paczuski, Maya

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution P(t)~t-3/2 of lifetimes t. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/f noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  10. Identification of the determinants of efficient Pestivirus replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager, Peter Christian

    , and in depth knowledge of the traits that determine the fitness of the virus in this regard are highly valuable. Recent advances in the field of molecular virology with methods to manipulate viral genomes have significantly helped to uncover these core mechanisms responsible for exploitation of the host......, BMC genomics). Manuscript II describes the generation of replicons that express two different types of luciferases (Rluc and Gluc), and their application as a tool for easy monitoring of replication competence (published paper, Journal of General Virology (94), 1739-1748). Manuscript III describes...... the properties of chimeric replicons and infectious clones that include a RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) from one of three different CSFV strains with distinct virulence properties. The entire NS5B proved to influence replication competence and key residues for replication competence was identified...

  11. Identification of the determinants of efficient Pestivirus replication

    OpenAIRE

    Risager, Peter Christian; Belsham, Graham; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    The key for the survival of a virus is to copy its own genome into progeny genomes that allows continued reproduction. The mechanism behind this "copy function" or "replication" is a wellorganized process that involves the formation of a replication complex in the cell and interactions between the viral proteins. The replication process in single-stranded RNA viruses of positive polarity requires a particular enzyme, an RNA dependent RNA polymerase, that has no direct counterpart elsewhere in...

  12. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Bonfada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  13. Emergency preparedness at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairys, A.

    1998-01-01

    Brief review of Ignalina NPP safety upgrading and personnel preparedness to act in cases of accidents is presented. Though great activities are performed in enhancing the plant operation safety, the Ignalina NPP management pays a lot of attention to preparedness for emergency elimination and take measures to stop emergency spreading. A new Ignalina NPP emergency preparedness plan was drawn up and became operational. It is the main document to carry out organizational, technical, medical, evacuation and other activities to protect plant personnel, population, the plant and the environment from accident consequences. Great assistance was rendered by Swedish experts in drawing this new emergency preparedness plan. The plan consists of 3 parts: general part, operative part and appendixes. The plan is applied to the Ignalina NPP personnel, Special and Fire Brigade and also to other contractor organizations personnel carrying out works at Ignalina NPP. There are set the following emergency classes: incident, emergency situation, alert, local emergency, general emergency. Separate intervention level corresponds to each emergency class. Overview of personnel training to act in case of an emergency is also presented

  14. Breastfeeding in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1995-02-01

    In emergency situations created by wars, natural disasters, and famines, people are forced to live in crowded, unsanitary conditions where access to food and health care is limited and the danger of infection, particularly with diarrheal diseases, is great. The situation is compounded when anxieties exist concerning breast feeding; this usually occurs in industrialized countries where artificial feeding was widespread prior to the crisis, breast feeding skills were lost, and inaccurate information replaced traditional knowledge. It is believed that psychological stress and poor diet cause breast milk to dry up. Although diet is important, undernourished women are capable of producing enough milk to feed their babies. Psychological stress can temporarily prevent the release of milk from the breast, but it does not affect milk production. Large supplies of infant formula are not needed, and unrestricted distribution of breast milk substitutes can undermine breast feeding and increase the risk of disease and death. Almost all mothers are physically capable of breast feeding. Those who provide health care and relief assistance during emergencies should undertake the following measures to support breast feeding and to protect the health of mothers: 1) work for agreement between outside agencies and local health workers on breast feeding policy and practice, share up-to-date information, and establish mechanisms to ensure actions are implemented in a coordinated manner; 2) ensure that maternity care practices follow WHO/UNICEF guidelines; 3) encourage women who are not breast feeding to do so, rather than criticizing them; 4) educate the whole community about the benefits of breast feeding and highlight the importance of family and social support; 5) offer one-to-one assistance to mothers who are experiencing difficulty breast feeding through use of a network of experienced mothers, or by training breast feeding counselors (women), who are sensitive to the culture

  15. Technical support and emergency centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohun, L.; Kapisovsk y, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents technical support and emergency management center which will be on two places: Mochovce NPP Emergency Centre (Technical support center and Support working center) and Reserve Emergency Centre in Levice (Reserve emergency center and Environmental Evaluation Center). The main aims of the emergency management centers are: the management and coordination of all persons and organisations; provision of the all information needed to evaluation of the accident and its mitigation; continuous evaluation of the potential or real radiological consequences; taking measure for an early notification of the governmental bodies and the organizations, warning and protection of the public; and other aims. In the next part the data for technical support and emergency centre are discussed

  16. [Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, V F; Córdoba, M A; Basualdo, J A

    2009-01-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium, responsible for producing cryptosporidiosis, includes several species. Humans and livestock are the main sources of infection. Waterborne cryptosporidiosis outbreaks are associated with drinking water. The infective parasite stage is the oocyst, which is resistant to conventional potabilization treatments. In immunocompetent hosts it produces acute, self-limiting diarrhoea. In immunocompromised people, it could develop severe, life-threatening pattern forms of the infection. People with AIDS are especially susceptible to these clinical forms. Cryptosporidium infections are also considered a major cause of morbimortality in calves, which leads to important economic losses. In the last years, there has been an increase of patients suffering from different causes of immunosuppression, and the need to find an effective therapy against Cryptosporidium has become greater. In spite of the many attempts of the pharmaceutical industry to develop an effective antiparasitic agent to treat cryptosporidiosis, this infection and its clinical consequences still constitute a major public health problem. This article analizes the taxonomy, morphology, biology and life cycle of Cryptosporidium. Clinical, immunological, epidemiological features and diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis are also included. Treatment and prevention of the infection are discussed, and future tendencies are suggested for this emerging parasitic infection.

