WorldWideScience

Sample records for emerging imaging techniques

  1. Imaging techniques and investigation protocols in pediatric emergency imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharitzer, M.; Hoermann, M.; Puig, S.; Prokop, M.

    2002-01-01

    Paediatric emergencies demand a quick and efficient radiological investigation with special attention to specific adjustments related to patient age and radiation protection. Imaging modalities are improving rapidly and enable to diagnose childhood diseases and injuries more quickly, accurately and safely. This article provides an overview of imaging techniques adjusted to the age of the child and an overview of imaging strategies of common paediatric emergencies. Optimising the imaging parameters (digital radiography, different screen-film systems, exposure specifications) allows for substantial reduction of radiation dose. Spiral- and multislice-CT reduce scan time and enable a considerable reduction of radiation exposure if scanning parameters (pitch setting, tube current) are properly adjusted. MRI is still mainly used for neurological or spinal emergencies despite the advent of fast imaging sequences. The radiologist's task is to select an appropriate imaging strategy according to expected differential diagnosis and to adjust the imaging techniques to the individual patient. (orig.) [de

  2. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  3. Imaging techniques and investigation protocols in pediatric emergency imaging; Aufnahmetechnik und Untersuchungsprotokolle beim paediatrischen Notfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharitzer, M.; Hoermann, M.; Puig, S.; Prokop, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    Paediatric emergencies demand a quick and efficient radiological investigation with special attention to specific adjustments related to patient age and radiation protection. Imaging modalities are improving rapidly and enable to diagnose childhood diseases and injuries more quickly, accurately and safely. This article provides an overview of imaging techniques adjusted to the age of the child and an overview of imaging strategies of common paediatric emergencies. Optimising the imaging parameters (digital radiography, different screen-film systems, exposure specifications) allows for substantial reduction of radiation dose. Spiral- and multislice-CT reduce scan time and enable a considerable reduction of radiation exposure if scanning parameters (pitch setting, tube current) are properly adjusted. MRI is still mainly used for neurological or spinal emergencies despite the advent of fast imaging sequences. The radiologist's task is to select an appropriate imaging strategy according to expected differential diagnosis and to adjust the imaging techniques to the individual patient. (orig.) [German] Das akut erkrankte Kind erfordert eine rasche radiologische Abklaerung mit besonderer Beruecksichtung der geaenderten Untersuchungsparameter bei gleichzeitig hohem Anspruch an den Strahlenschutz. Hochaufloesende Schallkoepfe, Multislice-CT und schnelle MR-Sequenzen erlauben eine bessere Anpassung der Untersuchungsmethoden an die Beduerfnisse in der Kinderradiologie. Ziel dieses Artikels ist eine Uebersicht ueber die verschiedenen radiologischen Untersuchungstechniken sowie deren Anpassung an kindliche Anforderungen und die Angabe von Untersuchungsalgorithmen der haeufigsten paediatrischen Notfaelle. In der Projektionsradiographie erlaubt die Optimierung der Aufnahmetechnik (digitale Radiographie, unterschiedliche Klassen von Film-Folien-Systemen, Belichtungsparameter) eine deutliche Reduktion der Strahlendosis bei diagnostisch ausreichender Qualitaet. Spiral- oder

  4. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  5. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    and reconstruction corrections. Consequently, multiple image value-to-density calibration curves are necessary for accurate dose calculation. UCSF has implemented the new technique clinically for emergency treatments on their patients who stand to benefit from the fast simulation to treatment time frame that is achieved through this on-board imaging workflow.

  6. A new on-board imaging treatment technique for palliative and emergency treatments in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Held, Mareike

    2016-03-23

    and reconstruction corrections. Consequently, multiple image value-to-density calibration curves are necessary for accurate dose calculation. UCSF has implemented the new technique clinically for emergency treatments on their patients who stand to benefit from the fast simulation to treatment time frame that is achieved through this on-board imaging workflow.

  7. Emerging Techniques in Brain Tumor Imaging: What Radiologists Need to Know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Ho Sung [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Among the currently available brain tumor imaging, advanced MR imaging techniques, such as diffusion-weighted MR imaging and perfusion MR imaging, have been used for solving diagnostic challenges associated with conventional imaging and for monitoring the brain tumor treatment response. Further development of advanced MR imaging techniques and postprocessing methods may contribute to predicting the treatment response to a specific therapeutic regimen, particularly using multi-modality and multiparametric imaging. Over the next few years, new imaging techniques, such as amide proton transfer imaging, will be studied regarding their potential use in quantitative brain tumor imaging. In this review, the pathophysiologic considerations and clinical validations of these promising techniques are discussed in the context of brain tumor characterization and treatment response.

