WorldWideScience

Sample records for emerging infectious microorganisms

  1. Emergent infectious uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, Moncef; Jelliti, Bechir; Jenzeri, Salah

    2009-10-01

    Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  2. System for identification of microorganism and detection of infectious disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for the identification of microorganisms or infectious disorders are disclosed, comprising obtaining a suitable sample from sources such as persons, animals, plants, food, water or soil. The methods also comprise providing tailored nucleic acid substrate(s) designed to react with a type 1...... topoisomerase from one or more microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s), and incubating said substrate with said sample, or extracts or preparations from the sample, so that the substrate is processed by said topoisomerase if said microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s) is present in the sample. Finally......, processed substrates are identified and potentially quantified by one or more of a range of standard molecular biology methods and read-out systems. The identification and potential quantification of microorganisms and infectious agents, including but not limited to Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium...

  3. Infectious abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcel, A.; Arrive, L.; Mehdi, M.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Ayadi, K.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs

  4. Emerging Infectious Diseases Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-26

    Byron Breedlove, managing editor of the EID Journal, discusses his approach to cover art.  Created: 7/26/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/26/2017.

  5. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Aisling A.; Redwood, Alec J.; Jarvis, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vacc...

  6. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Richard H

    2017-05-01

    It has been recognized for centuries that pregnant women have unique susceptibilities to many infectious diseases that predispose them to untoward outcomes compared with the general adult population. It is thought a combination of adaptive alterations in immunity to allow for the fetal allograft combined with changes in anatomy and physiology accompanying pregnancy underlie these susceptibilities. Emerging infectious diseases are defined as those whose incidence in humans has increased in the past two decades or threaten to increase in the near future. The past decade alone has witnessed many such outbreaks, each with its own unique implications for pregnant women and their unborn fetuses as well as lessons for the health care community regarding response and mitigation. Examples of such outbreaks include, but are not limited to, severe acute respiratory syndrome, the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, Ebola virus, and, most recently, the Zika virus. Although each emerging pathogen has unique features requiring specific considerations, there are many underlying principles that are shared in the recognition, communication, and mitigation of such infectious outbreaks. Some of these key principles include disease-specific delineation of transmission dynamics, understanding of pathogen-specific effects on both mothers and fetuses, and advance planning and contemporaneous management that prioritize communication among public health experts, clinicians, and patients. The productive and effective working collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has been a key partnership in the successful communication and management of such outbreaks for women's health care providers and patients alike. Going forward, the knowledge gained over the past decade will undoubtedly continue to inform future responses and will serve to optimize the education and care given

  7. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  8. Emerging Infectious Disease Journal Cover Art

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-04

    Polyxeni Potter discusses the art used on the covers of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 4/4/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  9. A Holistic View of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himgauri K. Kulkarni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Guide to Diseases, Causative Agents, and Surveillance; Lisa A. Beltz; (2011. Jossey-Bass, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. San Francisco, CA. 700 pages.

  10. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project presents a new phase of APEIR research on emerging threats from antimicrobial resistance and wildlife trade. ... activities in the health field, this new phase of work will help APEIR build and support regional capacity to communicate and share knowledge to promptly address emerging infectious disease threats.

  11. Exploring Risk Perceptions of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. de Zwart (Onno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis is about risk perception of infectious diseases, with a special focus on the emerging infections SARS and avian influenza, and explores potential determinants of risk perception and the relation of risk perception with precautionary behaviours. In this first chapter I discuss

  12. Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-12

    Polyxeni Potter, retired managing editor of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal, discusses the history of the journal and her new book, Art in Science: Selections from Emerging Infectious Diseases.  Created: 2/12/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/13/2014.

  13. Emerging infectious diseases: A proactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Black, Steven; Rappuoli, Rino

    2017-04-18

    Infectious diseases are now emerging or reemerging almost every year. This trend will continue because a number of factors, including the increased global population, aging, travel, urbanization, and climate change, favor the emergence, evolution, and spread of new pathogens. The approach used so far for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) does not work from the technical point of view, and it is not sustainable. However, the advent of platform technologies offers vaccine manufacturers an opportunity to develop new vaccines faster and to reduce the investment to build manufacturing facilities, in addition to allowing for the possible streamlining of regulatory processes. The new technologies also make possible the rapid development of human monoclonal antibodies that could become a potent immediate response to an emergency. So far, several proposals to approach EIDs have been made independently by scientists, the private sector, national governments, and international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). While each of them has merit, there is a need for a global governance that is capable of taking a strong leadership role and making it attractive to all partners to come to the same table and to coordinate the global approach.

  14. Vaccine development for emerging virulent infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-10-04

    The recent outbreak of Zaire Ebola virus in West Africa altered the classical paradigm of vaccine development and that for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in general. In this paper, the precepts of vaccine discovery and advancement through pre-clinical and clinical assessment are discussed in the context of the recent Ebola virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Zika virus outbreaks. Clinical trial design for diseases with high mortality rates and/or high morbidity in the face of a global perception of immediate need and the factors that drive design in the face of a changing epidemiology are presented. Vaccines for EIDs thus present a unique paradigm to standard development precepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging and Neglected Infectious Diseases: Insights, Advances, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are a significant burden on public health and economic stability of societies all over the world. They have for centuries been among the leading causes of death and disability and presented growing challenges to health security and human progress. The threat posed by infectious diseases is further deepened by the continued emergence of new, unrecognized, and old infectious disease epidemics of global impact. Over the past three and half decades at least 30 new infectious agents affecting humans have emerged, most of which are zoonotic and their origins have been shown to correlate significantly with socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological factors. As these factors continue to increase, putting people in increased contact with the disease causing pathogens, there is concern that infectious diseases may continue to present a formidable challenge. Constant awareness and pursuance of effective strategies for controlling infectious diseases and disease emergence thus remain crucial. This review presents current updates on emerging and neglected infectious diseases and highlights the scope, dynamics, and advances in infectious disease management with particular focus on WHO top priority emerging infectious diseases (EIDs and neglected tropical infectious diseases.

  16. A History of the Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-17

    EID Editor-in-Chief, Dr. D. Peter Drotman and Dr. James Hughes discuss the history of the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.  Created: 3/17/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/17/2015.

  17. Deforestation-driven food-web collapse linked to emerging tropical infectious disease, Mycobacterium ulcerans

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, A. L.; Guégan, Jean-François; Andreou, D.; Marsollier, L.; Carolan, K.; Le Croller, M.; Sanhueza, D.; Gozlan, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Generalist microorganisms are the agents of many emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), but their natural life cyclesare difficult to predict due to the multiplicity of potential hosts and environmental reservoirs. Among 250 knownhuman EIDs, many have been traced to tropical rain forests and specifically freshwater aquatic systems, which act asan interface between microbe-rich sediments or substrates and terrestrial habitats. Along with the rapid urbanizationof developin...

  18. Ecohealth Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Initiative (EcoEID)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New infectious diseases, mostly of animal origin, are emerging more rapidly than ever. Southeast Asia is the current hotspot of disease emergence due to high population and animal densities, on the one hand, and relatively limited (human and animal) healthcare delivery capacity, on the other. This project aims to ...

  19. New technologies in predicting, preventing and controlling emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christaki, Eirini

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of emerging infectious diseases is vital for the early identification of public health threats. Emergence of novel infections is linked to human factors such as population density, travel and trade and ecological factors like climate change and agricultural practices. A wealth of new technologies is becoming increasingly available for the rapid molecular identification of pathogens but also for the more accurate monitoring of infectious disease activity. Web-based surveillance tools and epidemic intelligence methods, used by all major public health institutions, are intended to facilitate risk assessment and timely outbreak detection. In this review, we present new methods for regional and global infectious disease surveillance and advances in epidemic modeling aimed to predict and prevent future infectious diseases threats.

  20. Linking Emerging Infectious Diseases Research and Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In China and Southeast Asia, the lack of policy or regulation enforcements means that the use of antibiotics is not well-controlled. This research will provide evidence and guidance to develop country-specific and regional strategies to improve the responsible use of antibiotics and to reduce the emergence of resistant ...

  1. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Bozick, Brooke; Guagliardo, Sarah A.; Kunkel, Rebekah; Shak, Joshua R.; Tong, Suxiang; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-01-01

    The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses), for other it has been suggested (filoviruses). Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses). In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions). We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels. PMID:24149032

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases-Global Alert-Global Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASIFUZZAMAN KHAN

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available "Emerging Infectious Diseases-Global Alert-Global Response". When the term 'alert' is used it indicates an emergency and if we do not respond adeptly, catastrophe becomes imminent. The World Health Day theme of 1997 very aptly draws the attention of both, the providers as well as the consumers of health care facilities, to gear up and engage the entire health machinary to combat these emerging infectious diseases. The problem with which we are confronted is not only the emergence of nearly 30 or more infectious diseases, which have surfaced in the recent past but also the resurfacing or re-emergence of certain diseases, which were believed to have declined or been eliminated.Some of these new diseases, which have emerged in many parts of the world can be short listed as: --     Fatal respiratory viral disease-A variant of Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (CJD resembling Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy (BSE-HIV infections/AIDS-     Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever-     Legionnaires' disease-Haemolytic Uraemic Syndrome by E. Coli 0157 - H7-     Lyme disease-     Hepatitis C and E-     New form of Cholera by Vibrio Cholera 0139-     Emerging food borne diseases-     Emerging zoonosesOther sexually transmitted diseases.'

  3. Ecohealth Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Initiative (EcoEID)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to understand the relationship between emerging infectious diseases of potentially pandemic proportions, and the agricultural, land utilization and ecosystem management practices that give rise to .... Disability weight of Clonorchis sinensis infection : captured from community study and model simulation ...

  4. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High Prevalence of Infectious Diseases and Drug-Resistant Microorganisms in Asylum Seekers Admitted to Hospital; No Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae until September 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, Sofanne J.; Lokate, Mariëtte; Cornish, Darren; Kloeze, Eveline; Ott, Alewijn; Friedrich, Alex W.; van Hest, Rob; Akkerman, Onno W.; de Lange, Wiel C.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bathoorn, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The current refugee crisis emphasizes the need for information on infectious diseases and resistant microorganisms in asylum seekers with possible consequences for public health and infection control. Methods We collected data from asylum seekers admitted to our university hospital or who presented at the Emergency Department (n = 273). We collected general and demographic characteristics including country of origin, the reason of presentation, and the screening results of multi-drug resistant organisms. Results 67% of the patients were male with a median age of the study group of 24 years (IQR 15–33); 48% of the patients had an infectious disease—predominantly malaria with P. vivax or tuberculosis. Patients also reported with diseases which are less common—e.g. leishmaniasis, or even conditions rarely diagnosed in Europe—e.g. louse borne relapsing fever. A carriage rate of 31% for multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRO) was observed, with ESBL-expressing E.coli (n = 20) being the most common MDRO. No carriage of Carbapenemase Producing Enterobacteriaceae was found. Conclusion The current refugee crisis in Europe challenges hospitals to quickly identify and respond to communicable diseases and the carriage of MDRO. A rapid response is necessary to optimize the treatment of infectious diseases amongst asylum seekers to maximize infection control. PMID:27144599

  6. Forecasting infectious disease emergence subject to seasonal forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige B; O'Dea, Eamon B; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M

    2017-09-06

    Despite high vaccination coverage, many childhood infections pose a growing threat to human populations. Accurate disease forecasting would be of tremendous value to public health. Forecasting disease emergence using early warning signals (EWS) is possible in non-seasonal models of infectious diseases. Here, we assessed whether EWS also anticipate disease emergence in seasonal models. We simulated the dynamics of an immunizing infectious pathogen approaching the tipping point to disease endemicity. To explore the effect of seasonality on the reliability of early warning statistics, we varied the amplitude of fluctuations around the average transmission. We proposed and analyzed two new early warning signals based on the wavelet spectrum. We measured the reliability of the early warning signals depending on the strength of their trend preceding the tipping point and then calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic. Early warning signals were reliable when disease transmission was subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning signals were as reliable as other conventional early warning signals. We found that removing seasonal trends, prior to analysis, did not improve early warning statistics uniformly. Early warning signals anticipate the onset of critical transitions for infectious diseases which are subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning statistics can also be used to forecast infectious disease.

  7. Eco-social processes influencing infectious disease emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Betson, Martha; Pfeiffer, Dirk U

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and connectedness of eco-social processes have major influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases amongst humans and animals. The disciplinary nature of most research activity has made it difficult to improve our understanding of interactions and feedback loops within the relevant systems. Influenced by the One Health approach, increasing efforts have recently been made to address this knowledge gap. Disease emergence and spread is strongly influenced by host density and contact structures, pathogen characteristics and pathogen population and molecular evolutionary dynamics in different host species, and host response to infection. All these mechanisms are strongly influenced by eco-social processes, such as globalization and urbanization, which lead to changes in global ecosystem dynamics, including patterns of mobility, human population density and contact structures, and food production and consumption. An improved understanding of epidemiological and eco-social processes, including their interdependence, will be essential to be able to manage diseases in these circumstances. The interfaces between wild animals, domestic animals and humans need to be examined to identify the main risk pathways and put in place appropriate mitigation. Some recent examples of emerging infectious disease are described to illustrate eco-social processes that are influencing disease emergence and spread.

  8. Emerging infectious diseases: a guide to diseases, causative agents, and surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beltz, Lisa A

    2011-01-01

    "This important resource offers a comprehensive introduction to emerging and reemerging infectious disease, including the underlying mechanisms of microbial emergence, the technology used to detect...

  9. The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biek, Roman; Real, Leslie A

    2010-09-01

    The spread of parasites is inherently a spatial process often embedded in physically complex landscapes. It is therefore not surprising that infectious disease researchers are increasingly taking a landscape genetics perspective to elucidate mechanisms underlying basic ecological processes driving infectious disease dynamics and to understand the linkage between spatially dependent population processes and the geographic distribution of genetic variation within both hosts and parasites. The increasing availability of genetic information on hosts and parasites when coupled to their ecological interactions can lead to insights for predicting patterns of disease emergence, spread and control. Here, we review research progress in this area based on four different motivations for the application of landscape genetics approaches: (i) assessing the spatial organization of genetic variation in parasites as a function of environmental variability, (ii) using host population genetic structure as a means to parameterize ecological dynamics that indirectly influence parasite populations, for example, gene flow and movement pathways across heterogeneous landscapes and the concurrent transport of infectious agents, (iii) elucidating the temporal and spatial scales of disease processes and (iv) reconstructing and understanding infectious disease invasion. Throughout this review, we emphasize that landscape genetic principles are relevant to infection dynamics across a range of scales from within host dynamics to global geographic patterns and that they can also be applied to unconventional 'landscapes' such as heterogeneous contact networks underlying the spread of human and livestock diseases. We conclude by discussing some general considerations and problems for inferring epidemiological processes from genetic data and try to identify possible future directions and applications for this rapidly expanding field.

  10. The Infectious Diseases Society of America emerging infections network: bridging the gap between clinical infectious diseases and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Satish K; Beekmann, Susan E; Santibanez, Scott; Polgreen, Philip M

    2014-04-01

    In 1995, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention granted a Cooperative Agreement Program award to the Infectious Diseases Society of America to develop a provider-based emerging infections sentinel network, the Emerging Infections Network (EIN). Over the past 17 years, the EIN has evolved into a flexible, nationwide network with membership representing a broad cross-section of infectious disease physicians. The EIN has an active electronic mail conference (listserv) that facilitates communication among infectious disease providers and the public health community, and also sends members periodic queries (short surveys on infectious disease topics) that have addressed numerous topics relevant to both clinical infectious diseases and public health practice. The article reviews how the various functions of EIN contribute to clinical care and public health, identifies opportunities to further link clinical medicine and public health, and describes future directions for the EIN.

  11. Ills in the pipeline: emerging infectious diseases and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In the recent film Contagion, a medical thriller released in fall 2011, the fictitious MEV-1 virus—passed from bat to pig to humans—spreads across the globe as easily as the common cold, killing millions of humans and causing mass hysteria as medical researchers race to find a cure. Though it's Hollywood hyperbole, the film holds a kernel of truth: Researchers believe that the close proximity of Malaysian hog farms to forested areas—the natural habitat for fruit bats—allowed the previously unknown Nipah virus to spill from bats into pigs and subsequently into people, resulting in more than 100 human deaths (Epstein et al. 2006). There is no doubt that in recent times we have seen an unprecedented number of emerging infectious diseases, defined by the Institute for Medicine as new, reemerging, or drug-resistant infections whose incidence has increased or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future. Many of these have a wildlife origin (Taylor et al. 2001). While this jump may be due, in part, to increased vigilance and reporting, there is a general consensus that current global conditions are creating a situation that is very favorable to the transmission of microbes that cause diseases. (For reviews, see Daszak et al. 2001 and Keesing et al. 2010). Likewise, it's increasingly important that wildlife professionals become aware of how and why new infectious diseases spread and what, if anything, can be done to minimize impacts on wildlife.

  12. Emerging infectious disease selects for darker plumage coloration in greenfinches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marju eMänniste

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of emerging infectious disease offer a unique chance to study viability selection in action in short time windows. Finch trichomonosis, caused by a protozoan Trichomonas gallinae emerged in Great Britain in 2005 and led to epidemic mortality and a significant population decline of greenfinches, Carduelis chloris in UK and Northern European countries in subsequent years. We recorded covariation between plumage characteristics and trichomonosis-induced mortality among wild-caught greenfinches brought into captivity in Tartu, Estonia. Occurrence of fault bars (markers of stressful conditions experienced during feather growth on tail feathers was five times higher among the dead birds than among survivors. Black (eumelanotic compartments of tail feathers of survivors were on average 22 % darker than feathers of dead birds. Such pattern is best explained by proposed pleiotropic effects of genes involved in eumelanin production on immune function. These findings suggest that melanin-based coloration can evolve via mechanisms that are independent of visual information provided by the pigment.

  13. Emerging viral infectious disease threat: Why Tanzania is not in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging diseases are global threat towards human existence. Every country is exposed to potentially emergence of infectious diseases. Several factor such as changes in ecology, climate and human demographics play different roles in a complex mechanism contributing to the occurrence of infectious diseases. Important ...

  14. EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of Responding to Zika Virus Disease Outbreaks Report to...Congressional Requesters May 2017 GAO-17-445 United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office...Highlights of GAO-17-445, a report to congressional requesters. May 2017 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Actions Needed to Address the Challenges of

  15. Immune responses of wild birds to emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, M; Bonneaud, C

    2015-05-01

    Over the past several decades, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wild birds have attracted worldwide media attention, either because of their extreme virulence or because of alarming spillovers into agricultural animals or humans. The pathogens involved have been found to infect a variety of bird hosts ranging from relatively few species (e.g. Trichomonas gallinae) to hundreds of species (e.g. West Nile Virus). Here we review and contrast the immune responses that wild birds are able to mount against these novel pathogens. We discuss the extent to which these responses are associated with reduced clinical symptoms, pathogen load and mortality, or conversely, how they can be linked to worsened pathology and reduced survival. We then investigate how immune responses to EIDs can evolve over time in response to pathogen-driven selection using the illustrative case study of the epizootic outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild North American house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We highlight the need for future work to take advantage of the substantial inter- and intraspecific variation in disease progression and outcome following infections with EID to elucidate the extent to which immune responses confer increased resistance through pathogen clearance or may instead heighten pathogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The emerging role of autophagy in peroxisome dynamics and lipid metabolism of phyllosphere microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide eOku

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic microorganisms resident in the phyllosphere (above-ground, plant-surface environments undergo dynamic changes in nutrient conditions and adapt their metabolic pathways during proliferation or in the course of infection of host plants. Some of these metabolic switches are accomplished by regulation of organelle abundance. Recent studies have shown that autophagy plays a major role in reducing the organelle quantity, thereby contributing to the metabolic switch required for survival or virulence of the microorganisms in the phyllosphere. In this minireview the metabolic pathways in several phytopathogenic fungi and the non-infectious asporogenous yeast Candida boidinii, which involve lipid droplets and peroxisomes, are summarized. The physiological functions of Atg (Autophagy-related proteins in these organisms are discussed in relation to the dynamics of these two important organelles.

  17. Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiyong; Xu, Wenbo; Lu, Shan; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhou, Jieping; Shao, Zhujun; Liu, Xiaobo; Xu, Lei; Xiong, Yanwen; Zheng, Han; Jin, Sun; Jiang, Hai; Cao, Wuchun; Xu, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    For the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported almost every year, and imported infectious diseases have increased since 2015. New pathogens and over 100 new genotypes or serotypes of known pathogens have been identified. Some infectious diseases seem to be exacerbated by various factors, including rapid urbanization, large numbers of migrant workers, changes in climate, ecology, and policies, such as returning farmland to forests. This review summarizes the current experiences and lessons from China in managing emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, especially the effects of ecology, climate, and behavior, which should have merits in helping other countries to control and prevent infectious diseases.

  18. Military-civilian cooperative emergency response to infectious disease prevention and control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Dong, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Na; Pu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of severe infectious diseases has increased, and the number of emerging infectious diseases continues to increase. The Chinese government and military forces have paid a great deal of attention to infectious disease prevention and control, and using military-civilian cooperation, they have successfully prevented numerous severe epidemic situations, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza A (H1N1), avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9, and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, while actively maintained public health, economic development, and national construction. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of the military-cooperative emergency response to infectious diseases--the joint working mechanism, the information-sharing mechanism, the research collaboration mechanism, and the joint disposal mechanism--and presents a sorted summary of the practices and experiences of cooperative emergency responses to infectious diseases. In the future, the Chinese military and the civilian sector will further strengthen the cooperative joint command system and emergency rescue force and will reinforce their collaborative information-sharing platform and technical equipment system to further improve military-civilian collaborative emergency infectious diseases disposal, advance the level of infectious disease prevention and control, and maintain public health.

  19. 75 FR 22817 - Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... relevant to blood, cells, tissues and organs, including methods of ``horizon scanning,'' risk assessment...] Emerging Infectious Diseases: Evaluation to Implementation for Transfusion and Transplantation Safety and Quantitative Risk Assessment: Blood Safety and Availability; Public Workshops AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  20. Strategies for enhancing Australia's capacity to respond to emerging infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Prowse

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with many other countries, Australia faces significant threats from emerging infectious diseases that emanate from wildlife or involve a wildlife vector. A salient example of such a disease is Hendra virus. The outbreaks of Hendra virus in 2008 highlight the critical need for a ‘One Health’ approach to the management of emerging infectious diseases. In Australia, cross-sectoral and cross jurisdictional ‘One Health’ approaches to the improved management of emerging infectious disease are being undertaken. These include improved management and sharing of biosecurity information, the joint cross-sectoral development of laboratory infrastructure, ‘One Health’ policy initiatives and ‘One Health’ approaches to disease research. These initiatives are enhancing Australia’s disease response capacity and capability as well as supporting efforts to better control emerging infectious disease in the region.

  1. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaa, Maia A.; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E.; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I.; Boni, Maciej F.; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level

  2. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. McFarlane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010 and historical (1788–1973 review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20 of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence.

  3. Land-Use Change and Emerging Infectious Disease on an Island Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Sleigh, Adrian C.; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    A more rigorous and nuanced understanding of land-use change (LUC) as a driver of emerging infectious disease (EID) is required. Here we examine post hunter-gatherer LUC as a driver of infectious disease in one biogeographical region with a compressed and documented history—continental Australia. We do this by examining land-use and native vegetation change (LUCC) associations with infectious disease emergence identified through a systematic (1973–2010) and historical (1788–1973) review of infectious disease literature of humans and animals. We find that 22% (20) of the systematically reviewed EIDs are associated with LUCC, most frequently where natural landscapes have been removed or replaced with agriculture, plantations, livestock or urban development. Historical clustering of vector-borne, zoonotic and environmental disease emergence also follows major periods of extensive land clearing. These advanced stages of LUCC are accompanied by changes in the distribution and density of hosts and vectors, at varying scales and chronology. This review of infectious disease emergence in one continent provides valuable insight into the association between accelerated global LUC and concurrent accelerated infectious disease emergence. PMID:23812027

  4. Infectious abdominal emergencies; Urgences abdominales d`origine infectieuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, A.; Arrive, L.; Mehdi, M.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Ayadi, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs.

  5. New and emerging pathogens in canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestnall, S L; Mitchell, J A; Walker, C A; Erles, K; Brownlie, J

    2014-03-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease is a common, worldwide disease syndrome of multifactorial etiology. This review presents a summary of 6 viruses (canine respiratory coronavirus, canine pneumovirus, canine influenza virus, pantropic canine coronavirus, canine bocavirus, and canine hepacivirus) and 2 bacteria (Streptococcus zooepidemicus and Mycoplasma cynos) that have been associated with respiratory disease in dogs. For some pathogens a causal role is clear, whereas for others, ongoing research aims to uncover their pathogenesis and contribution to this complex syndrome. Etiology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, and epidemiology are described for each pathogen, with an emphasis on recent discoveries or novel findings.

  6. European surveillance of emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Judy A; Cardwell, Jacqueline M; Leach, Heather; Walker, Caray A; Le Poder, Sophie; Decaro, Nicola; Rusvai, Miklos; Egberink, Herman; Rottier, Peter; Fernandez, Mireia; Fragkiadaki, Eirini; Shields, Shelly; Brownlie, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine

  7. Persistent and emerging micro-organic contaminants in Chalk groundwater of England and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Manamsa, K.; Talbot, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Chalk aquifer of Northern Europe is an internationally important source of drinking water and sustains baseflow for surface water ecosystems. The areal distribution of microorganic (MO) contaminants, particularly non-regulated emerging MOs, in this aquifer is poorly understood. This study presents results from a reconnaissance survey of MOs in Chalk groundwater, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products and pesticides and their transformation products, conducted across the major Chalk aquifers of England and France. Data from a total of 345 sites collected during 2011 were included in this study to provide a representative baseline assessment of MO occurrence in groundwater. A suite of 42 MOs were analysed for at each site including industrial compounds (n = 16), pesticides (n = 14) and pharmaceuticals, personal care and lifestyle products (n = 12). Occurrence data is evaluated in relation to land use, aquifer exposure, well depth and depth to groundwater to provide an understanding of vulnerable groundwater settings. - Highlights: • Broad range of microorganics detected in Chalk groundwater in England and France. • Plasticisers, pesticides, BPA and THM detected at the highest concentrations. • Pesticides higher in outcrop Chalk, caffeine and BPA at concealed sites. • Occurrences show some relationship to land use, borehole depth and water level. - Broad screening reveals for the first time the extent of emerging microorganic pollution in Chalk groundwater sources across England and France

  8. Meeting the Challenge of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over one third of the world's EIDs have emerged there, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or bird flu, and the Nipah virus. This grant will allow the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), in collaboration with research teams from Cambodia, China, ...

  9. Meeting the Challenge of Zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over one third of the world's EIDs have emerged there, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or bird flu, and the Nipah ... L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique en Afrique subsaharienne remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique.

  10. Perceived Facilitators and Barriers to Local Health Department Workers' Participation in Infectious Disease Emergency Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Paul, Amy; Taylor, Holly A; Barnett, Daniel J

    Local health departments play a key role in emergency preparedness and respond to a wide range of threats including infectious diseases such as seasonal influenza, tuberculosis, H1N1, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease. To successfully respond to an infectious disease outbreak, local health departments depend upon the participation of their workforce; yet, studies indicate that sizable numbers of workers would not participate in such a response. The reasons why local health department workers participate, or fail to participate, in infectious disease responses are not well understood. To understand why local health department workers are willing, or not willing, to report to work during an infectious disease response. From April 2015 to January 2016, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with local health department directors, preparedness staff, and nonpreparedness staff. Interviews were conducted with individuals throughout the United States. We interviewed 28 individuals across 3 groups: local health department directors (n = 8), preparedness staff (n = 10), and nonpreparedness staff (n = 10). Individuals' descriptions of why local health department workers are willing, or not willing, to report to work during an infectious disease response. Factors that facilitate willingness to respond to an infectious disease emergency included availability of vaccines and personal protective equipment; flexible work schedule and childcare arrangements; information sharing via local health department trainings; and perceived commitments to one's job and community. Factors that hinder willingness to respond to an infectious disease emergency included potential disease exposure for oneself and one's family; logistical considerations for care of children, the elderly, and pets; and perceptions about one's role during an infectious disease response. Our findings highlight opportunities for local health departments to revisit their internal policies and engage in

  11. RED Alert – Early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Alina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This is the PDF of a presentation for a webinar given by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the early warning or detection of global re-emerging infectious disease (RED). First, there is an overview of LANL biosurveillance tools. Then, information is given about RED Alert. Next, a demonstration is given of a component prototype. RED Alert is an analysis tool that can provide early warning or detection of the re-emergence of an infectious disease at the global level, but through a local lens.

  12. Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply principles from decision analysis to improve strategies for countering emerging infectious diseases.

  13. Is Chytridiomycosis an Emerging Infectious Disease in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Andrea; Rowley, Jodi J. L.; Rödder, Dennis; Diesmos, Mae L. L.; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Brown, Rafe; Cao, Trung Tien; Cheng, Tina L.; Chong, Rebecca A.; Han, Ben; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hoang, Huy Duc; Kusrini, Mirza D.; Le, Duong Thi Thuy; McGuire, Jimmy A.; Meegaskumbura, Madhava; Min, Mi-Sook; Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Neang, Thy; Phimmachak, Somphouthone; Rao, Ding-Qi; Reeder, Natalie M.; Schoville, Sean D.; Sivongxay, Niane; Srei, Narin; Stöck, Matthias; Stuart, Bryan L.; Torres, Lilia S.; Tran, Dao Thi Anh; Tunstall, Tate S.; Vieites, David; Vredenburg, Vance T.

    2011-01-01

    The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused dramatic amphibian population declines and extinctions in Australia, Central and North America, and Europe. Bd is associated with >200 species extinctions of amphibians, but not all species that become infected are susceptible to the disease. Specifically, Bd has rapidly emerged in some areas of the world, such as in Australia, USA, and throughout Central and South America, causing population and species collapse. The mechanism behind the rapid global emergence of the disease is poorly understood, in part due to an incomplete picture of the global distribution of Bd. At present, there is a considerable amount of geographic bias in survey effort for Bd, with Asia being the most neglected continent. To date, Bd surveys have been published for few Asian countries, and infected amphibians have been reported only from Indonesia, South Korea, China and Japan. Thus far, there have been no substantiated reports of enigmatic or suspected disease-caused population declines of the kind that has been attributed to Bd in other areas. In order to gain a more detailed picture of the distribution of Bd in Asia, we undertook a widespread, opportunistic survey of over 3,000 amphibians for Bd throughout Asia and adjoining Papua New Guinea. Survey sites spanned 15 countries, approximately 36° latitude, 111° longitude, and over 2000 m in elevation. Bd prevalence was very low throughout our survey area (2.35% overall) and infected animals were not clumped as would be expected in epizootic events. This suggests that Bd is either newly emerging in Asia, endemic at low prevalence, or that some other ecological factor is preventing Bd from fully invading Asian amphibians. The current observed pattern in Asia differs from that in many other parts of the world. PMID:21887238

  14. The emerging infectious disease crisis and pathogen pollution: a question of ecology and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk of emerging infectious diseases (EID) on a global scale has accelerated over the past 10,000 years in conjunction with agriculture, domestication, and globalization as the interfaces for people and environments have been altered over time. EID exist at the junction of 3 ongoing global challenge...

  15. Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Sarah Haas; Tomáš Václavík

    2013-01-01

    A central challenge to studying emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) is a landscape dilemma: our best empirical understanding of disease dynamics occurs at local scales while pathogen invasions and management occur over broad spatial extents. The burgeoning field of landscape epidemiology integrates concepts and approaches from disease ecology with the macro-scale lens...

  16. Markers of infectious disease emergencies: Focus on patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, C.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we explore the potential of several biomarkers of infection in infectious disease emergencies in general with a specific focus on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), risk factors in the development of CAP and markers of infection in CAP as well as in specific etiologic forms of CAP,

  17. Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan H Campbell Grant; Erin Muths; Rachel A Katz; Stefano Canessa; Michael J Adams; Jennifer R Ballard; Lee Berger; Cheryl J Briggs; Jeremy TH Coleman; Matthew J Gray; M Camille Harris; Reid N Harris; Blake Hossack; Kathryn P Huyvaert; Jonathan Kolby; Karen R Lips; Robert E Lovich; Hamish I McCallum; Joseph R Mendelson; Priya Nanjappa; Deanna H Olson; Jenny G Powers; Katherine LD Richgels; Robin E Russell; Benedikt R Schmidt; Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs; Mary Kay Watry; Douglas C Woodhams; C LeAnn White

    2017-01-01

    Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts...

  18. Real time bayesian estimation of the epidemic potential of emerging infectious diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M A Bettencourt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fast changes in human demographics worldwide, coupled with increased mobility, and modified land uses make the threat of emerging infectious diseases increasingly important. Currently there is worldwide alert for H5N1 avian influenza becoming as transmissible in humans as seasonal influenza, and potentially causing a pandemic of unprecedented proportions. Here we show how epidemiological surveillance data for emerging infectious diseases can be interpreted in real time to assess changes in transmissibility with quantified uncertainty, and to perform running time predictions of new cases and guide logistics allocations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We develop an extension of standard epidemiological models, appropriate for emerging infectious diseases, that describes the probabilistic progression of case numbers due to the concurrent effects of (incipient human transmission and multiple introductions from a reservoir. The model is cast in terms of surveillance observables and immediately suggests a simple graphical estimation procedure for the effective reproductive number R (mean number of cases generated by an infectious individual of standard epidemics. For emerging infectious diseases, which typically show large relative case number fluctuations over time, we develop a bayesian scheme for real time estimation of the probability distribution of the effective reproduction number and show how to use such inferences to formulate significance tests on future epidemiological observations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Violations of these significance tests define statistical anomalies that may signal changes in the epidemiology of emerging diseases and should trigger further field investigation. We apply the methodology to case data from World Health Organization reports to place bounds on the current transmissibility of H5N1 influenza in humans and establish a statistical basis for monitoring its evolution in real time.

  19. Impact of individual behaviour change on the spread of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q L; Tang, S Y; Xiao, Y N

    2018-03-15

    Human behaviour plays an important role in the spread of emerging infectious diseases, and understanding the influence of behaviour changes on epidemics can be key to improving control efforts. However, how the dynamics of individual behaviour changes affects the development of emerging infectious disease is a key public health issue. To develop different formula for individual behaviour change and introduce how to embed it into a dynamic model of infectious diseases, we choose A/H1N1 and Ebola as typical examples, combined with the epidemic reported cases and media related news reports. Thus, the logistic model with the health belief model is used to determine behaviour decisions through the health belief model constructs. Furthermore, we propose 4 candidate infectious disease models without and with individual behaviour change and use approximate Bayesian computation based on sequential Monte Carlo method for model selection. The main results indicate that the classical compartment model without behaviour change and the model with average rate of behaviour change depicted by an exponential function could fit the observed data best. The results provide a new way on how to choose an infectious disease model to predict the disease prevalence trend or to evaluate the influence of intervention measures on disease control. However, sensitivity analyses indicate that the accumulated number of hospital notifications and deaths could be largely reduced as the rate of behaviour change increases. Therefore, in terms of mitigating emerging infectious diseases, both media publicity focused on how to guide people's behaviour change and positive responses of individuals are critical. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Decision Support System for the Response to Infectious Disease Emergencies Based on WebGIS and Mobile Services in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.P. Li (Ya-pin); L.Q. Fang (Lily); S.Q. Gao (Su-qing); Z. Wang (Zheng); P. Liu (Peng); X.G. Zhu (Xu-guang); B. Xu (Bing); H. Yang (Honghui); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); T.X. Shi (Tao-xing); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: For years, emerging infectious diseases have appeared worldwide and threatened the health of people. The emergence and spread of an infectious-disease outbreak are usually unforeseen, and have the features of suddenness and uncertainty. Timely understanding of basic

  1. Biodiversity loss, emerging infectious diseases and impact on human and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Gilani, S.A.; Khan, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    We are losing biodiversity through several factors ranging from global warming, climatic change, unsustainable use of natural resources, human settlements, demand for food, medicine etc. Consequently, the biodiversity losses are causing emergence of infectious diseases (EIDs) which are making them more virulent than the past. Both biodiversity loss and emergence of diseases significantly impact the human derived benefits in-terms of economy and food. Ecological stability, productivity and food-web interactions are indirectly correlated with biodiversity and any change in these will cause losses in biodiversity that would certainly influence the human derived benefits and crops. The current article reviews the biodiversity losses and emerging infectious diseases at various levels reported by recent literature which will help in current status of EIDs and future recommendations. (author)

  2. STUDI DESKRIPTIF KEMAMPUAN LABORATORIUM EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital Anorital

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kewaspadaan dini terhadap peningkatan kasus new emerging dan re-emerging diseases pada dasarnya tidak terlepas dari kesiapan laboratorium sebagai perangkat pendukung diagnosis. Laboratorium Emerging Infectious Diseases dengan sarana yang lengkap dan sumber daya yang handal merupakan garda terdepan dalam penentuan dan deteksi dini munculnya kasus penyakit menular, karena berhasilnya upaya pencegahan pada dasarnya tidak terlepas dari hasil diagnosis laboratorium yang cepat, tepat, dan akurat. Berdasarkan pengalaman terhadap timbulnya berbagai kejadian luar biasa penyakit menular dipandang perlu diketahui kemampuan laboratorium emerging infectious diseases yang ada sehingga hal ini dapat mempermudah dan mempercepat penanggulangan kejadian luar biasa. Pengumpulan informasi kemampuan laboratorium dilakukan melalui mail questionnair (kuesioner per pos ke laboratorium EID yang ada di Balai Labkesda, BTKL P2M, dan rumah sakit kelas B dan C. Dalam kuesioner tersebut terdapat 35 jenis penyakit infeksi yang ditanyakan kemampuan sumber daya manusia, ketersediaan peralatan dan anggaran. Selain itu dilakukan juga wawancara mendalam kepada pimpinan instansi atau pejabat yang berwenang pada 12 institusi yang dikirimi mail questionnair dan institusi yang terkait dengan responden. Hasil pengumpulan data/informasi melalui mail questionnair diperoleh informasi bahwa laboratorium EID yang mampu melakukan pemeriksaan spesimen penyakit demam tifoid 76,0%, malaria 73,8%, tuberkulosis 69,5%, kholera 65,1%, shigellosis 52,1%, dan difteri 50,0%. Dari hasil wawancara mendalam diperoleh 4 aspek permasalahan yang perlu ditindaklanjuti yaitu jaringan kerja sama, operasionalisasi, pengembangan SDM, dan pembinaan. Kesimpulan yang diperoleh dari studi ini adalah dengan diketahuinya profil laboratorium yang ada di institusi Balai Labkesda, BTKL P2M, dan rumah sakit maka langkah tindak lanjut yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan melaksanakan upaya kerja sama dalam hal tukar menukar

  3. Extensive colonization with carbapenemase-producing microorganisms in Romanian burn patients : infectious consequences from the Colectiv fire disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirii, L E; Friedrich, A W; Rossen, J W A; Vogels, W; Beerthuizen, G I J M; Nieuwenhuis, M K; Kooistra-Smid, A M D; Bathoorn, E

    Health care of severe burn patients is highly specialized and may require international patient transfer. Burn patients have an increased risk of developing infections. Patients that have been hospitalized in countries where carbapenemase-producing microorganisms (CPMO) are endemic may develop

  4. [Emerging infectious diseases: the example of the Indian Ocean chikungunya outbreak (2005-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Factors known to trigger the emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases include globalisation, population growth, migration, international trade, urbanisation, forest destruction, climate change, loss of biodiversity, poverty, famine and war. Epidemics not only lead to disastrous loss of human life but may also have catastrophic economic, political and social consequences. Outbreaks may rapidly jeopardize industry, trade or tourism in countries that are unprepared. Dengue is currently spreading throughout the tropics, while another arbovirus, chikungunya, infected 30 to 75% of the population in some parts of the Indian Ocean region between 2005 and 2006. Chikungunya is now spreading through India, where more than a million people have so far been infected. This viral disease can cause lasting disability, and the first deaths were recently reported in La Réunion and Mayotte. All countries are at risk from emerging or re-emerging diseases, but the consequences are far worse in poor countries. Microbial pathogens and wild mammals, birds and arthropods do not respect man-made borders. There is still time to act against this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, through prevention, anticipation, monitoring and research.