  17. Octocrylene, an emerging photoallergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenel-Audran, Martine; Dutartre, Hervé; Goossens, An; Jeanmougin, Michel; Comte, Christelle; Bernier, Claire; Benkalfate, Lamia; Michel, Maryse; Ferrier-Lebouëdec, Marie Christine; Vigan, Martine; Bourrain, Jean Luc; Outtas, Omar; Peyron, Jean Louis; Martin, Ludovic

    2010-07-01

    Octocrylene is a new emerging photoallergen. We report and discuss 50 cases of photoallergic contact dermatitis from octocrylene use and/or positive photopatch test reactions to this UV filter and draw attention to the unexpected association in adults with a history of photoallergic contact dermatitis from ketoprofen. Patients were divided in 3 groups: group A comprised 11 children; group B, 28 adults with a history of photoallergy from sunscreen products; and group C, 14 adults systematically tested with octocrylene because of a history of photoallergy from ketoprofen. All patients but 3 in group C had positive test reactions to octocrylene. Ten of 11 children in group A and 9 of 28 adults in group B had positive patch test reactions to octocrylene. One child in group A, the other 19 adults in group B, and 11 of 14 adults in group C had positive photopatch test reactions to octocrylene. All adults in group C and 24 of 28 adults in group B had a history of photoallergy from ketoprofen and positive patch test or photopatch test reactions to other allergens that are often positive in patients with photoallergy from ketoprofen, especially fragrance components. Octocrylene appears to be a strong allergen leading to contact dermatitis in children and mostly photoallergic contact dermatitis in adults with an often-associated history of photoallergy from ketoprofen. Patients with photoallergy from ketoprofen frequently have positive photopatch test reactions to octocrylene. These patients need to be informed of sunscreen products not containing octocrylene, benzophenone-3, or fragrances.

  18. Carbon market emerges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordern, N.

    2001-01-01

    Last November COP6, the UN climate change conference in The Hague, failed to agree on the rules of the Kyoto Protocol, the treaty limiting developed countries' emissions of greenhouse gases ('carbon'). Many in the Australian resource and energy sector were relieved that COP6 was inconclusive. As Industry Minister Senator Nick Minchin put it: 'Better no outcome than a bad outcome.' However, the financial services sector -potentially a major beneficiary of the international carbon it hoped COP6 would endorse -received a setback. Apparently not for long. Only months later, a nascent Australian carbon trading market seems to be emerging by stealth, irrespective of COP6's fortunes. This poses both opportunities and costs for the resources and energy sectors. Whoever succeeds in influencing the design of a trading scheme, 'pilot' or not, will have a box seat when - not if - a 'mandatory' emissions trading scheme is introduced. Government policy is that there will be no mandatory emissions trading scheme until the establishment of a UN endorsed international market requires one of Australia. This, in turn, depends upon the conclusion of the negotiations that stalled in The Hague. COP6 is set to resume in Germany, probably in July

  19. Emerging Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    the only one to influence matters on a global scale besides, the US. Of particular importance in this context has been the growing attractiveness of the EU market and the considerable “soft power” which the EU exerts in some parts of the world. The paper reconstructs the most important steps of Europe......Many observers posit that a shift in global power has taken place the last many years, away from the West to “emerging powers”, in particular the BRICS. In contrast to this view, this paper accepts Moravcsik’s view that it has been the EU which has developed into the “second superpower”, being......’s rise, with emphasis on the “expansionist” character of the EU. Internal developments in the EU have been crucial for its growing external influence. The “expansionism” of the EU and its system has until recently been peaceful. In the case of Ukraine, however, another (regional) power has applied...

  20. BWR emergency procedure guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, J.S.; Karner, E.F.; Stratman, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes plans for dealing with reactor accidents developed by the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Owners' Group in response to post-Three Mile Island US NRC requirements. The devised Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs), applicable to all BWRs, are symptom-based rather than event-based. According to the EPGs, the operator does not need to identify what event is occurring in the plant in order to decide what action to take, but need only observe the symptoms (values and trends of key control parameters) which exist and take appropriate action to control these symptoms. The original objective was to provide reactor operator guidance in responding to a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), but subsequent revisions have included other types of reactor accidents. Topics considered include the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) control guideline, the primary containment control guideline, the secondary containment control guideline, the radioactivity release control guideline, multiple failures vs. the design basis, safe limits vs. technical specifications, the technical status, licensing, and implementation. The EPGs are based upon maintaining both adequate core cooling and primary containment integrity