  8. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  9. Fundamentals of functional imaging II: emerging MR techniques and new methods of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, A; Martín Noguerol, T; Mata, L Alcalá

    2018-05-01

    Current multiparameter MRI protocols integrate structural, physiological, and metabolic information about cancer. Emerging techniques such as arterial spin-labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), MR elastography, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST), and hyperpolarization provide new information and will likely be integrated into daily clinical practice in the near future. Furthermore, there is great interest in the study of tumor heterogeneity as a prognostic factor and in relation to resistance to treatment, and this interest is leading to the application of new methods of analysis of multiparametric protocols. In parallel, new oncologic biomarkers that integrate the information from MR with clinical, laboratory, genetic, and histologic findings are being developed, thanks to the application of big data and artificial intelligence. This review analyzes different emerging MR techniques that are able to evaluate the physiological, metabolic, and mechanical characteristics of cancer, as well as the main clinical applications of these techniques. In addition, it summarizes the most novel methods of analysis of functional radiologic information in oncology. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effectiveness of Ultrasonography in Detecting Emergent Pediatric Pathologies and Requirement for Additional Imaging Techniques: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tiryaki Baştuğ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In emergency cases, ultrasonography is used in guiding resuscitation, to provide procedural guidance, and confirm a clinical diagnosis. In addition, it may prevent unnecessary exposure of the patient to ionizing radiation and risks caused by transporting the patient away from monitoring. This paper aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasonography in detecting emergent pediatric pathologies in a state hospital radiology unit, and to identify whether additional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography, were required. Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective investigation. A group of 536 patients were randomly selected from 1.401 pediatric patients who underwent ultrasonography for non-traumatic emergent pathologies between 2015 and 2016. Results: Of the 536 patients, 46 were diagnosed with appendicitis, 14 with pathologies of the urinary system, 1 with ileus, 29 with mesenteric lymphadenitis, 4 with intussusception, 3 with ovarian cyst rupture, 1 with ovarian torsion, and 32 with scrotal pathologies. Computed tomography was performed for 20 patients. Ureteral calculi and appendicitis were confirmed by computed tomography in 5 and 14 patients, respectively, after being identified as secondary findings by ultrasonography. In 1 patient, ileus was verified by computed tomography. The sensitivity of ultrasonography was determined to be 85.7%. Only 14% of patients were not given definite pathological diagnoses by ultrasonography alone. Subsequent computed tomography for verifying secondary findings detected by ultrasonography was essential in only 20 patients. Conclusion: Our results promote the use of ultrasonography as the initial imaging test for evaluating pediatric patients with suspected emergency pathologies.

  11. Vascular manifestations of syndromic aortopathies: role of current and emerging imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerland, O.; Frigiola, A.; Robert, L.; Shaw, A.; Blakeway, L.; Katsanos, K.; Kiesewetter, C.; Chung, N.; Karunanithy, N.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with connective tissue diseases such as Marfan's syndrome, Loeys–Dietz syndrome, and vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome comprise a small but important group of patients who present early with acute aortic syndrome comprising aneurysmal dilation, rupture, or aortic dissection. Cardiovascular pathologies are an important yet treatable cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Imaging plays an important role in initial diagnosis, surveillance, and identification of complications. Furthermore, these patients are prone to developing complications in other vascular territories. Effective screening and surveillance will allow early diagnosis and elective treatment thus reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with presentation with acute complications. In this article, we will provide an overview of the role of magnetic resonance and computed tomography angiography in the management of syndromic aortopathies.

  12. Emerging technology and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopi Naveen Chander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A technique of fabricating feldspathic porcelain pressable ingots was proposed. A 5 ml disposable syringe was used to condense the powder slurry. The condensed porcelain was sintered at 900΀C to produce porcelain ingots. The fabricated porcelain ingots were used in pressable ceramic machines. The technological advantages of pressable system improve the properties, and the fabricated ingot enhances the application of feldspathic porcelain.

  13. Imaging of gynecologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Matthias W.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD; Kubik, Rahel A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain related to the female genital organs is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Gynecological emergencies are diseases of the female reproductive system that are potentially life-threatening and peril the sexual function and fertility. In the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain, a wide variety of differential diagnoses needs to be considered depending on the age of the patient and a concomitant pregnancy. There is significant clinical overlap with gastrointestinal emergencies. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in diagnosing the cause of the pain and the planning of the therapy. The aim of this review is to illustrate the significant role of imaging in frequently encountered gynecologic emergencies.