  5. Forum on Emerging Infectious Diseases Highlights Leading-Edge Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists and professionals from multiple governmental agencies recently gathered at NCI at Frederick for a forum on newly emerging infectious diseases, threats to public health, and ongoing efforts to study high-risk pathogens. During the one-day event, which was sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research’s Scientific Interaction Subcommittee, nine speakers from four agencies shared their research and their agencies’ endeavors to address current and future biological threats.

  6. Sustaining a Regional Emerging Infectious Disease Research Network: A Trust-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkavute, Pornpit; Tung, Dinh Xuan; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut

    2013-01-01

    The Asia Partnership on Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (APEIR) was initiated in 2006 to promote regional collaboration in avian influenza research. In 2009, the partnership expanded its scope to include all emerging infectious diseases. APEIR partners include public health and animal researchers, officials and practitioners from Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam. APEIR has accomplished several major achievements in three key areas of activity: (i) knowledge generation (i.e., through research); (ii) research capacity building (e.g., by developing high-quality research proposals, by planning and conducting joint research projects, by adopting a broader Ecohealth/OneHealth approach); and (iii) policy advocacy (e.g., by disseminating research results to policy makers). This paper describes these achievements, with a focus on the partnership's five major areas of emerging infectious disease research: wild migratory birds, backyard poultry systems, socio-economic impact, policy analysis, and control measures. We highlight two case studies illustrating how the partnership's research results are being used to inform policy. We also highlight lessons learned after five years of working hard to build our partnership and the value added by a multi-country, multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary research partnership like APEIR. PMID:23362419

  7. One Health, emerging infectious diseases and wildlife: two decades of progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Andrew A; Daszak, Peter; Wood, James L N

    2017-07-19

    Infectious diseases affect people, domestic animals and wildlife alike, with many pathogens being able to infect multiple species. Fifty years ago, following the wide-scale manufacture and use of antibiotics and vaccines, it seemed that the battle against infections was being won for the human population. Since then, however, and in addition to increasing antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens, there has been an increase in the emergence of, mostly viral, zoonotic diseases from wildlife, sometimes causing fatal outbreaks of epidemic proportions. Concurrently, infectious disease has been identified as an increasing threat to wildlife conservation. A synthesis published in 2000 showed common anthropogenic drivers of disease threats to biodiversity and human health, including encroachment and destruction of wildlife habitat and the human-assisted spread of pathogens. Almost two decades later, the situation has not changed and, despite improved knowledge of the underlying causes, little has been done at the policy level to address these threats. For the sake of public health and wellbeing, human-kind needs to work better to conserve nature and preserve the ecosystem services, including disease regulation, that biodiversity provides while also understanding and mitigating activities which lead to disease emergence. We consider that holistic, One Health approaches to the management and mitigation of the risks of emerging infectious diseases have the greatest chance of success.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. The Forgotten Plague: Psychiatric Manifestations of Ebola, Zika, and Emerging Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Veronica; Moukaddam, Nidal; Meadows, Jonathan; Shah, Suhal; Galwankar, Sagar C; Kapur, G Bobby

    2017-01-01

    The media and public health generally focus on the biological and physical ramifications of epidemics. Mental health issues that coincide with emerging diseases and epidemics are rarely examined and sometimes, even eschewed due to cultural considerations. Psychiatric manifestations of various infectious diseases, especially with a focus on Ebola Virus disease (EVD) and Zika Virus, are discussed in this commentary to illustrate the continued need of care after the resolution of the actual illness. Various infectious diseases have associations with mental illness, such as an increased risk of obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette syndrome in children with Group B streptococcal infection. Current EVD literature does not demonstrate a strong association of mental illness symptoms or diseases but there is a necessity of care that extends beyond the illness. Patients and their families experience depression, anxiety, trauma, suicidal ideation, panic and other manifestations. Zika virus has been associated neuronal injury, genetic alteration that affects fetal development and detrimental maternal mental health symptoms are being documented. While funding calls from the international community are present, there are no specific epidemiological data or fiscal estimates solely for mental health during or after infectious diseases epidemics or disasters that support health care providers and strengthen policies and procedures for responding to such situations. Therefore, those on the frontlines of epidemics including emergency physicians, primary care providers and infectious disease specialists should serve communicate this need and advocate for sustained and increased funding for mental health programs to heighten public awareness regarding acute psychiatric events during infectious diseases outbreaks and offer treatment and support when necessary.

  9. Methods for Discovery and Surveillance of Pathogens in Hotspots of Emerging Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Randi Holm

    Viruses are everywhere, and can infect all living things. They are constantly evolving, and new diseases are emerging as a result. Consequently, they have always been of interest to scientists and people in general. Several outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases transmitting from animals...... to virion enrichment compared to samples with no enrichment. We have used these methods to perform pathogen discovery in faecal samples collected from small mammals in Sierra Leone, to describe the presence of pathogenic viruses and bacteria in this area. From these data we were furthermore able to acquire...

  10. Emerging infectious disease outbreaks: estimating disease risk in Australian blood donors travelling overseas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, A; Hoad, V C; Seed, C R; Flower, R Lp; Harley, R J; Herbert, D; Faddy, H M

    2018-01-01

    International travel assists spread of infectious pathogens. Australians regularly travel to South-eastern Asia and the isles of the South Pacific, where they may become infected with infectious agents, such as dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses that pose a potential risk to transfusion safety. In Australia, donors are temporarily restricted from donating for fresh component manufacture following travel to many countries, including those in this study. We aimed to estimate the unmitigated transfusion-transmission (TT) risk from donors travelling internationally to areas affected by emerging infectious diseases. We used the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool, with travel and notification data, to estimate the TT risk from donors travelling to areas affected by disease outbreaks: Fiji (DENV), Bali (DENV), Phuket (DENV), Indonesia (CHIKV) and French Polynesia (ZIKV). We predict minimal risk from travel, with the annual unmitigated risk of an infected component being released varying from 1 in 1·43 million to infectious disease outbreak areas to source plasma collection provides a simple and effective risk management approach. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. ASPEK-ASPEK EKOLOGI DAN SOSIAL DALAM PENANGGULANGAN "EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Soewasti S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and social fators play very important roles in the control of emerging infectious diseases, beside case management, surveillance and laboratory examinations. The ecological factors include physical environmental factors such as altitude, latitude, climate, season, temperature, humidity, water, air, food and land; as well as biological environmental factors such as flora, fauna, agent, vector, host and biological agents used for vector control. The social factors include: education, economic status, behaviour, attitude, habit, religion, culture, population migration and density. Intervention to ecological and social factors could be done as preventive measures. We should learn from the failures as well as successes in the control of infectious diseases which gave considerations on ecological and social factors. For new diseases, studies should also be conducted to know what kinds of ecological and social factors have important roles in the control of these diseases.

  12. Development and management of public health education system against emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Myungja; Dev, Parvati; Lee, Eun-Jung; Koo, Byung-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Oak; Ha, Kukhwa; Yang, Heesun; Kang, Gilwon; Lee, Youngsung

    2012-01-01

    With recent spread of infectious diseases, worldwide emergency strategies against them have been made. As one of such efforts we planned to develop an educational program for public health manpower using IT, and produced 4 to 8 minute-long flash animations of the following subjects selected by Education Training Expert Committee: Self-care guideline on H1N1; Instruction for medical hospital; Prevention of hospital acquired infections; Method of sampling & transporting. Demonstrative education using an online education system was conducted targeting 10 doctors working in a rural health center to evaluate the developed animations. They received good marks in the factors of credibility and accuracy, but needed to improve in that of interaction with educatees. Our suggestion is that we use the result of our study as a prototype of education contents on infectious diseases, and modify its contents accordingly when a specific disease breaks out.

  13. Emerging Infectious Diseases and the Role of Syndromic Surveillance in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Zatorski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite  impressive  advancements  in  diagnostic  and  treatment technologies,  infectious  diseases  still  cause  a  significant  amount  of mortality and morbidity throughout the world due to the unpredictable and inevitable  rise  of  new  or  previously  dormant  pathogens.  Emerging infectious disease (EID outbreaks are mainly associated with changes in physical environment and human behavioral activities, and disproportionately affect developing countries. Syndromic surveillance, while challenged in developing countries by inadequate communication and public health infrastructure, could build on pre-existing systems to complement  existing governmental  and  non-governmental  programs  for outbreak detection and offers a promising avenue to detect EID eventsearlier in the course of an outbreak.

  14. What Recent History Has Taught Us About Responding to Emerging Infectious Disease Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, Catharine I; Eisinger, Robert W; Marston, Hilary D; Fauci, Anthony S

    2017-12-05

    Presidential administrations face any number of unexpected crises during their tenure, and global pandemics are among the most challenging. As of January 2017, one of the authors had served under 5 presidents as the director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. During each administration, the government faced unexpected pandemics, ranging from the HIV/AIDS pandemic, which began during the Reagan administration, to the recent Zika outbreak in the Americas, which started during the Obama administration. These experiences underscored the need to optimize preparation for and response to these threats whenever and wherever they emerge. This article recounts selected outbreaks occurring during this period and highlights lessons that were learned that can be applied to the infectious disease threats that will inevitably be faced in the current presidential administration and beyond.

  15. Investigations of kanuka and manuka essential oils for in vitro treatment of disease and cellular inflammation caused by infectious microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chia; Yan, Sui-Hing; Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Pei-Fang; Liao, Wei-Ting; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Wen, Zhi-Hong; David Wang, Hui-Min

    2016-02-01

    Diseases caused by infectious and inflammatory microorganisms are among the most common and most severe nosocomial diseases worldwide. Therefore, developing effective agents for treating these illnesses is critical. In this study, essential oils from two tea tree species, kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) and manuka (Leptospermum scoparium), were evaluated for use in treating diseases and inflammation caused by microorganism infection. Isolates of clinically common bacteria and fungi were obtained from American Type Culture Collection and from Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for Trichosporon mucoides, Malassezia furfur, Candida albicans, and Candida tropicalis were determined by the broth microdilution method with Sabouraud dextrose broth. The antibacterial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus mutans, and Escherichia coli were determined by the broth microdilution method. A human acute monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1) was cultured to test the effects of the essential oils on the release of the two inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. Multiple analyses of microorganism growth confirmed that both essential oils significantly inhibited four fungi and the four bacteria. The potent fungicidal properties of the oils were confirmed by minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.78% to 3.13%. The oils also showed excellent bactericidal qualities with 100% inhibition of the examined bacteria. In THP-1 cells, both oils lowered tumor necrosis factor-α released after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Finally, the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of the oils were obtained without adversely affecting the immune system. These results indicate that the potent antimicroorganism and anti-inflammation properties of kanuka and manuka essential oils make them strong candidates for use in treating infections and immune-related disease. The data confirm the potential

  16. Effect of cleaning and disinfection of toys on infectious diseases and micro-organisms in daycare nurseries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, T.; Engelund, E. H.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Background: The rising number of children in daycare nurseries increases opportunities for the transmission of infectious diseases. Pathogens may be transmitted directly from child to child via sneezing, coughing and touching, or indirectly via the environment. Toys are among the fomites...... with the highest pathogen load, but their role in disease transmission is unknown. Aim: To determine if washing and disinfection of toys can reduce sickness absence and microbial pathogen load in the nursery environment. Methods: Twelve nurseries (caring for 587 children) were randomized to intervention...... interval (CI) 1.1-5.0], rhinovirus (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.3-12.4) and respiratory syncytial virus (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.5-11.2) compared with the control group, but the intervention had no effect on sickness absence or disease patterns in the nurseries. Conclusion: Although cleaning and disinfection of toys every...

  17. Emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common British birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Robinson

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period.

  18. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  19. Vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: Lessons from MERS coronavirus and Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N

    2017-12-02

    The past decade and a half has been characterized by numerous emerging infectious diseases. With each new threat, there has been a call for rapid vaccine development. Pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the Zika virus represent either new viral entities or viruses emergent in new geographic locales and characterized by novel complications. Both serve as paradigms for the global spread that can accompany new pathogens. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and Zika virus with respect to vaccine development. The challenges in vaccine development and the approach to clinical trial design to test vaccine candidates for disease entities with a changing epidemiology are discussed.

  20. Vaccines for emerging infectious diseases: Lessons from MERS coronavirus and Zika virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Joel N.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The past decade and a half has been characterized by numerous emerging infectious diseases. With each new threat, there has been a call for rapid vaccine development. Pathogens such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and the Zika virus represent either new viral entities or viruses emergent in new geographic locales and characterized by novel complications. Both serve as paradigms for the global spread that can accompany new pathogens. In this paper, we review the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and Zika virus with respect to vaccine development. The challenges in vaccine development and the approach to clinical trial design to test vaccine candidates for disease entities with a changing epidemiology are discussed. PMID:28846484

  1. Certainties and Uncertainties Facing Emerging Respiratory Infectious Diseases: Lessons from SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Chun Chen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Every emerging infectious disease is a challenge to the whole of mankind. There are uncertainties regarding whether there will be a pandemic, if it will be caused by the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus, when or where it will occur, how imminent or how severe it will be. No one can accurately predict if and when a given virus will become a pandemic virus. Pandemic prevention strategies must be based on preparing for the unexpected and being capable of reacting accordingly. There is growing evidence that infection control measures were helpful in containment of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS as well as avian influenza. Compliance of standard infection control measures, intensive promotion of hand and respiratory hygiene, vigilance and triage of patients with febrile illness, and specific infection control measures are key components to contain a highly contagious disease in hospital and to protect healthcare workers, patients and visitors. The importance of standard precautions for any patient and cleaning and disinfection for the healthcare environment cannot be overemphasized. SARS illustrated dramatically the potential of air travel and globalization for the dissemination of an emerging infectious disease. To prevent the potential serious consequences of pandemic influenza, timely implementation of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions locally within the outbreak area is the key to minimizing global spread. Herein, we relate our perspective on useful lessons derived from a review of the SARS epidemic that may be useful to physicians, especially when looking ahead to the next epidemic.

  2. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Antimicrobial Resistance and Millennium Development Goals: Resolving the Challenges through One Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonoses, which could severely hamper reaching the targets of millennium development goals (MDG. Five out of the total eight MDG’s are strongly associated with the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs. Recent emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated and prevent reaching the targets of MDG, with shrinking of therapeutic arsenal, mostly due to antimicrobial resistance (AMR. World Health Organization (WHO has identified AMR as 1 of the 3 greatest threats to global health. Until now, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have been observed in hospital-acquired infections. In India, within a span of three years, New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase prevalence has risen from three percent in hospitals to twenty- fifty percent and is found to be colistin resistant as well. Routine use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry accounts for more than 50% in tonnage of all antimicrobial production to promote growth and prophylaxis. This has consequences to human health and environmental contamination with a profound impact on the environmental microbiome, resulting in resistance. Antibiotic development is now considered a global health crisis. The average time required to receive regulatory approval is 7.2 years. Moreover, the clinical approval success is only 16%. To overcome resistance in antimicrobials, intersectoral partnerships among medical, veterinary, and environmental disciplines, with specific epidemiological, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches are needed. Joint efforts under “One Health”, beyond individual professional boundaries are required to stop antimicrobial resistance against zoonoses (EID and reach the MDG.

  3. Mathematical and statistical modeling for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Hyman, James

    2016-01-01

    The contributions by epidemic modeling experts describe how mathematical models and statistical forecasting are created to capture the most important aspects of an emerging epidemic.Readers will discover a broad range of approaches to address questions, such as Can we control Ebola via ring vaccination strategies? How quickly should we detect Ebola cases to ensure epidemic control? What is the likelihood that an Ebola epidemic in West Africa leads to secondary outbreaks in other parts of the world? When does it matter to incorporate the role of disease-induced mortality on epidemic models? What is the role of behavior changes on Ebola dynamics? How can we better understand the control of cholera or Ebola using optimal control theory? How should a population be structured in order to mimic the transmission dynamics of diseases such as chlamydia, Ebola, or cholera? How can we objectively determine the end of an epidemic? How can we use metapopulation models to understand the role of movement restrictions and mi...

  4. SIS evolutionary game model and multi-agent simulation of an infectious disease emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, Qing; Liu, Xingxing; Wang, Pan

    2015-01-01

    Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) infectious disease outbreaks are hazardous events. However, if governments sectors do not adequately supervise such outbreaks, these infectious diseases could spread significantly, resulting in large economic losses and social issues. In this paper, an evolutionary game and simulation model based on the interactions between strategies and states was proposed, and the game between the public and government sectors and its impact on epidemic situations was discussed. Replicator dynamics equations and the multi-agent model simulation were used for analysis. According to replicator dynamics equations as well as the multi-agent model simulation, the public all eventually adopted the mobility strategy. In addition, the supervision strength of the governmental sectors was equal to 0 after the strength fluctuated at a low level under the trigger strategy. Ultimately, the entire public shifted to the S state throughout the course of the emergency. Social order was maintained and social loss was controlled to a certain extent in the final analysis.

  5. Environmental and social influences on emerging infectious diseases: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, A J

    2004-07-29

    During the processes of human population dispersal around the world over the past 50 000-100 000 years, along with associated cultural evolution and inter-population contact and conflict, there have been several major transitions in the relationships of Homo sapiens with the natural world, animate and inanimate. Each of these transitions has resulted in the emergence of new or unfamiliar infectious diseases. The three great historical transitions since the initial advent of agriculture and livestock herding, from ca. 10 000 years ago, occurred when: (i) early agrarian-based settlements enabled sylvatic enzootic microbes to make contact with Homo sapiens; (ii) early Eurasian civilizations (such as the Greek and Roman empires, China and south Asia) came into military and commercial contact, ca. 3000-2000 years ago, swapping their dominant infections; and (iii) European expansionism, over the past five centuries, caused the transoceanic spread of often lethal infectious diseases. This latter transition is best known in relation to the conquest of the Americas by Spanish conquistadores, when the inadvertent spread of measles, smallpox and influenza devastated the Amerindian populations.Today, we are living through the fourth of these great transitional periods. The contemporary spread and increased lability of various infectious diseases, new and old, reflect the combined and increasingly widespread impacts of demographic, environmental, behavioural, technological and other rapid changes in human ecology. Modern clinical medicine has, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and the use of hypodermic syringes, created new opportunities for microbes. These have contributed to the rising iatrogenic problems of hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS and several other viral infections. Meanwhile, the injudicious use of antibiotics has been a rare instance of human action actually increasing 'biodiversity'. Another aspect of this fourth transition is that modern hyper-hygienic living

  6. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.

  7. The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS): A Strategic Approach to Studying Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaa, Maia A; Tue, Ngo Tri; Phuc, Tran My; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Saylors, Karen; Cotten, Matthew; Bryant, Juliet E; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Pham, Hong Anh; Berto, Alessandra; Phat, Voong Vinh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Bao, Long Hoang; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Wertheim, Heiman; Nadjm, Behzad; Monagin, Corina; van Doorn, H Rogier; Rahman, Motiur; Tra, My Phan Vu; Campbell, James I; Boni, Maciej F; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van der Hoek, Lia; Simmonds, Peter; Rambaut, Andrew; Toan, Tran Khanh; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wolfe, Nathan; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy; Kellam, Paul; Woolhouse, Mark E J; Baker, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The effect of newly emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases of zoonotic origin in human populations can be potentially catastrophic, and large-scale investigations of such diseases are highly challenging. The monitoring of emergence events is subject to ascertainment bias, whether at the level of species discovery, emerging disease events, or disease outbreaks in human populations. Disease surveillance is generally performed post hoc, driven by a response to recent events and by the availability of detection and identification technologies. Additionally, the inventory of pathogens that exist in mammalian and other reservoirs is incomplete, and identifying those with the potential to cause disease in humans is rarely possible in advance. A major step in understanding the burden and diversity of zoonotic infections, the local behavioral and demographic risks of infection, and the risk of emergence of these pathogens in human populations is to establish surveillance networks in populations that maintain regular contact with diverse animal populations, and to simultaneously characterize pathogen diversity in human and animal populations. Vietnam has been an epicenter of disease emergence over the last decade, and practices at the human/animal interface may facilitate the likelihood of spillover of zoonotic pathogens into humans. To tackle the scientific issues surrounding the origins and emergence of zoonotic infections in Vietnam, we have established The Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (VIZIONS). This countrywide project, in which several international institutions collaborate with Vietnamese organizations, is combining clinical data, epidemiology, high-throughput sequencing, and social sciences to address relevant one-health questions. Here, we describe the primary aims of the project, the infrastructure established to address our scientific questions, and the current status of the project. Our principal objective is to develop an integrated approach to

  8. Social ecosystem health: confronting the complexity and emergence of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Albuquerque Possas

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases and their rapid dissemination worldwide are challenging national health systems, particularly in developing countries affected by extreme poverty and environmental degradation. The expectations that new vaccines and drugs and global surveillance would help reverse these trends have been frustrated thus far by the complexity of the epidemiological transition, despite promising prospects for the near future in biomolecular research and genetic engineering. This impasse raises crucial issues concerning conceptual frameworks supporting priority-setting, risk anticipation, and the transfer of science and technology's results to society. This article discusses these issues and the limitations of social and economic sciences on the one hand and ecology on the other as the main theoretical references of the health sciences in confronting the complexity of these issues on their own. The tension between these historically dissociated paradigms is discussed and a transdisciplinary approach is proposed, that of social ecosystem health, incorporating these distinct perspectives into a comprehensive framework.

  9. ProMED-mail: 22 years of digital surveillance of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Malwina; Madoff, Lawrence C

    2017-05-01

    ProMED-mail (ProMED) was launched in 1994 as an email service to identify unusual health events related to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and toxins affecting humans, animals and plants. It is used daily by public health leaders, government officials at all levels, physicians, veterinarians and other healthcare workers, researchers, private companies, journalists and the general public. Reports are produced and commentary provided by a global team of subject matter experts in a variety of fields including virology, parasitology, epidemiology, entomology, veterinary and plant disease specialists. ProMED operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and has over 83 000 subscribers, representing every country in the world. Additionally, ProMED disseminates information via its website and through social media channels such as Twitter and Facebook as well as through RSS feeds. Over the last 22 years, it has been the first to report on numerous major and minor disease outbreaks including SARS, MERS, Ebola and the early spread of Zika. ProMED is transparent, apolitical, open to all and free of charge, making it an important and longstanding contributor to global health surveillance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Evidence of spread of the emerging infectious disease, finch trichomonosis, by migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Robinson, Robert A; Neimanis, Aleksija; Handeland, Kjell; Isomursu, Marja; Agren, Erik O; Hamnes, Inger S; Tyler, Kevin M; Chantrey, Julian; Hughes, Laura A; Pennycott, Tom W; Simpson, Vic R; John, Shinto K; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Bennett, Malcolm; Kirkwood, James K; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2011-06-01

    Finch trichomonosis emerged in Great Britain in 2005 and led to epidemic mortality and a significant population decline of greenfinches, Carduelis chloris and chaffinches, Fringilla coelebs, in the central and western counties of England and Wales in the autumn of 2006. In this article, we show continued epidemic spread of the disease with a pronounced shift in geographical distribution towards eastern England in 2007. This was followed by international spread to southern Fennoscandia where cases were confirmed at multiple sites in the summer of 2008. Sequence data of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 ribosomal region and part of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene showed no variation between the British and Fennoscandian parasite strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Epidemiological and historical ring return data support bird migration as a plausible mechanism for the observed pattern of disease spread, and suggest the chaffinch as the most likely primary vector. This finding is novel since, although intuitive, confirmed disease spread by migratory birds is very rare and, when it has been recognised, this has generally been for diseases caused by viral pathogens. We believe this to be the first documented case of the spread of a protozoal emerging infectious disease by migrating birds.

  11. Infectious diseases and the use of antibiotics in outpatients at the emergency department of the University Hospital of Leon, Nicaragua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Engelsen, C.; van der Werf, C.; Matute, A. J.; Delgado, E.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.

    Background: In order to develop guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents, it is necessary to obtain detailed information on the prevalence of infectious diseases and antibiotic usage. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted among outpatients with acute infections visiting the emergency

  12. Managing an Infectious Disease Outbreak in a School. Lessons Learned from School Crises and Emergencies. Volume 2, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an infectious disease incident, which resulted in the death of a student, closure of area schools and the operation of an on-site school vaccine clinic. The report highlights the critical need…

  13. Insight into "Calculated Risk" : An Application to the Prioritization of Emerging Infectious Diseases for Blood Transfusion Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslo, R. E J; Oei, W.; Janssen, M. P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818208

    Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or

  14. 76 FR 63308 - Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ....'' The purpose of the public workshop is to discuss data and data sources currently used by FDA, possible...] Data and Data Needs To Advance Risk Assessment for Emerging Infectious Diseases Relevant to Blood and... workshop. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Data and Data...

  15. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    E.D. Karimuribo; B. Jones; M.I. Matee; D.M. Kambarage; S. Mounier-Jack; M.M. Rweyemamu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild) and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam) while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency pre...

  16. Strategies to Prevent and Control the Emergence and Spread of Antimicrobial-Resistant Microorganisms in Hospitals. A challenge to hospital leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, D A; Weinstein, R A; Wenzel, R P; Tablan, O C; Duma, R J; Gaynes, R P; Schlosser, J; Martone, W J

    1996-01-17

    To provide hospital leaders with strategic goals or actions likely to have a significant impact on antimicrobial resistance, outline outcome and process measures for evaluating progress toward each goal, describe potential barriers to success, and suggest countermeasures and novel improvement strategies. A multidisciplinary group of experts was drawn from the following areas: hospital epidemiology and infection control, infectious diseases (including graduate training programs), clinical practice (including nursing, surgery, internal medicine, and pediatrics), pharmacy, administration, quality improvement, appropriateness evaluation, behavior modification, practice guideline development, medical informatics, and outcomes research. Representatives from appropriate federal agencies, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and the pharmaceutical industry also participated. Published literature, guidelines, expert opinion, and practical experience regarding efforts to improve antibiotic utilization and prevent and control the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in hospitals. Participants were divided into two quality improvement teams: one focusing on improving antimicrobial usage and the other on preventing and controlling transmission of resistant microorganisms. The teams modeled the process a hospital might use to develop and implement a strategic plan to combat antimicrobial resistance. Ten strategic goals and related process and outcome measures were agreed on. The five strategic goals to optimize antimicrobial use were as follows: optimizing antimicrobial prophylaxis for operative procedures; optimizing choice and duration of empiric therapy; improving antimicrobial prescribing by educational and administrative means; monitoring and providing feedback regarding antibiotic resistance; and defining and implementing health care delivery system guidelines for important types of antimicrobial use. The five

  17. A systematic review of community-based interventions for emerging zoonotic infectious diseases in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Sarna, Mohinder; Barnett, Adrian; Leonardo, Lydia; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Background Southeast Asia has been at the epicentre of recent epidemics of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases. Community-based surveillance and control interventions have been heavily promoted but the most effective interventions have not been identified. Objectives This review evaluated evidence for the effectiveness of community-based surveillance interventions at monitoring and identifying emerging infectious disease; the effectiveness of community-based control interventions at reducing rates of emerging infectious disease; and contextual factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Inclusion criteria Participants Communities in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. Types of intervention(s) Non-pharmaceutical, non-vaccine, and community-based surveillance or prevention and control interventions targeting rabies, Nipah virus, dengue, SARS or avian influenza. Types of outcomes Primary outcomes: measures: of infection or disease; secondary outcomes: measures of intervention function. Types of studies Original quantitative studies published in English. Search strategy Databases searched (1980 to 2011): PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, WHOLIS, British Development Library, LILACS, World Bank (East Asia), Asian Development Bank. Methodological quality Two independent reviewers critically appraised studies using standard Joanna Briggs Institute instruments. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Data extraction A customised tool was used to extract quantitative data on intervention(s), populations, study methods, and primary and secondary outcomes; and qualitative contextual information or narrative evidence about interventions. Data synthesis Data was synthesised in a narrative summary with the aid of tables. Meta-analysis was used to statistically pool quantitative results. Results

  18. Risk Prevention of Spreading Emerging Infectious Diseases Using a HybridCrowdsensing Paradigm, Optical Sensors, and Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Thierry

    2018-04-10

    The risk of spreading diseases within (ad-hoc)crowds and the need to pervasively screen asymptomatic individuals to protect the population against emerging infectious diseases, request permanentcrowd surveillance., particularly in high-risk regions. Thecase of Ebola epidemic in West Africa in recent years has shown the need for pervasive screening. The trend today in diseases surveillance is consisting of epidemiological data collection about emerging infectious diseases using social media, wearable sensors systems, or mobile applications and data analysis. This approach presents various limitations. This paper proposes a novel approach for diseases monitoring and risk prevention of spreading infectious diseases. The proposed approach, aiming at overcoming the limitation of existing disease surveillance approaches, combines the hybrid crowdsensing paradigm with sensing individuals' bio-signals using optical sensors for monitoring any risks of spreading emerging infectious diseases in any (ad-hoc) crowds. A proof-of-concept has been performed using a drone armed with a cat s60 smartphone featuring a Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) camera. According to the results of the conducted experiment, the concept has the potential to improve the conventional epidemiological data collection. The measurement is reliable, and the recorded data are valid. The measurement error rates are about 8%.

  19. Systems Biology-Based Platforms to Accelerate Research of Emerging Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo Jin; Choi, Young Ki; Shin, Ok Sarah

    2018-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose a major threat to public health and security. Given the dynamic nature and significant impact of EIDs, the most effective way to prevent and protect against them is to develop vaccines in advance. Systems biology approaches provide an integrative way to understand the complex immune response to pathogens. They can lead to a greater understanding of EID pathogenesis and facilitate the evaluation of newly developed vaccine-induced immunity in a timely manner. In recent years, advances in high throughput technologies have enabled researchers to successfully apply systems biology methods to analyze immune responses to a variety of pathogens and vaccines. Despite recent advances, computational and biological challenges impede wider application of systems biology approaches. This review highlights recent advances in the fields of systems immunology and vaccinology, and presents ways that systems biology-based platforms can be applied to accelerate a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunity against EIDs. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  20. Lessons from the Ebola Outbreak: Action Items for Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Aguirre, A Alonso; Bailey, Charles L; Baranova, Ancha V; Crooks, Andrew T; Croitoru, Arie; Delamater, Paul L; Gupta, Jhumka; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Narayanan, Aarthi; Pierobon, Mariaelena; Rowan, Katherine E; Schwebach, J Reid; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan; Sklarew, Dann M; Stefanidis, Anthony; Agouris, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa wanes, it is time for the international scientific community to reflect on how to improve the detection of and coordinated response to future epidemics. Our interdisciplinary team identified key lessons learned from the Ebola outbreak that can be clustered into three areas: environmental conditions related to early warning systems, host characteristics related to public health, and agent issues that can be addressed through the laboratory sciences. In particular, we need to increase zoonotic surveillance activities, implement more effective ecological health interventions, expand prediction modeling, support medical and public health systems in order to improve local and international responses to epidemics, improve risk communication, better understand the role of social media in outbreak awareness and response, produce better diagnostic tools, create better therapeutic medications, and design better vaccines. This list highlights research priorities and policy actions the global community can take now to be better prepared for future emerging infectious disease outbreaks that threaten global public health and security.

  1. Social media and outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases: A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie; Park, Sung-Eun; Zhi, Degui

    2018-04-05

    The public often turn to social media for information during emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) outbreaks. This study identified the major approaches and assessed the rigors in published research articles on EIDs and social media. We searched 5 databases for published journal articles on EIDs and social media. We then evaluated these articles in terms of EIDs studied, social media examined, theoretical frameworks, methodologic approaches, and research findings. Thirty articles were included in the analysis (published between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2016). EIDs that received most scholarly attention were H1N1 (or swine flu, n = 15), Ebola virus (n = 10), and H7N9 (or avian flu/bird flu, n = 2). Twitter was the most often studied social media (n = 17), followed by YouTube (n = 6), Facebook (n = 6), and blogs (n = 6). Three major approaches in this area of inquiry are identified: (1) assessment of the public's interest in and responses to EIDs, (2) examination of organizations' use of social media in communicating EIDs, and (3) evaluation of the accuracy of EID-related medical information on social media. Although academic studies of EID communication on social media are on the rise, they still suffer from a lack of theorization and a need for more methodologic rigor. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging infectious diseases in free-ranging wildlife-Australian zoo based wildlife hospitals contribute to national surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Cox-Witton

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases.

  3. The Intestinal Microbiome in Infectious Diseases: The Clinical Relevance of a Rapidly Emerging Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Vanessa C.; Haak, Bastiaan W.; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël; Wiersinga, Willem J.

    2017-01-01

    The field of infectious disease is undergoing a paradigm shift as the intestinal microbiome is becoming understood. The aim of this review is to inform infectious disease physicians of the potential relevance of the intestinal microbiome to their practice. We searched Medline using both index and

  4. La peste, enfermedad infectocontagiosa reemergente Re-emergence of the plague: an infectious and contagious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plácido Pedroso Flaquet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La peste es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa reemergente. Su reservorio natural en los vertebrados son los roedores silvestres. Los conejos y las liebres, los carnívoros silvestres y los gatos domésticos también pueden ser fuente de infección para los seres humanos. Es causada por la bacteria Yersinia pestis y transmitida por la pulga Xenopsylla cheopis que afecta tanto a animales como a humanos. Causó una devastadora pandemia que asoló Europa en el siglo XIV. Es una zoonosis muy virulenta y potencialmente letal enfermedad bacteriana. Sigue persistiendo en focos naturales que producen brotes recurrentes en muchos lugares del mundo La peste se contrae de manera natural por la intromisión de las personas en el ciclo zoonótico, o por la introducción de roedores silvestres o sus pulgas infectadas en el habitad de los seres humanos. La prevención y las medidas de control van encaminadas a la disminución y el control de roedores y pulgas.Plague is a re-emergent infectious and contagious disease. Its natural reservoirs in vertebrates are the wild rodents. Rabbits and hares, the wild carnivores and the domestic cats also may be an infection source for human beings. It is caused by Yersinia pestis and transmitted by the flea Xenopsylla cheopis affecting both animals and humans. In Europe during XIX century it caused a devastating pandemic. It is a zoonosis very virulent and a potentially lethal bacterial disease. It persists in natural foci producing recurrent outbreak in many world places. Plague is acquired in a natural way due to interference of people in the zoonosis cycle or due to introduction of wild rodents or their infected fleas in human beings habitat. Prevention and control measures must to be aimed to decrease and the control of rodents and fleas.

  5. Use of mobile phones in an emergency reporting system for infectious disease surveillance after the Sichuan earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changhong; Yang, Jun; Luo, Xiangshu; Gong, Peng

    2009-08-01

    Quick detection and response were essential for preventing outbreaks of infectious diseases after the Sichuan earthquake. However, the existing public health communication system in Sichuan province, China, was severely damaged by the earthquake. The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention set up a mobile phone emergency reporting system. In total, 495 light-powered mobile phones were delivered to local health-care agencies in earthquake affected areas. All phones were loaded with software designed for inputting and transmitting cases of infectious disease directly to a national database for further analysis. The emergency reporting system was set up in 14 counties hit hardest by the earthquake in Sichuan province, China. One week after delivering mobile phones to earthquake-affected areas, the number of health-care agencies at the township level that had filed reports returned to the normal level. The number of cases reported by using mobile phones accounted for as much as 52.9% of the total cases reported weekly from 19 May to 13 July in those areas The mobile phone is a useful communication tool for infectious disease surveillance in areas hit by natural disasters. Nevertheless, plans must be made ahead of time and be included in emergency preparedness programmes.

  6. Insight into "Calculated Risk": An Application to the Prioritization of Emerging Infectious Diseases for Blood Transfusion Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslo, R E J; Oei, W; Janssen, M P

    2017-09-01

    Increasing identification of transmissions of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) by blood transfusion raised the question which of these EIDs poses the highest risk to blood safety. For a number of the EIDs that are perceived to be a threat to blood safety, evidence on actual disease or transmission characteristics is lacking, which might render measures against such EIDs disputable. On the other hand, the fact that we call them "emerging" implies almost by definition that we are uncertain about at least some of their characteristics. So what is the relative importance of various disease and transmission characteristics, and how are these influenced by the degree of uncertainty associated with their actual values? We identified the likelihood of transmission by blood transfusion, the presence of an asymptomatic phase of infection, prevalence of infection, and the disease impact as the main characteristics of the perceived risk of disease transmission by blood transfusion. A group of experts in the field of infectious diseases and blood transfusion ranked sets of (hypothetical) diseases with varying degrees of uncertainty associated with their disease characteristics, and used probabilistic inversion to obtain probability distributions for the weight of each of these risk characteristics. These distribution weights can be used to rank both existing and newly emerging infectious diseases with (partially) known characteristics. Analyses show that in case there is a lack of data concerning disease characteristics, it is the uncertainty concerning the asymptomatic phase and the disease impact that are the most important drivers of the perceived risk. On the other hand, if disease characteristics are well established, it is the prevalence of infection and the transmissibility of the disease by blood transfusion that will drive the perceived risk. The risk prioritization model derived provides an easy to obtain and rational expert assessment of the relative importance of

  7. Assessment of Hospital Emergency Department Response to Potentially Infectious Diseases Using Unannounced Mystery Patient Drills - New York City, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Mary M K; Styles, Timothy S; Quinn, Celia L

    2017-09-15

    Recent outbreaks of infectious diseases have revealed significant health care system vulnerabilities and highlighted the importance of rapid recognition and isolation of patients with potentially severe infectious diseases. During December 2015-May 2016, a series of unannounced "mystery patient drills" was carried out to assess New York City Emergency Departments' (EDs) abilities to identify and respond to patients with communicable diseases of public health concern. Drill scenarios presented a patient reporting signs or symptoms and travel history consistent with possible measles or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Evaluators captured key infection control performance measures, including time to patient masking and isolation. Ninety-five drills (53 measles and 42 MERS) were conducted in 49 EDs with patients masked and isolated in 78% of drills. Median time from entry to masking was 1.5 minutes (range = 0-47 minutes) and from entry to isolation was 8.5 minutes (range = 1-57). Hospitals varied in their ability to identify potentially infectious patients and implement recommended infection control measures in a timely manner. Drill findings were used to inform hospital improvement planning to more rapidly and consistently identify and isolate patients with a potentially highly infectious disease.