  1. Automated emergency operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Ramirez, G.; Nelson, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a training tool for the symptom oriented emergency operating procedures used at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. EOPs and operator training are intended to assist the operator for managing accident situations. A prototype expert system based on the EOPs has been developed for operator training. The demonstration expert system was developed using a commercial shell. The knowledge base consists of two parts. The specific operator actions to be executed for 5 selected accident sequences and the EOPs steps for the reactor pressure vessel control of the water level, pressure, and power. The knowledge is expressed in the form of IF-THEN production rules. A typical training session will display a set of conditions and will prompt the trainee to indicate the appropriate step to perform. This mode will guide the trainee through selected accident sequences. A second mode of the expert system will prompt the trainee for the current plant conditions and the expert system will respond with the EOPs which are required to be performed under these conditions. This allows the trainee to study What if situations

  2. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  3. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Gas spill emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This video presentation was designed to explain the steps that should be taken in the event of a petroleum product spill on land, to keep damages and consequences to a minimum. The events that took place when an oil truck full of gasoline overturned and smashed into a house on a residential street were described to illustrate the principles involved. The following sequence of events and actions, based on general principles of bringing the situation under control during an emergency operation were depicted: (1) identification of spilled product, (2) assessment of the situation, (3) setting priorities and evacuating the endangered area, and (4) setting up a communication system. The fire fighters sprayed the area with foam because of the fire and explosion potential. Sand was used to contain the spill and to keep it out of the storm sewers. The spilled oil was recovered. Three other spill situations - a spill at a service station, a spill in a ditch, and a spill in a waterway - were also documented. It was emphasized that while it is not possible to establish a single set of rules and actions that would apply to all situations since no two accidents involving petroleum products are alike, the general principles are universal and can be applied in all situations. First priority to consider should always be human life, then property, then the environment

  5. Emerging radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, a number of radiation protection issues have emerged into the public forum. The perceived high risks associated with radiation exposure, and disproportionate media attention to such issues, have contributed to heightened concerns by the public and the individual occupationally exposed worker. This paper examines the new and controversial radiation risk estimates of the National Research Council's BEIR V committee, which are based on the most current atomic-bomb survivor data and a revised dosimetry model. These risk estimates are somewhat higher than past values, and may eventually impact the legal framework in the United States through the regulations of the EPA, NRC, DOE, OSHA, and other agencies that set radiation exposure standards. Additionally, present regulations and standards are often based upon differing levels of acceptable risk, which have led to conflicting exposure and effluent release criteria. Further, due to inherent boundaries in legal authority, many potentially significant sources of radiation exposure to the public remain unregulated Radiation exposure scenarios such as medical x-ray, radon, and other technology enhanced sources have no legal limits. These issues and others are examined and analyzed with respect to regulatory policy

  6. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  7. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  8. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  9. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  10. Regulatory aspects of emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamgochian, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the advances that have been made in the USA in the field of emergency planning over the past several years and considers regulatory changes that may be on the horizon. The paper examines the importance of severe accident source terms and their relationship to emergency preparedness, recent research results of work on source terms, and the experience gained from evaluation of licensee performance during annual emergency preparedness exercises. (author)

  11. Transport accident emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallette-Fontaine, M.; Frantz, P.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  12. Curved backgrounds in emergent gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Shikha; Erlich, Joshua; Zhou, Yiyu

    2018-06-01

    Field theories that are generally covariant but nongravitational at tree level typically give rise to an emergent gravitational interaction whose strength depends on a physical regulator. We consider emergent gravity models in which scalar fields assume the role of clock and rulers, addressing the problem of time in quantum gravity. We discuss the possibility of nontrivial dynamics for clock and ruler fields, and describe some of the consequences of those dynamics for the emergent gravitational theory.

  13. Fire Service Emergency Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Adapted from Formulating Public Policy in Emergency Management Course Book and ResourceMRanual for Public OTTicials, ILMA Emergency Management Institute...659-2447 (202) 785-2757 Christian Reformed World Relief Presbyterian Church in U.S. Committee General Assemby Mission Board C. Neil Molenaar 341 Ponce...Healer, Mind as Slayer. New York: Delta Books , 1977. 86B:6 B-45 4) Mitchell, J.T., & Resnik, HLP: Emergency Response to Crisis: A Crisis Intervention

  14. Emergency medicine and general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Abela, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    Emergency Medicine and Immediate Medical Care are relatively new specialties. In Malta, there is quite a considerable area of overlap between these specialties and general practice. Indeed, the family physician is confronted with some sort of medical emergency quite regularly. The brief of this article is to go through recent developments in Emergency Medicine as applied to General Practice. The areas considered are Basic Life Support, Head Injury, Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Community Acquired Pneu...

  15. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-08-18

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  16. Emergency medicine in Dubai, UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, Robert; Abbo, Michael; Virk, Alamjit

    2009-01-01

    Dubai has rapidly risen to prominence in the Persian Gulf region as a center of global commerce and tourism and as a cultural crossroad between East and West. The health-care infrastructure has undergone rapid development. Collaborations with academic medical centers now exist to advance clinical care, teaching and research. Emergency medicine has also advanced and is undergoing dynamic change. Dubai may soon emerge as a regional leader in emergency medicine training and practice.

  17. First Response to Medical Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisah Saedon; Sarimah Mahat; Muhamad Nurfalah Karoji; Hasnul Nizam Osman

    2015-01-01

    Accident or medical emergencies, both minor and critical, occurs each day and can happen in any workplace. In any medical emergencies, time is a critical factor because the first person to arrive at the scene of an accident has a key role in the rescue of a victim. With the knowledge of some common medical procedures and emergency actions, this first responder can make a positive contribution to the welfare of the accident victim. In some cases, this contribution can make difference between life and death. Improper response to medical emergencies by an untrained person can result in worsen injuries or death. Therefore, first aids training are necessary to provide the information. (author)

  18. Security and Emergency Management Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Security and Emergency Management Division identifies vulnerabilities, risks, and opportunities to improve the security of transportation systems, critical...

  19. Local Emergency Operations Centers (EOC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The physical location at which the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place. An Emergency...

  20. Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderholm, Hanna M.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2010-01-01

    physicians, nurses, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals working at large and small medical centers, and asked them to share their perspectives regarding 3DMC's potential benefits and disadvantages in emergency healthcare and its compatibility and/or lack thereof......New video technologies are emerging to facilitate collaboration in emergency healthcare. One such technology is 3D telepresence technology for medical consultation (3DMC) that may provide richer visual information to support collaboration between medical professionals to, ideally, enhance patient......, and resources. Both common and unique perceptions regarding 3DMC emerged,illustrating the need for 3DMC, and other collaboration technologies,to support interwoven situational awareness across different technological frames....

  1. The future of emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra M; Gardner, Angela F; Weiss, Larry D; Wood, Joseph P; Ybarra, Michael; Beck, Dennis M; Stauffer, Arlen R; Wilkerson, Dean; Brabson, Thomas; Jennings, Anthony; Mitchell, Mark; McGrath, Roland B; Christopher, Theodore A; King, Brent; Muelleman, Robert L; Wagner, Mary J; Char, Douglas M; McGee, Douglas L; Pilgrim, Randy L; Moskovitz, Joshua B; Zinkel, Andrew R; Byers, Michelle; Briggs, William T; Hobgood, Cherri D; Kupas, Douglas F; Krueger, Jennifer; Stratford, Cary J; Jouriles, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    The specialty of emergency medicine (EM) continues to experience a significant workforce shortage in the face of increasing demand for emergency care. In July 2009, representatives of the leading EM organizations met in Dallas for the Future of Emergency Medicine Summit. Attendees at the Future of Emergency Medicine Summit agreed on the following: 1) Emergency medical care is an essential community service that should be available to all; 2) An insufficient emergency physician workforce also represents a potential threat to patient safety; 3) Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education/American Osteopathic Association (AOA)-accredited EM residency training and American Board of Medical Specialties/AOA EM board certification is the recognized standard for physician providers currently entering a career in emergency care; 4) Physician supply shortages in all fields contribute to-and will continue to contribute to-a situation in which providers with other levels of training may be a necessary part of the workforce for the foreseeable future; 5) A maldistribution of EM residency-trained physicians persists, with few pursuing practice in small hospital or rural settings; 6) Assuring that the public receives high quality emergency care while continuing to produce highly skilled EM specialists through EM training programs is the challenge for EM's future; 7) It is important that all providers of emergency care receive continuing postgraduate education. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Medical emergencies in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, M H

    2009-06-01

    Serious medical emergencies are fortunately a rare occurrence in the dental practice environment; however, if an emergency situation is encountered a delay in treatment may result in potentially avoidable consequences. The risk of mortality or serious morbidity can be reduced by ensuring that basic emergency equipment and medications are in place, and that the dental team is appropriately trained in basic life support measures. This article aims to provide an overview of the basic emergency medications and equipment that should be present in dental practices, and to discuss specific responses to some of the more common adverse medical events that can present while providing dental treatment.

  3. Burden of emerging/re emerging diseases in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Burden of emerging/re emerging diseases in India. 1-2 million deaths for 1994 epidemic of plague. 20,565 deaths in 2004 due to rabies. 400 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. More than 18 million carriers of hepatitis C virus. 'Mutant' measles virus infection in ...

  4. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  5. Interventions for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Che, Yan; Showell, Emily; Chen, Ke; Cheng, Linan

    2017-08-02

    Emergency contraception (EC) is using a drug or copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) to prevent pregnancy shortly after unprotected intercourse. Several interventions are available for EC. Information on the comparative effectiveness, safety and convenience of these methods is crucial for reproductive healthcare providers and the women they serve. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009 and 2012. To determine which EC method following unprotected intercourse is the most effective, safe and convenient to prevent pregnancy. In February 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Popline and PubMed, The Chinese biomedical databases and UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme on Human Reproduction (HRP) emergency contraception database. We also searched ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov as well as contacting content experts and pharmaceutical companies, and searching reference lists of appropriate papers. Randomised controlled trials including women attending services for EC following a single act of unprotected intercourse were eligible. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was observed number of pregnancies. Side effects and changes of menses were secondary outcomes. We included 115 trials with 60,479 women in this review. The quality of the evidence for the primary outcome ranged from moderate to high, and for other outcomes ranged from very low to high. The main limitations were risk of bias (associated with poor reporting of methods), imprecision and inconsistency. Comparative effectiveness of different emergency contraceptive pills (ECP)Levonorgestrel was associated with fewer pregnancies than Yuzpe (estradiol-levonorgestrel combination) (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.84, 6 RCTs, n = 4750, I 2 = 23%, high-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of pregnancy using Yuzpe is assumed to be 29 women per 1000, the chance of pregnancy using levonorgestrel would be between