  8. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  9. The Impact of Global Environmental Changes on Infectious Disease Emergence with a Focus on Risks for Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Alessandra; Shimabukuro, Juliana Suieko; Chmura, Aleksei A; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa

    2017-12-15

    Environmental changes have a huge impact on the emergence and reemergence of certain infectious diseases, mostly in countries with high biodiversity and serious unresolved environmental, social, and economic issues. This article summarizes the most important findings with special attention to Brazil and diseases of present public health importance in the country such as Chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, leptospirosis, leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease. An extensive literature review revealed a relationship between infectious diseases outbreaks and climate change events (El Niño, La Niña, heatwaves, droughts, floods, increased temperature, higher rainfall, and others) or environmental changes (habitat fragmentation, deforestation, urbanization, bushmeat consumption, and others). To avoid or control outbreaks, integrated surveillance systems and effective outreach programs are essential. Due to strong global and local influence on emergence of infectious diseases, a more holistic approach is necessary to mitigate or control them in low-income nations. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 km(2) of terrestrial surface, fueled in part by the prevalence of the hybrid genotypes and environmental perturbations. It displays some of the well-established invasive mechanisms but there is a serious dearth of knowledge on the plant-microbe-soil interactions and whether the rhizobiome plays any roles in the displacement of native flora and the range expansion of BP. Several control measures, including chemical, mechanical, and biological antagonism have been used with limited success while restoration of natives in soils from which BP was removed has proved problematic partly due to a poorly understood phenomenon described as the "BP legacy effect." Emerging evidence suggests that allelopathy, selective recruitment of beneficial soil microbes, disruption of microbial community structure and alteration of nutrient cycling, exhibited by many other invasive plant species may also be involved in the case of BP. This brief review discusses the well-established BP invasion mechanisms and highlights the current understanding of the molecular, below-ground processes. It also points out the gaps in studies on the potential role of microbial interactions in the success of BP invasion. These hitherto poorly studied mechanisms could further explain the aggressive spread of BP and could potentially contribute significantly to effective control measures and enable appropriate strategies for restoring native plants. The review advocates for the use of cutting-edge techniques in advancing

  11. Evaluation of the certificate in emerging infectious disease research and the certificate in one health training programs, University of Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. Valentine

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, public health professionals and scientists need targeted training and practical skills to respond to global emerging infectious disease threats. The Certificate in Emerging Infectious Disease Research was developed in 2008 to aid such professionals to respond to complex emerging disease problems. The short-course was modified slightly in 2013 and renamed the Certificate in One Health. To evaluate the immediate impact of the short-course, an online survey of 176 past participants from both the courses was conducted. The survey tool assessed the program’s process, impact, and outcome measures respectively via assessing the courses’ perceived strengths and weaknesses, perceived skills gained, and the participants’ current position, publication status, funding status, and educational attainment; 85 (48.3% participants completed the survey. Reported program strengths included the curriculum, expertise of lecturers, and diversity of the training cohort. The principal reported weakness was the compressed academic schedule. The most frequently reported benefits included: epidemiological and biostatistical skills, followed by One-Health knowledge, and research skills. Twenty-eight percent of the survey respondents reported publishing one or more manuscripts since completing the course and 21% reported receiving research funding. The course appears to have had a positive, immediate impact on the students’ self-perceived knowledge and capabilities.

  12. Evaluation of the certificate in emerging infectious disease research and the certificate in one health training programs, University of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Marissa A; Perdue, Christopher L; Cummings, James F; Smith, Jacqueline C; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-03-01

    In developing countries, public health professionals and scientists need targeted training and practical skills to respond to global emerging infectious disease threats. The Certificate in Emerging Infectious Disease Research was developed in 2008 to aid such professionals to respond to complex emerging disease problems. The short-course was modified slightly in 2013 and renamed the Certificate in One Health. To evaluate the immediate impact of the short-course, an online survey of 176 past participants from both the courses was conducted. The survey tool assessed the program's process, impact, and outcome measures respectively via assessing the courses' perceived strengths and weaknesses, perceived skills gained, and the participants' current position, publication status, funding status, and educational attainment; 85 (48.3%) participants completed the survey. Reported program strengths included the curriculum, expertise of lecturers, and diversity of the training cohort. The principal reported weakness was the compressed academic schedule. The most frequently reported benefits included: epidemiological and biostatistical skills, followed by One-Health knowledge, and research skills. Twenty-eight percent of the survey respondents reported publishing one or more manuscripts since completing the course and 21% reported receiving research funding. The course appears to have had a positive, immediate impact on the students' self-perceived knowledge and capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenotypic diversity and emerging new tools to study macrophage activation in bacterial infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis eMege

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is a concept that has been useful to describe the different features of macrophage activation related to specific functions. Macrophage polarization is responsible for a dichotomic approach (killing versus repair of the host response to bacteria: M1-type conditions are protective, whereas M2-type conditions are associated with bacterial persistence. The use of the polarization concept to classify the features of macrophage activation in infected patients using transcriptional and/or molecular data and to provide biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis has most often been unsuccessful. The confrontation of polarization with different clinical situations in which monocytes/macrophages encounter bacteria obliged us to reappraise this concept. With the exception of M2-type infectious diseases such as leprosy and Whipple’s disease, most acute (sepsis or chronic (Q fever, tuberculosis infectious diseases do not exhibit polarized monocytes/macrophages. This is also the case for commensals that shape the immune response and for probiotics that alter the immune response independent of macrophage polarization. We propose that the type of myeloid cells (monocytes vs. macrophages and the kinetics of the immune response (early vs. late responses are critical variables for understanding macrophage activation in human infectious diseases. Explorating the role of these new markers will provide important tools to better understand complex macrophage physiology.

  14. Using omics and integrated multi-omics approaches to guide probiotic selection to mitigate chytridiomycosis and other emerging infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eria Alaide Rebollar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are responsible for massive population declines. In amphibians, chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has severely affected many amphibian populations and species around the world. One promising management strategy is probiotic bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria on amphibian skin. In vivo experimental trials using bioaugmentation strategies have had mixed results, and therefore a more informed strategy is needed to select successful probiotic candidates. Metagenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic methods, colloquially called omics, are approaches that can better inform probiotic selection and optimize selection protocols. The integration of multiple omic data using bioinformatic and statistical tools and in silico models that link bacterial community structure with bacterial defensive function can allow the identification of species involved in pathogen inhibition. We recommend using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and methods such as indicator species analysis, the K-S Measure, and co-occurrence networks to identify bacteria that are associated with pathogen resistance in field surveys and experimental trials. In addition to 16S amplicon sequencing, we recommend approaches that give insight into symbiont function such as shotgun metagenomics, metatranscriptomics or metabolomics to maximize the probability of finding effective probiotic candidates, which can then be isolated in culture and tested in persistence and clinical trials. An effective mitigation strategy to ameliorate chytridiomycosis and other emerging infectious diseases is necessary; the advancement of omic methods and the integration of multiple omic data provide a promising avenue toward conservation of imperiled species.

  15. Model Selection and Evaluation Based on Emerging Infectious Disease Data Sets including A/H1N1 and Ebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.

  16. Critical Care Medicine and Infectious Diseases: An Emerging Combined Subspecialty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Sameer S; Rhee, Chanu; Fortna, Gregory S; O'Grady, Naomi P

    2015-08-15

    The recent rise in unfilled training positions among infectious diseases (ID) fellowship programs nationwide indicates that ID is declining as a career choice among internal medicine residency graduates. Supplementing ID training with training in critical care medicine (CCM) might be a way to regenerate interest in the specialty. Hands-on patient care and higher salaries are obvious attractions. High infection prevalence and antibiotic resistance in intensive care units, expanding immunosuppressed host populations, and public health crises such as the recent Ebola outbreak underscore the potential synergy of CCM-ID training. Most intensivists receive training in pulmonary medicine and only 1% of current board-certified intensivists are trained in ID. While still small, this cohort of CCM-ID certified physicians has continued to rise over the last 2 decades. ID and CCM program leadership nationwide must recognize these trends and the merits of the CCM-ID combination to facilitate creation of formal dual-training opportunities. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  18. Operationalising factors that explain the emergence of infectious diseases: a case study of the human campylobacteriosis epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norval J C Strachan

    Full Text Available A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990-2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990-2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future.

  19. Operationalising Factors That Explain the Emergence of Infectious Diseases: A Case Study of the Human Campylobacteriosis Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Norval J. C.; Rotariu, Ovidiu; MacRae, Marion; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Smith-Palmer, Alison; Cowden, John; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Forbes, Ken J.

    2013-01-01

    A framework of general factors for infectious disease emergence was made operational for Campylobacter utilising explanatory variables including time series and risk factor data. These variables were generated using a combination of empirical epidemiology, case-case and case-control studies, time series analysis, and microbial sub-typing (source attribution, diversity, genetic distance) to unravel the changing/emerging aetiology of human campylobacteriosis. The study focused on Scotland between 1990–2012 where there was a 75% increase in reported cases that included >300% increase in the elderly and 50% decrease in young children. During this period there were three phases 1990–2000 a 75% rise and a 20% fall to 2006, followed by a 19% resurgence. The rise coincided with expansions in the poultry industry, consumption of chicken, and a shift from rural to urban cases. The post-2000 fall occurred across all groups apart from the elderly and coincided with a drop of the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken and a higher proportion of rural cases. The increase in the elderly was associated with uptake of proton pump inhibitors. During the resurgence the increase was predominantly in adults and the elderly, again there was increasing use of PPIs and high prevalences in chicken and ruminants. Cases associated with foreign travel during the study also increased from 9% to a peak of 16% in 2006 before falling to an estimated 10% in 2011, predominantly in adults and older children. During all three periods source attribution, genetic distance, and diversity measurements placed human isolates most similar to those in chickens. A combination of emergence factors generic for infectious diseases were responsible for the Campylobacter epidemic. It was possible to use these to obtain a putative explanation for the changes in human disease and the potential to make an informed view of how incidence rates may change in the future. PMID:24278127

  20. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P.; Minteer, Ben A.; Daszak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization—the close...

  1. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics for zoonotic infectious diseases: deciphering variables influencing disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Sarah S T; Gonzalez, Andrew; Millien, Virginie

    2016-05-01

    Zoonotic disease transmission systems involve sets of species interacting with each other and their environment. This complexity impedes development of disease monitoring and control programs that require reliable identification of spatial and biotic variables and mechanisms facilitating disease emergence. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a framework that simultaneously examines all species involved in disease emergence by integrating concepts and methods from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. Multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics (MTILG) can reveal how interspecific interactions and landscape variables influence disease emergence patterns. We test the potential of our MTILG-based framework by modelling the emergence of a disease system across multiple species dispersal, interspecific interaction, and landscape scenarios. Our simulations showed that both interspecific-dependent dispersal patterns and landscape characteristics significantly influenced disease spread. Using our framework, we were able to detect statistically similar inter-population genetic differences and highly correlated spatial genetic patterns that imply species-dependent dispersal. Additionally, species that were assigned coupled-dispersal patterns were affected to the same degree by similar landscape variables. This study underlines the importance of an integrated approach to investigating emergence of disease systems. MTILG is a robust approach for such studies and can identify potential avenues for targeted disease management strategies.

  2. Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mummert

    Full Text Available During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality.

  3. Get the news out loudly and quickly: the influence of the media on limiting emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummert, Anna; Weiss, Howard

    2013-01-01

    During outbreaks of infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, individuals closely follow media reports of the outbreak. Many will attempt to minimize contacts with other individuals in order to protect themselves from infection and possibly death. This process is called social distancing. Social distancing strategies include restricting socializing and travel, and using barrier protections. We use modeling to show that for short-term outbreaks, social distancing can have a large influence on reducing outbreak morbidity and mortality. In particular, public health agencies working together with the media can significantly reduce the severity of an outbreak by providing timely accounts of new infections and deaths. Our models show that the most effective strategy to reduce infections is to provide this information as early as possible, though providing it well into the course of the outbreak can still have a significant effect. However, our models for long-term outbreaks indicate that reporting historic infection data can result in more infections than with no reporting at all. We examine three types of media influence and we illustrate the media influence with a simulated outbreak of a generic emerging infectious disease in a small city. Social distancing can never be complete; however, for a spectrum of outbreaks, we show that leaving isolation (stopping applying social distancing measures) for up to 4 hours each day has modest effect on the overall morbidity and mortality.

  4. Infectious Diseases Team for the Early Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, Pierluigi; Tedeschi, Sara; Scudeller, Luigia; Attard, Luciano; Badia, Lorenzo; Bartoletti, Michele; Cascavilla, Alessandra; Cristini, Francesco; Dentale, Nicola; Fasulo, Giovanni; Legnani, Giorgio; Trapani, Filippo; Tumietto, Fabio; Verucchi, Gabriella; Virgili, Giulio; Berlingeri, Andrea; Ambretti, Simone; De Molo, Chiara; Brizi, Mara; Cavazza, Mario; Giannella, Maddalena

    2017-10-15

    The impact on patient survival of an infectious disease (ID) team dedicated to the early management of severe sepsis/septic shock (SS/SS) in Emergency Department (ED) has yet to be assessed. A quasiexperimental pre-post study was performed at the general ED of our hospital. During the pre phase (June 2013-July 2014), all consecutive adult patients with SS/SS were managed according to the standard of care, data were prospectively collected. During the post phase (August 2014-October 2015), patients were managed in collaboration with a dedicated ID team performing a bedside patient evaluation within 1 hour of ED arrival. Overall, 382 patients were included, 195 in the pre phase and 187 in the post phase. Median age was 82 years (interquartile range, 70-88). The most common infection sources were lung (43%) and urinary tract (17%); in 22% of cases, infection source remained unknown. During the post phase, overall compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) bundle and appropriateness of initial antibiotic therapy improved from 4.6% to 32% (P management of SS/SS in the ED improved the adherence to SSC recommendations and patient survival. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Infectious Gastroenteritis and the Need for Strict Contact Precaution Procedures in Adults Presenting in the Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Florence; Andersen, Vibeke; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims...... of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples. METHODS: This Danish register based retrospective......: Among 66,885 acute admissions 4.3% patients had at least one feature of gastroenteritis: admission with a chief complaint of diarrhoea (1.6%); faecal sample microbiology examination (2.8%); discharged with a gastroenteritis diagnosis (1.7%). 19% of those who had a faecal sample tested were norovirus...

  6. Resource mapping and emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in human and animal populations in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Karimuribo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid situation analysis was conducted in Kibaha and Ngorongoro districts in Tanzania to map resources as well as analysing emergency preparedness to infectious diseases in animal (domestic and wild and human populations. Kibaha was chosen as a district close to a commercial city (Dar es Salaam while Ngorongoro represented a remote, border district with high interactions between humans, domestic and wild animals. In this study, data on resources and personnel as well as emergency preparedness were collected from all wards (n = 22, human health facilities (n = 40 and livestock facilities in the two districts using interview checklists and questionnaires. Descriptive statistics for resources were calculated and mapped by district. Kibaha district had a higher human population density, more health workers, better equipped health facilities and better communication and transport systems. On the other hand, Ngorongoro had a higher population of livestock and more animal health facilities but a poorer ratio of animal health workers to livestock. The average ratio of health personnel to population in catchment areas of the health facilities was 1:147 (range of 1:17−1:1200. The ratio of personnel to human population was significantly higher in Kibaha (1:95 than in Ngorongoro (1:203 district (p = 0 < 0.001. Considering the limited resources available to both human and animal health sectors and their different strengths and weaknesses there are opportunities for greater collaboration and resource-sharing between human and animal health for improved surveillance and emergency-preparedness.

  7. The use of expert opinion to assess the risk of emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases in Canada associated with climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cox

    Full Text Available Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in infectious disease outbreaks. Reliable surveillance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required, and given limited resources, policy decision makers need rational methods with which to prioritise pathogen threats. Here expert opinion was collected to determine what criteria could be used to prioritise diseases according to the likelihood of emergence in response to climate change and according to their impact. We identified a total of 40 criteria that might be used for this purpose in the Canadian context. The opinion of 64 experts from academic, government and independent backgrounds was collected to determine the importance of the criteria. A weight was calculated for each criterion based on the expert opinion. The five that were considered most influential on disease emergence or impact were: potential economic impact, severity of disease in the general human population, human case fatality rate, the type of climate that the pathogen can tolerate and the current climatic conditions in Canada. There was effective consensus about the influence of some criteria among participants, while for others there was considerable variation. The specific climate criteria that were most likely to influence disease emergence were: an annual increase in temperature, an increase in summer temperature, an increase in summer precipitation and to a lesser extent an increase in winter temperature. These climate variables were considered to be most influential on vector-borne diseases and on food and water-borne diseases. Opinion about the influence of climate on air-borne diseases and diseases spread by direct/indirect contact were more variable. The impact of emerging diseases on the human population was deemed more important than the impact on animal populations.

  8. Prevention and control of emergent infectious disease with high specific antigen sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongzhe; Zhang, Shanshan; Liu, Nan

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the application of a new type of high specificity antigen sensor in detecting the viruses in sudden infectious diseases. Influenza A (H1N1) virus immunosensor was used for the respective determination of the six kinds of antigens of H1N1, H3N2 viral protein, HA protein of H7N9, influenza B virus, adenovirus, and EV71 virus of same dilution degree on the Screen Printed Carbon Electrode (SPCE), so as to test the specificity of the detection method. In addition, various batches of chick embryo allantoic saliva dilution simulation samples were also detected on their recovery (accuracy), repeatability (precision), and stability. The results were as follows: the linear equation was y = 121.33x + 168; the slope of the linear equation was 121.33 nA/HA unit, representing the sensitivity; correlation coefficient was R 2 =0.9921 > 0.90. Using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) software, we found that: the W values of seven sets of data after Shapiro-Wilk detection were 0.853, 0.991, 0.901, 0.906, 0.825, 0.974, and 0.992, respectively; P values were 0.247, 0.831, 0.386, 0.405, 0.174, 0.691, and 0.821, respectively, all of which were greater than 0.05, suggesting that normality was met. The results of homogeneity test for variance were as follows: F = 2.44, P = 0.0775 > 0.05, suggesting that homogeneity of variance was met. The parametric test results were as follows: F = 19114.0, P electrochemical immunosensor was 80-110%. Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values of repeatability (precision) test of H1N1 influenza virus electrochemical immunosensor were 7.74%, 3.54%, and 2.01%, all of which were smaller than 10%. The signal response of H1N1 electrochemical immune biological sensor could still maintain more than 85% of the original signal within 30 days of storage. In conclusion, H1N1 electrochemical immune biosensor has good specificity and the test results are not affected by other viruses of the same type. Besides, it

  9. A proposed emergency management program for acute care facilities in response to a highly virulent infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petinaux, Bruno; Ferguson, Brandy; Walker, Milena; Lee, Yeo-Jin; Little, Gary; Parenti, David; Simon, Gary

    2016-01-01

    To address the organizational complexities associated with a highly virulent infectious disease (HVID) hazard, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), an acute care facility should institute an emergency management program rooted in the fundamentals of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. This program must address all known facets of the care of a patient with HVID, from unannounced arrival to discharge. The implementation of such a program not only serves to mitigate the risks from an unrecognized exposure but also serves to prepare the organization and its staff to provide for a safe response, and ensure a full recovery. Much of this program is based on education, training, and infection control measures along with resourcing for appropriate personal protective equipment which is instrumental in ensuring an organized and safe response of the acute care facility in the service to the community. This emergency management program approach can serve as a model in the care of not only current HVIDs such as EVD but also future presentations in our healthcare setting.

  10. Rapid response to an emerging infectious disease - Lessons learned from development of a synthetic DNA vaccine targeting Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudchodkar, Sagar B; Choi, Hyeree; Reuschel, Emma L; Esquivel, Rianne; Jin-Ah Kwon, Jackie; Jeong, Moonsup; Maslow, Joel N; Reed, Charles C; White, Scott; Kim, J Joseph; Kobinger, Gary P; Tebas, Pablo; Weiner, David B; Muthumani, Kar

    2018-03-17

    Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective new vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years. Over this period, ZIKV infections were subclinical in most infected individuals and resulted in mild cases of fever, arthralgia, and rash in others. Concerns about ZIKV changed over the past two years, however, as outbreaks in Brazil, Central American countries, and Caribbean islands revealed novel aspects of infection including vertical and sexual transmission modes. Cases have been reported showing dramatic neurological pathologies including microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental problems in babies born to ZIKV infected mothers, as well as an increased risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. These findings prompted the World Health Organization to declare ZIKV a public health emergency in 2016, which resulted in expanded efforts to develop ZIKV vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Several ZIKV vaccine candidates that are immunogenic and effective at blocking ZIKV infection in animal models have since been developed, with some of these now being evaluated in the clinic. Additional therapeutics under investigation include anti-ZIKV monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have been shown to neutralize infection in vitro as well as protect against morbidity in mouse models of ZIKV infection. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of ZIKV biology and describe our efforts to rapidly develop a vaccine against ZIKV

  11. Evolution in action: climate change, biodiversity dynamics and emerging infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Eric P; Brooks, Daniel R

    2015-04-05

    Climatological variation and ecological perturbation have been pervasive drivers of faunal assembly, structure and diversification for parasites and pathogens through recurrent events of geographical and host colonization at varying spatial and temporal scales of Earth history. Episodic shifts in climate and environmental settings, in conjunction with ecological mechanisms and host switching, are often critical determinants of parasite diversification, a view counter to more than a century of coevolutionary thinking about the nature of complex host-parasite assemblages. Parasites are resource specialists with restricted host ranges, yet shifts onto relatively unrelated hosts are common during phylogenetic diversification of parasite lineages and directly observable in real time. The emerging Stockholm Paradigm resolves this paradox: Ecological Fitting (EF)--phenotypic flexibility and phylogenetic conservatism in traits related to resource use, most notably host preference--provides many opportunities for rapid host switching in changing environments, without the evolution of novel host-utilization capabilities. Host shifts via EF fuel the expansion phase of the Oscillation Hypothesis of host range and speciation and, more generally, the generation of novel combinations of interacting species within the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution. In synergy, an environmental dynamic of Taxon Pulses establishes an episodic context for host and geographical colonization. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The Public Sphere in Emerging Infectious Disease Communication: Recipient or Active and Vocal Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Walter, Nathan; Mordini, Emilio; Dimitriou, Dimitris; James, James J; Green, Manfred S

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have seen advances in theories and models of risk and crisis communication, with a focus on emerging epidemic infection. Nevertheless, information flow remains unilateral in many countries and does not take into account the public's polyvocality and the fact that its opinions and knowledge often "compete" with those of health authorities. This article addresses the challenges organizations face in communicating with the public sphere. Our theoretical approach is conceptualized through a framework that focuses on the public sphere and that builds upon existing guidelines and studies in the context of health and pandemics. We examine how health organizations cope with the public's transformation from recipients to an active and vocal entity, ie, how and to what extent health organizations address the public's anxiety and concerns arising in the social media during outbreaks. Although international organizations have aspired to relate to the public as a partner, this article identifies notable gaps. Organizations must involve the public throughout the crisis and conduct dialogues free of prejudices, paternalism, and preconceptions. Thereby, they can impart precise and updated information reflecting uncertainty and considering cultural differences to build trust and facilitate cooperation with the public sphere.

  13. Urbanization, Agricultural Intensification, and Habitat Alteration in Vietnam: Modeling Transitional Development and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; Saksena, S.; Spencer, J.; Finucane, M.; Sultana, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our overarching hypothesis is that new risks, in this case the H5N1 strain of avian influenza, emerge during transitions between stages of development. Moreover, these risks are not coincidental but occur precisely because of the in-between nature of the coupled human-natural system at the point when things are neither traditional nor modern but resemble the state of chaos, release and reorganization. We are testing this hypothesis in Vietnam using demographic, social, economic, and environmental data collected in national censuses and analyzed at commune and district levels to identify communes and districts that are traditional, modern, and transitional (peri-urban). Using data from the 2006 agricultural census that capture both the changing nature of the built environment (types of sanitation systems) and the loss of and diversification of agriculture systems (percent of households whose major source of income is from agriculture, and percent of land under agriculture, forests, and aquaculture), and a normalized difference vegetation index from 2006 Landsat images we created a national scale urbanicity map for Vietnam. Field work in the summer of 2011 showed this map to be an accurate (approximately 85%) approximation of traditional (rural), transitional (periurban), and modern (urban) communes. Preliminary results suggest that over 7% of the country's land area and roughly 15% of its population resides in periurban neighborhoods, and that these areas do have a statistically significant greater incidence of AVI as measured in chicken deaths than traditional and modern communes (Table 1). Transitional neighborhoods such as these force planners to ask two questions. To what extent does the dichotomy of urban/rural makes sense in the context of Vietnam, when large areas and parts of the population are caught between the two? Second, how can planners and policy makers effectively provide for basic public goods and services in these contexts?Classification of places

  14. Knowledge Management Framework for Emerging Infectious Diseases Preparedness and Response: Design and Development of Public Health Document Ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhizun; Gonzalez, Mila C; Morse, Stephen S; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2017-10-11

    There are increasing concerns about our preparedness and timely coordinated response across the globe to cope with emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). This poses practical challenges that require exploiting novel knowledge management approaches effectively. This work aims to develop an ontology-driven knowledge management framework that addresses the existing challenges in sharing and reusing public health knowledge. We propose a systems engineering-inspired ontology-driven knowledge management approach. It decomposes public health knowledge into concepts and relations and organizes the elements of knowledge based on the teleological functions. Both knowledge and semantic rules are stored in an ontology and retrieved to answer queries regarding EID preparedness and response. A hybrid concept extraction was implemented in this work. The quality of the ontology was evaluated using the formal evaluation method Ontology Quality Evaluation Framework. Our approach is a potentially effective methodology for managing public health knowledge. Accuracy and comprehensiveness of the ontology can be improved as more knowledge is stored. In the future, a survey will be conducted to collect queries from public health practitioners. The reasoning capacity of the ontology will be evaluated using the queries and hypothetical outbreaks. We suggest the importance of developing a knowledge sharing standard like the Gene Ontology for the public health domain. ©Zhizun Zhang, Mila C Gonzalez, Stephen S Morse, Venkat Venkatasubramanian. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 11.10.2017.

  15. The Epidemiology and Surveillance Workforce Among Local Health Departments in California: Mutual Aid and Surge Capacity for Routine and Emergency Infectious Disease Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Adam W.; Hunter, Jennifer C.; Balido, Jeannie; Aragon, Tomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Public health surveillance and epidemiologic investigations are critical public health functions for identifying threats to the health of a community. We conducted a survey of local health departments (LHDs) in California to describe the workforce that supports public health surveillance and epidemiologic functions during routine and emergency infectious disease situations. Methods The target population consisted of the 61 LHDs in California. The online survey instrument was designed to collect information about the workforce involved in key epidemiologic functions. We also examined how the public health workforce increases its epidemiologic capacity during infectious disease emergencies. Results Of 61 LHDs in California, 31 (51%) completed the survey. A wide range of job classifications contribute to epidemiologic functions routinely, and LHDs rely on both internal and external sources of epidemiologic surge capacity during infectious disease emergencies. This study found that while 17 (55%) LHDs reported having a mutual aid agreement with at least one other organization for emergency response, only nine (29%) LHDs have a mutual aid agreement specifically for epidemiology and surveillance functions. Conclusions LHDs rely on a diverse workforce to conduct epidemiology and public health surveillance functions, emphasizing the need to identify and describe the types of staff positions that could benefit from public health surveillance and epidemiology training. While some organizations collaborate with external partners to support these functions during an emergency, many LHDs do not rely on mutual aid agreements for epidemiology and surveillance activities. PMID:25355982

  16. Antibacterial activity of the emerging Fusarium mycotoxins enniatins A, A₁, A₂, B, B₁, and B₄ on probiotic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, M; Meca, G; Marín, R; Ferrer, E; Mañes, J

    2014-07-01

    Enniatins (ENs) are secondary metabolites produced by several Fusarium strains, chemically characterized as N-methylated cyclohexadepsipeptides. These compounds are known to act as antifungal and antibacterial agents, but they also possess anti-insect and phytotoxic properties. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of pure fractions of the bioactive compounds ENs A, A₁, A₂, B, B₁, and B₄ was tested towards nine probiotic microrganisms, twenty-two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and nine Bacillus subtilis strains. Antimicrobial analyses were carried out the disc-diffusion method using ENs concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 20,000 ng. Plates were incubated for 24 h at 37 °C before reading the diameter of the inhibition spots. ENs A, A₁, A₂, B, B₁ and B₄, were active against several microorganisms with inhibition halos ranging from 3 to 12 mm in diameter. The most active mycotoxin was the EN A₁, which reduced the microbial growth of 8 strains at the dose of 20,000 ng, with inhibition spots sized between 8 and 12 mm. ENs B and B₄ showed no antimicrobial activity towards the microorganisms tested at doses up to 20,000 ng per disc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Need of surveillance response systems to combat Ebola outbreaks and other emerging infectious diseases in African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is growing concern in Sub-Saharan Africa about the spread of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, and the public health burden that it ensues. Since 1976, there have been 885,343 suspected and laboratory confirmed cases of EVD and the disease has claimed 2,512 cases and 932 fatality in West Africa. There are certain requirements that must be met when responding to EVD outbreaks and this process could incur certain challenges. For the purposes of this paper, five have been identified: (i) the deficiency in the development and implementation of surveillance response systems against Ebola and others infectious disease outbreaks in Africa; (ii) the lack of education and knowledge resulting in an EVD outbreak triggering panic, anxiety, psychosocial trauma, isolation and dignity impounding, stigmatisation, community ostracism and resistance to associated socio-ecological and public health consequences; (iii) limited financial resources, human technical capacity and weak community and national health system operational plans for prevention and control responses, practices and management; (iv) inadequate leadership and coordination; and (v) the lack of development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and novel therapies including vaccines which can assist in preventing, controlling and containing Ebola outbreaks as well as the spread of the disease. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop and implement an active early warning alert and surveillance response system for outbreak response and control of emerging infectious diseases. Understanding the unending risks of transmission dynamics and resurgence is essential in implementing rapid effective response interventions tailored to specific local settings and contexts. Therefore, the following actions are recommended: (i) national and regional inter-sectorial and trans-disciplinary surveillance response systems that include early warnings, as well

  18. Infectious keratitis after keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Jose R; Mian, Shahzad I

    2016-07-01

    Infectious keratitis is an uncommon but serious complication after corneal transplantation that threatens the visual potential of corneal grafts. Several large retrospective studies from sites worldwide have documented the experiences of corneal surgeons with this sight-threatening complication. The present review synthesizes and compares incidence rates, risk factors, common microorganisms, treatments, and visual prognoses of patients with postkeratoplasty infectious keratitis. In 2012, endothelial keratoplasty replaced penetrating keratoplasty as the most commonly performed corneal transplantation procedure in the United States. Although reported rates of infectious keratitis after endothelial keratoplasty appear to be less than after penetrating keratoplasty, there are still too few publications documenting infectious keratitis after endothelial keratoplasty or anterior lamellar keratoplasty to adequately assess outcomes. Infectious keratitis continues to be a serious complication among all types of keratoplasty, threatening the viability of the grafted tissues and visual outcomes of patients. Reports from various sites worldwide indicate differences in incidence rates and common infecting microorganisms between high- and middle-income countries. Most reports agree that suture-related problems and factors contributing to a suboptimal ocular surface are the primary risk factors for developing infectious keratitis. In general, patients with infectious keratitis following keratoplasty have a poor visual prognosis because of the difficulty of successful treatment without residual scarring.

  19. The ecology of micro-organisms in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, L.

    1971-01-01

    Microorganisms under closed environmental ecological conditions with reference to astronauts infectious diseases, discussing bacteria growth in Biosatellite 2 and earth based closed chamber experiments

  20. Global climate and infectious disease: The cholera paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colwell, R.R. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-20

    Historically, infectious diseases have had a profound effect on human populations, including their evolution and cultural development. Despite significant advances in medical science, infectious diseases continue to impact human populations in many parts of the world. Emerging diseases are considered to be those infections that either are newly appearing in the population or are rapidly increasing in incidence or expanding in geographic range. Emergence of disease is not a simple phenomenon, mainly because infectious diseases are dynamic. Most new infections are not caused by truly new pathogens but are microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths) that find a new way to enter a susceptible host and are newly recognized because of recently developed, sensitive techniques. Human activities drive emergence of disease and a variety of social, economic, political, climatic, technological, and environmental factors can shape the pattern of a disease and influence its emergence into populations. For example, travel affects emergence of disease, and human migrations have been the main source of epidemics throughout history. Trade caravans, religious pilgrimage, and military campaigns facilitated the spread of plague, smallpox, and cholera. Global travel is a fact of modern life and, equally so, the continued evolution of microorganisms; therefore, new infections will continue to emerge, and known infections will change in distribution, frequency, and severity. 88 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance global emergence: healthcare facilities or environmental microbiota as the most important reservoir of antibiotic resistant microorganisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Migliavacca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems contamination caused by drugs and by their biologically active transformation products has become an emerging environmental issue: recently developed analytical and sensitive methods have allowed the detection of these pollutants in different matrices (like water, soil, sediment. [...

  2. Planning an innovation marathon at an infectious disease conference with results from the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance 2016 Hackathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Ramatowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A hackathon is best described as an ‘innovation marathon’. Derived from the words ‘hacking’ and ‘marathon’, it brings together multidisciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects. The core process of first identifying and deconstructing a problem followed by solution iteration is applicable to challenges at workplaces around the world. Ultimately, this model can be used to drive innovation and catalyze change in the global health community. The planning, execution, and outcomes of a hackathon event organized in conjunction with the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance (IMED 2016 are described in this article. Physicians, public health practitioners, veterinarians, IT professionals, engineers, and entrepreneurs came together for 2 days to develop solutions at the intersection of emerging infectious diseases and climate change. Projects that resulted from the IMED 2016 Hackathon included environmental impact assessment software for humanitarian organization relief efforts; enhanced communication tools to prevent disease outbreaks; a participatory mobile application to speed the elimination of rabies in Indonesia; integrated disease surveillance platforms; and an improved search function for infectious disease outbreak reports in the ProMED-mail network. Keywords: Hackathon, Innovation, Infectious diseases, Public health, Medical meeting, Interdisciplinary, Emerging infectious diseases

  3. Evidence of genetic drift and reassortment in infectious bursal disease virus and emergence of outbreaks in poultry farms in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amrutlal K; Pandey, Vinod C; Pal, Joy K

    2016-06-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of infectious bursal disease (IBD) have become a burning problem to the poultry industry worldwide. Here, we performed genetic analysis of IBD virus (IBDV) field isolates from recent outbreaks in various poultry farms in India. The sequence analysis of IBDV VP2 hypervariable region revealed amino acid pattern similar to that of very virulent (222A, 242I, 253Q, 256I, 272I, 279D, 284A, 294I, 299S and 330S) and intermediate plus virulent (222A, 242I, 253Q, 256I, 272T, 279N, 284A, 294I, 299S and 330S) type whereas analysis of VP1 revealed presence of sequence similar to that of very virulent (61I, 145T) and unique (61I, 141I, 143D, 145S) type in field isolates. Among the eight field isolates, two isolates contained very virulent type VP2 and unique type VP1, three contained intermediate plus virulent type VP2 and unique type VP1 whereas five contained both VP2 and VP1 of very virulent type. The phylogenetic analysis based on VP2 nucleotide sequence showed clustering of all eight isolates close to known very virulent strains whereas based on VP1, five isolates formed unique cluster and three isolates were placed close to very virulent strains. The isolates forming unique VP1 cluster showed highest similarity with classical virulent IBDVs suggesting their possible evolution from segment B of non-very virulent IBDVs. Interestingly, these five isolates were responsible for outbreaks in four different farms located at three different geographic locations in India. These observations indicates genetic reassortment between segment A and segment B from co-infecting IBDV strains leading to emergence of very virulent strains and their widespread prevalence in Indian poultry farms. The presence of 272I and 279D in VP2 protein of five field isolates may explain possible cause of Gumboro intermediate plus vaccine failure in prevention of the outbreaks. However, mortality caused by other three strains which are antigenically similar to VP1 of intermediate plus

  4. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... But some of them can make you sick. Infectious diseases are diseases that are caused by germs. There ... many different ways that you can get an infectious disease: Through direct contact with a person who is ...

  5. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  6. Emerging Infectious Disease Surveillance in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Indonesia, and the Naval Area Medical Research Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-22

    public health expenditure, the psychosocial impact on affected individuals, families and communities, the economic impact on travel, tourism and the...disease emergence. In J. E. Childs, J. S. Mackenzie, & J. A. Richt (Eds.), Wildlife and emerging zoonotic diseases: the biology, circumstances and...of messages.” xviii Given that both Cambodia and Indonesia are in Asia, the addition of a case study on Egypt or Kenya in future research will

  7. Infection control management of patients with suspected highly infectious diseases in emergency departments: data from a survey in 41 facilities in 14 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Francesco M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Emergency and Medical Admission Departments (EDs and MADs, prompt recognition and appropriate infection control management of patients with Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs, e.g. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and SARS are fundamental for avoiding nosocomial outbreaks. Methods The EuroNHID (European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases project collected data from 41 EDs and MADs in 14 European countries, located in the same facility as a national/regional referral centre for HIDs, using specifically developed checklists, during on-site visits from February to November 2009. Results Isolation rooms were available in 34 facilities (82,9%: these rooms had anteroom in 19, dedicated entrance in 15, negative pressure in 17, and HEPA filtration of exhausting air in 12. Only 6 centres (14,6% had isolation rooms with all characteristics. Personnel trained for the recognition of HIDs was available in 24 facilities; management protocols for HIDs were available in 35. Conclusions Preparedness level for the safe and appropriate management of HIDs is partially adequate in the surveyed EDs and MADs.