  6. Spinoffs from radiological emergency preparedness programmes to generic emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    In the USA, the radiological emergency preparedness (REP) programme for nuclear power plants is being used to enhance emergency management programmes for other types of emergencies. The REP programme is particularly useful in developing plans and preparedness measures for chemical accidents. The Integrated Emergency Management System (IEMS) approach provides a means for maximizing relationships between the REP programme and other programmes. IEMS essentially involves applying common elements of planning and preparedness to all types of emergencies, while recognizing that unique characteristics of specific natural and man-made emergencies require special planning and preparedness considerations. Features of the REP programme that make it compatible with the IEMS approach and useful in coping with other types of emergencies are: (1) the close co-operation between the national nuclear regulatory and emergency management organizations; (2) the programme integration among all levels of government, the nuclear power industry, public interest groups and the general public and (3) the comprehensiveness and sophistication of the programme. The REP programme in the USA represents a state-of-the-art emergency management capability. Some of its elements are readily transferrable to most other types of emergency preparedness programmes, while other elements can be adapted more readily to other hazard-specific programmes. The Bhopal accident has been a catalyst for this adaptation to chemical accidents, in such areas as furnishing hazard-specific information to the public, alert and notification systems, definition of the hazards and risks involved, establishing planning zones and developing close working relationships among the industry, the public and government

  7. Emergence Issues - not so simple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetics Supplement: Emergence Issues - not so simple. S Afr Fam Pract 2014. Vol 56 No 2 Supplement 1. Introduction. Emergence from anaesthesia is by definition the process of return to baseline physiological function of all organ systems after cessation of administration of general anaesthesia and is the stage from ...

  8. Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP) will develop and enhance integrated emergency preparedness capabilities in two major areas. First, the program is responsible for planning and ensuring proper DOE response to transportation incidents involving DOE shipments. Second, the program is responsible for ensuring DOE can carry out its responsibilities under regulations, the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) to provide technical advice and assistance as needed for any transportation incident involving radioactive or mixed hazard materials. This plan proposes a strategy for developing a comprehensive Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program, including a well organized central management and coordination structure, that serves as a process to identify, verify, and establish a consolidated effort across the Department in this very important area. This plan assumes Emergency Management to be the full range of emergency activities necessary for mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery while Emergency Preparedness activities are primarily those necessary in preparation for Incident Response Emergency Preparedness, which is the focus of this strategy plan, requires a well organized central coordination structure to be effective. 7 refs

  9. Periodontal Emergencies in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Reena; Ide, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Diagnosing and managing periodontal emergencies is a common part of general dental practice. This article summarises the presentation, aetiology and management of the key periodontal emergencies, including gingival abscess, periodontal abscess, peri-coronitis/peri-coronal abscess, perio-endo lesion/ abscess, necrotising gingivitis and periodontitis, acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, acute physical/chemical/thermal injury and subgingival root fracture.

  10. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  12. Emergency Department Management of Trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Colin; Lippert, Freddy

    1999-01-01

    Initial assessment and management of severely injured patients may occur in a specialized area of an emergency department or in a specialized area of a trauma center. The time from injury until definitive management is of essence for survival of life-threatening trauma. The initial care delivered...... injured patients after these patients reach a hospital emergency department or a trauma center....

  13. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L.

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig

  14. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L. (UNESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig.

  15. Work shifts in Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Recupero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine is known as a high stress specialty. The adverse effect of constantly rotating shifts is the single most important reason given for premature attrition from the field. In this work problems tied with night shift work will be taken into account and some solutions to reduce the impact of night work on the emergency physicians will be proposed.

  16. Emergency Medical Services - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Well-Being 11 - Emergency Room - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Well-Being 11 - Emergency Room - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  17. How can emerging powers speak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Emerging powers like China, India and Brazil are receiving growing attention as objects in International Relations (IR) discourse. Scholars from these emerging powers are rarely present as subjects in mainstream IR discourse, however. This paper interrogates the conditions for scholars in emergin...

  18. [Emergency medicine and vulnerable populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemaud, André-Michel

    2012-01-01

    In emergency medicine, assessing a situation of precarity is sometimes extremely complex. Home visits often provide useful information which can lead to the putting in place of a system of support. Medical marginalisation results from a combination of multiple difficulties, notably financial. This article is the testimony of a doctor working in a structure providing emergency medical care in the home.

  19. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  20. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of

  1. The Comprehensive Emergent Literacy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh Rohde

    2015-01-01

    The early skills of Emergent Literacy include the knowledge and abilities related to the alphabet, phonological awareness, symbolic representation, and communication. However, existing models of emergent literacy focus on discrete skills and miss the perspective of the surrounding environment. Early literacy skills, including their relationship to one another, and the substantial impact of the setting and context, are ...

  2. Emergency planning for industrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, H.B.F.; Kay, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities have produced a Directive on the Major Accident Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities which sets out standards for the control and mitigation of the hazards presented by sites and storages which contain significant quantities of dangerous substances. An essential element of these controls is the provision of effective on-and off-site emergency plans. This conference explores the considerable research effort which is going on throughout the world in the improvement of systems for emergency planning. Attention was also drawn to areas where difficulties still exist, for example in predicting the consequences of an accident, the complexities of communication problems and the difficulties arising from involvement of the public. The proceedings are in six parts which deal with organizations implementing emergency planning: on- and off-site emergency planning and design; techniques for emergency plans; expenses and auditing of emergency plans; lessons learnt from the emergency management of major accidents; information to the public to and during emergencies. (author)

  3. Institutional planning for radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    Persons providing health care pride themselves on their ability to handle emergencies. This pride is born of the daily experience of caring for the sick and injured. Emergencies include traumatic injuries, sudden changes in health status, and various minor disturbances in the physical environment inside the hospital. The effectiveness of this ability is unquestioned in limited-scale problems. However, survey experience of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Hospitals (JCAH) reveals weaknesses when health care organizations are faced with larger scale problems such as earthquakes and plane crashes. One may speculate that a massive emergency such as occurred at Chernobyl would overwhelm this ability. Based on the same survey experience, JCAH believes that health care organizations can plan and train to prepare for large-scale emergencies in a careful and systematic manner. Through such study and practice, their existing confidence and ability to deal with limited emergencies can be explained

  4. Emergency preparedness at the UJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, Mojmir

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the emergency planning is to suggest optimum organisational and technical measures to restrict the threat or to eliminate the menace to the population in case of incident or accident at nuclear facility. The emergency plan is activated and executed through the set of emergency procedures, which define basic activities of the UJD during the emergency situations in compliance with legislation regulations. The assessment of the course and consequences of serious incidents and accidents of nuclear installations is carried out by the Emergency Response Centre (KKC). The Emergency Plan of UJD is the set of technical and organisation measures with the aim to propose optimal measures for protection of population and environment. The UJD- Department of Emergency Management and Informatics has an irreplaceable role in the structure of emergency response. The Emergency Response Centre is its organisational part. The UJD is a contact point of the Slovak Republic with the IAEA in frame of convention on early notification of nuclear accidents. The same is valid for bilateral agreements between the Slovak Republic and Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. Uninterrupted 24 hours duty service of the contact point is assured for the UJD by the Office of Civil Protection of Ministry of Interior. In order to fulfil the tasks of the emergency planning UJD established its Emergency Response Group, which consists of four professional teams: 1. Reactor safety group, 2. Radiation protection group, 3. Logistic group, 4. Information group. Information Group consists of the head of Group, the report analysis experts and news service experts. The information group is responsible for public information as well as for informing the authorities. The Information Centre is situated closely to the Emergency Response Centre. The information group gathers, coordinates and prepares all pieces of information in compliance with commitments of the Slovak Republic

  5. Emergency management information system (EMINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desonier, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    In a time of crisis or in an emergency, a manager is required to make many decisions to facilitate the proper solution and conclusion to the emergency or crisis. In order to make these decisions, it is necessary for the manager to have correct up-to-date information on the situation, which calls for an automated information display and entry process. The information handling needs are identified in terms of data, video, and voice. Studies of existing Emergency Operations Centers and evaluations of hardware and software have been completed. The result of these studies and investigations is the design and implementation of an automated Emergency Management Information System. Not only is the system useful for Emergency Management but for any information management requirement

  6. Emergency preparedness: a comprehensive plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (ARHCO) has developed comprehensive plans for coping with emergencies ranging from criticality to civil disturbance. A unique notification system provides for immediate contact with key personnel by using a central communications center, crash alarm warning networks, and a continuing telephone cascade notification system. There is also the capability of immediately contacting other contractor key personnel. Certain jobs have been predetermined as necessary for coping with an emergency. An emergency staff consisting of responsible management, with alternates, has been preselected to automatically fill these jobs when notified. Control centers for headquarters and ''field'' are established with telephone and radio communication capabilities and are also supplied with some source materials to assist initiating plans for containing an emergency for recovery. A comprehensive emergency procedures manual has been developed, which contains information of company-wide application and procedures for specific facilities covering almost all accident situations

  7. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. State of emergency and emergency: Comparative terminological and semantic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Avramović, Dragutin; Mlađan, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The issue of theoretical definition and distinction between a state of emergency and an emergency is made current in recent national and international literature, as well as in different comparative law normative solutions. Considering the usage inconsistencies of the two terms, this paper attempts to highlight the differences between them, as they essentially carry distinctive legal meanings despite their implied lexical and logical similarity. The paper stresses the necessity of their clear...