  8. The Ebola Vaccine Team B: a model for promoting the rapid development of medical countermeasures for emerging infectious disease threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterholm, Michael; Moore, Kristine; Ostrowsky, Julie; Kimball-Baker, Kathleen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    In support of accelerated development of Ebola vaccines from preclinical research to clinical trials, in November, 2014, the Wellcome Trust and the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP) at the University of Minnesota established the Wellcome Trust-CIDRAP Ebola Vaccine Team B initiative. This ongoing initiative includes experts with global experience in various phases of bringing new vaccines to market, such as funding, research and development, manufacturing, determination of safety and efficacy, regulatory approval, and vaccination delivery. It also includes experts in community engagement strategies and ethical issues germane to vaccination policies, including eight African scientists with direct experience in developing and implementing vaccination policies in Africa. Ebola Vaccine Team B members have worked on a range of vaccination programmes, such as polio eradication (Africa and globally), development of meningococcal A disease vaccination campaigns in Africa, and malaria and HIV/AIDS vaccine research. We also provide perspective on how this experience can inform future situations where urgent development of vaccines is needed, and we comment on the role that an independent, expert group such as Team B can have in support of national and international public health authorities toward addressing a public health crisis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Planning an innovation marathon at an infectious disease conference with results from the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance 2016 Hackathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramatowski, John W; Lee, Christopher Xiang; Mantzavino, Aikaterini; Ribas, João; Guerra, Winter; Preston, Nicholas D; Schernhammer, Eva; Madoff, Lawrence C; Lassmann, Britta

    2017-12-01

    A hackathon is best described as an 'innovation marathon'. Derived from the words 'hacking' and 'marathon', it brings together multidisciplinary teams to collaborate intensely over a short period of time to define a problem, devise a solution, and design a working prototype. International scientific meetings are conducive to successful hackathons, providing an audience of expert professionals who describe challenges and ensure the proposed solutions address end-user needs. Collaborations with local organizations and academic centers are crucial to attracting complementary specialties such as IT advisors, engineers, and entrepreneurs to develop sustainable projects. The core process of first identifying and deconstructing a problem followed by solution iteration is applicable to challenges at workplaces around the world. Ultimately, this model can be used to drive innovation and catalyze change in the global health community. The planning, execution, and outcomes of a hackathon event organized in conjunction with the International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance (IMED 2016) are described in this article. Physicians, public health practitioners, veterinarians, IT professionals, engineers, and entrepreneurs came together for 2days to develop solutions at the intersection of emerging infectious diseases and climate change. Projects that resulted from the IMED 2016 Hackathon included environmental impact assessment software for humanitarian organization relief efforts; enhanced communication tools to prevent disease outbreaks; a participatory mobile application to speed the elimination of rabies in Indonesia; integrated disease surveillance platforms; and an improved search function for infectious disease outbreak reports in the ProMED-mail network. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Infectious disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  11. Early epidemiological assessment of the virulence of emerging infectious diseases: a case study of an influenza pandemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The case fatality ratio (CFR, the ratio of deaths from an infectious disease to the number of cases, provides an assessment of virulence. Calculation of the ratio of the cumulative number of deaths to cases during the course of an epidemic tends to result in a biased CFR. The present study develops a simple method to obtain an unbiased estimate of confirmed CFR (cCFR, using only the confirmed cases as the denominator, at an early stage of epidemic, even when there have been only a few deaths. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method adjusts the biased cCFR by a factor of underestimation which is informed by the time from symptom onset to death. We first examine the approach by analyzing an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong (2003 with known unbiased cCFR estimate, and then investigate published epidemiological datasets of novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus infection in the USA and Canada (2009. Because observation of a few deaths alone does not permit estimating the distribution of the time from onset to death, the uncertainty is addressed by means of sensitivity analysis. The maximum likelihood estimate of the unbiased cCFR for influenza may lie in the range of 0.16-4.48% within the assumed parameter space for a factor of underestimation. The estimates for influenza suggest that the virulence is comparable to the early estimate in Mexico. Even when there have been no deaths, our model permits estimating a conservative upper bound of the cCFR. CONCLUSIONS: Although one has to keep in mind that the cCFR for an entire population is vulnerable to its variations among sub-populations and underdiagnosis, our method is useful for assessing virulence at the early stage of an epidemic and for informing policy makers and the public.

  12. Infectious Diseases

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While recent infectious disease events have helped mobilize large amounts of funding and expertise to address pandemic preparedness and vaccine research, many infectious diseases, particularly those affecting the poor, have been neglected. The complexity of environmental diseases like Chagas and dengue defy ...

  13. Antimicrobial agents of plant origin for the treatment of phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The phlogistic-infectious diseases of the lower female genital tract are one of the most widespread obstetricgynecologic issues, due to treatment failures that cause frequent relapses and to the adverse effects of some commonly used drugs.The most common vaginal syndromes are due to uncontrolled growth of bacteria or fungi which replace the normal vaginal flora, causing phlogistic and infectious based diseases. These infections are treated with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic therapy; however, the emergence of resistant strains and the ability of many microorganisms to grow inside biofilms severely reduce the repertoire of useful agents.Thus, in the last years increasing interest has been focused toward compounds of plant origin with anti-microbial properties. In the present work, we studied the antimicrobial activity of fractions obtained from endemic plants of Sardinia towards microorganisms that frequently are involved in vaginal infectious diseases: Streptococcus agalactiae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans.

  14. [Consensus statement of the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and AIDS Study Group of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology on Emergency and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Supporting non-HIV specialist professionals in the treatment of patients with urgent diseases resulting from HIV infection. These recommendations have been agreed by an expert panel from the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine, and the AIDS Study Group. A review has been made of the safety and efficacy results of clinical trials and cohort studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented at conferences. The strength of each recommendation (A, B, C) and the level of supporting evidence (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The data to be collected from the emergency medical history in order to recognize the patient at risk of HIV infection were specified. It stressed the basic knowledge of ART principles and its importance in terms of decline in morbidity and mortality of HIV+ patients and referring to the HIV specialist for follow-up, where appropriate, including drug interactions. Management of different emergency situations that may occur in patients with HIV infection is also mentioned. The non-HIV specialist professional, will find the necessary tools to approach HIV patients with an emergency disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis in a tennis player: an emerging pathogen in infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basaran, Ozcan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 2000s, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention has defined community-associated methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA disease which is a disease of healthcare unrelated patients. We report here on a 39-year-old female patient who was admitted to our institution without any medical history. She was a tennis player and had been suffering from ankle pain for a month. She was diagnosed with infective endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria. Blood cultures were taken to BD BACTEC Blood Culture System, gram positive bacteria were isolated and identified as methicillin-resistant with BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System. She was treated with gentamicin plus linezolid. The patients’ pathogen was thought to be CA-MRSA which is an emerging pathogen in infective endocarditis.

  16. Invasive snails and an emerging infectious disease: results from the first national survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40x40 km. One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis-infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks.

  17. Invasive Snails and an Emerging Infectious Disease: Results from the First National Survey on Angiostrongylus cantonensis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shan; Zhang, Yi; Liu, He-Xiang; Hu, Ling; Yang, Kun; Steinmann, Peter; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Li-Ying; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic meningitis (angiostrongyliasis) caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis is emerging in mainland China. However, the distribution of A. cantonensis and its intermediate host snails, and the role of two invasive snail species in the emergence of angiostrongyliasis, are not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings A national survey pertaining to A. cantonensis was carried out using a grid sampling approach (spatial resolution: 40×40 km). One village per grid cell was randomly selected from a 5% random sample of grid cells located in areas where the presence of the intermediate host snail Pomacea canaliculata had been predicted based on a degree-day model. Potential intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis were collected in the field, restaurants, markets and snail farms, and examined for infection. The infection prevalence among intermediate host snails was estimated, and the prevalence of A. cantonensis within P. canaliculata was displayed on a map, and predicted for non-sampled locations. It was confirmed that P. canaliculata and Achatina fulica were the predominant intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in China, and these snails were found to be well established in 11 and six provinces, respectively. Infected snails of either species were found in seven provinces, closely matching the endemic area of A. cantonensis. Infected snails were also found in markets and restaurants. Two clusters of A. cantonensis–infected P. canaliculata were predicted in Fujian and Guangxi provinces. Conclusions/Significance The first national survey in China revealed a wide distribution of A. cantonensis and two invasive snail species, indicating that a considerable number of people are at risk of angiostrongyliasis. Health education, rigorous food inspection and surveillance are all needed to prevent recurrent angiostrongyliasis outbreaks. PMID:19190771

  18. Investigating and managing the rapid emergence of white-nose syndrome, a novel, fatal, infectious disease of hibernating bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet; Clifford, Deana; Castle, Kevin; Cryan, Paul M.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fatal disease of bats that hibernate. The etiologic agent of WNS is the fungus Geomyces destructans, which infects the skin and wing membranes. Over 1 million bats in six species in eastern North America have died from WNS since 2006, and as a result several species of bats may become endangered or extinct. Information is lacking on the pathogenesis of G. destructans and WNS, WNS transmission and maintenance, individual and site factors that contribute to the probability of an outbreak of WNS, and spatial dynamics of WNS spread in North America. We considered how descriptive and analytical epidemiology could be used to fill these information gaps, including a four-step (modified) outbreak investigation, application of a set of criteria (Hill's) for assessing causation, compartment models of disease dynamics, and spatial modeling. We cataloged and critiqued adaptive-management options that have been either previously proposed for WNS or were helpful in addressing other emerging diseases of wild animals. These include an ongoing program of prospective surveillance of bats and hibernacula for WNS, treatment of individual bats, increasing population resistance to WNS (through vaccines, immunomodulators, or other methods), improving probability of survival from starvation and dehydration associated with WNS, modifying hibernacula environments to eliminate G. destructans, culling individuals or populations, controlling anthropogenic spread of WNS, conserving genetic diversity of bats, and educating the public about bats and bat conservation issues associated with WNS.

  19. Opinion paper on innovative approach of biomarkers for infectious diseases and sepsis management in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Somma, Salvatore; Magrini, Laura; Travaglino, Francesco; Lalle, Irene; Fiotti, Nicola; Cervellin, Grianfranco; Avanzi, Gian Carlo; Lupia, Enrico; Maisel, Alan; Hein, Frauke; Wagner, Florian; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Sepsis is a leading healthcare problem, accounting for the vast majority of fatal events in critically ill patients. Beyond early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, this condition requires a multifaceted approach for monitoring the severity, the potential organ failure as well as the risk of death. Monitoring of the efficacy of treatment is also a major issue in the emergency department (ED). The assessment of critically ill conditions and the prognosis of patients with sepsis is currently based on some scoring systems, which are, however, inefficient to provide definite clues about organ failure and prognosis in general. The discretionary and appropriate use of some selected biomarkers such as procalcitonin, inducible protein 10 (IP10), Group IV phospholipase A2 type II (PLA2 II), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), natriuretic peptides, mature adrenomedullin (ADM), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), copeptin, thrombopoietin, Mer receptor and even red blood cell distribution width (RDW) represent thereby an appealing perspective in the diagnosis and management of patients with sepsis. Nevertheless, at the moment, it is not still clear if it is better to use a multimarkers approach or if a single, most appropriate, biomarker exists. This collective opinion paper is aimed at providing an overview about the potential clinical usefulness of some innovative biomarkers of sepsis in its diagnosis and prognosis, but also in the treatment management of the disease. This manuscript represents a synopsis of the lectures of Third Italian GREAT Network Congress, that was hold in Rome, 15-19 October 2012.

  20. Infectious neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to address bacterial, viral, and other infectious causes of neuropathy or neuronopathy, with an emphasis on clinical manifestations and treatment. Most infectious neuropathies have been well described for some time and treatments are well established. An exception is HIV-associated distal symmetric polyneuropathy, which is an area of active research. Current work in this area focuses on epidemiology, risk factors, and underlying mechanisms. Infectious diseases are an important part of the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders because they are among the most amenable to treatment. However, diagnosis of infectious peripheral neuropathy may be challenging because of variability in a number of factors, including the pattern of deficits, geographic distribution of pathogens, length of time from the onset of infection to the development of neuropathy, and mechanism of nerve injury.

  1. Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as undercooked hamburger or unpasteurized fruit juice. Risk factors While anyone can catch infectious diseases, you may ... only minor complications. But some infections — such as pneumonia, AIDS and ... increased risk of cancer: Human papillomavirus is linked to cervical ...

  2. Infectious Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  3. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.

  4. Quarantine as a public health measure against an emerging infectious disease: syphilis in Zurich at the dawn of the modern era (1496–1585

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gall, Gabriella Eva Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is considered as one of the most devastating sexually transmitted diseases in human history. Based on historical records, the (German for spread through Europe after 1495 and shared symptoms with what we know today as syphilis. Many cities took measures to protect their population. Here, transliterations of archival documents from the 15 and 16 century (provided in the appendix are used to trace the steps taken by the governing authorities in Zurich to deal with this emerging infectious disease. One of the central measures taken by the city was to establish a quarantine facility referred to as the The city doctors, including the well-known physician and naturalist Conrad Gessner, oversaw the obligatory quarantine and treatment of patients with symptoms. Treatment could range from better nutrition, herbal remedies and skin ointments to aggressive heat therapy and “smoking”. Furthermore, the affliction was suspected as a sexually acquired disease, hence prostitutes and infected foreigners were extradited from the city. Meanwhile, the church used its social influence to promote a more “Christian” behavior. In several respects, the public health measures taken in the 16 century against a new and menacing epidemic do not diverge in their basic rationale from approaches used during the 20 century and today.

  5. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  6. Factors in Infectious Disease Emergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Factors: Societal events: Population growth and migration (movement from rural areas to cities); war or civil conflict; urban decay; sexual behavior; intravenous drug use; use of high-density facilities. Disease examples: Introduction of HIV; spread of dengue; spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  7. Factors in Infectious Disease Emergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Disease examples: Hemolytic uremic syndrome (E. coli contamination of hamburger meat), bovine spongiform, transfusion-associated hepatitis (hepatitis B, C), opportunistic infections in immuno-suppressed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from contaminated batches of human growth hormone (medical technology)

  8. Emerging infectious diseases and society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Washer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ... Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. Any person who does any unauthorized act in relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. The author has asserted his right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. First published 2010 by PALGRAVE MACM...

  9. [Persistant fevers of infectious origin in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Marie; Wagner, Noémie

    2018-02-14

    Prolonged fevers in children are a regular challenge for the paediatrician or any physician caring for these children (emergency physicians, pediatric infectious diseases specialists). The causes are multiple, classified into three major families : infectious, inflammatory and oncological. Infectious causes are the most common and account for more than 50 % of cases. The objective of this review is to guide physicians in charge of these patients throughout their management by focusing on the quest of infectious causes.

  10. WORKSHOP ON EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS AND ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANIMAL MANURES, BIOSOLIDS, AND OTHER SIMILAR BY-PRODUCTS: THE REST OF THE STORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will:Discuss the purpose of the workshopDiscussion publication of "Contemporary Perspectives on Infectious Disease Agents in Sewage Sludge and Manure.Present Table of ContentsDiscuss summaryDiscuss synthesis document

  11. Emerging infectious disease (EID) communication during the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak: literature review (2009-2013) of the methodology used for EID communication analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Stolero, Nathan; Mordini, Emilio; Billingsley, Matthew; James, James J; Green, Manfred S

    2015-04-01

    This year alone has seen outbreaks of epidemics such as Ebola, Chikungunya, and many other emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). We must look to the responses of recent outbreaks to help guide our strategies in current and future outbreaks or we risk repeating the same mistakes. The objective of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review of the methodology used by studies that examined EID communication during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic outbreak through different communication channels or by analyzing contents and strategies. This was a systematic review of the literature (n=61) studying risk communication strategies of H1N1 influenza, published between 2009 and 2013, and retrieved from searches of computerized databases, hand searches, and authoritative texts by use of specific search criteria. Searches were followed by review, categorization, and mixed qualitative and quantitative content analysis. Of 41 articles that used quantitative methods, most used surveys (n=35); some employed content analyses (n=4) and controlled trials (n=2). The 16 articles that employed qualitative methods relied on content analyses (n=10), semi-structured interviews (n=2) and focus groups (n=4). Four more articles used mixed-methods or nonstandard methods. Seven different topic categories were found: risk perception and effects on behaviors, framing the risk in the media, public concerns, trust, optimistic bias, uncertainty, and evaluating risk communication. Up until 2013, studies tended to be descriptive and quantitative rather than discursive and qualitative and to focus on the role of the media as representing information and not as a medium for actual communication with the public. Several studies from 2012, and increasingly more in 2013, addressed issues of discourse and framing and the complexity of risk communication with the public. Formative evaluations that use recommendations from past research when designing communication campaigns from the first stages of crises

  12. Infectious Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonuleit, Helmut; Schmitt, Edgar; Kakirman, Hacer; Stassen, Michael; Knop, Jürgen; Enk, Alexander H.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg) are mandatory for maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We demonstrate that the cell-cell contact–mediated suppression of conventional CD4+ T cells by human CD25+ Treg cells is fixation resistant, independent from membrane-bound TGF-β but requires activation and protein synthesis of CD25+ Treg cells. Coactivation of CD25+ Treg cells with Treg cell–depleted CD4+ T cells results in anergized CD4+ T cells that in turn inhibit the activation of conventional, freshly isolated CD4+ T helper (Th) cells. This infectious suppressive activity, transferred from CD25+ Treg cells via cell contact, is cell contact–independent and partially mediated by soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The induction of suppressive properties in conventional CD4+ Th cells represents a mechanism underlying the phenomenon of infectious tolerance. This explains previously published conflicting data on the role of TGF-β in CD25+ Treg cell–induced immunosuppression. PMID:12119350

  13. Novel infectious agents causing uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairallah, Moncef; Chee, Soon Phaik; Rathinam, Sivakumar R; Attia, Sonia; Nadella, Venu

    2010-10-01

    In any patient with uveitis, an infectious cause should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinician should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular manifestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, Dengue fever, and Chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help establish an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  14. The emerging problem of biological treatment in migrant and travelling populations: it is time to extend guidelines for the screening of infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalesi, F; Bartoloni, A; Bisoffi, Z; Spinicci, M; Giménez Sánchez, F; Muñoz, J; Richi, P; Minisola, G; Muñoz-Fernandez, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M

    2014-05-01

    The use of biological agents in the treatment of rheumatic diseases has been widely associated with an increased risk of reactivation of several latent infections. National and international guidelines recommend screening for infectious diseases before starting these drugs. In Western countries screening is limited to latent tuberculosis infection, HIV and viral hepatitis. However, the increasing globalisation and the remarkable number of migrating and travelling people worldwide make this approach no longer adequate. The Italian and Spanish Societies of Rheumatology and Tropical Medicine wish to issue a warning about the need to improve awareness of doctors about the risk of reactivation of infectious tropical diseases in migrant or travelling patients who undergo biological therapy. Thus, the Italian and Spanish Societies are now planning to issue specific recommendations, based on a multidisciplinary contribution and a systematic review of the literature, for screening and follow-up of active and latent chronic infections in candidate patients for biological agents, taking into account the patient's area of origin and risk of infectious diseases.

  15. U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID). The dedicated members of the USAMRIID staff ... military personnel and civilians from the threat of infectious diseases. We participate in support of emerging disease investigations, ...

  16. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Marcos G; Kibenge, Molly J T; Suarez, Rudy; Lazo, Eduardo; Heisinger, Alejandro; Aguinaga, Javier; Bravo, Diego; Mendoza, Julio; Llegues, Katerina O; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Vera, Cristian; Mardones, Fernando; Kibenge, Frederick S B

    2013-11-23

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA outbreaks, as

  17. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  18. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  19. The effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, F; Jensen, L S; Christiansen, P M

    1998-01-01

    AND TREATMENT: One hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients undergoing acute colorectal surgery for perforated and/or obstructed large bowel were randomized in a double-blind fashion to receive ranitidine 100 mg i.v. twice a day commencing at induction of anesthesia and continued for five days (group I...... patients were withdrawn from the study (for reasons such as other diagnosis, refused to continue, medication not given as prescribed). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were observed for signs of infectious complications; such as wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, septicemia, and pneumonia. RESULTS...

  20. Microorganisms (Microbes), Role of

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms (microbes) are those life forms too small to be seen by the naked eye; that is, those that require a microscope or other form of magnification in order to be observed. The term microorganism is thus a functional description rather than a taxonomic one, and the grouping includes...... a wide variety of organisms. The article focuses on the functional role of microbes in the biosphere and in different types of habitats - especially in terms of flow of energy and matter....

  1. Measuring airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Airborne transmission has been suspected to be responsible for epidemics of highly infectious disease in livestock production. In such transmission, the pathogenic microorganisms may associate with dust particles. However, the extent to which airborne transmission plays a role in the

  2. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  3. [Infectious diseases - a specialty of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fätkenheuer, G; Jung, N; Kern, W V; Fölsch, U R; Salzberger, B

    2018-04-01

    Infectious diseases have recently gained wide public interest. Emerging infections and rising rates of antibiotic resistance are determining this trend. Both challenges will need to be addressed in international and local collaborations between different specialties in medicine and basic science. Infectious diseases as a clinical specialty in this scenario is directly responsible for the care of patients with infectious diseases. Its involvement in the care of patients with complicated infections has proved to be highly effective. Antibiotic stewardship programmes are effective measures in slowing the development of antibiotic resistance and have been widely implemented. But antibiotic stewardship specialists should not be confused with or taken as an alternative to infectious disease experts. Infectious diseases requires appropriate and specific training. It mainly uses the instrumentarium of internal medicine. With the current challenges in modern medicine, infectious diseases in Germany should thus be upgraded from a subspecialty to a clinical specialty, ideally within Internal Medicine.

  4. Bioplastics from microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, José M; García, Belén; Sandoval, Angel; Naharro, Germán; Olivera, Elías R

    2003-06-01

    The term 'biomaterials' includes chemically unrelated products that are synthesised by microorganisms (or part of them) under different environmental conditions. One important family of biomaterials is bioplastics. These are polyesters that are widely distributed in nature and accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in the form of storage granules, with physico-chemical properties resembling petrochemical plastics. These polymers are usually built from hydroxy-acyl-CoA derivatives via different metabolic pathways. Depending on their microbial origin, bioplastics differ in their monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physical properties. Most of them are biodegradable and biocompatible, which makes them extremely interesting from the biotechnological point of view.

  5. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat.

  6. Responding To Infectious Disease: Multiple Cases of Staph Infections in a Rural School District. Lessons Learned From School Crises and Emergencies, Volume 3, Issue 3, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Lessons Learned" is a series of publications that are a brief recounting of actual school emergencies and crises. This "Lessons Learned" issue focuses on an incident involving several cases of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at a rural high school. MRSA is a specific strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (often called staph)…

  7. [Emerging viral infections and hepatotropic virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Marta; de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Negredo Antón, Ana; Vázquez González, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Environmental degradation, population movements and urban agglomerations have broken down the borders for infectious diseases. The expansion of microorganisms has entered an increasing area of transmission vectors. The lack of immunity of the population leads to an increased risk of spreading infectious diseases. Furthermore, the decline in vaccination rates in developed countries and socio-economic difficulties in large regions has meant that diseases in the process of eradication have re-emerged. That is why health care workers must be trained to avoid delaying in diagnosis and to accelerate the implementation of public health measures. A great deal of education and health prevention should fall under the responsibilities of travellers who move around different regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Microparticles and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

    2012-08-01

    Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-β. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Equine Infectious Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoopes, Karl H.

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet gives information on equine infectious anemia, a blood-borne infectious viral disease of horses, donkeys, and mules. It describes transmission, clinical disease, diagnosis and control.

  10. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsul Bahri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on, variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease or old disease will be re-emerged (re-emerging diseases. This paper will discuss the effect of global warming and climate change on animal diseases in Indonesia such as Bluetongue (BT, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis (JE, West Nile (WN, and Rift Valley fever (RVF. The climate changes such as increasing the earth temperature and rainfall will cause extremely increase of vector population for BT, JE, WN and RVF. In addition, animal transportation and bird migration from one country to others or region will cause changing of ecological system and will open the chance to distribute the diseases. Hence, anticipation on those disease outbreaks should be taken by conducting the surveilance and early detection to those diseases. The possibility of entering Nipah disease in Indonesia should be anticipated because the avaibility of Nipah virus and the reservoir host (Pteropus spp and also pigs as amplifier host in the surrounding area. Other diseases such as, leptospirosis, anthrax and avian influenza (H5N1 are also have a wider potential to distributing the disease related to the climate change in Indonesia.

  11. Informative communication of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kremenchutskу

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroorganism in combination with microbiota is considered as a “superorganism”. Microorganisms, belonging to the microbiota, are in dynamic equilibrium with a macroorganism. This balance is achieved through a molecular “language” of communication between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Molecular communication between cells leads to positive and negative results. A large number of metabolites of microorganisms that carry the information load: autoinducers is revealed. Autoinducer affect on the immune systems, and variety of metabolic processes. This affects on practically all organs and systems of maсroorganism. Studied metabolites of aerococci affect on the immune system, regenerative cycles and other processes of macroorganism. The problem of informative communication between prokaryotes and eukaryotes provides new insights about vital functions of “superorganisms”.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL METHODS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE IN THE SEVERE INJURIES INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Svistunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern clinical medicine and surgery problems are associated with infections complications after medical care. In recent years, surgery has made substantial progress related to the new organizational approaches and medical technology specialized medical care to the wounded and injured. However, these gains are offset by a high rate of infectious complications that require finding effective measures emerging infectious complications timely diagnosis and their prevention. Clinical manifestations are often nosocomial in patients with severe injuries and are largely determined by the influence of clinical and pathogenetic risk factors. Such infectious complications require a comprehensive assessment, including microbiological testing. The main causative agents of infectious complications in surgical hospitals are S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., which can cause bloodstream infections, soft tissue, respiratory and urinary tract infections, especially in debilitated and immunocompromised patients and patients in intensive care units. These micro organisms are dangerous to patients and medical staff, as they can survive for a long time in the hospital environment, as well as to spread from patient to patient in violation of isolation restrictive measures and requirements for hygiene of medical workers hands. Clinical patterns of infection associated with medical care for severe injuries are to the possibility of serial and parallel development, both in different and in the same time frame of local, visceral and generalized infection with prevalence of combined forms of patients surgical hospital with a high risk of nosocomial infection against the background of factors, diagnostic and treatment process and hospital environment, introduction of the agent. Early etiological diagnosis allows timely assign empirical causal treatment and arrange for infection control to prevent the spread of microorganisms in the hospital. The

  13. Executive summary. Consensus statement of the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and AIDS Study Group of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology on Emergency and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Services (ES) are the cornerstone of our health system and therefore it cannot remain indifferent to the HIV advances that have drastically changed the landscape of the disease, so, emergency specialist updating is not only necessary, it is also essential. The purpose of this paper is to support non-HIV specialist professionals in treating patients with urgent diseases resulting from HIV infection or related to it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Trevon; Bensch, Staffan; Müller, Inge; Novembre, John; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Ricklefs, Robert E; Smith, Thomas B; Waldenström, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    Pathogens that are maintained by wild birds occasionally jump to human hosts, causing considerable loss of life and disruption to global commerce. Preliminary evidence suggests that climate change and human movements and commerce may have played a role in recent range expansions of avian pathogens. Since the magnitude of climate change in the coming decades is predicted to exceed climatic changes in the recent past, there is an urgent need to determine the extent to which climate change may drive the spread of disease by avian migrants. In this review, we recommend actions intended to mitigate the impact of emergent pathogens of migratory birds on biodiversity and public health. Increased surveillance that builds upon existing bird banding networks is required to conclusively establish a link between climate and avian pathogens and to prevent pathogens with migratory bird reservoirs from spilling over to humans.

  15. A comprehensive systematic review of healthcare workers' perceptions of risk from exposure to emerging acute respiratory infectious diseases and the perceived effectiveness of strategies used to facilitate healthy coping in acute hospital and community healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiwen, Koh; Hegney, Desley; Drury, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    Emerging acute respiratory infectious diseases, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Avian Influenza A/H5N1 virus are contagious with high morbidity and mortality rates. Hence, health care workers, who are in close contact with affected patients, face many risks. There need to be a greater understanding of: individual HCWs' risk perceptions; adopted risk-mitigating strategies; and factors influencing both. This review aimed to establish the best evidence regarding health care worker's risk perceptions and workplace strategies towards emerging acute respiratory infectious diseases in acute hospital and community healthcare settings; and to make recommendations for practice and future research. Participants Studies that included male and female health care workers practising in acute and community health care settings were considered.Types of intervention (s)/Phenomena of interest This review considered studies that investigated: health care workers' risk perceptions; perceived meaning/effectiveness of the individual and workplace strategies implemented; and the factors influencing both.Types of outcomes This review focused on factors affecting: health care worker' risk perceptions; use of risk-mitigating strategies; and their perceived meaning and effectiveness.Types of studies Both qualitative and quantitative study designs published in the English language were including in the study. Using a three-step search strategy, the following databases from 1997-2009 were accessed: CINAHL, PubMed, SCOPUS, ScienceDirect, Sociological Abstracts, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Two independent reviewers assessed each paper for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardised critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Disagreements were resolved through discussion, or with a third reviewer. Information was extracted by two independent reviewers from each paper using the standardised data extraction tools from

  16. Ecology of Hypersaline Microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.

    by microorganisms. A prime example is the Dead Sea, a lake in which the 37 concentration of divalent cations (about 1.9 M Mg+2 and 0.4 M Ca+2) exceeds that of monovalent cations (1.6 M Na+ and 0.14 M K+) and of which the pH is relatively low (around 6.0). Even... such a hostile environment periodically supports dense microbial blooms (Oren, 1988). The two largest and best-studied hypersaline lakes are the Great Salt Lake in the Western United States and the Dead Sea, in the Middle East. The Great Salt Lake...

  17. Microorganism lipid droplets and biofuel development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingmei; Zhang, Congyan; Shen, Xipeng; Zhang, Xuelin; Cichello, Simon; Guan, Hongbin; Liu, Pingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids as a source of energy and carbon. However, recent research has emerged that the organelle is involved in lipid synthesis, transportation, and metabolism, as well as mediating cellular protein storage and degradation. With the exception of multi-cellular organisms, some unicellular microorganisms have been observed to contain LDs. The organelle has been isolated and characterized from numerous organisms. Triacylglycerol (TAG...

  18. Histopathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of tissue biopsies for the identification of infectious organisms is a very important diagnostic tool. Conventional culture confirmation of tissue biopsies often fail to identify any pathogen as, first of all, invariably most of the tissue samples that are collected and sent for culture isolation are inappropriately collected in formalin, which prevents pathogen growth in culture media. Inadequate processing like grinding, etc. further hinders isolation. Presence of inhibitors like dead tissue debris, fibers, etc. also delays isolation. Microbiologists often lack expertise in identifying infectious pathogens directly from tissue biopsies by microscopic visualization. This review therefore acquaints microbiologists with the various methods available for detecting infectious agents by using histological stains. On histopathological examination of the tissue biopsy once, it is determined that a disease is likely to be due to an infection and has characterized the inflammatory response and hence associated microorganisms should be thoroughly looked for. Although some microorganisms or their cytopathic effects may be clearly visible on routine haematoxylin- and eosin-stained sections, additional histochemical stains are often needed for their complete characterization. Highly specific molecular techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and nucleic acid amplification, may be needed in certain instances to establish the diagnosis of infection. Through appropriate morphologic diagnoses and interlaboratory communication and collaboration, direct microscopic visualization of tissue samples can thus be very helpful in reaching a correct and rapid diagnosis.

  19. The Human Microbiota, Infectious Disease, and Global Health: Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Abraham J; Balskus, Emily P

    2018-01-12

    Despite significant advances in treating infectious diseases worldwide, morbidity and mortality associated with pathogen infection remains extraordinarily high and represents a critical scientific and global health challenge. Current strategies to combat these infectious agents include a combination of vaccines, small molecule drugs, increased hygiene standards, and disease-specific interventions. While these approaches have helped to drastically reduce the incidence and number of deaths associated with infection, continued investment in current strategies and the development of novel therapeutic approaches will be required to address these global health threats. Recently, human- and vector-associated microbiotas, the assemblages of microorganisms living on and within their hosts, have emerged as a potentially important factor mediating both infection risk and disease progression. These complex microbial communities are involved in intricate and dynamic interactions with both pathogens as well as the innate and adaptive immune systems of their hosts. Here, we discuss recent findings that have illuminated the importance of resident microbiotas in infectious disease, emphasizing opportunities for novel therapeutic intervention and future challenges for the field. Our discussion will focus on four major global health threats: tuberculosis, malaria, HIV, and enteric/diarrheal diseases. We hope this Perspective will highlight the many opportunities for chemists and chemical biologists in this field as well as inspire efforts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying established disease correlations, identify novel microbiota-based risk factors, and develop new therapeutic interventions.

  20. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus, the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putative proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.

  1. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology.

  2. [Infectious diseases research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge.

  3. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  4. [Current therapeutics in infectious dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaux, A S; Chosidow, O

    NEW AGENTS: Among new treatments used for infectious dermatology diseases, new agents for genital herpes, valaciclovir and famciclovir, have greatly simplified therapeutic schemes. Cidofovir has also been shown to be effective against aciclovir-resistant cutaneous and mucosal herpetic lesions and for the treatment of molluscum contagiosum. NEW ADMINISTRATION ROUTES: For genital papillomavirus infections, trials using systemic or intralesional administered interferon have not provided conclusive evidence but imiquimode appears to be quite promising. Itaconazole and fluconazole are effective for onchomycoses. NEW POSSIBILITIES: Ivermectine is effective against scabies, but must be reserved for particularly severe forms. Finally, the emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains resistant to fluoroquinolones is disquieting.

  5. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro; Adachi, Yukihiko

    2002-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  6. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Masataka; Fujita, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Yuko [Saint Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Imoto, Ichiro [National Mie Chuo Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Adachi, Yukihiko [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42{+-}19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  7. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  8. Polysaccharides from extremophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B; Schiano Moriello, V; Lama, L; Poli, A; Gambacorta, A

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter(-1) was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different alpha-D-mannoses and three different beta-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different alpha-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  9. Phylogeny, ecological fitting and lung flukes: helping solve the problem of emerging infectious diseases Filogenia, flexibilidad ecológica y digéneos de pulmones: ayudando a resolver la crisis de las enfermedaes infecciosas emergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Brooks

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wisdom, based on assumptions of species-specific coevolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites, suggests that pathogens with multi-host life cycles are unlikely to move with their definitive hosts because their transmission requirements are so specialized. Ecological fitting provides a theory of diffuse coevolution, which allows introduced pathogens with complex life cycles to become established and spread rapidly into native hosts if the resource required at each stage of the life cycle is both phylogenetically conservative (distributed among numerous species and geographically widespread. The external appearance of life cycle complexity does not, therefore, on its own, predict the potential for an organism to become an emerging infectious disease. We apply this concept to explain a potential enigma, the presence of a lung fluke, Haematoloechus floedae, endemic to North American bullfrogs, in Costa Rican leopard frogs, even though there are no bullfrogs extant in the country today, and none ever occurred where the parasite has been discovered. We then discuss how the integration of ecological and life history information within a phylogenetic framework can help biologists move from attempts to manage emerging infectious disease outbreaks to the ability to predict and thus circumvent the outbreak in the first place.Con base en el supuesto de coevolución a nivel de especies de parásitos y hospederos, tradicionalmente se asume como poco probable que aquellos patógenos con ciclos de vida que involucran varios hospederos acompañen a su hospedero definitivo a un nuevo ambiente, por lo especializado de sus requerimientos de transmisión. El fenómeno de flexibilidad ecológica aporta una teoría de coevolución difusa, que permite a los patógenos con ciclos de vida complejos, que han sido introducidos, establecerse y dispersarse de una manera rápida en hospederos nativos, si el recurso requerido en cada etapa del ciclo de

  10. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of Casearia sylvestris extract against oral pathogenic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. SANTOS; M. G.L. BRANDãO; R. T. GOMES; K. I. R. TEIXEIRA; A. C.M. APOLôNIO; W. L. F. TAVARES

    2009-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of leaves from the tree Casearia sylvestris, known as guaçatonga in Brazil, was tested for in vitro activity against oral pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed susceptibility of all the microorganisms tested. This study suggests a potential use of ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris as a novel treatment of oral infectious conditions, such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis and dental caries. Keywords: Casearia sylvestris; guaçatonga; oral microorganisms; anti...

  11. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of Casearia sylvestris extract against oral pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. SANTOS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An ethanolic extract of leaves from the tree Casearia sylvestris, known as guaçatonga in Brazil, was tested for in vitro activity against oral pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed susceptibility of all the microorganisms tested. This study suggests a potential use of ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris as a novel treatment of oral infectious conditions, such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis and dental caries. Keywords: Casearia sylvestris; guaçatonga; oral microorganisms; antimicrobial activity.

  12. Photodynamic Action against Wastewater Microorganisms and Chemical Pollutants: An Effective Approach with Low Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bartolomeu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater (WW from urban and industrial activities is often contaminated with microorganisms and chemical pollutants. To reduce the concentration of microorganisms in WW to levels comparable to those found in natural waters, the sewage effluent is usually subjected to disinfection with chlorine, ozone, or ultraviolet light, which may lead to the formation of toxic products and contribute to the selection of resistant genes. Moreover, the changing patterns of infectious diseases and the emerging of multidrug resistant microbial strains entail the development of new technologies for WW decontamination. Microbial photodynamic inactivation (PDI with photosensitizers, oxygen, and visible light has demonstrated to be effective in the inactivation of microorganisms via photogeneration of reactive oxygen species able to induce microbial damage at the external structures level. The promising results of PDI suggest that this principle can be applied to WW treatment to inactivate microorganisms but also to photodegrade chemical pollutants. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of PDI for the microbial and chemical decontamination of secondarily treated WW. To evaluate the efficiency of bacterial inactivation in WW, experiments were done in both phosphate buffer saline (PBS and filtered WW with the bioluminescent Escherichia coli, using small and large volumes of WW. The potential of PDI to inactivate the native bacteria (E. coli and Enterococcus present in WW was tested and assays without the adding of bacteria to the WW were performed. It was also tested if the same PDI protocol was able to induce phototransformation of phenol. The cationic porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-ylporphyrin tetra-iodide (Tetra-Py+-Me was shown to be effective against both bacterial groups representing both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria used as microbiological parameters to instigate water quality and even showing the power to

  13. Infectious Disease Transmission during Transfusion and Transplantation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-13

    Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, Director of the Office of Blood, Organ, and Other Tissue Safety, discusses infections in transplants.  Created: 8/13/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/15/2012.

  14. Emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination in Europe in 2010-2015--the review of WHO and ECDC notifications for the National IHR Focal Point in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henszel, Łukasz; Janiec, Janusz; Izdebski, Radosław; Radziszewski, Franciszek; Polański, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The National IHR Focal Point is a center set up by each Member State of the World Health Organization (WHO) in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005). The International Health Regulations (IHR) were adopted on 23 May 2005 at the World Health Assembly and entered into force since 15 June 2007 as the legal instrument designed to help protect all countries from uncontrolled international spread of diseases and other urgent public health threats. According to Article 2 of IHR the purpose and scope of these Regulations are to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade. Primarily, the scope of IHR is to establish a system of early warning (in accordance with Article 6 and 7) with the functioning in each country National IHR Focal Point which is available at any time to communicate with WHO IHR Contact Points and other entities. The tasks of the National IHR Fo- cal Point in Poland which was appointed by the Minister of Health and runs in the Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health--National Institute of Hygiene from 1 September 2007 are the notification of events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern occurring in Poland or abroad and the dissemination of this information to the WHO, other National IHR Focal Points or competent authorities responsible for public health. The task of the National IHR Focal Point in Poland is also the dissemination of WHO and ECDC notifications, including recommendation and risk assessment documents. The aim of this work is the review of WHO and ECDC notifications received by National IHR Focal Point in Poland in the period from 2010 to 2015 which were related to emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination programs or for which

  15. Insight Into Tropical Human Infectious Diseases: An Update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge on infectious diseases encompasses a vast and constantly changing arena, and consistent research work is imperative to understand and combat the new problems resulting from emerging infectious diseases. Public health workers and epidemiologists aim at lowering morbidity and mortality due to diseases by ...

  16. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-04

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the article, Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.  Created: 5/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/4/2016.

  17. Climate change and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahault, Antoine; de Castaneda, Rafael Ruiz; Bolon, Isabelle

    Global changes are major determinants for infectious diseases, although attributable, part of climate change remains debatable. Vector-borne diseases are prone to be impacted by global warming, although other factors may play a substantial role, evidenced by the dramatic decrease in malaria in the last decades in places where climate change has deep and significant effects. There is now evidence that in some areas of the world, e.g. Horn of Africa, warm El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO), which are observed in the South Pacific Ocean, are associated with higher risk of emergence of Rift Valley fever, cholera and malaria and during cold La Niña events, dengue fever, chikungunya and yellow fever. This has been observed for these and other diseases in other parts of the world. For example, seasonal influenza outbreaks have been more intense (i.e. higher number) and more severe (i.e. higher mortality) when concomitant with La Niña events. Since climate scientists have recently observed that climate change is tied to more frequent and more intense ENSO events, we may foresee increases in frequency and severity in emerging infectious diseases in the world.

  18. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Non-Infectious Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This Page Causes and How it Spreads Signs and Symptoms Causes ...

  19. Analysis of boron utilization in sample preparation for microorganisms detection by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacha, Reinaldo; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron radiography technique applied to the microorganisms detection is the study of a new and faster alternative for diagnosis of infectious means. This work presents the parameters and the effects involved in the use of the boron as a conversion agent, that convert neutrons in a particles, capable ones of generating latent tracks in a solid state nuclear tracks detector, CR-39. The collected samples are doped with the boron by the incubation method, propitiating an interaction microorganisms/boron, that will guarantee the identification of the images of those microorganisms, through your morphology. (author)

  20. Textiles for protection against microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauperl, O.

    2016-04-01

    Concerning micro-organisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, there is a huge progress in the development of textile materials and procedures which should effectively protect against these various pathogens. In this sense there is especially problematic hospital environment, where it is necessary to take into account properly designed textile material which, when good selected and composed, act as a good barrier against transfer of micro-organisms through material mainly in its wet state. Respect to this it is necessary to be familiar with the rules regarding selection of the input material, the choice of proper yarn construction, the choice of the proper weaving mode, the rules regarding selection of antimicrobial-active compound suitable for (eco-friendly) treatment, and the choice of the most appropriate test method by which it is possible objectively to conclude on the reduction of selected microorganism. As is well known, fabrics are three-dimensional structures with void and non-void areas. Therefore, the physical-chemical properties of the textile material/fabric, the surface characteristics together with the shape of microorganism, and the carriers' characteristics contribute to control the transfer of microorganism through textile material. Therefore, careful planning of textile materials and treatment procedure with the compound which is able to reduce micro-organism satisfactory is particularly important, especially due to the fact that in hospital environment population with impaired immune system is mainly presented.

  1. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  2. Infectious Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sumit; Grammer, Leslie C.; Peters, Anju T.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a persistent inflammatory disease that affects a multitude of people worldwide. The pathogenesis of CRS involves many factors including genetics, status of the sinonasal microbiome, infections and environmental influences. Comorbidities associated with CRS include asthma, allergic rhinitis, bronchiectasis and certain kinds of immunodeficiency. CRS can be divided into different subtypes based on endotypes and phenotypes. Infectious CRS is one such category. The etiology of infectious CRS is usually secondary to chronic bacterial infection which commonly begins with a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Humoral antibody deficiencies can underlie difficult-to-treat or recurrent CRS. Infectious CRS can be treated with antimicrobials, topical or oral corticosteroids and nasal saline irrigations. Patients with CRS and humoral immunodeficiency may require an aggressive treatment approach including immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Despite advancements in the field of CRS, targeted therapies and reliable biomarkers are still lacking. PMID:27393772

  3. Emerging and re-emerging infectious agents of nosocomial diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... now referred to as Healthcare-associated infections, HCAIs) are diseases that essentially originate from the hospital and may be disseminated via biologic or inanimate agents in the healthcare center. They occur globally and constitute major hazards in healthcare institutions resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and ...

  4. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  5. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis... infectious disease laboratory working group under the BSC, OID. The agenda and any supplemental material will...

  6. 78 FR 17411 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis... infectious disease laboratory working group under the BSC, OID. The agenda and any supplemental material will...

  7. 75 FR 69687 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases, (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... to increase the public health impact of CDC's infectious disease prevention and control efforts...

  8. 76 FR 63926 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... and the three infectious disease national centers, a report from the OID/BSC Food Safety Modernization...

  9. 77 FR 67651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and... reports from the BSC OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease national...

  10. 77 FR 21778 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the National Center for... OID working groups, brief updates from the infectious disease national centers, and focused...

  11. 78 FR 21370 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the... reports from the BSC, OID working groups, brief updates on activities of the infectious disease national...

  12. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, and the..., the meeting will include a focused discussion on ``Transitioning Infectious Disease Prevention...

  13. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  14. Emergency Nurses Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases Opioid Crisis Behavioral Health Infection Control Human Trafficking Membership Join Renew Membership Options Member Benefits Get ... to Train Emergency Nurses to Help Victims of Human Trafficking! MISSION ZERO Act for ZERO Preventable Deaths Support ...

  15. Infectious diseases in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumate, J

    1997-01-01

    Infecto-contagious diseases in the twenty-first century with respect to precedent will see themselves deprived of smallpox, dracunculiasis and very probably of paralyzing poliomyelitis. Vaccination-preventable diseases, such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, rabies, some forms of meningitis, yellow fever and episodes of disseminated tuberculosis will greatly diminish in their rates of morbi-lethality; the elimination of some, and the eradication of measles, are expected. Other diseases such as diarrhea (including cholera), geo-helminthiasis, some severe respiratory tract infections and the majority of vector-transmitted infectious diseases will decrease due to improvements in potable water services, drainage, sanitary food control, living quarters, and individual and community anti-vector action. Leprosy, onchocerciasis and several parasitoses will be controlled by the available antimicrobial drugs. Infectious diseases will continue to be an important health problem due to: Reduction in the immunocompetence resulting from the aging of the population, chemotherapies necessary for neoplasms, and autoimmune pathology and the survival of persons with primary immunodeficiencies; lifestyles prone to infectious pathology, such as mega-city urbanization, children in day care centers, industrialized foods, intravenous drug addiction, sexual liberation, global commerce, and tourism; antibiotic-multiresistant microbial flora; environmental disturbances as a result of global warming, deforestation, the settling of virgin areas, dams, the large-scale use of pesticides, fertilizers and antimicrobials, and natural/social disasters generators of poverty, violence and deprivation will result in emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases already controlled in the past.

  16. Dynamics of infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, Kat; Brand, Sam; Moir, Jo; Keeling, Matt J

    2014-01-01

    Modern infectious disease epidemiology has a strong history of using mathematics both for prediction and to gain a deeper understanding. However the study of infectious diseases is a highly interdisciplinary subject requiring insights from multiple disciplines, in particular a biological knowledge of the pathogen, a statistical description of the available data and a mathematical framework for prediction. Here we begin with the basic building blocks of infectious disease epidemiology—the SIS and SIR type models—before considering the progress that has been made over the recent decades and the challenges that lie ahead. Throughout we focus on the understanding that can be developed from relatively simple models, although accurate prediction will inevitably require far greater complexity beyond the scope of this review. In particular, we focus on three critical aspects of infectious disease models that we feel fundamentally shape their dynamics: heterogeneously structured populations, stochasticity and spatial structure. Throughout we relate the mathematical models and their results to a variety of real-world problems. (review article)

  17. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  18. [Screening on key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of public health emergencies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q R; Yang, L; Ma, H Y; Xie, W Q; Cong, L M; Xu, L W

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To explore the key techniques used for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection to improve the ability of surveillance and disposal on public health emergency. Methods: Framework on surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection was set up, based on literature review and expert group discussion. Delphi method and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution comprehensive evaluation method were used for ordering preference by similarity, to screen key techniques set for surveillance and disposal of the above said events. Results: Framework to be used for selecting key techniques was designed, based on the classification of emergency events, processing cycle of emergency events and level of techniques. Twenty six public health experts were selected for a 2-round consultation, with their authority as 0.796. Ten key techniques with important significance for surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases, food poisoning and hospital infection were selected from each event. Among these key techniques, the early-warning system was recognized as the key technique, important for the surveillance and disposal of all three emergency events. Items as technology used for unknown pathogenic microorganism detection, personal protection, gene sequencing and tracing technology, microorganism molecular typing technology, nucleic acid detection technology etc . were the key techniques and need to develop for the surveillance and disposal of infectious diseases and iatrogenic infection. Data regarding key technologies on security and privacy, early warning and forecasting, field rapid detection were sorted out that all in need to improve the surveillance programs on disposal of infectious diseases and food poisoning. Data exchange appeared another key technique on infectious diseases, with toxin detection and other 5 techniques the key techniques for food poisoning

  19. Vasculitis and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, R; Biondi, G

    2015-04-01

    Vasculitis usually presents without a well-known underline cause (idiopathic vasculitis), nevertheless, it is sometimes possible to find out one or more causative agents (secondary vasculitis). Nowadays, thanks to the increasing amount of precise diagnostic tools, a piece of idiopathic vasculitis is reclassified as associated with probable etiology, which can be set off by several factors, such as infections. Infections are considered to be the most common cause of secondary vasculitis. Virtually, every infectious agent can trigger a vasculitis by different mechanisms which can be divided in two main categories: direct and indirect. In the former, infectious agents destroy directly the vascular wall leading, eventually, to a subsequent inflammatory response. In the latter, indirect form, they stimulate an immune response against blood vessels. Different infectious agents are able to directly damage the vascular wall. Among these, it is possible to recognize Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Salmonella spp, Treponema spp, Rickettsia spp, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and many others which have a peculiar tropism for endothelial cells. Conversely, another group of microbial agents, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, Hepatits B Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus and others, trigger vasculitis in the indirect way. This is due to the fact that they can share epitopes with the host or modify self-antigens, thus leading to a cross-self reaction of the immune system. These mechanism, in turn, leads to immunological responses classified as type I-IV by Gell-Coombs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to strictly separate the direct and indirect forms, because most infectious agents can cause vasculitis in both ways (mixed forms). This paper will analyze the link between infectious agents and vasculitis, focusing on direct and indirect secondary vasculitis, and on a group of probable infection-related idiopathic vasculitis, and finally

  20. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  1. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  2. Marine infectious disease ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    To put marine disease impacts in context requires a broad perspective on the roles infectious agents have in the ocean. Parasites infect most marine vertebrate and invertebrate species, and parasites and predators can have comparable biomass density, suggesting they play comparable parts as consumers in marine food webs. Although some parasites might increase with disturbance, most probably decline as food webs unravel. There are several ways to adapt epidemiological theory to the marine environment. In particular, because the ocean represents a three-dimensional moving habitat for hosts and parasites, models should open up the spatial scales at which infective stages and host larvae travel. In addition to open recruitment and dimensionality, marine parasites are subject to fishing, filter feeders, dosedependent infection, environmental forcing, and death-based transmission. Adding such considerations to marine disease models will make it easier to predict which infectious diseases will increase or decrease in a changing ocean.

  3. Infectious complications in patients with crush syndrome following the Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Hui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the results of clini-cal and bacteriological examinations in patients with crush syndrome who suffered infectious complications after an earthquake in Sichuan, China. Methods: A total of 313 bacteriological samples among 147 patients with crush syndrome were collected. Infectious complications, results of microbiological examinations, po-tential risk factors of infection and mortality were analyzed statistically. Results: In the obtained database, 112 out of the 147 (75.7% patients had infectious complications, in which, wound infection, pulmonary infection, and sepsis were most common. The time under the rubble and the time from injury to treatment were related to the occurrence of wound infec-tion (P=0.013, odds ratio 2.25; P=0.017, odds ratio 2.31. Sep-sis and wound infection were more common in patients who underwent fasciotomy or amputation than in those who did not (P=0.001. Conclusion: Quick rescue and injury treatment can decrease the infection risk in crush syndrome patients. It is better to obtain microorganic proofs before applying antibiotics, and bacteriological and drug sensitivity data should be taken into account, especially considering that most of these infections are hospital-acquired and drug resistance. Emphasizing the accuracy and efficiency of wound management in emergency situations, cautiously assessing the indications for fasciotomy to avoid open wounds from unnecessary osteofascial compartment de-compression incisions may decrease the incidence of in-fection and ameliorate the prognosis. Key words: Earthquakes; Crush syndrome; Infection; Microbial sensitivity tests

  4. African Journal of Infectious Diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Infectious Diseases accepts original research papers on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology and treatment of infectious diseases, impact of infectious agents on the environment and related disciplines. Reports of research related to any aspect of the fields of microbiology, parasitology, ...

  5. Acute Infectious Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-23

    intracelLular proteins such as metallothionine, hemosiderin , and ferritin.3 𔃻 6𔃼 1𔃽 5 A large variety of proteins must be produced during infection for...acute infections.50 On the other hand, iron is sequestered through its incorporation into hemosiderin .6,7,16 and ferritin in various tissue storage... hemosiderin and ferritin during infectious or inflammatory states. Concomitantly, plas1a ir. • - concentrations decline, sometimes to almost nondectable

  6. Pasteurella multocida infectious arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, P J

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a small gram-negative rod, is a domestic animal saprophyte that occasionally causes disease in humans. Infectious arthritis may develop from a superficial animal bite or scratch. Nine previous cases of infectious arthritis due to this organism have been documented in the literature, and a tenth case is reported here. Most patients had recent animal exposure, and half the patients had underlying chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical signs of inflammation were consistently present; however, systemic infection was infrequent. The lack of positive synovial fluid gram-stain smears may make differentiation from other forms of infectious arthritis difficult. Penicillin in moderate doses is effective therapy, with osteomyelitis developing in only two patients. The tendency for this syndrome to affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis may reflect deficient local defense mechanisms, chronic steroid therapy, or increased ownership of pets. The mechanism of spread of infection to the joint space appears to be through contiguous spread from a skin site rather than by the hematogenous route in most cases.

  7. Identification of microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies, Haematobia irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-09-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of cattle. The parasitism of horn flies interferes with cattle feeding, thus reducing weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aims of this study were to identify microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to characterize microorganism prevalence using real-time RT-PCR. Seven unigenes containing 24 ESTs were homologous to infectious agents. Microorganisms identified in partially fed female horn flies ESTs included Nora virus (3 unigenes; 8 ESTs), Wolbachia endosymbionts (3 unigenes; 3 ESTs), and Mycobacterium bovis (1 unigene; 13 ESTs). These results expanded the repertoire of microorganisms that could cause persistent infections or be mechanically transmitted by horn flies and support further studies on the role of horn flies in the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico.

  8. Adaptation of vectors to carry microorganisms or adaptation of microorganisms to the vectors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases and their geographical extent is a challenging task; this is despite recent technical advancements in the development of statistical and mathematical epidemiological tools for understanding disease distribution and dynamics. During the recent Ebola outbreak countries worldwide were concerned with transboundary transmission of infection fueled by enhanced human population mobility originating from infected countries in West Africa. Similarly, transboundary movement of live animals and their products can give rise to the introduction and spread of diseases of pandemic potential.

  9. Microorganisms .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and heat/pH-shift treatments. This technique resulted in 47% enzyme yield with a purification fac- tor of 12. Technique II which involved two extraction steps by' aqueous two - phase system. (APS) coupled with UF resulted in 62 % enzyme ...

  10. The return of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the history of efforts to control the spread of infectious disease from the post-antibiotic era to 1995. Since World War II, public health strategy has focused on the eradication of microbes using powerful medical weaponry. The goal was to push humanity through a ¿health transition,¿ leaving the age of infectious disease permanently behind. But recent developments have shown that this grandiose optimism was premature. As people move across international borders, unwanted microbial hitch-hikers tag along, as happened in the case of Ebola. In large cities, sex industries arise and multiple-partner sex becomes more common, prompting rapid increases in sexually transmitted disease. Moreover, the practice of sharing syringes is a ready vehicle for the transmission of microbes while unhygienic health facilities become centers for the dissemination of disease rather than its control. Black market access to antimicrobials has led to overuse or outright misuse of the drugs and the emergence of resistant bacteria and parasites. Consequently, old organisms, aided by mankind's misuse of disinfectants and drugs, may take on new and more lethal forms. Even when allegations of biological warfare are not flying, it is often difficult to obtain accurate information about outbreaks of disease, particularly in countries dependent on foreign investment or tourism or both. Unfortunately, only 6 laboratories in the world meet security and safety standards that would make them suitable sites for research on the world's deadliest microbes. National security warrants bolder steps involving focusing not only on microbes directly dangerous to humans, but also on those that could pose major threats to crops or livestock. Unfortunately, economic crises have led to budget cuts, particularly in health care, at all levels of government in the US.

  11. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  12. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mijeong

    2017-01-01

    This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s) in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  13. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  14. State of diagnosing infectious pathogens using colloidal nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisung; Mohamed, Mohamed A Abdou; Zagorovsky, Kyryl; Chan, Warren C W

    2017-11-01

    Infectious diseases are a major global threat that accounts for one of the leading causes of global mortality and morbidity. Prompt diagnosis is a crucial first step in the management of infectious threats, which aims to quarantine infected patients to avoid contacts with healthy individuals and deliver effective treatments prior to further spread of diseases. This review article discusses current advances of diagnostic systems using colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, magnetic nanoparticles) for identifying and differentiating infectious pathogens. The challenges involved in the clinical translation of these emerging nanotechnology based diagnostic devices will also be discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Relationships between air conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, S; Perdrix, A; Baconnier, P

    1999-01-01

    Concurrently with the increase of air-conditioning, potentially severe or frequent new diseases have emerged, giving rise to social and economical consequences. The first part of this work is a state of the art review of the relationships between air-conditioning, airborne microorganisms and health, through a technical, metrological and medical approach. The second part presents four studies performed in this field. Two of them deal with the relationship between airborne microorganisms and technical features of air-conditioning. Measurements performed on actual sites demonstrated the benefit of using high efficiency filters and low risk components in air-conditioning systems. The third study was aimed to look for a relationship between airborne microorganisms and sick building syndrome symptoms. Statistical analyses of individual data revealed significant associations between airborne bacteria or fungi and symptoms. These results may be the first step in determining a dose-response relationship, in order to define threshold limit values in this field. In the fourth study, the contribution of particle counting in assessing exposure to airborne microorganisms was explored by monitoring simultaneous variations of microbial and particle concentrations. The results showed that associating particle counting may allow to detect microbial variations instantaneously, and therefore improve the assessment of exposure to airborne microorganisms.

  16. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  17. Microorganisms as sources of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenieau France

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of microorganism belonging to the genera of yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae have ability to accumulate substantial amounts of oil, sometimes up to an even in excess of 70% of their biomass weight under specific cultivation conditions. For nearly 100 years, the commercial opportunities of using microorganisms as sources of oils have been continuously examined. Although it was evident that microbial oils could never compete commercially with the major commodity plant oils, there were commercially opportunities for the production of some of the higher valued oils. Today, with the great progress of metabolic and genetic engineering, the developments are focus on the high value oils containing important polyunsaturated or specific fatty acids. Such oils have the potential to be used in different applications area as food, feed and oleochemistry. This review is covering the related researches about different oleaginous microorganisms for lipids production and microbial oils biosynthesis process. In add, the lipid metabolism, metabolic engineering strategies to increase lipid production and the economics of microbial oils production are introduced.

  18. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  19. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  20. Studying marine microorganisms from space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrós-Alió, C; Simó, R

    2002-12-01

    Microorganisms are but a few micrometers in diameter and are not visible to the naked eye. Yet, the large numbers of microorganisms present in the oceans and the global impact of their activities make it possible to observe them from space. Here a few examples of how microorganisms can be studied from satellites are presented. The first case is the best known: the main pigment used in photosynthesis (chlorophyll a) can be determined from satellites. These kinds of studies have contributed a tremendous amount of understanding about the distribution and dynamics of primary production in the oceans. Two other examples will concern analysis of heterotrophic prokaryotic production and estimates of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and flux to the atmosphere. These three processes are of fundamental importance for the functioning of the biosphere. Marine microbes carry out about half of the total primary production in the planet. A substantial fraction of the respiration in the oceans is due to the activity of heterotrophic prokaryotes. Finally, the flux of DMS to the atmosphere is believed to constitute one of the mechanisms by which the biota can regulate climate. The global implications of microbial processes in the oceans can only be addressed with the help of satellites.

  1. POSTOPERATIVE INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ch. Usupbaev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The large proportion of postoperative infectious complications in urological hospitals makes extremely urgent the problem of its control. The high level of these complications in the postoperative period in patients with urolithiasis is caused by various endo- and exogenous factors.Purpose. To determine the frequency, structure, and features of postoperative infectious complications in patients with urolithiasis in urological hospitals.Materials and methods. As an object of research we used a medical card 232 of the operated patients with urolithiasis, which were copied out in individual registration card. Of 232 patients with urolithiasis 48.3% were men, their average age was 44.5 ± 9.4 years. Female patients were slightly larger (51.7%, respectively, the average age was 44.9 ± 8.1 years.Results. The most common postoperative infectious complications in urolithiasis was infection in the area of surgical intervention (36,2%, acute urethritis (20,7%, acute pyelonephritis (14.7 per cent, paranephritis (9,5%, acute orhoepididimit (7,8%, acute cystitis (6%, pionephrosis (3,4%, urosepsis (1.7 percent. In the etiological structure of infectious agents associated with medical care with the highest frequency, microorganisms of genera Escherichia coli (43%, Proteus (9.5%, Staphilococcus spp were isolated. (8.3% and Staphilococcus aureus (8.3%, and in 11.9% of cases, the Association of microorganisms. Analysis of the etiological structure of genera of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to β-lactam antibiotics showed that 63.2% of the amount to the genus strain of E. coli, 21% Proteus and 15.8% Klebsiella.Conclusion. The data obtained indicate the need for research on the prevalence of resistant strains of microorganisms, the introduction of more specifi c, sensitive methods and monitoring. This will increase the effectiveness of treatment, reduce the risk of the spread of resistant strains and increase nosocomial infections.

  2. [Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, A; Meier, H P; Straub, R; Gerber, V

    2009-04-01

    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is a reportable, eradicable epizootic disease caused by the equine lentivirus of the retrovirus family which affects equids only and occurs worldwide. The virus is transmitted by blood, mainly by sanguivorous insects. The main symptoms of the disease are pyrexia, apathy, loss of body condition and weight, anemia, edema and petechia. However, infected horses can also be inapparent carriers without any overt signs. The disease is diagnosed by serological tests like the Coggins test and ELISA tests. Presently, Switzerland is offi cially free from EIA. However, Switzerland is permanently at risk of introducing the virus as cases of EIA have recently been reported in different European countries.

  3. [Keratitis - Infectious or Autoimmune?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, E M

    2016-07-01

    Histopathological evaluation of ocular tissues is important in differentiating between infectious and autoimmune disease. Inflammation, necrosis and keratolysis are common to most forms of keratitis. Histopathology can be of great help in identifying the causative organism, establishing a final diagnosis and/or managing the patient with herpes simplex virus keratitis, mycotic keratitis, acanthamoeba keratitis or microsporidia keratoconjunctivitis. Important pathogenetic knowledge with therapeutic relevance has been gained from histopathological studies in nummular keratitis after epidemic keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Globalization and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, Julio; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses the nature of the health challenges created by globalization and proposes new forms of international cooperation to confront them. The discussion of global health challenges includes both the transfer of health risks, with an emphasis on infectious diseases, and the international dissemination of health opportunities, including the transfer of knowledge and technology. The authors argue that the health-related challenges and opportunities of an increasingly interdependent world demand new forms of international cooperation. The authors suggest the promotion of 3 elements that, in their essence, contain the idea of collaboration: exchange, evidence, and empathy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microsphere fluoroimmunoassay for microorganisms: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bronk, B.V. [Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Microspheres are used as labels in a fluorescence immunoassay for individual microorganisms. The diameter of a sphere that has reacted with microorganisms is determined from measurements of the optical resonance frequencies. The spheres have been coated with antibodies so that each microsphere diameter corresponds to a different species of microorganism. Further experiments on specificity and on optical resonance measurements are presented.

  6. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only to...

  7. [Evolution of pathogenic micro-organisms as a challenge for medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Martti

    2009-01-01

    Successful parasitic micro-organisms are able to adapt to the circumstances of the host's organ system, and it is usually not expedient for them to kill their host. Under selection pressure, the evolution of micro-organisms is vastly quicker that that of man. The selection pressure brought about by rapid ecological changes and alterations associated with human action provides for the development of new, dangerous pathogens and transformation of familiar pathogens to become more dangerous. Progress in molecular biology has thus far not yielded as many new tools for the treatment of infectious diseases as the hopes were in the early 2000's.

  8. International adoption: infectious diseases issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurie C

    2005-01-15

    Nearly 220,000 children have been adopted from other countries by American parents since 1986. Approximately 65,000 children have arrived from China and Russia, mostly in the past 6 years. Most of these children reside in orphanages before adoption, where they may experience malnutrition, environmental deprivation, neglect, and exposure to infectious diseases. After arrival to the United States, international adoptees should undergo specialized screening evaluation for infectious diseases and other conditions. Infectious conditions of special concern include hepatitis B and C, syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, tuberculosis, and presence of intestinal parasites. Before the adoption occurs, the infectious disease consultant may be asked to assist the primary care provider and the adoptive family with advice about travel and review of preadoptive medical records. After the adoption, the infectious diseases consultant may be asked to assess the adequacy of the child's vaccination record from the birth country and to assist in screening, evaluation, and management of infectious diseases.

  9. International collaborative research on infectious diseases by Japanese universities and institutes in Asia and Africa, with a special emphasis on J-GRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Sumio; Imamura, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Ramamurthy, Thandavrayan

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries including Japan, malignant tumor (cancer), heart disease and cerebral apoplexy are major causes of death, but infectious diseases are still responsible for a high number of deaths in developing countries, especially among children aged less than 5 years. World Health Statistics published by WHO reports a high percentage of mortality from infectious diseases in children, and many of these diseases may be subject to transmission across borders and could possibly invade Japan.  Given this situation, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan initiated Phase I of the Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Disease, which ran from FY 2005 to 2009, and involved 8 Japanese universities and 2 research centers. The program was established for the following purposes: 1) creation of a domestic research structure to promote the accumulation of fundamental knowledge about infectious diseases, 2) establishment of 13 overseas research collaboration centers in 8 countries at high risk of emerging and reemerging infections and at which Japanese researchers are stationed and conduct research in partnership with overseas instructors, 3) development of a network among domestic and overseas research centers, and 4) development of human resources.  The program was controlled under MEXT and managed by the RIKEN Center of Research Network for Infectious Diseases (Riken CRNID). Phase II of the program was set up as the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID), and has been running in FY 2010-2014.  Phase III will start in April 2015, and will be organized by the newly established Japanese governmental organization "Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)", the so-called Japanese style NIH.  The Collaborative Research Center of Okayama University for Infectious Diseases in India (CRCOUI) was started up in 2007 at the National

  10. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world’s population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China’s current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country’s capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future. PMID:26371017

  11. Infectious Diseases, Urbanization and Climate Change: Challenges in Future China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2015-09-07

    China is one of the largest countries in the world with nearly 20% of the world's population. There have been significant improvements in economy, education and technology over the last three decades. Due to substantial investments from all levels of government, the public health system in China has been improved since the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak. However, infectious diseases still remain a major population health issue and this may be exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unprecedented impacts of climate change. This commentary aims to explore China's current capacity to manage infectious diseases which impair population health. It discusses the existing disease surveillance system and underscores the critical importance of strengthening the system. It also explores how the growing migrant population, dramatic changes in the natural landscape following rapid urbanization, and changing climatic conditions can contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Continuing research on infectious diseases, urbanization and climate change may inform the country's capacity to deal with emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the future.

  12. Current outlook of infectious diseases in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M

    1998-06-01

    The "emerging" infectious diseases have received global attention. Taiwan is a country which is going through the process of becoming "developed" from being "developing". If we compare five leading causes of death in 1952 and in 1993, three were infectious diseases in 1952 and there was none in 1993. And yet today, infectious diseases remain a major problem in this country as well in every country in the world, whether developing or developed. Some of the problems Taiwan faces are old problems with old faces. They have never been adequately solved because the societal and environmental sanitary infrastructure does not ensure proper sewage disposal, safe potable water and freedom from dangerous vectors. Examples are the diarrheal diseases, parasitic diseases, scrub typhus and Japanese encephalitis. Some of the Taiwan's problems are caused by old agents which present a new face. Mortality from tuberculosis took a dramatic and gratifying plunge in the last fifty years. Yet tuberculosis is ever present and a constant public health threat. Dengue has become a problem again because of a world breakdown in the control of the mosquito, Aedes egypti, and it is partly contributed to by increased urbanization and world travel. The problem of antibiotic resistant bacteria causing hospital acquired and community acquired infections is probably the most serious "new" problem. The most important cause is excessive and indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the community and in hospitals. We propose the establishment of "Bacterial Infections Reference Laboratory" at the National Health Research Institutes to be a national facility to study the epidemiology and control of antibiotic resistance. All infectious diseases require a rigorous system of surveillance, and precise etiological diagnosis before they can be treated or prevented. This should be kept clearly in mind when one considers the changing role of the infectious disease physician in Taiwan in the face of unsolved disease

  13. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  14. Sports: The Infectious Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K

    2015-10-01

    Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.

  15. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Zimmerman

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  16. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  17. Structural Genomics and Drug Discovery for Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.F.

    2010-09-03

    The application of structural genomics methods and approaches to proteins from organisms causing infectious diseases is making available the three dimensional structures of many proteins that are potential drug targets and laying the groundwork for structure aided drug discovery efforts. There are a number of structural genomics projects with a focus on pathogens that have been initiated worldwide. The Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID) was recently established to apply state-of-the-art high throughput structural biology technologies to the characterization of proteins from the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) category A-C pathogens and organisms causing emerging, or re-emerging infectious diseases. The target selection process emphasizes potential biomedical benefits. Selected proteins include known drug targets and their homologs, essential enzymes, virulence factors and vaccine candidates. The Center also provides a structure determination service for the infectious disease scientific community. The ultimate goal is to generate a library of structures that are available to the scientific community and can serve as a starting point for further research and structure aided drug discovery for infectious diseases. To achieve this goal, the CSGID will determine protein crystal structures of 400 proteins and protein-ligand complexes using proven, rapid, highly integrated, and cost-effective methods for such determination, primarily by X-ray crystallography. High throughput crystallographic structure determination is greatly aided by frequent, convenient access to high-performance beamlines at third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources.

  18. INFECTIOUS KERATITIS-ASSOCIATED ENDOPHTHALMITIS: A 14-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malihi, Mehrdad; Li, Xintong; Patel, Shriji; Eck, Thomas; Chu, David S; Zarbin, Marco A; Bhagat, Neelakshi

    2017-04-01

    To describe the demographics, characteristics, management, and outcomes of eyes with endophthalmitis related to infectious keratitis. Retrospective chart review of all patients treated for infectious keratitis-associated infectious endophthalmitis between 2001 and 2014 at University Hospital, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. Thirty-eight cases with infectious keratitis-associated infectious endophthalmitis were identified (21 men [55%], mean age: 66.2 ± 20.7 years), with average time from the beginning of ulcer symptoms to endophthalmitis of 11.0 days. Associated systemic conditions (diabetes, HIV, immunosuppressive therapy, cirrhosis, or dementia) were present in 57.9%; 60.5% had previous intraocular surgery. Etiology showed gram-positive bacteria in 14 cases (36.9%), gram-negative bacteria in 7 (18.4%), fungi in 4 (10.5%), and no growth/unknown in 12 (31.6%). Nineteen cases (50%) presented with no light perception and were primarily enucleated. The remaining 19 eyes each received intravitreal antibiotics (mean: 1.5 injections); 8 (42.0%) underwent pars plans vitrectomy with vitreous biopsy, whereas 5 (26.3%) received emergency corneal transplantation. Final visual acuity was no light perception in 6 eyes (3 secondarily enucleated), light perception in 2, hand motion in 7, counting fingers in 2, and ≥20/50 in 2. Our study of 38 eyes with infectious keratitis-associated infectious endophthalmitis revealed generally poor visual outcomes and a high rate of systemic conditions and previous intraocular surgery.

  19. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance.

  20. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  1. Infectious Disease (ID) Learning Unit:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Amanda A; Eisenberg, Mark P

    2017-01-01

    In the context of an escalating opioid epidemic, infectious disease clinicians increasingly treat the infectious complications of injection drug use. In this learning unit, we review the history, pharmacology, and clinical use of buprenorphine as maintenance therapy for opioid use disorder, and we describe the process by which clinicians can obtain a buprenorphine waiver.

  2. Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, María Cecilia; Zanetti, Flavia Adriana; Terebiznik, Mauricio R; Colombo, María Isabel; Delgui, Laura Ruth

    2018-03-14

    Birnaviruses are unconventional members of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses group that are characterized by the lack of a transcriptionally active inner core. Instead, the birnaviral particles organize their genome in ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) composed by dsRNA segments, the dsRNA-binding VP3 protein, and the viral encoded RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). This and other structural features suggests that birnaviruses may follow a completely different replication program from that followed by members of the Reoviridae family, supporting the hypothesis that birnaviruses are the evolutionary link between single-stranded positive RNA (+ssRNA) and dsRNA viruses. Here, we demonstrated that the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), a prototypical member of the Birnaviridae family, hijacks endosomal membranes of infected cells through the interaction of viral protein, VP3, with the phospholipids on the cytosolic leaflet of these compartments for replication. Employing a mutagenesis approach, we demonstrated that VP3 domain PATCH 2 (P2) mediates the association of VP3 with the endosomal membranes. To determine the role of VP3 P2 in the context of virus replication cycle, we used avian cells stably overexpressing VP3 P2 for IBDV infection. Importantly, the intra- and extra-cellular virus yields, as well as the intracellular levels of VP2 viral capsid protein, significantly diminished in VP3 P2 stably overexpressing cells. Altogether, our results indicate that the association of VP3 with endosomes has a relevant role in IBDV replication cycle. This report provides direct experimental evidence for membranous compartments such as endosomes being required by a dsRNA virus for its replication. The results also support the previously proposed role of birnaviruses as an evolutionary link between +ssRNA and dsRNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD, also called Gumboro disease) is an acute, highly contagious immunosuppressive disease that affects

  3. Engineering of microorganisms towards recovery of rare metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences

    2010-06-15

    The bioadsorption of metal ions using microorganisms is an attractive technology for the recovery of rare metal ions as well as removal of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In initial attempts, microorganisms with the ability to accumulate metal ions were isolated from nature and intracellular accumulation was enhanced by the overproduction of metal-binding proteins in the cytoplasm. As an alternative, the cell surface design of microorganisms by cell surface engineering is an emerging strategy for bioadsorption and recovery of metal ions. Cell surface engineering was firstly applied to the construction of a bioadsorbent to adsorb heavy metal ions for bioremediation. Cell surface adsorption of metal ions is rapid and reversible. Therefore, adsorbed metal ions can be easily recovered without cell breakage, and the bioadsorbent can be reused or regenerated. These advantages are suitable for the recovery of rare metal ions. Actually, the cell surface display of a molybdate-binding protein on yeast led to the enhanced adsorption of molybdate, one of the rare metal ions. An additional advantage is that the cell surface display system allows high-throughput screening of protein/peptide libraries owing to the direct evaluation of the displayed protein/peptide without purification and concentration. Therefore, the creation of novel metal-binding protein/ peptide and engineering of microorganisms towards the recovery of rare metal ions could be simultaneously achieved. (orig.)

  4. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  5. Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005-2011): comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Veena; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Choudhury, Nandini; Dhruwey, Vidwan Singh; Dacombe, Russell; Upadhyay, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005-2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP) data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others.

  6. RAGE during infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoelen, Marieke A. D.; Achouiti, Ahmed; van der Poll, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that is expressed at high levels in the lungs. The emerging concept of pattern recognition involves RAGE and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in sensing not only "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs) but also

  7. Evaluation of the presence of microorganisms in solid-organ preservation solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marcelo Colvara Mattana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence of microorganism contamination in the preservation solution for transplant organs (kidney/pancreas. Method: Between August 2007 and March 2008, 136 samples of preservation solution were studied prior to graft implantation. Variables related to the donor and to the presence of microorganisms in the preservation solution of organs were evaluated, after which the contamination was evaluated in relation to the "recipient culture" variable. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: The contamination rate of the preservation solution was 27.9%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequently isolated microorganism. However, highly virulent agents, such as fungi and enterobacteria, were also isolated. In univariate analysis, the variable "donor antibiotic use" was significantly associated to the contamination of the preservation solution. On the other hand, multivariate analysis found statistical significance in "donor antibiotic use" and "donor's infectious complications" variables. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 27.9% of the preservation solutions of transplant organs were contaminated. Infectious diseases and non-use of antibiotics by the donor were significantly related to the presence of microorganisms in organ preservation solutions. Contamination in organ preservation solutions was not associated with infection in the recipient.

  8. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  9. Diagnosis and epidemiology of chicken infectious anemia in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken infectious anemia (CIA) has recently emerged as an important disease problem in some of Africa's major poultry-producing countries. Economic losses due to this disease arises from poor growth, increased mortality, carcass condemnations and the cost of antibiotics used to control secondary bacterial infections.

  10. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  11. How to combat infectious diseases: The role of Science Academies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    digital

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... Over the past several years, the global emergence of outbreaks of infectious diseases has revealed that new approaches to fight and prevent the spread of pathogens are urgently needed. Several recent health events, such as the Ebola outbreak, the Zika virus epidemic and the recent Cholera outbreak in ...

  12. Equine infectious anemia virus in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua-Nan; Rao, Dan; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Hu, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia is an equine disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus, which was first reported in 1840. Equine infectious anemia virus research in China started in the 1960s, focusing on etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and immunology. Notably, in 1978 an attenuated vaccine was successfully developed for equine infectious anemia virus, effectively preventing equine infectious anemia virus in China. This article will review equine infectious anemia virus in China, including pa...