  9. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Inadequate emergence after anesthesia: emergence delirium and hypoactive emergence in the Postanesthesia Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xará, Daniela; Silva, Acácio; Mendonça, Júlia; Abelha, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the frequency, determinants, and outcome of inadequate emergence after elective surgery in the Postanesthesia Care Unit (PACU). Prospective observational study. 12-bed PACU of a tertiary-care hospital in a major metropolitan area. 266 adult patients admitted to the PACU. To evaluate inadequate emergence, the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS) was administered to patients 10 minutes after their admission to the PACU. Demographic data, perioperative variables, and postoperative length of stay (LOS) in the PACU and the hospital were recorded. 40 (15%) patients showed symptoms of inadequate emergence: 17 patients (6.4%) screened positive for emergence delirium and 23 patients (8.6%) showed hypoactive emergence. Determinants of emergence delirium were longer duration of preoperative fasting (P = 0.001), higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain (P = 0.002), and major surgical risk (P = 0.001); these patients had a higher frequency of postoperative delirium (P = 0.017) and had higher nausea VAS score 6 hours after surgery (P = 0.001). Determinants of hypoactive emergence were duration of surgery (P = 0.003), amount of crystalloids administered during surgery (P = 0.002), residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001), high-risk surgery (P = 0.002), and lower core temperature on PACU admission (P = 0.028); these patients also had more frequent residual neuromuscular block (P < 0.001) postoperative delirium (P < 0.001), and more frequent adverse respiratory events (P = 0.02). Patients with hypoactive emergence had longer PACU and hospital LOS. Preventable determinants for emergence delirium were higher postoperative pain scores and longer fasting times. Hypoactive emergence was associated with longer postoperative PACU and hospital LOSs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Experiences of Emerging Economy Firms investigates the different elements of the experiences of emerging economy firms and sheds essential light on a large variety of aspects associated with their functioning in both home and host contexts. For example, firms must be able to overcome the liability...... of foreign and emerging issues when they expand their activities in various contexts, enter, exit, and re-enter overseas markets; they have to overcome institutional barriers, adapt the cultural challenges in foreign markets, undergo the impact of large multinational firms from developed economies...

  12. Environmental monitoring in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    This manual gives technical guidance on emergency monitoring procedures to those who would have to assess the situation after an accident leading to the uncontrolled release of radioactive substances to the environment. Its aim is to draw attention to the important factors that should be considered in formulating emergency plans. The seven annexes contain inventories of fission products and possible releases; dispersion, deposition and dose-exposure relationships for airborne releases; α-, β- and γ-radiation surveys; information on sample collection and field evaluation; and brief descriptions of the environmental monitoring procedures adopted in previous emergencies (Windscale 1957, AERE Harwell 1961 and NRTS Idaho 1961).

  13. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  14. Decision support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1989-05-01

    A short introduction will be given to the Nordic project ''NKA/INF: Information Technology for Accident and Emergency Management'', which is now in its final phase. To perform evaluation of the project, special scenarious have been developed, and experiments based on these will be fulfilled and compared with experiments without use of the decision support system. Furthermore, the succeeding European project, ''IT Support for Emergency Management - ISEM'', with the purpose of developing a decision support system for complex and distributed decision making in emergency management in full scale, will be described and the preliminary conceptual model for the system will be presented. (author)

  15. Educational course in emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkova, K.; Stoeva, M.; Cvetkova, S.; Hilendarov, A.; Petrova, A.; Stefanov, P.; Simova, E.; Georgieva, V.; Sirakov, N.

    2012-01-01

    Emergency radiology is the part of radiology primarily focused on acute diagnosing conditions in ER patients. This advanced area of radiology improves the quality of care and treatment of patients and of the emergency medicine as a whole. The educational course in Emergency (ER) Radiology is available for medical students in their 8th and 9th semester. The main objective of the ER course is to obtain knowledge about the indications, possibilities and diagnostic value of the contemporary imaging methods in ER cases. Therapeutic methods under imaging control are also covered by the course. The curriculum of the course consists of 6 lectures and 12 practical classes. (authors)

  16. Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dikid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.

  17. Emerging and Re-Emerging Zoonoses of Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the middle of the 20th century, pets are more frequently considered as “family members” within households. However, cats and dogs still can be a source of human infection by various zoonotic pathogens. Among emerging or re-emerging zoonoses, viral diseases, such as rabies (mainly from dog pet trade or travel abroad, but also feline cowpox and newly recognized noroviruses or rotaviruses or influenza viruses can sicken our pets and be transmitted to humans. Bacterial zoonoses include bacteria transmitted by bites or scratches, such as pasteurellosis or cat scratch disease, leading to severe clinical manifestations in people because of their age or immune status and also because of our closeness, not to say intimacy, with our pets. Cutaneous contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Leptospira spp., and/or aerosolization of bacteria causing tuberculosis or kennel cough are also emerging/re-emerging pathogens that can be transmitted by our pets, as well as gastro-intestinal pathogens such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Parasitic and fungal pathogens, such as echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, onchocercosis, or sporotrichosis, are also re-emerging or emerging pet related zoonoses. Common sense and good personal and pet hygiene are the key elements to prevent such a risk of zoonotic infection.

  18. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these... Read More More Than 850 Hours of Online Education Log In Now > Physicians Podcasts and Apps Reimbursement Quality Issues MOC Resource Center International Residents & Students Contracts & ... Medicine Foundation Online Buyers' Guide Emergency Care For You emCareers.org ...

  19. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  20. Emerging Contaminants – Dinitrotoluene (DNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the emerging contaminant Dinitrotoluene (DNT) including physical and chemical properties.

  1. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  2. Warning Signs of Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs - and act on them - by taking a first aid class and learning CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Your local hospital, ... Care For You Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians ...

  3. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to boil and disinfect water to kill most disease-causing microorganisms during emergency situations where regular water service has been interrupted and local authorities recommend using only bottled water, boiled water, or disinfected water.

  4. Emergency Shelter Grantee (ESG) Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program is designed to identify sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons, as well as those at risk of homelessness, and provide...

  5. Emerging Contaminants in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter explores the use of mass spectrometry and its application to emerging contaminants (ECs) in the environment; such classes of compounds as organometallics, pharmaceuticals/drugs, nanomaterials, and dispersants (surfactants). Table 1 shows the variety of ECs that are...