  13. Microorganism and Fungi Drive Evolution of Plant Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek eBaluska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the course of plant evolution, there is an obvious trend toward an increased complexity of plant bodies, as well as an increased sophistication of plant behavior and communication. Phenotypic plasticity of plants is based on the polar auxin transport machinery that is directly linked with plant sensory systems impinging on plant behavior and adaptive responses. Similar to the emergence and evolution of eukaryotic cells, evolution of land plants was also shaped and driven by infective and symbiotic microorganisms. These microorganisms are the driving force behind the evolution of plant synapses and other neuronal aspects of higher plants; this is especially pronounced in the root apices. Plant synapses allow synaptic cell-cell communication and coordination in plants, as well as sensory-motor integration in root apices searching for water and mineral nutrition. These neuronal aspects of higher plants are closely linked with their unique ability to adapt to environmental changes.

  14. Microorganism and filamentous fungi drive evolution of plant synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In the course of plant evolution, there is an obvious trend toward an increased complexity of plant bodies, as well as an increased sophistication of plant behavior and communication. Phenotypic plasticity of plants is based on the polar auxin transport machinery that is directly linked with plant sensory systems impinging on plant behavior and adaptive responses. Similar to the emergence and evolution of eukaryotic cells, evolution of land plants was also shaped and driven by infective and symbiotic microorganisms. These microorganisms are the driving force behind the evolution of plant synapses and other neuronal aspects of higher plants; this is especially pronounced in the root apices. Plant synapses allow synaptic cell-cell communication and coordination in plants, as well as sensory-motor integration in root apices searching for water and mineral nutrition. These neuronal aspects of higher plants are closely linked with their unique ability to adapt to environmental changes.

  15. 75 FR 66772 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Infectious Diseases (BSC, OID) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, the National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious...

  16. Mathematical modeling of infectious disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siettos, Constantinos I; Russo, Lucia

    2013-05-15

    Over the last years, an intensive worldwide effort is speeding up the developments in the establishment of a global surveillance network for combating pandemics of emergent and re-emergent infectious diseases. Scientists from different fields extending from medicine and molecular biology to computer science and applied mathematics have teamed up for rapid assessment of potentially urgent situations. Toward this aim mathematical modeling plays an important role in efforts that focus on predicting, assessing, and controlling potential outbreaks. To better understand and model the contagious dynamics the impact of numerous variables ranging from the micro host-pathogen level to host-to-host interactions, as well as prevailing ecological, social, economic, and demographic factors across the globe have to be analyzed and thoroughly studied. Here, we present and discuss the main approaches that are used for the surveillance and modeling of infectious disease dynamics. We present the basic concepts underpinning their implementation and practice and for each category we give an annotated list of representative works.

  17. The Syrian conflict and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Resat; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Tabak, Fehmi; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Yemisen, Mucahit; Sencan, Irfan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-06-01

    The conflict in Syria is a big humanitarian emergency. More than 200,000 Syrians have been killed, with more than half of the population either having been displaced or having immigrated. Healthcare has been interrupted due to the destruction of facilities, a lack of medical staff, and a critical shortage of life-saving medications. It produced suitable conditions leading to the re-emergence of tuberculosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, polio, and measles. Lebanon and Jordan reported increased rates of tuberculosis among Syrian refugees. Cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks were noted not only in Syria but also in Turkey, Jordan, and Lebanon. After a polio-free 15 years, Syria reported a polio outbreak. Ongoing measles outbreaks in the region was accelerated by the conflict. Iraq declared a cholera outbreak among the Syrian refugees. The healthcare facilities of the countries hosting immigrants, mainly Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt, are overburdened. The majority of the immigrants live in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Infectious diseases are big challenges for Syria and for the countries hosting immigrants. More structured support from international organizations is needed for the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

  18. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  19. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  20. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  1. Cardiac imaging in infectious endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Eske; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use....... infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested....

  2. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Bacillus Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans Microbacterium lacticum Jupiter Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus cereus Bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis...TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS THESIS Christopher J. Leonard, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/OOM-12 Approved for...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher J

  3. Biodiversity of the phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant rhizosphere microorganisms having the phosphate solubilizing capacity can convert the insoluble soil organic and inorganic phosphates into a soluble form and make the phosphorus (P) available to the plant. With the objective of evaluating the phosphate solubilizing microorganism populations under the rice ...

  4. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  5. Spoilage microorganisms in milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Skelin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Spoilage microorganisms cause changes of primary characteristics and properties of milk and dairy products. The product defects depends on the specific species and number of microorganisms involved in pre- and post- technological processing. Most often, these changes are related to single undesirable sensory characteristic, smell, flavour or conistency. However, in the case of heavier microbial contamination all these undesirable characteristics can occur simultaneously. Besides, even small changes caused by presence of spoilage microorganisms lead to decreased quality of milk and various dairy products. Despite of the importance for the overall quality, the control of spoilage microorganisms for dairy industry is not obligated and therefore, only a few producers control them. Therefore, the present study describes the undesirable effect of spoilage microorganisms on quality of raw, pasteurized and sterilized milk, fermented milk, butter, sour cream and cheeses with the intention to emphasize the importance and significance of their control in the dairy industry.

  6. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2016-12-01

    This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH) was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in disease control. The

  7. Changes of Global Infectious Disease Governance in 2000s: Rise of Global Health Security and Transformation of Infectious Disease Control System in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyung CHOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus upon the changes of global infectious disease governance in 2000s and the transformation of infectious disease control system in South Korea. Traditionally, infectious disease was globally governed by the quarantine regulated by the international conventions. When an infectious disease outbreak occurred in one country, each country prevented transmission of the disease through the standardized quarantine since the installation of international sanitary convention in 1892. Republic of Korea also organized the infectious disease control system with quarantine and disease report procedure after the establishment of government. Additionally, Korea National Health Institute(KNIH was founded as research and training institute for infectious disease. However, traditional international health regulation system faced a serious challenge by the appearance of emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in 1990s. As a result, global infectious disease governance was rapidly changed under the demand to global disease surveillance and response. Moreover, global health security frame became important after 2001 bioterror and 2003 SARS outbreak. Consequently, international health regulation was fully revised in 2005, which included not only infectious disease but also public health emergency. The new international health regime was differently characterized in several aspects; reinforcement of global cooperation and surveillance, enlargement of the role of supranational and international agencies, and reorganization of national capacity. KNIH was reorganized with epidemic control and research since late 1990s. However, in 2004 Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC was established as a disease control institution with combining quarantine and other functions after 2003 SARS outbreak. KCDC unified national function against infectious disease including prevention, protection, response and research, as a national representative in

  8. Vaccination of Non-Domestic Animals against Emerging Virus Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.W. Philippa (Joost)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Since the 1980's, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have made an enormous impact on public and animal health, food supply, economies, and the environment. An estimated 75% of emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonotic (pathogens of non-human

  9. Publication trends of research articles from infectious diseases specialty in a medical journal from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K V S Hari; Aravinda, K

    2012-01-01

    Details about research productivity in the infectious diseases specialty from India are lacking. To analyse publishing trends and research productivity of articles related to infectious diseases in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI). We carried out bibliometric analysis of articles related to infectious diseases specialty from JAPI published between 2000 and 2011. Data were derived from the journal's website and the articles were analysed for type (original article, case reports, etc.), microorganism (bacterial, viral, etc.) place of the research and timelines for publication. Out of 2977 articles published in JAPI over last 12 years, 256 articles belong to infectious diseases subspecialty. Infectious diseases contributed 11-18% of the published articles per year in JAPI during the last decade. Original articles (31%), case reports (38%) and correspondence (22%) constitute the majority of article types, while remaining 9% was made up by images. Bacterial (22%), protozoal and helminthic (20%), HIV (15%) and mycobacterial (16%) diseases lead the type of microorganisms represented in the research articles. Mumbai (16%), Delhi (9%) and Kolkata (7%) are the top three places contributing to the articles, followed by Chandigarh and Chennai. Original articles and case reports took approximately 14 months for publication, as compared to 6 months for an image (P articles per annum in JAPI. HIV and tuberculosis together account for 30% of published literature with fair representation from other organisms. Mumbai and Delhi are the leading contributors towards research productivity in this specialty.

  10. Emerging noninfectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Consiglio

    Full Text Available In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  11. Application of flow cytometry to wine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, Cédric; Petitgonnet, Clément; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Alexandre, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing detection and enumeration of microbial populations in food and during food process. Thanks to the fluorescent dyes used and specific probes, FCM provides information about cell physiological state and allows enumeration of a microorganism in a mixed culture. Thus, this technique is increasingly used to quantify pathogen, spoilage microorganisms and microorganisms of interest. Since one decade, FCM applications to the wine field increase greatly to determine population and physiological state of microorganisms performing alcoholic and malolactic fermentations. Wine spoilage microorganisms were also studied. In this review we briefly describe FCM principles. Next, a deep revision concerning enumeration of wine microorganisms by FCM is presented including the fluorescent dyes used and techniques allowing a yeast and bacteria species specific enumeration. Then, the last chapter is dedicated to fluorescent dyes which are used to date in fluorescent microscopy but applicable in FCM. This chapter also describes other interesting "future" techniques which could be applied to study the wine microorganisms. Thus, this review seeks to highlight the main advantages of the flow cytometry applied to wine microbiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Equine infectious anemia virus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Nan; Rao, Dan; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Hu, Ming-Ming; Dong, Jian-Guo

    2018-01-02

    Equine infectious anemia is an equine disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus, which was first reported in 1840. Equine infectious anemia virus research in China started in the 1960s, focusing on etiology, pathology, diagnosis, and immunology. Notably, in 1978 an attenuated vaccine was successfully developed for equine infectious anemia virus, effectively preventing equine infectious anemia virus in China. This article will review equine infectious anemia virus in China, including past and recent research, and commemorate scientists who have made great contributions to equine infectious anemia virus prevention.

  13. Motorcycles, Cell Phones, and Electricity Can Dramatically Change the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    AbstractSome observations and recent publications demonstrated, particularly in Africa, the potential influence that low-cost motorcycles, cell phones, and even widespread electrification could have on the evolution of infectious diseases, particularly zoonoses. Our reflections support the conclusion that we should focus on the real-time surveillance systems including alerting systems leading to a rapid and flexible response rather than the strongly limited modeling of infectious diseases because of the continuous evolution of microorganisms, as well as changes in the environment and human habits that are unpredictable.

  14. Merging economics and epidemiology to improve the prediction and management of infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrings, Charles; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Chowell, Gerardo; Daszak, Peter; Fenichel, Eli P; Finnoff, David; Horan, Richard D; Kilpatrick, A Marm; Kinzig, Ann P; Kuminoff, Nicolai V; Levin, Simon; Morin, Benjamin; Smith, Katherine F; Springborn, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Mathematical epidemiology, one of the oldest and richest areas in mathematical biology, has significantly enhanced our understanding of how pathogens emerge, evolve, and spread. Classical epidemiological models, the standard for predicting and managing the spread of infectious disease, assume that contacts between susceptible and infectious individuals depend on their relative frequency in the population. The behavioral factors that underpin contact rates are not generally addressed. There is, however, an emerging a class of models that addresses the feedbacks between infectious disease dynamics and the behavioral decisions driving host contact. Referred to as "economic epidemiology" or "epidemiological economics," the approach explores the determinants of decisions about the number and type of contacts made by individuals, using insights and methods from economics. We show how the approach has the potential both to improve predictions of the course of infectious disease, and to support development of novel approaches to infectious disease management.

  15. Infectious disease risks in xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jay A

    2018-03-07

    Hurdles exist to clinical xenotransplantation including potential infectious transmission from nonhuman species to xenograft recipients. In anticipation of clinical trials of xenotransplantation, the associated infectious risks have been investigated. Swine and immunocompromised humans share some potential pathogens. Swine herpesviruses including porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) and porcine lymphotropic herpesvirus (PLHV) are largely species-specific and do not, generally, infect human cells. Human cellular receptors exist for porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV), which infects certain human-derived cell lines in vitro. PERV-inactivated pigs have been produced recently. Human infection due to PERV has not been described. A screening paradigm can be applied to exclude potential human pathogens from "designated pathogen free" breeding colonies. Various microbiological assays have been developed for screening and diagnosis including antibody-based tests and qualitative and quantitative molecular assays for viruses. Additional assays may be required to diagnose pig-specific organisms in human xenograft recipients. Significant progress has been made in the evaluation of the potential infectious risks of clinical xenotransplantation. Infectious risk would be amplified by intensive immunosuppression. The available data suggest that risks of xenotransplant-associated recipient infection are manageable and that clinical trials can be performed safely. Possible infectious risks of xenotransplantation to the community at large are undefined but merit consideration. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  16. Microorganisms: Good or Evil, MIRRI Provides Biosecurity Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Martin, Dunja; Novossiolova, Tatyana

    2017-03-01

    The life-science community is a key stakeholder in the effort to ensure that the advances in biotechnology are not misused. Unfortunately, to date, the engagement of life scientists with issues of biosecurity has been limited. Microorganisms have been harnessed for the benefit of humankind but in the wrong hands could be used in direct or indirect acts against humans, livestock, crops, food, water infrastructure and other economically valuable entities. The Microbial Resources Research Infrastructure in its preparatory phase has addressed the topic implementing a code of conduct as part of its programme of prevention of malicious use and continues to work with the international community to raise awareness of best practice to avoid misuse of microorganisms. Biosecurity has become a major concern for several countries creating numerous activities to put in place counter measures, risk assessment, legislation and emergency response. The goal is to implement measures to protect us against malicious use of microorganisms, their products, information and technology transfer. Through this paper, we wish to discuss some of the activities that are underway, mention key educational tools and provide scientists with information on addressing biosecurity issues.

  17. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Lit Phua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya. 3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion.

  18. The selection pressures induced non-smooth infectious disease model and bifurcation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Wenjie; Tang, Sanyi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A non-smooth infectious disease model to describe selection pressure is developed. • The effect of selection pressure on infectious disease transmission is addressed. • The key factors which are related to the threshold value are determined. • The stabilities and bifurcations of model have been revealed in more detail. • Strategies for the prevention of emerging infectious disease are proposed. - Abstract: Mathematical models can assist in the design strategies to control emerging infectious disease. This paper deduces a non-smooth infectious disease model induced by selection pressures. Analysis of this model reveals rich dynamics including local, global stability of equilibria and local sliding bifurcations. Model solutions ultimately stabilize at either one real equilibrium or the pseudo-equilibrium on the switching surface of the present model, depending on the threshold value determined by some related parameters. Our main results show that reducing the threshold value to a appropriate level could contribute to the efficacy on prevention and treatment of emerging infectious disease, which indicates that the selection pressures can be beneficial to prevent the emerging infectious disease under medical resource limitation

  19. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  20. Bayesian networks in infectious disease eco-epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Smith, Carl S

    2016-03-01

    Globally, infectious diseases are responsible for a significant burden on human health. Drivers of disease transmission depend on interactions between humans, the environment, vectors, carriers, and pathogens; transmission dynamics are therefore potentially highly complex. Research in infectious disease eco-epidemiology has been rapidly gaining momentum because of the rising global importance of disease emergence and outbreaks, and growing understanding of the intimate links between human health and the environment. The scientific community is increasingly recognising the need for multidisciplinary translational research, integrated approaches, and innovative methods and tools to optimise risk prediction and control measures. Environmental health experts have also identified the need for more advanced analytical and biostatistical approaches to better determine causality, and deal with unknowns and uncertainties inherent in complex systems. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks in infectious disease eco-epidemiology, and the potential for developing dynamic tools for public health decision-making and improving intervention strategies.

  1. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief suspect in causing the outright endangerment of particular species. We conclude that the role of disease in historical extinctions at the population or species level may have been underestimated. Recent methodological breakthroughs may lead to a better understanding of the past and present roles of infectious disease in influencing population fitness and other parameters. PMID:23401844

  2. The Relationship of Microorganism Classification by US Government Guidelines to the Design pof Laboratory Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2007-01-01

    When the first edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, (BMBL) series was published approximately 40 years ago its purpose was to provide a code of practice, guidelines and standards for the prevention of laboratory acquired infections to the laboratorian working in an infectious disease laboratory. The BMBL is based on the microorganism being worked on and is a set of recommendations, which are advisory. While this is true, many agencies in the US government have incorporated all or parts of the BMBL in their regulations. This has led to the BMBL being accepted as the de facto US standard for the design and operation of infectious disease laboratories. The concept of biosecurity has evolved as a result of concerns related o access to microorganisms by terrorists following the anthrax letters of October 2001. While related to biosafety the specific requirements vary from those related to biosafety and are based on laws passed by the US Congress. The Select Agent Program of the US Centres for Disease Control has been given the responsibility for codifying and enforcing these regulations. Both biosafety and biosecurity need to be considered in the design of a laboratory facility. The occasionally conflicting regulatory requirements can be best resolved by conducting a Risk Assessment, which takes into account the microorganisms and the manipulations planned for the laboratory. This is an essential step for both laboratory design and subsequent laboratory operation. (author)

  3. Contact infection of infectious disease onboard a cruise ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Miao, Ruosong; Huang, Hong; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Cruise tourism has become more popular. Long-term personal contact, complex population flows, a lack of medical care facilities, and defective infrastructure aboard most cruise ships is likely to result in the ship becoming an incubator for infectious diseases. In this paper, we use a cruise ship as a research scenario. Taking into consideration personal behavior, the nature and transfer route of the virus across different surfaces, virus reproduction, and disinfection, we studied contact infection of infectious disease on a cruise ship. Using gastroenteritis caused by the norovirus as an example, we analyzed the characteristics of infectious disease propagation based on simulation results under different conditions. We found hand washing are the most important factors affecting virus propagation and passenger infection. It also decides either the total number of virus microorganisms or the virus distribution in different functional areas. The transfer rate between different surfaces is a key factor influencing the concentricity of the virus. A high transfer rate leads to high concentricity. In addition, the risk of getting infected is effectively reduced when the disinfection frequency is above a certain threshold. The efficiency of disinfection of functional areas is determined by total virus number and total contact times of surfaces.

  4. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  5. Growth and extracellular enzyme production by microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ugba', an indigenous Nigerian fermented food condiment. The isolated microorganisms were screened for amylase, protease and lipase production, the activity and specific activity of the enzymes were also determined. The effect of pH and ...

  6. Evaluation of microorganisms transmissible through handshake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms transmissible through handshake were experimentally isolated from samples collected from primary and secondary school students as well as undergraduates and staff of the Federal University of Technology, Akure. Bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, S. epididimis, Bacillus subtilis, ...

  7. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  8. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    % of the microorganisms in an environmental sample can be cultured in the laboratory with standard techniques, which is also the case for the ikaite columns. Thus, there is an enormous potential in the uncultured microorganisms, which cannot be accessed through cultivation based methods. This PhD thesis presents studies......, and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1...... on the diversity of microorganisms from the ikaite columns as well as bioprospecting for enzyme activities using both culture dependent and independent methods. Two cold-active β-galactosidases and one extremely cold-active α-amylase, all related to Clostridia, were characterized in more details....

  9. growth and extracellular enzyme production by microorganisms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okorie

    2013-06-26

    Ugba', an indigenous. Nigerian fermented food condiment. The isolated microorganisms were screened for amylase, protease and lipase production, the activity and specific activity of the enzymes were also determined.

  10. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  11. Global rise in human infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine F; Goldberg, Michael; Rosenthal, Samantha; Carlson, Lynn; Chen, Jane; Chen, Cici; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2014-12-06

    To characterize the change in frequency of infectious disease outbreaks over time worldwide, we encoded and analysed a novel 33-year dataset (1980-2013) of 12,102 outbreaks of 215 human infectious diseases, comprising more than 44 million cases occuring in 219 nations. We merged these records with ecological characteristics of the causal pathogens to examine global temporal trends in the total number of outbreaks, disease richness (number of unique diseases), disease diversity (richness and outbreak evenness) and per capita cases. Bacteria, viruses, zoonotic diseases (originating in animals) and those caused by pathogens transmitted by vector hosts were responsible for the majority of outbreaks in our dataset. After controlling for disease surveillance, communications, geography and host availability, we find the total number and diversity of outbreaks, and richness of causal diseases increased significantly since 1980 (p outbreaks (starting 1990), the overall number of outbreaks and disease richness still increase significantly with time (p outbreaks differ based on the causal pathogen's taxonomy, host requirements and transmission mode. We discuss our preliminary findings in the context of global disease emergence and surveillance.

  12. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  13. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  14. Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-09

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the commentary by CDC author Ronald Rosenberg, Threat from Emerging Vectorborne Viruses.  Created: 6/9/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/9/2016.

  15. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R. N. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide. PMID:20190120

  16. How infectious is SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. How infectious is SARS virus. Influenza: 1 patient infects ten people. SARS: 1 patient infects 2-4 people. Incubation period 10 days. Are there `silent´ cases ? Is quarantine enough ? How will it behave if and when it returns ?

  17. Deforestation and avian infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, R N M

    2010-03-15

    In this time of unprecedented global change, infectious diseases will impact humans and wildlife in novel and unknown ways. Climate change, the introduction of invasive species, urbanization, agricultural practices and the loss of biodiversity have all been implicated in increasing the spread of infectious pathogens. In many regards, deforestation supersedes these other global events in terms of its immediate potential global effects in both tropical and temperate regions. The effects of deforestation on the spread of pathogens in birds are largely unknown. Birds harbor many of the same types of pathogens as humans and in addition can spread infectious agents to humans and other wildlife. It is thought that avifauna have gone extinct due to infectious diseases and many are presently threatened, especially endemic island birds. It is clear that habitat degradation can pose a direct threat to many bird species but it is uncertain how these alterations will affect disease transmission and susceptibility to disease. The migration and dispersal of birds can also change with habitat degradation, and thus expose populations to novel pathogens. Some recent work has shown that the results of landscape transformation can have confounding effects on avian malaria, other haemosporidian parasites and viruses. Now with advances in many technologies, including mathematical and computer modeling, genomics and satellite tracking, scientists have tools to further research the disease ecology of deforestation. This research will be imperative to help predict and prevent outbreaks that could affect avifauna, humans and other wildlife worldwide.

  18. Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Society of Hematology (SFH), the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), and the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, David; Azoulay, Elie; Benoit, Dominique; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Demaret, Pierre; Ducassou, Stéphane; Frange, Pierre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Legrand, Matthieu; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Mokart, Djamel; Naudin, Jérôme; Pene, Frédéric; Rabbat, Antoine; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Ribaud, Patricia; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Vincent, François; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Darmon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis.

  19. Malignoma versus infectious spondylodiscitis in a case of progressive paraplegia: the value of an emergency MRI of the spine for the differential diagnosis; Malignom versus bakterielle Spondylodiszitis: Bedeutung der spinalen MRT fuer die Differentialdiagnose in der Notfallsituation. Beschreibung einer akuten Querschnittssymptomatik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremer, M.; Karstens, J.H. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie und Spezielle Onkologie; Herzog, T. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    1997-12-01

    Patient and Method: A case of an elderly diabetic patient with acute onset of a progressive neurologic deficit is reported. No malignancy was known so far. The CT of the spine showed a destruction of the 7th and 8th toracic vertebral body with compression of the spinal cord. The patient was referred to the radiotherapist for radiation of a presumed malignant spinal process. Result: For differential diagnosis a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine was performed and could lead to the correct diagnosis of an infectious spondylodiscitis. Conclusion: The MRI of the spine has a potential role for correct differentiation between benign and malignant spinal lesions and may thereby assist the radiotherapist in the dicision making in an emergency situation. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Patient und Methode: Vorgestellt wird eine 70jaehrige Patientin mit akut aufgetretener, progredienter Paraparese beider Beine. Anamnestisch fand sich neben einem Diabetes und einer Osteoporose kein Hinweis auf eine Tumorerkrankung. Aufgrund der im spinalen CT imponierenden ossaeren Destruktion des siebten und achten Brustwirbelkoerpers mit Einengung des Spinalkanals erfolgte unter der Annahme eines Malignoms die Vorstellung beim Strahlentherapeuten. Ergebnis: Erst die vom Radioonkologen im Notfalldienst veranlasste spinale Kernspintomographie (MRT) konnte ein Malignom ausschliessen und ergab die Diagnose einer infektioesen Spondylodiszitis. Schlussfolgerungen: Die spinale MRT kann in einer Situation mit aktuer Querschnittssymptomatik unklarer Aetiologie die entscheidenden differentialdiagnostischen Hinweise liefern und damit im Notfalldienst zur Absicherung einer Bestrahlungsindikation beitragen. (orig./MG)

  20. The detection of microorganisms related to urethritis from the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Thi; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Hatanaka, Masayuki; Kawai, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Takamasa; Uehara, Kazutaka; Murakami, Norihiko; Yoshioka, Masaru; Nakayama, Ken; Shiono, Yutaka; Muraoka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masahiko; Fujimoto, Naohiro; Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the presence of microorganisms related to urethritis in the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis and the efficacies of antimicrobials for urethritis on microorganisms in the oral cavity. Ninety-two male patients with urethritis and 17 male controls participated to this study at 12 urology clinics in Japan between March 2014 and March 2015. The first voided urine (FVU) and oral wash fluid (OWF) specimens were collected from the participants. The microorganisms in both FVU and OWF specimens were detected by nucleic acid amplification tests at the first and follow-up visit. The efficacies of antimicrobials were evaluated after 1-4 weeks treatment completion. In a total of 92 male patients with urethritis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Trichomonas vaginalis and Gardnerella vaginalis were detected from OWF specimens of 12%, 3%, 9%, 0%, 12%, 3%, 3% and 15% patients, respectively. From control males, no microorganism was detected from OWF specimens. Among 46 patients who could be evaluated for antimicrobial efficacies at the follow-up visit, 5 in FVU specimens failed by azithromycin (AZM), and 10 failed in OWF specimens (7 by AZM, 2 by tetracycline, 1 by spectinomycin; p = 0.002). Especially, a high prevalence of G. vaginalis remained positive after treatment for urethritis in the oral cavity. Microorganisms related to urethritis were detected in the oral cavity of male patients with urethritis. Antimicrobials that focused on urethritis, especially AZM regimen seem to be less effective for microorganisms in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE ASPECTS OF INVESTIGATION OF MICROORGANISM ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AT THE PRESENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva I.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At the present stage for ensuring epidemic safety and prevention of nosocomial infections the complex of analytical study and managerial procedure to improve the epidemiological supervision over nosocomial infections through the introduction of infection control in health care practice are using. The microbiological monitoring is part of the infectious control and allows supervising circulation of microorganisms and their antimicrobial resistance by dynamic observation over structure and level of resistance to antibiotics that are used in the given particular hospital. Materials and methods. For the dynamic observation of the structure and the level of resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents the computer software WHONET recommended by WHO has been used. With using WHONET in Dnepropetrovsk Children's Hospital № 3 the computer database has been created. In this database the information about each patient, hospital department, samples under test and the date of its excretion, the data about the detected microorganism and its sensitivity/resistance to antimicrobial agents have been stored. The examination and analysis of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms has been provided for 2010- 2014 years, in total the data on 6168 isolates from 3876 patients have been analyzed. Results and discussion. By the total data the isolates belong to a wide spectrum of microorganisms (more than 40 different types. By means of the analysis of isolating of clinically significant microorganisms it has been established that one of the most frequent isolated were Escherichia coli (1-20 %, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4-18 %, Staphylococcus epidermidis (1-12 %, S. aureus (1-10 %, Enterobacter cloacae (2-9 %, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1-8 %. Detection of other microorganisms was irregular and its frequency is varied from 0 % to 10 %. As a result of examining the sensitivity of microorganisms it has been shown that tested strains of bacteria were

  2. Microorganisms Isolated from the Patients in the Intensive Care Unit and Their Antibiotic Susceptibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Aðca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Aim:  It was aimed to investigate the microorganisms and their antibiotic susceptibilities isolated from various clinical specimens sent from the intensive care unit of our hospital between January 2010 and June 2011.Material and Method: Standard microbiological methods were assessed for the isolation of bacteria from clinical specimens. Antimicrobial susceptibilites were investigated according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standards by disc diffusion method. Result: In 236 samples microorganisms were isolated through 538 various clinical specimens. The most common isolated microorganisms are Acinetobacter baumanii 49 (%21, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 49 (%21, Escherichia coli 47 (%20, Candida spp. 22 (%9 and Enterococcus spp. 21 (%9 respectively. One of the most common isolated bacteria Acinetobacter baumanii strains are extremely resistant and their suscepitibilty against amikacin and imipenem were both found to be %8. While in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were found to be %80 susceptibile to amikacin, susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was %35. The highest resistance in E.coli was 87% against ampicillin and the least resistance was against imipeneme as 5%. While no resistance against  vancomycin in Enterococci, penicillin resistance was found to be 86%. Penicillin resistance in S. aureus was found 86% and oxacillin resistance was found 43%. Discussion: Knowledge of microorganism variety and the profile of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, especially in the ICU which is risky, against infectious disease is important in rational antibotic usage and infection control precautions.

  3. Emerging influenza virus: A global threat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The major cause of health concern that claims a large number of lives worldwide every year are the infectious diseases (Ministry of Health Report 1920). The advent of antibiotics and vaccines has lessened the impact of a number of infectious diseases but they are still the number one cause of mortality. These emerging ...

  4. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  5. Effects of Global Climate on Infectious Disease: the Cholera Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lipp, Erin K.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the role of the environment and climate in disease dynamics has become a subject of increasing interest to microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, and ecologists. Much of the interest has been stimulated by the growing problems of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases worldwide, the potential of bioterrorism, and the debate concerning climate change. Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae, lends itself to analyses of the role of...

  6. Molecular imaging: Moving towards infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hongxiu; Ingraham, Christopher R.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging has been advanced into the field of infectious diseases, which provides not only new insights for basic science, but also new strategies for the effective management of infectious diseases in clinical practice.

  7. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    Many industrial and biotechnological processes make use of cold-active enzymes or could benefit from the use, as the reduced temperature can be beneficial in multiple ways. Such processes may save energy and production costs, improve hygiene, maintain taste and other organoleptic properties......, and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1......% of the microorganisms in an environmental sample can be cultured in the laboratory with standard techniques, which is also the case for the ikaite columns. Thus, there is an enormous potential in the uncultured microorganisms, which cannot be accessed through cultivation based methods. This PhD thesis presents studies...

  9. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  10. HOMOSEXUAL TRANSMISSION OF INFECTIOUS SYPHILIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. Colin

    1963-01-01

    Homosexuality is more prevalent in our society than many suspect. The incidence of infectious syphilis is increasing and the homosexual is playing an increasing role in its epidemiology. Fifteen per cent to 70 per cent of homosexuals practice analism. The diagnosis of venereal disease should always be kept in mind when dealing with anorectal problems. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:13957193

  11. Publication trends of research articles from infectious diseases specialty in a medical journal from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KVS Hari Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Details about research productivity in the infectious diseases specialty from India are lacking. Objective: To analyse publishing trends and research productivity of articles related to infectious diseases in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India (JAPI. Materials and Methods : We carried out bibliometric analysis of articles related to infectious diseases specialty from JAPI published between 2000 and 2011. Data were derived from the journal′s website and the articles were analysed for type (original article, case reports, etc., microorganism (bacterial, viral, etc. place of the research and timelines for publication. Results : Out of 2977 articles published in JAPI over last 12 years, 256 articles belong to infectious diseases subspecialty. Infectious diseases contributed 11-18% of the published articles per year in JAPI during the last decade. Original articles (31%, case reports (38% and correspondence (22% constitute the majority of article types, while remaining 9% was made up by images. Bacterial (22%, protozoal and helminthic (20%, HIV (15% and mycobacterial (16% diseases lead the type of microorganisms represented in the research articles. Mumbai (16%, Delhi (9% and Kolkata (7% are the top three places contributing to the articles, followed by Chandigarh and Chennai. Original articles and case reports took approximately 14 months for publication, as compared to 6 months for an image (P < 0.0001. Conclusion : Infectious diseases specialty contributes about 15% of articles per annum in JAPI. HIV and tuberculosis together account for 30% of published litearture with fair representation from other organisms. Mumbai and Delhi are the leading contributors towards research productivity in this specialty.

  12. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  13. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  14. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  15. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Ecohealth Emerging Infectious Diseases Research Initiative (EcoEID)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Articles de revue. Global epidemiology of clonorchiasis and its relation with cholangiocarcinoma. Articles de revue. Comparative characterization of MicroRNAs from the liver flukes Fasciola gigantica and F. hepatica. Articles de revue. Current status of Opisthorchiasis and Clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin.

  17. The Bug Stops Here: Force Protection and Emerging Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    probably higher. Mounting evidence implicates microbes in heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, autism , chronic lung diseases...Leptospirosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans, found in the tissues and urine of infected dogs , swine, and rodents. It is...Middle East and Central Asia. Some of these species have an animal reservoir in nature (burrow-dwelling rodents, dogs ), while others are

  18. Q Fever in Dogs: An Emerging Infectious Disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Rezaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is an important widespread reemerging zoonosis. The presence of Coxiellaburnetii in 100 tick-infested dogs was assessed in this study.Methods: The blood samples from 100 referred dogs were acquired and evaluated by nested-PCR.Results: C. burnetii was detected in 11 out of 100 (11% blood samples. Most of the positive dogswere kept outdoor and fed on raw diet. Based on our findings, Q fever should be considered as anemerging disease in dogs in Iran; so, zoonotic importance of this population must be notified. To betterunderstanding the role and pathogenic importance of dogs in Q fever outbreak and to determine whetherthis organism can be transmitted directly from dogs to human further in-depth studies are necessary.Conclusion: It is determined that C. burnetii is present in dogs in southeast of Iran and people who arein contact with this population, especially asymptomatic ones are at increased risk of infection.

  19. Combating emerging infectious diseases in India: Orchestrating a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Gp–B rota virus, HIV/AIDS, Nipah virus, chikungunya fever, Chandipura encephalitis, H5N1 influenza, etc.) laced with successes and controversies. The Indian Council of. Medical Research (ICMR) is the apex organization for health research within the country, and it has played a very significant role in research on these ...

  20. Combating emerging infectious diseases in India: Orchestrating a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Some of them like HIV/AIDS have given more pain and misery than the pandemic of ... (e.g. HIV, malnutrition); hospital and medical procedures; pathogen evolution (e.g. antimicrobial drug resistance, .... to provide technical support for dealing with epidemics and investigation of outbreaks due to new and exotic agents.

  1. [Intensive care for emerging infectious diseases--Ebola and Dengue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-02-01

    Although significant effort has been made for the development of treatment and prevention of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, one has to keep in mind that basic supportive therapy, including sufficient hydration to the patients, would be a standard of care for Ebola hemorrhagic fever and other antiviral therapy would be an adjunct to this standard of care. Also, effective antiviral drug to dengue virus is not known, and a basic supportive therapy, including fluid therapy, would be a standard of care and prevent serious type of dengue virus infections. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug must not be used, because they promote bleeding and acidosis.

  2. Emerging human infectious diseases: anthroponoses, zoonoses, and sapronoses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2003), s. 403-404 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : zoonoses Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 5.340, year: 2003 http://www.cdc.gov.ncidod/EID/vol9no3/02-0208-app.htm

  3. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in infectious disease research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1940 and 2004 over 335 emerging infectious disease events were reported. The majority involved zoonoses, most of which were of wildlife origin or had an important wildlife host. There is reason to believe this trend of increasing emerging diseases will continue. For that reason, understandin...

  4. [Infectious gastroenteritis in relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. Therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliellas, C; Xiol, X; Barenys, M; Saavedra, J; Casanovas, T; Iborra, M; Sesé, E

    1996-06-01

    The incidence and clinical importance of infectious gastroenteritis was studied in 67 consecutive relapses of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A stool culture was done in every case before starting treatment. Stool culture was positive in 6 relapses (8.9%): Four were exacerbations of ulcerative colitis and two of Crohn's disease (8.8% in ulcerative colitis vs 9% in Crohn's disease; NS). The microorganisms isolated were Campylobacter jejuni in three cases, Salmonella enteritidis in two and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. There were not clinical differences between patients with positive and negative stool culture. Treated with antibiotics, stool cultures became negative in all of them but only in three the disease was controlled. The other three had to be treated with corticosteroids to achieve remission. We conclude that stool culture should be practised in all relapses of IBD and in case of positivity, antibiotic therapy should be started. With this approach the use of corticosteroids can be avoided in some patients.

  5. Infectious Mononucleosis: Pharyngitis and Morbilliform Rash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric McCoy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 20-year-old female on day nine of amoxicillin for a recent diagnosis of pharyngitis presented to the emergency department with a complaint of rash for two days. The patient’s clinical course started two weeks prior and included fever, tonsillar exudates, and fatigue. Initial vitals were temperature of 37.6oC, blood pressure 122/82, heart rate 135, respiratory rate 18, and oxygen saturation 100% on room air. Significant findings: Her physical exam was significant for bilateral tonsillar exudates, cervical lymphadenopathy, and a morbilliform rash that included the palms (Figure 1-4. Laboratory testing was significant for white blood cell (WBC count of 16.5 thous/mcl with an elevation in absolute lymphocytes of > 10 thous/mcl. The monospot and EBV (Epstein-Barr virus panel were positive. Discussion: Infectious mononucleosis (IM is a clinical syndrome characterized by a triad of fever, tonsillar pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy, and is most commonly associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection.1,2 The incidence of IM in the United States is 500 cases/100,000 person-years, with the highest incidence between ages 15 to 24 years.1 EBV transmission occurs predominantly through exposure to infected saliva3, with an incubation period of 30 – 50 days.1 The majority of patients with IM recover without apparent sequelae and most clinical and laboratory findings resolve by 1 month after diagnosis. Cervical adenopathy and fatigue may resolve more slowly ( > 6 months for fatigue.4,5 IM may be associated with several acute complications including splenic rupture (0.5 – 1% and airway obstruction (1%.6 A morbilliform rash occurs in up to 95% of patients with IM who are treated with beta-lactam antibiotics for presumed group A streptococcal infection.1 Diagnosis is typically made in the setting of the clinical syndrome combined with laboratory test to detect antibodies to certain EBV-associated antigens.7 Primary EBV

  6. Ecology and metagenomics of soil microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Head, I. M.; Prosser, J. I.; Schloter, M.; Smalla, K.; Tebbe, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microorganism * bioremediation * biogenesis of soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  7. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Several microorganism strains of genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Aspergillus and. Lactobacillus were screened for their ability to perform the reduction of γ-chloro-β-ketobutyric acid ethyl ester to γ-chloro-β-hydroxybutyric acid ethyl ester. The optimal conditions for both stages of the.

  8. Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2)

  9. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  10. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  11. Novel genome alteration system for microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.G.; Geertman, J.M.; Bolat, I.

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a set of targeting constructs, comprising a first construct comprising a recognition site for an endonuclease, a first region of homology with a target gene of a microorganism, and a first part of a selection marker, and a second construct comprising a second part of the

  12. Atmospheric Sampling of Microorganisms with UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, D. G., III

    2017-12-01

    Many microorganisms relevant to crops, domestic animals, and humans are transported over long distances through the atmosphere. Some of these atmospheric microbes catalyze the freezing of water at higher temperatures and facilitate the onset of precipitation. A few have crossed continents. New technologies are needed to study the movement of microorganisms in the atmosphere. We have used unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to study the transport of microorganisms tens to hundreds of meters above the ground. These UAS are equipped with unique devices for collecting microbes in the atmosphere during flight. Autonomous systems enable teams of UAS to perform complex atmospheric sampling tasks, and coordinate flight missions with one another. Data collected with UAS can be used to validate and improve disease forecasting models along highways in the sky, connecting transport scales across farms, states, and continents. Though terrestrial environments are often considered a major contributor to atmospheric microbial aerosols, little is known about aquatic sources of microbial aerosols. Droplets containing microorganisms can aerosolize from the water surface, liberating them into the atmosphere. We are using teams of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) and UAS to study the aerosolization of microbes from aquatic environments. Controlled flume studies using highspeed video have allowed us to observe unique aerosolization phenomena that can launch microbes out of the water and into the air. Unmanned systems may be used to excite the next generation of biologists and engineers, and raise important ethical considerations about the future of human-robot interactions.

  13. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    Include Security Clasification ) (U) Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Bjornson, A. B., Bjornson...the course of bacterial and viral infec- tions. Infect. Immun. 30:824-831. 25. Zimmerli, W., B. Seligmann, and J. I. Gallin. 1986. Exudation primes

  14. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences...

  15. Genetic fingerprint of microorganisms associated with the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    adapting molecular techniques to identify microorganisms. Molecular ... The under- standing achieved from molecular identification of the mi- .... cillium brevicompactum associated with the different species of Bacillus. It is been reported that the death and lyses of such bacteria would promote the growth of fungi (Garg et al.

  16. False identification of other microorganisms as Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 507 microorganisms which have been previously identified as S. aureus in 8 States in Southern Nigeria through characteristic morphology on blood agar, Gram staining, growth and fermentation on Mannitol Salt Agar and coagulase formation were collected. All the isolates were identified in this study through ...

  17. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  18. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Dong Hwa Shin; Soo Wan eChae; Su-Jin eJung

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some...

  19. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms isolated from smoked and frozen fishes sold in Benin and Warri metropolis were investigated. Adopting microbiological standard techniques, the results of the bacterial counts and fungal counts ranged from 5.4 x 106 (Ekpan market) to 25.1 x 106 (Ekpan market) and 1.1 x 105 ...

  20. Ecophysiology of microorganisms in microbial elctrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for improvement of the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been the reduction of the cost of the cathode catalyst. As catalyst at the cathode, microorganisms offer great possibilities. Previous research has shown the principle possibilities for the biocathode for H2

  1. Tapping uncultured microorganisms through metagenomics for drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products have been an important historical source of therapeutic agents. Microorganisms are major source of bioactive natural products, and several microbial products including antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, immunosuppressants and others are currently used as therapeutic agents for human and ...

  2. Microorganisms may play role in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    ORNL researchers are studying microorganisms that remove metals from water for possible use in managing radioactive and hazardous wastes in Oak Ridge and elsewhere. These organisms including bacteria, fungi and algae, selectively absorb metals from water. Thus, in high concentrations, they could be used to treat wastewater containing radioactive or toxic metals

  3. Microorganisms in the aetiology of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morré, S. A.; Stooker, W.; Lagrand, W. K.; van den Brule, A. J.; Niessen, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    Recent publications have suggested that infective pathogens might play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This review focuses on these microorganisms in the process of atherosclerosis. The results of in vitro studies, animal studies, tissue studies, and serological studies

  4. Artifical Microorganism Infection in Aviation Kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vallo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel used in the aviation engineering has to be clean and dry, it may not contain mechanical impurities and water. Water inaviation kerosene may occur in soluble and insoluble form. The danger inheres in the insoluble form, which may drop out in the crystallineform and cause various failures, such as those caused by mechanical impurities. The water assists in the biological matter formation createdby various species of microorganisms (bacteria, mould fungi and yeast. The microorganisms, present in water phase occurring on thebottom of tanks or on the interface water phase – kerosene, grow and reproduce and subsequently may pollute (impair the fuel by thebiomass or by the products of their metabolism. There is a possibility to infect the fuel artificially by a selected reference microorganismstrain, which usually occur in contaminated fuel, or by microorganisms which cause a biological contamination of aviation kerosene.Out of the selected reference strains used in the experiments, the reference strains of Proteus vulgaris, Sacharamyces cerevisiae andClostridium perfringens were not cultivated in the sterile aviation kerosene and the propagating nutrient medium. The aviation kerosene actsas a biocide medium for the presented reference microorganism strains.

  5. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  6. The influence of selected nanomaterials on microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandeburová, P.; Birošová, L.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Gál, M.; Tichý, J.; Híveš, J.; Mackul´ak, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 525-530 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanomaterials * nanotechnologies * microorganisms * toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  7. Simulations for designing and interpreting intervention trials in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, M Elizabeth; Auranen, Kari; Baird, Sarah; Basta, Nicole E; Bellan, Steven E; Brookmeyer, Ron; Cooper, Ben S; DeGruttola, Victor; Hughes, James P; Lessler, Justin; Lofgren, Eric T; Longini, Ira M; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Özler, Berk; Seage, George R; Smith, Thomas A; Vespignani, Alessandro; Vynnycky, Emilia; Lipsitch, Marc

    2017-12-29

    Interventions in infectious diseases can have both direct effects on individuals who receive the intervention as well as indirect effects in the population. In addition, intervention combinations can have complex interactions at the population level, which are often difficult to adequately assess with standard study designs and analytical methods. Herein, we urge the adoption of a new paradigm for the design and interpretation of intervention trials in infectious diseases, particularly with regard to emerging infectious diseases, one that more accurately reflects the dynamics of the transmission process. In an increasingly complex world, simulations can explicitly represent transmission dynamics, which are critical for proper trial design and interpretation. Certain ethical aspects of a trial can also be quantified using simulations. Further, after a trial has been conducted, simulations can be used to explore the possible explanations for the observed effects. Much is to be gained through a multidisciplinary approach that builds collaborations among experts in infectious disease dynamics, epidemiology, statistical science, economics, simulation methods, and the conduct of clinical trials.

  8. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  9. The interconnected and cross-border nature of risks posed by infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Van Cangh, Thomas; Beauté, Julien; Bartels, Cornelius; Tsolova, Svetla; Pharris, Anastasia; Ciotti, Massimo; Semenza, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases can constitute public health emergencies of international concern when a pathogen arises, acquires new characteristics, or is deliberately released, leading to the potential for loss of human lives as well as societal disruption. A wide range of risk drivers are now known to lead to and/or exacerbate the emergence and spread of infectious disease, including global trade and travel, the overuse of antibiotics, intensive agriculture, climate change, high population densities, and inadequate infrastructures, such as water treatment facilities. Where multiple risk drivers interact, the potential impact of a disease outbreak is amplified. The varying temporal and geographic frequency with which infectious disease events occur adds yet another layer of complexity to the issue. Mitigating the emergence and spread of infectious disease necessitates mapping and prioritising the interdependencies between public health and other sectors. Conversely, during an international public health emergency, significant disruption occurs not only to healthcare systems but also to a potentially wide range of sectors, including trade, tourism, energy, civil protection, transport, agriculture, and so on. At the same time, dealing with a disease outbreak may require a range of critical sectors for support. There is a need to move beyond narrow models of risk to better account for the interdependencies between health and other sectors so as to be able to better mitigate and respond to the risks posed by emerging infectious disease.

  10. Infectious Thromboembolism related to prolonged reduced motility in ill acute patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dodi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Update in new clinic complications related to infectious diseases reveals emergent, at present, the thromboembolic risk. Clinicians must examine carefully thromboembolism related to prolonged reduced motility during acute invalidating infectious diseases because it represents major risk during clinical conditions involving enzimatic procoagulant activity, fibronectine production, procoagulant autoimmunitary damage. Recent experimental data show that pathogenesis of thromboembolic lesions involves clinical risk factors, vascular anatomic features and bacterial genetic properties.

  11. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, F.; Tuleushev, A.; Lisitsyn, V.; Kim, S.; Tuleushev, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the P entium . Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  12. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  13. Infectious endocarditis caused by Helcococcus kunzii in a vascular patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotte, Romain; Lotte, Laurène; Degand, Nicolas; Gaudart, Alice; Gabriel, Sylvie; Ben H'dech, Mouna; Blois, Mathilde; Rinaldi, Jean-Paul; Ruimy, Raymond

    2015-06-23

    Helcococcus kunzii is a facultative anaerobic bacterium that was first described by Collins et al. in 1993, and was initially considered as a commensal of the human skin, in particular of lower extremities. Human infections caused by H. kunzii remain rare with only a few cases published in the pubmed database. Nevertheless recent reports indicate that this microorganism has to be considered as an opportunistic pathogen that can be involved in severe infections in human. To the best of our knowledge, we describe here the first known case of infectious endocarditis caused by H. kunzii. A 79 year-old man reporting severe polyvascular medical history attended the emergency ward for rapid deterioration of his general state of health. After physical examination and paraclinical investigations, the diagnosis of infectious endocarditis on native mitral valve caused by Helcococcus kunzii was established based on Dukes criteria. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing allowed an accurate identification to the species level of Helcococcus kunzii. The patient was successfully treated by a medico-surgical approach. The treatment consisted in intravenous amoxicillin during four weeks and mitral valve replacement with a bioprosthestic valve. After an in depth review of patient's medical file, the origin of infection remained unknown. However, a cutaneous portal of entry cannot be excluded as the patient and his General Practitioner reported chronic ulcerations of both feet. We describe here the first case of endocarditis caused by H. kunzii in an elderly patient with polyvascular disease. This report along with previous data found in the literature emphasizes the invasive potential of this bacterial species as an opportunistic pathogen, in particular for patient with polyvascular diseases. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing are reliable tools for H. kunzii identification. We also sequenced in this work H.kunzii type strain 103932T CIP and deposited in

  14. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  15. Update in Infectious Diseases 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, F J; Peñuelas, M; Lejárraga, C; Emilov, T; Rico, C; Díaz, I; Lázaro, C; Viñuela-Prieto, J M; Matesanz, M

    2017-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance in complex models of continuous infection is a current issue. The update 2017 course addresses about microbiological, epidemiological and clinical aspects useful for a current approach to infectious disease. During the last year, nosocomial pneumonia approach guides, recommendations for management of yeast and filamentous fungal infections, review papers on the empirical approach to peritonitis and extensive guidelines on stewardship have been published. HIV infection is being treated before and more intensively. The implementation of molecular biology, spectrometry and inmunology to traditional techniques of staining and culture achieve a better and faster microbiological diagnosis. Finally, the infection is increasingly integrated, assessing non-antibiotic aspects in the treatment.

  16. Preventive Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract for Oral Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Sekita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (HC (Saururaceae has been used internally and externally as a traditional medicine and as an herbal tea for healthcare in Japan. Our recent survey showed that HC poultice (HCP prepared from smothering fresh leaves of HC had been frequently used for the treatment of purulent skin diseases with high effectiveness. Our experimental study also demonstrated that ethanol extract of HCP (eHCP has antibacterial, antibiofilm, and anti-inflammatory effects against S. aureus which caused purulent skin diseases. In this study, we focused on novel effects of HCP against oral infectious diseases, such as periodontal disease and dental caries. We determined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of water solution of HCP ethanol extract (wHCP against important oral pathogens and investigated its cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory effects on human oral epithelial cells. wHCP had moderate antimicrobial effects against some oral microorganisms and profound antibiofilm effects against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans. In addition, wHCP had no cytotoxic effects and could inhibit interleukin-8 and CCL20 productions by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human oral keratinocytes. Our findings suggested that wHCP may be clinically useful for preventing oral infectious diseases as a mouthwash for oral care.

  17. Clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings contribute to the early differentiation between infectious and noninfectious encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Wilken

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition and prompt specific treatment are crucial factors influencing the outcome of patients with acute encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine the main causes of acute encephalitis in our population and to find predictors that may lead to specific diagnosis. Adult patients admitted to our hospital with suspected diagnosis of encephalitis in the period 2006-2013 were included. One hundred and five medical records were analyzed. Eighty-two patients with infectious encephalitis were identified (78% of total cases, 53 (65% men and 29 (35% women, mean age 47.8 years. The most common microorganisms identified were: HSV-1 (11%, VZV (10%, HSV-2 (5% and EBV (5%. Twenty-three patients (22% of the series had non-infectious encephalitis. Headache (p < 0.0001 and fever (p = 0.008 were more frequent in encephalitis of infectious origin. Protein levels and white blood cell counts in the cerebrospinal fluid were significantly higher in patients affected by infectious encephalitis than in those affected by noninfectious encephalitis (OR 95% CI 12.3 [2.9-51.7] and OR 95% CI 7.4 [2-27], respectively. Identifying specific causal agents of acute encephalitis remains a major challenge. Cerebrospinal fluid markers, as well as specific clinical findings, may however contribute to initial differentiation between infectious and noninfectious causes.

  18. Autoimmunity, infectious immunity, and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazuko; Matsunami, Yukana; Shen, Lianhua; Quan, Nanhu; Makarova, Marina; Suchkov, Sergey V; Ayada, Kiyoshi; Oguma, Keiji; Lopez, Luis R

    2009-11-01

    Vascular inflammation is common in certain systemic autoimmune diseases and contributes to the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and oxLDL/beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) complex formation. These complexes have been implicated as proatherogenic autoantigens that participate in the development of atherosclerotic disease. We have demonstrated that the in vitro macrophage uptake of oxLDL/beta2GPI complexes increases in the presence of IgG anti-beta2GPI antibodies and that IgG immune complexes containing oxLDL/beta2GPI upregulate the expression of both scavenger and Fcgamma receptors to activate beta2GPI specific T cells. Some persistent infections may cause immune responses that promote atherogenesis. Cellular immunity (Th1) against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) derived heat shock protein 60 (Hp-HSP60) cross-reacts with endogenous HSP60 to cause cardiovascular disease likely by molecular mimicry. Infectious cellular response may be proatherogenic,while the humoral response (antibody production) maybe protective. We review the recent progress in our understanding of autoimmunity and infectious immunity that promote atherosclerosis.

  19. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis).

  20. Infectious Considerations in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Slightly more than 500 people have flown in space, most of them for short periods of time. The total number of person years in space is small. Given this fact, and given rigorous astronaut screening, it is not surprising that the accumulated infectious disease experience in space is also small, and mostly, theoretical. As the human space presence expands, we may expect mission length, total accumulated person years and the environmental complexity to increase. Add to the mix both changes in human immunity and microbial virulence, and it becomes realistic to consider infectious scenarios and the means to mitigate them. This lecture will cover the inhabited space environment from the perspective of host-microbe interactions, current relevant research, and the current countermeasures used. Future challenges will be discussed and there will be opportunity to ask questions about Space Operations. The audience is encouraged to think about what medical tools you would choose to have in different types of mission, what you would be willing to leave behind, and how you would compensate for the necessary trade offs in mission design.

  1. The consequences of human actions on risks for infectious diseases: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Johanna F.; Grace, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The human population is growing, requiring more space for food production, and needing more animals to feed it. Emerging infectious diseases are increasing, causing losses in both human and animal lives, as well as large costs to society. Many factors are contributing to disease emergence, including climate change, globalization and urbanization, and most of these factors are to some extent caused by humans. Pathogens may be more or less prone to emergence in themselves, and rapidly mutating ...

  2. Joseph Lister: first use of a bacterium as a 'model organism' to illustrate the cause of infectious disease of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Melvin

    2010-03-20

    Joseph Lister's goal was to show that a pure culture of Bacterium lactis, normally present in milk, uniquely caused the lactic acid fermentation of milk. To demonstrate this fact he devised a procedure to obtain a pure clonal population of B. lactis, a result that had not previously been achieved for any microorganism. Lister equated the process of fermentation with infectious disease and used this bacterium as a model organism, demonstrating its role in fermentation; from this result he made the inductive inference that infectious diseases of humans are the result of the growth of specific, microscopic, living organisms in the human host.

  3. Extracellular vesicles as mediators of immunopathology in infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Elham Hosseini; Grau, Georges Emile Raymond

    2018-03-25

    During last decades, extracellular vesicles have emerged as important elements in cell-cell communication and as key players in disease pathogenesis via transmission of their cargo between different cells. Various works have described different subpopulations of these membrane structures, based on their cell of origin, biogenesis, size, biophysical properties, cargo, etc. In addition to their pathophysiological role in the development and progression of different diseases including infectious diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, extracellular vesicles are now recognized for their potential as novel therapeutic target and intelligent drug delivery system. Here, we have reviewed the most recent data on different subtypes of extracellular vesicles, focusing on microvesicles and exosomes and their subpopulations, their involvement in immune-mediated pathogenesis of various infectious diseases and their role as potential therapeutic targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Infectious Mononucleosis and Cholestatic Hepatitis: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Salgado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is one of the major clinical manifestations of Epstein-Barr virus infection. In this syndrome, elevation of liver transaminase levels is common but cholestasis is rare, with few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a 14-year-old female adolescent, admitted to the Emergency Room with fever, odynophagia and cervical adenomegaly. She was treated with amoxicillin and two days later he presented with jaundice. The analytical evaluation was compatible with cholestatic hepatitis and abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatosplenomegaly without dilatation of the bile ducts. The diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus infection was confirmed by the presence of serological markers. This case aims to raise awareness of a rare manifestation of a common infectious agent and, consequently, to the inclusion of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in the differential diagnosis of pediatric cholestatic hepatitis.

  5. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  6. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  7. How could haloalkaliphilic microorganisms contribute to biotechnology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun; Chen, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Haloalkaliphiles are microorganisms requiring Na(+) concentrations of at least 0.5 mol·L(-1) and an alkaline pH of 9 for optimal growth. Their unique features enable them to make significant contributions to a wide array of biotechnological applications. Organic compatible solutes produced by haloalkaliphiles, such as ectoine and glycine betaine, are correlated with osmoadaptation and may serve as stabilizers of intracellular proteins, salt antagonists, osmoprotectants, and dermatological moisturizers. Haloalkaliphiles are an important source of secondary metabolites like rhodopsin, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and exopolysaccharides that play essential roles in biogeocycling organic compounds. These microorganisms also can secrete unique exoenzymes, including proteases, amylases, and cellulases, that are highly active and stable in extreme haloalkaline conditions and can be used for the production of laundry detergent. Furthermore, the unique metabolic pathways of haloalkaliphiles can be applied in the biodegradation and (or) biotransformation of a broad range of toxic industrial pollutants and heavy metals, in wastewater treatment, and in the biofuel industry.

  8. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganisms...... with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The “2002 IDF inventory” has become a de facto reference for food...... cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  9. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  10. Pharmacological treatment for infectious corneal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darlene

    2013-04-01

    Cornea ulceration and infectious keratitis are leading causes of corneal morbidity and blindness. Infectious causes are among the most frequent and most severe. Management strategies for bacterial corneal ulcers have changed significantly over the last decades, however with a more limited progress in the treatment and management of nonbacterial, infectious ulcers. This paper provides an overview of the current principles, strategies and treatment choices for infectious corneal ulcers in adults. Topical application with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial remains the preferred method for the pharmacological management of infectious corneal ulcers. Increasing reports of clinical failures and in vitro resistance to antibiotics to treat the most common infectious (bacterial) corneal ulcers are increasing concerns. New approaches for improvement in the pharmacological management of corneal ulcers should focus on strategies for a more rational and evidence-based use of current antimicrobials and development of products to modulate the host immune response and to neutralize microbial toxins and other immune modulators.

  11. Host Defense Against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    candidemia or evidence of systemic candidosis were to be correlated with changes in the numbers of Candida isolated from the serial quantitative cultures...compared for their sensitivity and specificity for the detection of Candida antigenemia prior to and during candidemia and systemic candidosis. The...sera contained inhibitory activity had pneumonia, candidemia , and multiple episodes of bacteremia caused by more than one microorganism, and 2 had a

  12. Chemosensing in microorganisms to practical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Kundu, Tapanendu; Sain, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms like bacteria can sense concentration of chemo-attractants in its medium very accurately. They achieve this through interaction between the receptors on their cell surface and the chemo-attractant molecules (like sugar). But the physical processes like diffusion set some limits on the accuracy of detection which was discussed by Berg and Purcell in the late seventies. We have a re-look at their work in order to assess what insight it may offer towards making efficient, practica...

  13. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  14. The Role of Infectious Agents in the Etiology of Ocular Adnexal Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Varun; Shen, Defen; Sieving, Pamela C.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Given the fact that infectious agents contribute to around 18% of human cancers worldwide, it would seem prudent to explore their role in neoplasms of the ocular adnexa: primary malignancies of the conjunctiva, lacrimal glands, eyelids, and orbit. By elucidating the mechanisms by which infectious agents contribute to oncogenesis, the management, treatment, and prevention of these neoplasms may one day parallel what is already in place for cancers such as cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Antibiotic treatment and vaccines against infectious agents may herald a future with a curtailed role for traditional therapies of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Unlike other malignancies for which large epidemiological studies are available, analyzing ocular adnexal neoplasms is challenging as they are relatively rare. Additionally, putative infectious agents seemingly display an immense geographic variation that has led to much debate regarding the relative importance of one organism versus another. This review discusses the pathogenetic role of several microorganisms in different ocular adnexal malignancies, including human papilloma virus in conjunctival papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus in conjunctival squamous carcinoma, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus or human herpes simplex virus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) in conjunctival Kaposi sarcoma, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori,), Chlamydia, and hepatitis C virus in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. Unlike cervical cancer where a single infectious agent, human papilloma virus, is found in greater than 99% of lesions, multiple organisms may play a role in the etiology of certain ocular adnexal neoplasms by acting through similar mechanisms of oncogenesis, including chronic antigenic stimulation and the action of infectious oncogenes. However, similar to other human malignancies

  15. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  16. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Maartje A H J; Speth, Daan R; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Per H; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Kartal, Boran; Jetten, Mike S M; Lücker, Sebastian

    2015-12-24

    Nitrification is a two-step process where ammonia is first oxidized to nitrite by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and/or archaea, and subsequently to nitrate by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Already described by Winogradsky in 1890, this division of labour between the two functional groups is a generally accepted characteristic of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Complete oxidation of ammonia to nitrate in one organism (complete ammonia oxidation; comammox) is energetically feasible, and it was postulated that this process could occur under conditions selecting for species with lower growth rates but higher growth yields than canonical ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Still, organisms catalysing this process have not yet been discovered. Here we report the enrichment and initial characterization of two Nitrospira species that encode all the enzymes necessary for ammonia oxidation via nitrite to nitrate in their genomes, and indeed completely oxidize ammonium to nitrate to conserve energy. Their ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) enzymes are phylogenetically distinct from currently identified AMOs, rendering recent acquisition by horizontal gene transfer from known ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms unlikely. We also found highly similar amoA sequences (encoding the AMO subunit A) in public sequence databases, which were apparently misclassified as methane monooxygenases. This recognition of a novel amoA sequence group will lead to an improved understanding of the environmental abundance and distribution of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms. Furthermore, the discovery of the long-sought-after comammox process will change our perception of the nitrogen cycle.

  18. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  19. [Succession of chitinolytic microorganisms in chernozem soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharova, N A; Belova, E V; Vorob'ev, A V; Polianskaia, L M; Stepanov, A L

    2005-01-01

    The chitinolytic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial complex of chernozem soil has been investigated in the course of a succession initiated by the introduction of chitin and humidification. The dynamics of the cell numbers of chitinolytic microorganisms and of their biomass was assessed by fluorescent microscopy and by inoculation of selective media. Emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, as well as dinitrogen fixation, was assessed by gas chromatography. It was found that, when the succession was initiated by the introduction of both chitin and humidification, it resulted in greater cell numbers and biomass of chitinolytic microorganisms and higher levels of CO2 and N2O emission and of nitrogen fixation than when the succession was initiated by humidification alone. As compared to the control samples, a significant (twofold) increase in the prokaryote cell number and biomass was found on the fourth day of the succession initiated by humidification and introduction of chitin. One week after the initiation of succession, the fungal biomass and length of mycelium were twice as high as those in the control samples. These results led to the conclusion that chitin utilization in chernozem soil starts during the initial stages of succession and is performed by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  20. [Biorhythms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Perunova, N B; Fadeev, S B; Timokhina, T Kh; Iavnova, S V

    2008-01-01

    To study of circadian dynamics of antibiotic susceptibility and resistance of Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Circadian dynamics of antibiotic susceptibility was studied on clinical strains of enterobacteria, non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, and staphylococci which were isolated and identified by common methods. During a day, with 3-hours intervals, studied strains were tested on susceptibility to ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftriaxone, meropenem, gentamycin, and ciprofloxacin using method of serial dilutions in agar. Circadian biorhythms of resistance to antibiotics in studied microorganisms were revealed. Along with common patterns, differences in temporal changes of microrganisms' susceptibility to antibacterial drugs were noted. Chronobiologic approach allowed to reveal significant amplitude of changes of minimal inhibitoryconcentration (MIC) of antibiotics versus resistant Gram-positive cocci reflecting presence of susceptibility periods, whereas in susceptible Gram-negative bacteria peaks of resistance were observed. Circadian dynamics of MIC of majority of antibiotics versus resistant Gram-negative bacteria and susceptible Gram-positive cocci was characterized by lower amplitude of changes without shifts from antibiotic resistance to susceptibility and vice versa. Obtained data open perspective of using biorhythmological approach in study of susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics during the elucidation of mechanisms of pathogens adaptation to environmental conditions and creation of new strategies of control for antibiotic resistance strains.

  1. Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

    2012-08-01

    Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors.

  2. Prokaryotic silicon utilizing microorganisms in the biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    Although a little study has been done to determine the silicon utilizing prokaryotes, our previous experiments indicated that almost all Gram-positive bacteria are silicon utilizing; one of them, Streptococci survived exposure on the lunar surface for a long period in experiment done by others. Our initial experiments with these Gram positive microorganisms showed that there were limited growths of these microorganisms on carbon free silicate medium probably with the help of some carry over carbon and nitrogen during cultivation procedures. However, increase in growth rate after repeated subcultures could not be explained at present. The main groups of prokaryotes which were found silicon utilizing microorganisms were Mycobacterium, Bacillus, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium. In a another previous study by us when silicon level was studied in such grown up cells on carbon "free" silicate medium by electron prove microanalyser, it was found that silicon in cells grown on carbon "free" silicate medium was much higher (24.9%) than those grown on conventional carbon based medium (0.84%). However, these initial findings are encouraging for our future application of this group of organisms on extraterrestrial surfaces for artificial micro-ecosystem formation. It was found that when electropositive elements are less in extraterrestrial situation, then polymerization of silicon-oxygen profusion may occur easily, particularly in carbon and nitrogen paucity in the rocky worlds of the Universe.

  3. [Management of infectious diarrhea in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferahta, Nabila; Héquet, Delphine; Bizzozzero, Tosca; Major, Kristof; Petignat, Christiane

    2018-04-11

    Infectious diarrheas are of great concern in nursing homes and can engender outbreaks. Their importance in terms of morbidity, mortality and health economics justify the implementation of prevention and control measures. Although past studies emphasize the importance of infectious diarrheas occurring during hospitalization, data on nursing homes epidemiology remain scarce. This article is founded on recent data of the literature, on recommendations for the management of infectious diarrheas and for prevention and control of outbreaks in nursing homes.

  4. Representation of microorganisms of subgingival plaque at different degrees of periodontium tissue inflamation and destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parodontopathy is an inflammatory reaction to gram negative anaerobic bacterial infectious agents that attacks the supporting dental apparatus including gingiva, periodontal ligament, cement and alveolar bone. The aim of the survey was to identify quantitative qualitative structure of microorganisms of subgingival plaque in patients suffering from chronic and aggressive parodontopathy using the PCR method, and then evaluate the correlation of different degrees of inflammation and destruction of periodontium tissue with the presence and concentration of these microorganisms. The survey involved 70 patients, 16 to 65 years old. The identification of microorganisms in subgingival plaque was set by the PCR method (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Towards diagnosing and defining the destruction degree of periodontal tissue, standard epidemiological criteria were used: plaque index (Silness-Löe, gingival index (Löe-Silness, SBI index (Mühleman-Son and PDDZ. The presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque showed the statistical link with clinical parameters of the severeness of parodontopathy and gingival inflammation. The test result of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans statistically was significantly more frequent in patients with medium and severe type of parodontopathy compared to the average depth of periodontal pockets. The detection of P.g. and A.a. statistically was significantly more frequent in persons with mild and intensive gingival inflammation.

  5. Web-based infectious disease reporting using XML forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danhong; Wang, Xia; Pan, Feng; Xu, Yongyong; Yang, Peng; Rao, Keqin

    2008-09-01

    Exploring solutions for infectious disease information sharing among hospital and public health information systems is imperative to the improvement of disease surveillance and emergent response. This paper aimed at developing a method to directly transmit real-time data of notifiable infectious diseases from hospital information systems to public health information systems on the Internet by using a standard eXtensible Markup Language (XML) format. The mechanism and work flow by which notifiable infectious disease data are created, reported and used at health agencies in China was evaluated. The capacity of all participating providers to use electronic data interchange to submit transactions of data required for the notifiable infectious disease reporting was assessed. The minimum data set at national level that is required for reporting for national notifiable infectious disease surveillance was determined. The standards and techniques available worldwide for electronic health data interchange, such as XML, HL7 messaging, CDA and ATSM CCR, etc. were reviewed and compared, and an XML implementation format needed for this purpose was defined for hospitals that are able to access the Internet to provide a complete infectious disease reporting. There are 18,703 county or city hospitals in China. All of them have access to basic information infrastructures including computers, e-mail and the Internet. Nearly 10,000 hospitals possess hospital information systems used for electronically recording, retrieving and manipulating patients' information. These systems collect 23 data items required in the minimum data set for national notifiable infectious disease reporting. In order to transmit these data items to the disease surveillance system and local health information systems instantly and without duplication of data input, an XML schema and a set of standard data elements were developed to define the content, structure and semantics of the data set. These standards

  6. Magnetotaxy in microorganisms of Rio de Janeiro region: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.G. de P.L. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics of several magnetotactic microorganisms found in sediments collected in Rio de Janeiro region are presented. The study of magnetic characteristics of these microorganisms indicate some general properties of the magnetotaxy phenomenons. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Our mission is to conduct infectious disease clinical research of importance to the military through a unique, adaptive, and collaborative network, to inform health...

  8. Isolation and characterization of Arctic microorganisms decomposing bioplastics

    OpenAIRE

    Urbanek, Aneta K.; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Strzelecki, Mateusz C.; Kociuba, Waldemar; Franczak, ?ukasz; Miro?czuk, Aleksandra M.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing amount of plastic waste causes significant environmental pollution. In this study, screening of Arctic microorganisms which are able to degrade bioplastics was performed. In total, 313 microorganisms were isolated from 52 soil samples from the Arctic region (Spitsbergen). Among the isolated microorganisms, 121 (38.66%) showed biodegradation activity. The ability of clear zone formation on emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) was observed for 116 microorganisms ...

  9. Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T P; Eterradossi, N; Toquin, D; Meulemans, G

    2000-08-01

    Infectious bursal disease (IBD) (Gumboro disease) has been described throughout the world, and the socio-economic significance of the disease is considerable world-wide. Various forms of the disease have been described, but typing remains unclear, since antigenic and pathotypic criteria are used indiscriminately, and the true incidence of different types is difficult to determine. Moreover, the infection, when not fatal, leads to a degree of immunosuppression which is often difficult to measure. Finally, the control measures used are subject to variations, and seldom follow a specific or standardised plan. In the context of expanding international trade, the authors provide an overview of existing knowledge on the subject to enhance available information on the epidemiology of IBD, the identification of reliable viral markers for diagnosis, and the implementation of specific control measures to ensure a global and co-ordinated approach to the disease.

  10. The Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases: A Brief History and Selected Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases. PMID:23724903

  11. The genetic theory of infectious diseases: a brief history and selected illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Until the mid-nineteenth century, life expectancy at birth averaged 20 years worldwide, owing mostly to childhood fevers. The germ theory of diseases then gradually overcame the belief that diseases were intrinsic. However, around the turn of the twentieth century, asymptomatic infection was discovered to be much more common than clinical disease. Paradoxically, this observation barely challenged the newly developed notion that infectious diseases were fundamentally extrinsic. Moreover, interindividual variability in the course of infection was typically explained by the emerging immunological (or somatic) theory of infectious diseases, best illustrated by the impact of vaccination. This powerful explanation is, however, best applicable to reactivation and secondary infections, particularly in adults; it can less easily account for interindividual variability in the course of primary infection during childhood. Population and clinical geneticists soon proposed a complementary hypothesis, a germline genetic theory of infectious diseases. Over the past century, this idea has gained some support, particularly among clinicians and geneticists, but has also encountered resistance, particularly among microbiologists and immunologists. We present here the genetic theory of infectious diseases and briefly discuss its history and the challenges encountered during its emergence in the context of the apparently competing but actually complementary microbiological and immunological theories. We also illustrate its recent achievements by highlighting inborn errors of immunity underlying eight life-threatening infectious diseases of children and young adults. Finally, we consider the far-reaching biological and clinical implications of the ongoing human genetic dissection of severe infectious diseases.

  12. An unclassified microorganism: novel pathogen candidate lurking in human airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumasa Fukuda

    Full Text Available During the assessments of the correlation of the diseases and the microbiota of various clinical specimens, unique 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene sequences (less than 80% similarity to known bacterial type strains were predominantly detected in a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF specimen from a patient with chronic lower respiratory tract infection. The origin of this unique sequence is suspected to be the causative agent of the infection. We temporarily named the owner organism of this sequence "IOLA" (Infectious Organism Lurking in Airways. In order to evaluate the significance of IOLA in human lung disorders, we performed several experiments. IOLA-16S rRNA genes were detected in 6 of 386 clone libraries constructed from clinical specimens of patients with respiratory diseases (in our study series. The gene sequences (1,427 bp are identical, and no significantly similar sequence was found in public databases (using NCBI blastn except for the 8 shorter sequences detected from patients with respiratory diseases in other studies from 2 other countries. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the 16S rRNA gene of IOLA is more closely related to eukaryotic mitochondria than bacteria. However, the size and shape of IOLA seen by fluorescent in-situ hybridization are similar to small bacteria (approximately 1 µm with a spherical shape. Furthermore, features of both bacteria and mitochondria were observed in the genomic fragment (about 19 kb of IOLA, and the GC ratio of the sequence was extremely low (20.5%. Two main conclusions were reached: (1 IOLA is a novel bacteria-like microorganism that, interestingly, possesses features of eukaryotic mitochondria. (2 IOLA is a novel pathogen candidate, and it may be the causative agent of human lung or airway disease. IOLA exists in BALF specimens from patients with remarkable symptoms; this information is an important piece for helping solve the elusive etiology of chronic respiratory disorders.

  13. [Glycopolymers of microorganisms as a source for creation of ecologically-safe antimicrobial media with specific activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobkova, K S

    2002-01-01

    Current data concerning structure components of the surface of microorganisms which take direct part in manifestation of their adhesive properties--adhesin, on the one hand, and carbohydrate components of cell receptors, on the other hand, are presented and analyzed in the paper. The prevention or decrease of adhesion by means of competitive inhibition by substances, which enclose structure, analogues of adhesins or their receptors, make up promising trend in the system of treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. The use of synthetic substance of directed action will allow ceasing the development of infectious process without additional chemical loading of the organism-host and pollution of the environment, since as to their structure they resemble biomolecules typical of this organism. It is asummed that the data on the microorganism surface components can serve a basis for conducting fundamental investigations concerning relations between the structure and function of natural biopolymers, specification of phylogenetic relations between certain groups of microorganisms as well as for defining the mechanisms of the action and further perfection of probiotics.

  14. How Many Microorganisms Are Present? Techniques for Enumerating Microorganisms in Oilfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Ketil Bernt; Skovhus, Torben Lund; Larsen, Jan

    The different techniques that exist for enumerating microorganisms will often yield very different results when applied to oilfield samples. For example, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation may fail to find any microorganisms in samples for which molecular microbiological methods (MMM) indicate levels of thousands or even millions per millilitre or gram. Therefore, it is important to realise the limitations and advantages of the different techniques available to the industry and to take them into account when interpreting data. In oil systems, the most widely used techniques for quantification are based either on culturing, epifluorescence microscopy, or quantitative PCR. In complex samples in which live, inactive, and dead cells are present together with cell material in various states of decomposition, each of these three methodologies enumerates a different subset of microorganisms (Fig. 10.1).

  15. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as a...

  16. Atypical Pyoderma Gangrenosum Mimicking an Infectious Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG, which involved the patient’s arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  17. Atypical pyoderma gangrenosum mimicking an infectious process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Derek; Wong, Aaron; Montessori, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with atypical pyoderma gangrenosum (APG), which involved the patient's arm and hand. Hemorrhagic bullae and progressive ulcerations were initially thought to be secondary to an infectious process, but a biopsy revealed PG. Awareness of APG by infectious disease services may prevent unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

  18. Infectious diseases | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Many infectious diseases are rooted in environmental conditions and mediated by social and individual determinants. ... Responding to the challenge, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) supports ecohealth research and networks to make a difference in addressing intractable infectious ...

  19. African Journal of Infectious Diseases: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The African Journal of Infectious Diseases (AJID) is a new journal that publishes papers which make an original contribution to the understanding of infectious diseases. Any paper relating to impact, care, prevention and social planning will be considered for publication. Reports of research related to any ...

  20. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  1. Tickborne infectious diseases: diagnosis and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunha, Burke A

    2000-01-01

    ... to particular flora and fauna. The purpose of Tickborne Infectious Diseases: Diagnosis and Management is to condense in a single book different approaches and paradigms of tickborne infectious diseases. Three chapters are devoted to background information, including the natural history of ticks, the diagnostic procedures of tickborne diseases, and the new tick-transm...

  2. Breeding against infectious diseases in animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious diseases in farm animals are of major concern because of animal welfare, production costs, and public health. Farms undergo huge economic losses due to infectious disease. The costs of infections in farm animals are mainly due to production losses, treatment of infected animals, and

  3. Review: Micro-organic contaminants in groundwater in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Xie, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Wen, Chuanlei; Cao, Zhipeng; Wan, Yuyu

    2018-03-01

    Micro-organic contaminants (MOs) in groundwater, which may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems worldwide, are gaining increased attention in China. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate their sources, occurrences and behavior in aquifers. This paper reviews the main sources, distribution, concentrations and behavior of a wide range of MOs in groundwater in China. These MOs include well-established persistent organic pollutants—polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (poly brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA)—and some contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (antibiotics, caffeine, shampoos) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). The results reveal that the main MOs in groundwater are PAHs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), PBDEs, PAEs, and antibiotics. Moreover, some PFCs such as perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have only recently been observed in groundwater as emerging organic contaminants. Additionally, most MOs are distributed in populated and industrialized areas such as the southeast coast of China. Finally, industrial emissions, wastewater treatment plant effluents and agricultural wastewater are found to be dominant sources of MOs in groundwater. Based on the existing pollution levels, regulation and amelioration of MOs are warranted.