  6. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  7. [Anthropocene and Emerging viral diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    2016-08-01

    We propose to bring together the new geologic concept of Anthropocene and its consequences on our environment with the observed increasing emergence of new viruses - a pathogen for both humans and animals, mainly since the mid of the twentieth century.

  8. Collaborative Approaches in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Han, Yang

    2011-01-01

    , in order to increase innovation performance. The theoretical framework is based on theories on trust, as well as institutional theory. The findings suggest that cognition-based trust as well as affect-based trust is needed for successful innovative collaboration, however, in emerging markets affect......The paper investigates innovative collaboration undertaken by newly established foreign invested R&D units in emerging markets. In particular, the paper investigates how foreign invested newly established R&D centers in emerging markets can leverage local knowledge networks, such as universities......-based trust is more important than Westerners are used to. This is due to the different institutional backgrounds, in emerging markets and developed markets respectively....

  9. Radiation emergency planning in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewodniczanski, J [National Atomic Energy Agency, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    The paper presents a schematic outline of the radiation emergency policy in Poland, rather from the point of view of logistics of the problem than discussing details of existing or proposed procedures. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  10. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  11. Dose monitoring in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Hongjie; Yang Zhongping; Lei Xin

    2012-01-01

    In order to protect people from irradiation sickness and rebuild the radiation filed in nuclear emergency, personal and environmental dose need to be monitored. The application of TLD in dose monitoring is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  12. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  13. An update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Michele C; Olusola, Patti L; Low, Sarah B

    2014-04-01

    Emergency contraception decreases the risk of unintended pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse or after suspected failure of routine contraception (e.g., a condom breaking). Oral methods include combined contraceptive pills (i.e., Yuzpe method), single- or split-dose levonorgestrel, and ulipristal. The Yuzpe method and levonorgestrel are U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved for use 72 hours postcoitus, whereas the newest method, ulipristal, is approved for up to 120 hours postcoitus. The copper intrauterine device may be used as emergency contraception up to seven days after unprotected intercourse. It is nonhormonal and has the added benefit of long-term contraception. Advanced provision of emergency contraception may be useful for all patients, and for persons using ulipristal because it is available only by prescription. Physicians should counsel patients on the use and effectiveness of emergency contraception, the methods available, and the benefits of routine and consistent contraception use.

  14. Regional cooperation for emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.S.L.; Liu, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident that a sound emergency plan is indispensable to the overall nuclear power generation program. In some developing countries in Eastern Aisa, the availability of manpower resources and facilities to handle a nuclear power plant accident are rather limited. Therefore, the establishment of a regional mutual emergency plan is deemed necessary. A preliminary idea concerning this establishment is presented for deliberation by this Conference

  15. Japanese situations to emerging themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji

    2011-01-01

    Japanese regulatory body has audited more than ten cases of licensee's RCA since December 2007. We approve of opinions to emerging themes in 'CSNI Activity Plan', and based on achievements of these audits, Japanese situations to emerging themes are explained. As our conclusion, the more experience to identify HOF licensees have, the more problems may be solved. But as CA is difficult to measure for effectiveness, we propose to develop the outcome indicators such as the frequency of events. (author)

  16. Acute hematologic emergencies in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, L.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant disease and its treatment are often being complicated by development of serious and at times life-threatening emergencies. Early recognition and treatment of these acute events are important to reduce morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The following article provides an overview of several hematologic emergencies, which occur due abnormal hemopoiesis (e.g. hyperleukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia), abnormal hemo stasis (e.g. hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, disseminated intravascular coagulation), or are related to blood products transfusions (transfuse reactions). (author)

  17. Advertising Emergency Department Wait Times

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, Scott G

    2013-01-01

    Advertising emergency department (ED) wait times has become a common practice in the United States. Proponents of this practice state that it is a powerful marketing strategy that can help steer patients to the ED. Opponents worry about the risk to the public health that arises from a patient with an emergent condition self-triaging to a further hospital, problems with inaccuracy and lack of standard definition of the reported time, and directing lower acuity patients to the higher cost ED se...

  18. Exploring Emerging India - Eight Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet, Gisela; Gieg, Philipp; Lowinger, Timo; Gsänger, Matthias; Becker, Michael; Kundu, Amitabh; Valerian, Rodrigues; S, Shaji; Schömbucher-Kusterer, Elisabeth; Biswas, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    India's economic rise since the 1990s has been followed by a more prominent global role for the country. Despite economic setbacks in recent years and huge domestic challenges like poverty, caste issues, and gender inequality, India today is almost universally characterised as an “emerging power”. At the same time, the country continues to show an enormous diversity. Thus, exploring emerging India can surely not be confined to economic analysis only. Instead, it is vital to take current devel...

  19. The layperson in emergency situations

    OpenAIRE

    Pergola, AM; Araujo, IEM

    2008-01-01

    The layperson's qualification to provide early care in emergency situations and basic life support (BLS) is fundamental to save lives and prevent sequels. The objective was to identify the level of knowledge of lay people about approaching an emergency victim. Structured interviews in non-technical language were used with a 385-subject sample, average age 35.4 (+/- 14.55) years, with more than 50% having a high school or university education. Over 55% of these observed situations with loss of...

  20. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...