  4. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  5. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  6. Microorganisms and methods for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-26

    Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.

  7. Resistance of soil microorganisms to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Alexander, M.

    1972-01-01

    Most groups of soil microorganisms died when exposed to prolonged starvation in a carbon-free solution, but the relative abundance of Bacillus and actinomycetes increased with time. Certain nonspore-forming bacteria also persisted. The ability of individual soil isolates to endure starvation in solution was not correlated with their glycogen content or rate of endogenous respiration. However, cells of the resistant populations were rich in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, whereas the starvation-susceptible bacteria generally contained little of this substance. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate was used rapidly in cells deprived of exogenous sources of carbon.

  8. Biocatalysis and biotransformation of resveratrol in microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan-Zhen; Liu, Ruo-Xue; Wang, Dong-Peng; Wang, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a major stilbene phytoalexin, is a valuable polyphenol that has been recognized for its benefits to human health. Resveratrol has antioxidant and antitumor effects and promotes longevity. It is used in medicine, health care products, cosmetics, and other industries. Therefore, a sustainable source for resveratrol production is required. This review describes the metabolic engineering of microorganisms, the biotransformation and biosynthesis of endophytes and the oxidation or degradation of resveratrol. We compare various available methods for resveratrol production, and summarize the practical challenges facing the microbial production of resveratrol. The future research direction for resveratrol is also discussed.

  9. Energy from plants and microorganisms: progress in plant-microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Chen, Zheng; Zhao, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Plant-microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) are newly emerging devices, in which electricity can be generated by microorganisms that use root exudates as fuel. This review presents the development of PMFCs, with a summary of their power generation, configurations, plant types, anode and cathode materials, biofilm communities, potential applications, and future directions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  11. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  12. [Thailand: resurgence of infectious diseases and epidemiologic transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, B

    2011-10-01

    Despite progress in various facts (sanitation, education, access to health care...) that allowed a significant reduction in infectious and parasitic diseases, they persist in some poor geographical areas and populations most in need, especially in young children. An epidemiological transition (increased incidence of cancers, cardiovascular attacks...) clearly tends to replace the old public health problems, rather in urban areas and among the most advantaged social classes. Diseases (re)emerging are also serious concerns for the future: return of resistant malaria, outbreaks of severe clinic forms of dengue, explosion of VHI/TB resistant....

  13. Impact of globalization and animal trade on infectious disease ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2007-12-01

    The articles on rabies and Marburg virus featured in this month's Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) zoonoses issue illustrate common themes. Both discuss zoonotic diseases with serious health implications for humans, and both have a common reservoir, the bat. These articles, and the excitement generated by this year's recognition of World Rabies Day on September 8, also described in this issue, remind us how globalization has had an impact on the worldwide animal trade. This worldwide movement of animals has increased the potential for the translocation of zoonotic diseases, which pose serious risks to human and animal health.

  14. Measurement methods and strategies for non-infectious microbial components in bioaerosols at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, W

    1996-09-01

    Exposure to micro-organisms can be measured by different methods. Traditionally, viable methods and light microscopy have been used for detection of micro-organisms. Most viable methods measure micro-organisms that are able to grow in culture, and these methods are also common for the identification of micro-organisms. More recently, non-viable methods have been developed for the measurement of bioaerosol components originating from micro-organisms that are based on microscopic techniques, bioassays, immunoassays and chemical methods. These methods are important for the assessment of exposure to bioaerosols in work environments as non-infectious micro-organisms and microbial components may cause allergic and toxic reactions independent of viability. It is not clear to what extent micro-organisms should be identified because exposure-response data are limited and many different micro-organisms and microbial components may cause similar health effects. Viable methods have also been used in indoor environments for the detection of specific organisms as markers of indoor growth of micro-organisms. At present, the validity of measurement methods can only be assessed by comparative laboratory and field studies because standard materials of microbial bioaerosol components are not available. Systematic errors may occur especially when results obtained by different methods are compared. Differences between laboratories that use the same methods may also occur as quality assurance schemes of analytical methods for bioaerosol components do not exist. Measurement methods may also have poor precision, especially the viable methods. It therefore seems difficult to meet the criteria for accuracy of measurement methods of workplace exposure that have recently been adopted by the CEN. Risk assessment is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values or guidelines for microbial bioaerosol components. The cost of measurements of exposure to microbial bioaerosol components

  15. Infectious diseases -- new and ancient threats to world health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, S J; Carnes, B; Rogers, R G; Smith, L

    1997-07-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases remain a leading cause of death and disability in developing countries and are re-emerging as a serious health problem in developed countries. Outbreaks of Ebola, dengue hemorrhagic fever, cholera, and bubonic plague have occurred in low-income countries and multidrug-resistant organisms have surfaced throughout the world. Since 1973, over 28 new disease-causing microbes have been identified. This issue of "Population Bulletin" analyzes the impact of factors such as population growth, urbanization, migration, poverty, travel, agricultural practices, climate changes, natural disasters, and medical technology on the resurgence of infectious and parasitic diseases as well as the influence of diseases such as AIDS on population dynamics and socioeconomic development. Most of these diseases could be prevented, cured, or eradicated with known public health measures. National governments can help reduce poverty, step up immunization programs, and lessen the chances of introducing new diseases. Nongovernmental organizations can disseminate preventive knowledge and monitor disease outbreaks. The medical profession can strengthen infection control precautions and institute surveillance of the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Since the geographic isolation that used to contain disease outbreaks has been replaced by permeable international borders, the campaign against infectious and parasitic diseases must be global.

  16. Relating phylogenetic trees to transmission trees of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypma, Rolf J F; van Ballegooijen, W Marijn; Wallinga, Jacco

    2013-11-01

    Transmission events are the fundamental building blocks of the dynamics of any infectious disease. Much about the epidemiology of a disease can be learned when these individual transmission events are known or can be estimated. Such estimations are difficult and generally feasible only when detailed epidemiological data are available. The genealogy estimated from genetic sequences of sampled pathogens is another rich source of information on transmission history. Optimal inference of transmission events calls for the combination of genetic data and epidemiological data into one joint analysis. A key difficulty is that the transmission tree, which describes the transmission events between infected hosts, differs from the phylogenetic tree, which describes the ancestral relationships between pathogens sampled from these hosts. The trees differ both in timing of the internal nodes and in topology. These differences become more pronounced when a higher fraction of infected hosts is sampled. We show how the phylogenetic tree of sampled pathogens is related to the transmission tree of an outbreak of an infectious disease, by the within-host dynamics of pathogens. We provide a statistical framework to infer key epidemiological and mutational parameters by simultaneously estimating the phylogenetic tree and the transmission tree. We test the approach using simulations and illustrate its use on an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease. The approach unifies existing methods in the emerging field of phylodynamics with transmission tree reconstruction methods that are used in infectious disease epidemiology.

  17. Changing patterns of infectious keratitis : Overview of clinical and histopathologic features of keratitis due to acanthamoeba or atypical mycobacteria, and of infectious crystalline keratopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinota Stanislaus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba keratitis, infectious crystalline keratopathy and atypical mycobacterial keratitis have recently emerged as important types of infectious keratitis. These corneal infections have been associated with contact lens wear and with corneal surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and penetrating keratoplasty, and the clinical setting of each of these infections is important in alerting the clinician to the possible diagnosis. There have been improvements in rapid diagnostic techniques for such infections in the last several years. Treatment has also improved, but remains a difficult problem, especially for Acanthamoeba. An overview of recent developments in the clinical and histopathologic methods for diagnosis and treatment options of these three corneal infections is provided.

  18. Identification of periodontopathogen microorganisms by PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. The onset and progression of periodontal disease is attributed to the presence of elevated levels of a consortium of pathogenic bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, mainly strict anaerobes, play the major role. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to assess the presence of the main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia in different samples collected from the oral cavity of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontitis. METHOD Bacterial DNA detection was performed in diverse biological materials, namely in dental plaque, gingival tissue and saliva, by means of multiplex PCR, a technique that allows simultaneous identification of two different bacterial genomes. RESULTS In the dental plaque of the periodontitis patients, Treponema denticola dominated. In the gingival tissue, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were the microbiota most frequently detected, whilst in saliva Treponema denticola and Eikenella corrodens were found with the highest percentage. CONCLUSION The identification of microorganisms by multiplex PCR is specific and sensitive. Rapid and precise assessment of different types of periodontopathogens is extremely important for early detection of the infection and consequently for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In everyday clinical practice, for routine bacterial evaluation in patients with periodontal disease, the dental plaque is the most suitable biological material, because it is the richest in periodontal bacteria.

  19. Degradation of arylarsenic compounds by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamiya, Kunichika; Nakayama, Takashi; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Microorganisms were not directly accumulated when soil contaminated to about 0.5 mM with diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was used as the sole source of carbon. However, using toluene as the carbon source yielded several isolates, which were then used in cultivation with DPAA as the sole source of carbon. By these methods, Kytococcus sedentarius strain NK0508, which can grow in up to 0.038 mM DPAA, was isolated. The toxicity of DPAA retarded the growth of K. sedentarius and the direct accumulation of DPAA-utilizing microorganisms from environmental samples. This strain can utilize about 80% of DPAA and phenylarsonic acid as the sole source of carbon for 3 days. Degradation products of DPAA were determined to be cis, cis, muconate and arsenic acid. When K. sedentarius was cultivated with methylphenylarsinic acid and diphenylmethylarsine, about 90% and 10% degradation of the two compounds, respectively, were observed. Diphenylmethylarsine oxide, possibly synthesized by methylation of DPAA, was detected as one of the transformation products. These results suggest that degradation is initiated by splitting of the phenyl groups from the arylarsenic compounds with subsequent hydroxylation of the phenyl groups and ring opening to yield cis, cis, muconate.

  20. Industrial and environmental applications of halophilic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon

    2010-01-01

    In comparison with the thermophilic and the alkaliphilic extremophiles, halophilic microorganisms have as yet found relatively few biotechnological applications. Halophiles are involved in centuries-old processes such as the manufacturing of solar salt from seawater and the production of traditional fermented foods. Two biotechnological processes involving halophiles are highly successful: the production of beta-carotene by the green alga Dunaliella and the production of ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid), used as a stabilizer for enzymes and now also applied in cosmetic products, from moderately halophilic bacteria. The potential use of bacteriorhodopsin, the retinal protein proton pump of Halobacterium, in optoelectronic devices and photochemical processes is being explored, and may well lead to commercial applications in the near future. Demand for salt-tolerant enzymes in current manufacturing or related processes is limited. Other possible uses of halophilic microorganisms such as treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewaters, and the production of exopolysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate bioplastics and biofuel are being investigated, but no large-scale applications have yet been reported.

  1. Microorganisms as bioindicators of pollutants in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the predominant portion of the soil's biological phase and they are indicators of soil health and quality. Soil microorganisms a take part in degradation of organic and inorganic compounds, b their activity, number and diversity may serve as bioindicators of toxic effects on soil biological activity, c some microbial species may be used for soil bioremediation and d some sensitive microbes are used in eco-toxicity tests. The primary microbial population starts to decompose herbicides several days after their arrival into the soil. The secondary population produces induced enzymes and decomposes herbicides after a period of adaptation. Certain microbial groups are indifferent to the applied herbicides. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity depends on the element, their concentration, microbial species, as well as physical and chemical soil properties. Toxic level of individual pollutants depends on their origin and composition. However, combined application of chemicals makes room for the occurrence of synergistic toxic effects detrimental for the ecosystem and human health. .

  2. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  3. Specific selection for virulent urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli strains during catheter-associated biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrieres, Lionel; Hancock, Viktoria; Klemm, Per

    2007-01-01

    is exposed to urine, various components adsorb onto the surface and form a conditioning film, which becomes the real interface where microbial interaction takes place. It follows that the material constituting the catheter determines the composition of the conditioning film, which in turn influences which...... microorganisms can attach. Urinary tract infectious (UTI) Escherichia coli range in pathogenicity and the damage they cause - from benign asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains, which inflict no or few problems to the host, to uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, which are virulent and often cause severe...

  4. What Makes a Prion: Infectious Proteins From Animals to Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLea, K S

    2017-01-01

    While philosophers in ancient times had many ideas for the cause of contagion, the modern study of infective agents began with Fracastoro's 1546 proposal that invisible "spores" spread infectious disease. However, firm categorization of the pathogens of the natural world would need to await a mature germ theory that would not arise for 300 years. In the 19th century, the earliest pathogens described were bacteria and other cellular microbes. By the close of that century, the work of Ivanovsky and Beijerinck introduced the concept of a virus, an infective particle smaller than any known cell. Extending into the early-mid-20th century there was an explosive growth in pathogenic microbiology, with a cellular or viral cause identified for nearly every transmissible disease. A few occult pathogens remained to be discovered, including the infectious proteins (prions) proposed by Prusiner in 1982. This review discusses the prions identified in mammals, yeasts, and other organisms, focusing on the amyloid-based prions. I discuss the essential biochemical properties of these agents and the application of this knowledge to diseases of protein misfolding and aggregation, as well as the utility of yeast as a model organism to study prion and amyloid proteins that affect human and animal health. Further, I summarize the ideas emerging out of these studies that the prion concept may go beyond proteinaceous infectious particles and that prions may be a subset of proteins having general nucleating or seeding functions involved in noninfectious as well as infectious pathogenic protein aggregation. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathology of infectious diseases: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Paul; Lucas, Sebastian; Jouvion, Grégory; Tauziède-Espariat, Arnault; Chrétien, Fabrice; Cathomas, Gieri

    2017-05-01

    The demand for expertise in pathology for the diagnosis of infectious diseases (ID) is continually growing, due to an increase in ID in immunocompromised patients and in the (re)-emergence of common and uncommon diseases, including tropical infections and infections with newly identified microbes. The microbiology laboratory plays a crucial role in diagnosing infections, identifying the responsible infectious agents and establishing sensitivity of pathogens to drug therapy. Pathology, however, is the only way to correlate the presence of an infectious agent with the reaction it evokes at cell and tissue level. For pathologists working in the field of ID pathology, it is essential to dispose of competence in cell and tissue pathology as well as in microbiology. Expertise in ID includes understanding of taxonomy and classification of pathogens as well as morphological criteria supporting their identification. Moreover, ID pathologists must master the methods used to detect pathogens in fixed cell and tissue samples, notably immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. Paradoxically, the increasing frequency of lesions caused by pathogens and diagnosed in a pathology laboratory appears to be paralleled by a gradual loss of expertise of pathologists in the field of infectious and tropical diseases. We contend that this may be due at least in part to the continuously increasing number of samples of tumor tissue pathologists deal with and the rapidly expanding number of tissue based biomarkers with predictive value for new anti-cancer therapies. In this review, we highlight current and future issues pertaining to ID pathology, in order to increase awareness of its importance for surgical and molecular pathology. The intention is to contribute to the development of best practice in ID pathology.

  6. Interplay between environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty: case studies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the natural environment and agricultural systems induced by economic and industrial development, including population dynamics (growth, urbanization, migration), are major causes resulting in the persistence, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in developing countries. In the face of rapid demographic, economic and social transformations, the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) is undergoing unprecedented environmental and agricultural change. We review emerging and re-emerging diseases such as schistosomiasis, dengue, avian influenza, angiostrongyliasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis that have occurred in P.R. China due to environmental and agricultural change. This commentary highlights the research priorities and the response strategies, namely mitigation and adaptation, undertaken to eliminate the resurgence of those infectious diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. APPROUSH TO SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsapov D.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased level of morbidity of infective endocarditis (IE connected with new risk factors: intravenous drug use, cardiosurgical interventions, hemodialysis brought new clinical forms of the disease. As it shown in a literature main pathogenetic factors of IE are bacteraemia, trauma of endocardium and invasive medical procedures. Very typical pathogens are streptococci and staphylococci. Most typically mitral and aortal valves are affected with spreading of vegetations on surrounding media. Discussion. IE is polyetiologic disease caused by more than 128 microorganisms, and still a challenge for medical professionals. Detection a causative agent is critical for proper specific treatment. In different sources data on percentage of proven cases very according to country and different medical centres reflecting different local epidemiology of IE, diagnostic criteria and protocols. Culture negative infectious endocarditis (CNIE is considered in case of obtaining of three negative results of cultivation of samples on a standard blood agar during 7 days and subculturing. CNIE incidence very form 2% to 33% according to different researches and higher in cases of community acquired infection and reseeding antibacterial treatment. Some of cases of CNIE caused by gram - negative fastidious microorganisms - Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Actinobacillus, Actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, Kingella kingae, with united in HACEK group according to their properties to colonize oropharynx and requirement in special conditions and duration of incubation. Detection of some intracellular bacteria, such as C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. require immunological methods of detection, histological methods and of PCR. Conclusion. In case of diagnostics of patients with CNIE it is necessary to use a combination of prolonged subculturing of serum, emboli and histologic material on blood agar with microscopy by Warthin

  8. Epidemiological profile of infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Farias

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic aspects of cornea ulcers in a referred ophthalmology private practice center. Methods: Retrospective study over electronic files of patients treated for corneal ulcers during a period of 7 years by the same physician (RJMF at Centro de Olhos São Francisco, between june 2007 and june 2014. These patients were evaluated for risk factors such as: trauma causes, co-morbidities and contact lenses use. They were also evaluated by the microorganism found at the smears, treatment and patient's outcome. Patients that didn't return with the smears results or that didn´t have a complete follow-up were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 242 patients were fully treated during this period. 55 patients were excluded and 187 patients were included. 28.88% (54/187 were positive for gram negative bacteria, 27.81% (52/187 for filamentous fungi, 16.04% (29/187 for gram positive bacteria and only 1.07% for acanthamoeba. Twenty-four patients had negative cultures and 21 patients had combined infections (bacteria + fungi or other combination. Corneal collagen Cross-linking was effective on melting arrest in 16 of the 16 patients that we have submitted to this procedure during 2008 and 2009. Among all the patients that had corneal infection and were previously using contact lenses, 81% were infected by pseudomonas or pseudomonas associated with other gram negative bacteria. Filamentous fungi had a strong association with physical trauma. While use of saline solution for contact lenses cleaning had a strong association with gram negative bacteria and biological trauma, a strong association with combined infection. Conclusion: Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas followed by filamentous fungi (Fusarium sp were the most frequent etiologic agent found in our study. Cross-link was effective on corneal melting arrest. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequent isolated agent on hydrophilic contact lenses wearers.

  9. Infectious spondylitis and its differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Infectious spondylitis can be diagnosed early and reliably by MRI, given that the most important diagnostic criteria are present. These criteria are bone marrow edema adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates, disk space of high signal intensity and enhancement of bone adjacent to two contiguous vertebral end plates and of the disk space. If not all of these criteria are present, diagnostic accuracy decreases. Erosive osteochondritis, spondylarthritis, osteoporotic fractures of two contiguous vertebral end plates, active Schmorl's nodes as well as neuropathic spine may mimic an infectious spondylitis. This paper presents typical and atypical morphologic patterns of infectious spondylitis as well as the differentiation criteria from the above mentioned diseases. (orig.)

  10. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  11. Bioprospection of marine microorganisms: biotechnological applications and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe M Dionisi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental microorganisms constitute an almost inexhaustible reserve of genetic and functional diversity, accumulated during millions of years of adaptive evolution to various selective pressures. In particular, the extent of microbial biodiversity in marine habitats seems to grow larger as new techniques emerge to measure it. This has resulted in novel and more complex approaches for the screening of molecules and activities of biotechnological interest in these environments. In this review, we explore the different partially overlapping biotechnological fields that make use of microorganisms and we describe the different marine habitats that are particularly attractive for bioprospection. In addition, we review the methodological approaches currently used for microbial bioprospection, from the traditional cultivation techniques to state of the art metagenomic approaches, with emphasis in the marine environment.Bioprospección de microorganismos marinos: aplicaciones biotecnológicas y métodos. Los microorganismos ambientales constituyen una reserva prácticamente inagotable de diversidad genética, acumulada durante millones de años de evolución adaptativa a varias presiones selectivas. En particular, la magnitud de la biodiversidad microbiana en hábitats marinos parece crecer al emerger nuevas técnicas para medirla. Como resultado, se han comenzado a utilizar enfoques novedosos y más complejos para la búsqueda de moléculas y actividades de interés biotecnológico en estos ambientes. En este artículo de revisión, nosotros exploramos los diferentes campos de la biotecnología que utilizan microorganismos, los cuales se superponen parcialmente, y describimos los diferentes hábitats marinos que resultan particularmente atractivos para la bioprospección. Además, revisamos los enfoques metodológicos actualmente utilizados para la bioprospección microbiana, desde las técnicas de cultivo tradicionales hasta modernos enfoques

  12. Accuracy of triage for children with chronic illness and infectious symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Seiger (Nienke); M.V. Veen (Mirjam Van); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); J. van der Lei (Johan); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study aimed to assess the validity of the Manchester Triage System (MTS) for children with chronic illnesses who presented to the emergency department (ED) with infectious symptoms. METHODS: Children (<16 years old) presenting to the ED of a

  13. Modeling infectious disease dynamics in the complex landscape of global health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heesterbeek, Hans; Anderson, Roy; Andreasen, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    The spread of infectious diseases can be unpredictable. With the emergence of antibiotic resistance and worrying new viruses, and with ambitious plans for global eradication of polio and the elimination of malaria, the stakes have never been higher. Anticipation and measurement of the multiple...

  14. CONTEMPORARY PERSPECTIVES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE AGENTS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MANURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA and the USDA convened a three-day Workshop on Emerging Infectious Disease Agents and Issues Associated with Sewage Sludge, Animal Manures, and Other Organic By-Products on June 4-6, 2001 in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the effe...

  15. [The referral of infectious diseases is a key activity for infectious diseases departments and units, as well as for the hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, José Miguel; Palomino-Nicás, Julián; Pachón-Diaz, Jerónimo

    2014-12-01

    Infectious diseases referrals (IDR) is a core activity of infectious diseases departments, and is certainly the one with the greatest potential impact on the hospital due to their cross-sectional nature, and with the emergence of a bacterial resistance and antimicrobial crisis. However, there is no standard model for IDR, no official training, and evaluation is merely descriptive. Paradoxically IDR are at risk in a health system that demands more quality and efficiency. The aim of this review is to assess what is known about IDR, its definition, key features, objectives, method, and the evaluation of results, and to suggest improvements to this key activity for the infectious diseases departments and the hospital. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation and Verification of the Global Rapid Identification of Threats System for Infectious Diseases in Textual Data Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Huff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Rapid Identification of Threats System (GRITS is a biosurveillance application that enables infectious disease analysts to monitor nontraditional information sources (e.g., social media, online news outlets, ProMED-mail reports, and blogs for infectious disease threats. GRITS analyzes these textual data sources by identifying, extracting, and succinctly visualizing epidemiologic information and suggests potentially associated infectious diseases. This manuscript evaluates and verifies the diagnoses that GRITS performs and discusses novel aspects of the software package. Via GRITS’ web interface, infectious disease analysts can examine dynamic visualizations of GRITS’ analyses and explore historical infectious disease emergence events. The GRITS API can be used to continuously analyze information feeds, and the API enables GRITS technology to be easily incorporated into other biosurveillance systems. GRITS is a flexible tool that can be modified to conduct sophisticated medical report triaging, expanded to include customized alert systems, and tailored to address other biosurveillance needs.

  17. Efficacy of chlorhexidine digluconate-containing formulations and other mouthrinses against periodontopathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Sigrun; Goltz, Susann; Nietzsche, Sandor; Jentsch, Holger; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    To determine in vitro the action of chlorhexidine digluconate and different commercially available mouthrinses on oral microorganisms. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and possible induction of resistance by chlorhexidine digluconate, an essential oil-containing mouthwash and an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride solution, were determined against microorganisms normally found in the oral cavity (10 streptococci, 2 enterobacteria, 1 Candida albicans, 8 Porphyromonas gingivalis, 6 Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and 1 Fusobacterium nucleatum). Further, the effect of a 1-minute exposure on cell and bacterial viability was studied. The susceptibility of the oral microorganisms to chlorhexidine digluconate ranged from 0.01% to 0.50%. Passages on agar plates containing subinhibitory concentrations of chlorhexidine digluconate resulted in a transitory moderate increase in the tolerance to chlorhexidine digluconate in five of the 24 isolates. After 1 minute of exposure, chlorhexidine digluconate solutions as well as the essential oil and the amine/stannous fluoride-containing solutions showed a high activity against the tested microorganisms. Commercially available chlorhexidine digluconate formulations (ie, those with antidiscoloration systems) were partly less efficient than the corresponding manually prepared chlorhexidine digluconate preparation. The determination of MTT resulted in a strong cytotoxicity of all tested preparations to gingival fibroblasts. The results indicate that most of the chlorhexidine digluconate formulations as well as essential oil and the amine fluoride/stannous fluoride solutions are active against oral microbes. Long-term use of these agents would not result in emergent antimicrobial resistance.

  18. Infectious Bronchitis Virus Variants: Molecular Analysis and Pathogenicity Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV variants constantly emerge and pose economic threats to poultry farms worldwide. Numerous studies on the molecular and pathogenic characterization of IBV variants have been performed between 2007 and 2017, which we have reviewed herein. We noted that viral genetic mutations and recombination events commonly gave rise to distinct IBV genotypes, serotypes and pathotypes. In addition to characterizing the S1 genes, full viral genomic sequencing, comprehensive antigenicity, and pathogenicity studies on emerging variants have advanced our understanding of IBV infections, which is valuable for developing countermeasures against IBV field outbreaks. This review of IBV variants provides practical value for understanding their phylogenetic relationships and epidemiology from both regional and worldwide viewpoints.

  19. Microbiology and atmospheric processes: research challenges concerning the impact of airborne micro-organisms on the atmosphere and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Morris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past 200 years, the field of aerobiology has explored the abundance, diversity, survival and transport of micro-organisms in the atmosphere. Micro-organisms have been explored as passive and severely stressed riders of atmospheric transport systems. Recently, an interest in the active roles of these micro-organisms has emerged along with proposals that the atmosphere is a global biome for microbial metabolic activity and perhaps even multiplication. As part of a series of papers on the sources, distribution and roles in atmospheric processes of biological particles in the atmosphere, here we describe the pertinence of questions relating to the potential roles that air-borne micro-organisms might play in meteorological phenomena. For the upcoming era of research on the role of air-borne micro-organisms in meteorological phenomena, one important challenge is to go beyond descriptions of abundance of micro-organisms in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport processes at different scales. Another challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in processes related to atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing. This will require truly interdisciplinary approaches involving collaborators from the biological and physical sciences, from disciplines as disparate as agronomy, microbial genetics and atmosphere physics, for example.

  20. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  1. Responsive Polydiacetylene Vesicles for Biosensing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Lebègue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polydiacetylene (PDA inserted in films or in vesicles has received increasing attention due to its property to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition along with a change from non-fluorescent to fluorescent upon application of various stimuli. In this review paper, the principle for the detection of various microorganisms (bacteria, directly detected or detected through the emitted toxins or through their DNA, and viruses and of antibacterial and antiviral peptides based on these responsive PDA vesicles are detailed. The analytical performances obtained, when vesicles are in suspension or immobilized, are given and compared to those of the responsive vesicles mainly based on the vesicle encapsulation method. Many future challenges are then discussed.

  2. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  3. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from ground water samples taken from 31 springs during 1993 were collected and processed according to procedures described in earlier reports. These procedures required aseptic collection of surface water samples in sterile screw-capped containers, transportation to the HRC microbiology laboratory, and culture by spread plating onto R2A medium. The isolates were further processed for identification using a gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes. This work generated a presumptive identification of 113 bacterial species distributed among 45 genera using a database obtained from Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, Delaware (MIDI). A preliminary examination of the FAME data was accomplished using cluster analysis and principal component analysis software obtained from MIDI. Typically, bacterial strains that cluster at less than 10 Euclidian distance units have fatty acid patterns consistent among members of the same species. Thus an organism obtained from one source can be recognized if it is isolated again from the same or any other source. This makes it possible to track the distribution of organisms and monitor environmental conditions or fluid transport mechanisms. Microorganisms are seldom found as monocultures in natural environments. They are more likely to be closely associated with other genera with complementary metabolic requirements. An understanding of the indigenous microorganism population is useful in understanding subtle changes in the environment. However, classification of environmental organisms using traditional methods is not ideal because differentiation of species with small variations or genera with very similar taxonomic characteristics is beyond the capabilities of traditional microbiological methods

  4. Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Oubre, Cherie; Wallace, Sarah; Mehta, Satish; Pierson, Duane

    2016-01-01

    Numerous spaceflight experiments have been conducted to investigate alterations in microbial responses resulting from culture during spaceflight and spaceflight-analogs. However, recent studies investigating spaceflight-associated alterations in microbial virulence have initiated the review and production of evidence to better understand the impact these alterations would have on the incidence of infectious disease during a spaceflight exploration mission. The preponderance of evidence indicates that alterations in microbial gene expression and phenotype (including virulence) are occurring; however, the clinical implications of such changes are still unclear. Greater knowledge is required including a better understanding of the mechanism behind unique spaceflight-associated microbial responses to determine how this environmental stimulus impacts various microorganisms, their diversity and concentration in the spacecraft and crew microbiome, their impact on the vehicle and crew, and their resistance to current mitigation and antibiotic regimens. This knowledge will enable us to determine requirements, guidelines, and processes for design and monitoring of the next generation vehicles.

  5. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  6. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  7. Global Climate Change and Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK Shuman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring as a result of warming of the earth’s atmosphere due to human activity generating excess amounts of greenhouse gases. Because of its potential impact on the hydrologic cycle and severe weather events, climate change is expected to have an enormous effect on human health, including on the burden and distribution of many infectious diseases. The infectious diseases that will be most affected by climate change include those that are spread by insect vectors and by contaminated water. The burden of adverse health effects due to these infectious diseases will fall primarily on developing countries, while it is the developed countries that are primarily responsible for climate change. It is up to governments and individuals to take the lead in halting climate change, and we must increase our understanding of the ecology of infectious diseases in order to protect vulnerable populations.

  8. The hidden face of academic researches on classified highly pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    Highly pathogenic microorganisms and toxins are manipulated in academic laboratories for fundamental research purposes, diagnostics, drugs and vaccines development. Obviously, these infectious pathogens represent a potential risk for human and/or animal health and their accidental or intentional release (biosafety and biosecurity, respectively) is a major concern of governments. In the past decade, several incidents have occurred in laboratories and reported by media causing fear and raising a sense of suspicion against biologists. Some scientists have been ordered by US government to leave their laboratory for long periods of time following the occurrence of an incident involving infectious pathogens; in other cases laboratories have been shut down and universities have been forced to pay fines and incur a long-term ban on funding after gross negligence of biosafety/biosecurity procedures. Measures of criminal sanctions have also been taken to minimize the risk that such incidents can reoccur. As United States and many other countries, France has recently strengthened its legal measures for laboratories' protection. During the past two decades, France has adopted a series of specific restriction measures to better protect scientific discoveries with a potential economic/social impact and prevent their misuse by ill-intentioned people without affecting the progress of science through fundamental research. French legal regulations concerning scientific discoveries have progressively strengthened since 2001, until the publication in November 2011 of a decree concerning the "PPST" (for "Protection du Potentiel Scientifique et Technique de la nation", the protection of sensitive scientific data). Following the same logic of protection of sensitive scientific researches, regulations were also adopted in an order published in April 2012 concerning the biology and health field. The aim was to define the legal framework that precise the conditions for authorizing

  9. CHITINASE AND CHITINOLYTIC MICROORGANISM : ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Herdyastuti, Nuniek; Raharjo, Tri Joko; Mudasir, Mudasir; Matsjeh, Sabirin

    2010-01-01

    Chitinase is enzyme that hydrolyzes chitin, a polimer of b-1,4-N-Acetilglucosamine which is the most abundant natural resource after cellulose. Chitinolytic microorganism can be found in  environment like soil and water that contain chitin, or in extreme environment which is known as thermofilic microorganism. Chitinolytic microorganism is identified by recognizing the morphological and physiological properties based on Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. The sequence data of the 16S ...

  10. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  11. Infectious Urethritis in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meares, Edwin M.

    1975-01-01

    Acute and recurrent infectious urethritis in men and women is commonly seen by physicians. Since specific therapy varies widely with the type of urethritis present, the proper diagnosis must be clearly established if curative drug therapy is to be selected. It is valuable, therefore, to review the diagnosis and therapy of the various forms of infectious urethritis that are recognized today in both men and women. PMID:1199099

  12. CISH and Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Khor, CC; Vannberg, FO; Chapman, SJ; Guo, H; Wong, SH; Walley, AJ; Vukcevic, D; Rautanen, A; Mills, TC; Chang, K-C; Kam, K-M; Crampin, AC; Ngwira, B; Leung, C-C; Tam, C-M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND The interleukin-2-mediated immune response is critical for host defense against infectious pathogens. Cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 (SH2) domain protein (CISH), a suppressor of cytokine signaling, controls interleukin-2 signaling. METHODS Using a case-control design, we tested for an association between CISH polymorphisms and susceptibility to major infectious diseases (bacteremia, tuberculosis, and severe malaria) in blood samples from 8402 persons in Gambia, Hong Kong, Kenya,...

  13. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Ranberg, Emilie Ulrikka

    2017-01-01

    Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark......Presentation: Per M. Jensen*, Miguel L. Grilo, Christian B. Pipper, Emilie U. Andersen-Ranberg. A macroecological characterization of infectious disease transmission: the cases of Mycobacterium and Leptospira sp. The 2017 OIKOS meeting, 10th -11th March 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark...

  14. Strengthening epidemiologic investigation of infectious diseases in Korea: lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhwan Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus infection in Korea resulted in large socioeconomic losses. This provoked the Korean government and the general public to recognize the importance of having a well-established system against infectious diseases. Although epidemiologic investigation is one of the most important aspects of prevention, it has been pointed out that much needs to be improved in Korea. We review here the current status of the Korean epidemiologic service and suggest possible supplementation measures. We examine the current national preventive infrastructure, including human resources such as Epidemic Intelligence Service officers, its governmental management, and related policies. In addition, we describe the practical application of these resources to the recent MERS outbreak and the progress in preventive measures. The spread of MERS demonstrated that the general readiness for emerging infectious diseases in Korea is considerably low. We believe that it is essential to increase society’s investment in disease prevention. Fostering public health personnel, legislating management policies, and establishing research centers for emerging infectious diseases are potential solutions. Evaluating international preventive systems, developing cooperative measures, and initiating improvements are necessary. We evaluated the Korean epidemiologic investigation system and the public preventive measures against infectious diseases in light of the recent MERS outbreak. We suggest that governmental authorities in Korea enforce preventive policies, foster the development of highly qualified personnel, and increase investment in the public health domain of infectious disease prevention.

  15. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Dotters-Katz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association.

  16. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Esterase screening using whole cells of Brazilian soil microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Simone M.; Oliveira, Luciana G. de; Marsaioli, Anita J., E-mail: anita@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A miniaturized enzymatic assay using fluorescent probes to reveal esterase producing microorganisms was optimized and applied to screen 64 soil bacterial strains. The best results were validated using traditional non-fluorogenic assays with acetyl and propanoyl phenylethanol to confirm the miniaturized results. The most active microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus showing esterase activity and good enantiomeric ratios for the resolution of phenylethanol derivatives (E > 30). Part of the microorganisms are kept in our laboratory in glycerol or freezedried and the best microorganisms will be deposited in the CBMAI/CPQBA/UNICAMP culture collection. (author)

  18. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  19. Well-known surface and extracellular antigens of pathogenic microorganisms among the immunodominant proteins of the infectious microalgae Prototheca zopfii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Alexandra; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Weise, Christoph; Azab, Walid; Roesler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P.) are associated with rare but severe infections (protothecosis) and represent a potential zoonotic risk. Genotype (GT) 2 of P. zopfii has been established as pathogenic agent for humans, dogs, and cattle, whereas GT1 is considered to be non-pathogenic. Since pathogenesis is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to determine immunogenic proteins and potential virulence factors of P. zopfii GT2. Therefore, 2D western blot analyses with sera and isolates of two dogs naturally infected with P. zopfii GT2 have been performed. Cross-reactivity was determined by including the type strains of P. zopfii GT2, P. zopfii GT1, and P. blaschkeae, a close relative of P. zopfii, which is known to cause subclinical forms of bovine mastitis. The sera showed a high strain-, genotype-, and species-cross-reactivity. A total of 198 immunogenic proteins have been analyzed via MALDI-TOF MS. The majority of the 86 identified proteins are intracellularly located (e.g., malate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase) but some antigens and potential virulence factors, known from other pathogens, have been found (e.g., phosphomannomutase, triosephosphate isomerase). One genotype-specific antigen could be identified as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a well-known antigen of eukaryotic pathogens with immunological importance when located extracellularly. Both sera were reactive to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase of all investigated strains. This house-keeping enzyme is found to be located on the surface of several pathogens as virulence factor. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed its presence on the surface of P. blaschkeae.

  20. Well-known surface and extracellular antigens of pathogenic microorganisms among the immunodominant proteins of the infectious microalgae Prototheca zopfii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eIrrgang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae of the genus Prototheca (P. are associated with rare but severe infections (protothecosis and represent a potential zoonotic risk. Genotype (GT 2 of P. zopfii has been established as pathogenic agent for humans, dogs and cattle, whereas GT1 is considered to be non-pathogenic. Since pathogenesis is poorly understood, the aim of this study was to determine immunogenic proteins and potential virulence factors of P. zopfii GT2. Therefore, 2D western blot analyses with sera and isolates of two dogs naturally infected with P. zopfii GT2 have been performed. Cross-reactivity was determined by including the type strains of P. zopfii GT2, P. zopfii GT1 and P. blaschkeae, a close relative of P. zopfii, which is known to cause subclinical forms of bovine mastitis. The sera showed a high strain-, genotype-, and species-cross-reactivity. A total of 198 immunogenic proteins have been analysed via MALDI- TOF MS. The majority of the 86 identified proteins are intracellularly located (e.g. malate dehydrogenase, oxidoreductase, 3-dehydroquinate synthase but some antigens and potential virulence factors, known from other pathogens, have been found (e.g. phosphomannomutase, triosephosphate isomerase. One genotype-specific antigen could be identified as heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, a well-known antigen of eukaryotic pathogens with immunological importance when located extracellularly. Both sera were reactive to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase of all investigated strains. This house-keeping enzyme is found to be located on the surface of several pathogens as virulence factor. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed its presence on the surface of P. blaschkeae.