  14. Review of advanced imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathology informatics encompasses digital imaging and related applications. Several specialized microscopy techniques have emerged which permit the acquisition of digital images ("optical biopsies" at high resolution. Coupled with fiber-optic and micro-optic components, some of these imaging techniques (e.g., optical coherence tomography are now integrated with a wide range of imaging devices such as endoscopes, laparoscopes, catheters, and needles that enable imaging inside the body. These advanced imaging modalities have exciting diagnostic potential and introduce new opportunities in pathology. Therefore, it is important that pathology informaticists understand these advanced imaging techniques and the impact they have on pathology. This paper reviews several recently developed microscopic techniques, including diffraction-limited methods (e.g., confocal microscopy, 2-photon microscopy, 4Pi microscopy, and spatially modulated illumination microscopy and subdiffraction techniques (e.g., photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. This article serves as a primer for pathology informaticists, highlighting the fundamentals and applications of advanced optical imaging techniques.

  15. Microwave Breast Imaging Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Rubæk, Tonny

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the applicability of microwave radiation for breast cancer detection. Microwave imaging systems are categorized based on their hardware architecture. The advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques are discussed. The fundamental tradeoffs are indicated between...... various requirements to be fulfilled in the design of an imaging system for breast cancer detection and some strategies to overcome these limitations....

  16. Multimodality imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Sopena, Ramón; Bartumeus, Paula; Sopena, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In multimodality imaging, the need to combine morphofunctional information can be approached by either acquiring images at different times (asynchronous), and fused them through digital image manipulation techniques or simultaneously acquiring images (synchronous) and merging them automatically. The asynchronous post-processing solution presents various constraints, mainly conditioned by the different positioning of the patient in the two scans acquired at different times in separated machines. The best solution to achieve consistency in time and space is obtained by the synchronous image acquisition. There are many multimodal technologies in molecular imaging. In this review we will focus on those multimodality image techniques more commonly used in the field of diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, PET-CT) and new developments (as PET-MR). The technological innovations and development of new tracers and smart probes are the main key points that will condition multimodality image and diagnostic imaging professionals' future. Although SPECT-CT and PET-CT are standard in most clinical scenarios, MR imaging has some advantages, providing excellent soft-tissue contrast and multidimensional functional, structural and morphological information. The next frontier is to develop efficient detectors and electronics systems capable of detecting two modality signals at the same time. Not only PET-MR but also MR-US or optic-PET will be introduced in clinical scenarios. Even more, MR diffusion-weighted, pharmacokinetic imaging, spectroscopy or functional BOLD imaging will merge with PET tracers to further increase molecular imaging as a relevant medical discipline. Multimodality imaging techniques will play a leading role in relevant clinical applications. The development of new diagnostic imaging research areas, mainly in the field of oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry, will impact the way medicine is performed today. Both clinical and experimental multimodality studies, in

  17. Results of emergency management of acute abdomen in adults based on clinical assessment and basic imaging investigations: are advanced imaging techniques always necessary for successful treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Sangram Karandikar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute abdomen refers to signs and symptoms of abdominal pain and tenderness, a clinical presentation that may require emergency surgical treatment. Patients suffering from both, surgical as well as medical diseases may present with acute abdomen. The main objectives of the study are to identify common causes of acute abdomen, to assess the need for urgent surgical intervention in these patients and to evaluate role of basic diagnostic techniques and need of advanced imagi...

  18. Image Improvement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R. A.

    1997-05-01

    Over the last decade, a repertoire of techniques have been developed and/or refined to improve the quality of high spatial resolution solar movies taken from ground based observatories. These include real time image motion corrections, frame selection, phase diversity measurements of the wavefront, and extensive post processing to partially remove atmospheric distortion. Their practical application has been made possible by the increasing availability and decreasing cost of large CCD's with fast digital readouts and high speed computer workstations with large memories. Most successful have been broad band (0.3 to 10 nm) filtergram movies which can use exposure times of 10 to 30 ms, short enough to ``freeze'' atmospheric motions. Even so, only a handful of movies with excellent image quality for more than a hour have been obtained to date. Narrowband filtergrams (about 0.01 nm), such as those required for constructing magnetograms and Dopplergrams, have been more challenging although some single images approach the quality of the best continuum images. Some promising new techniques and instruments, together with persistence and good luck, should continue the progress made in the last several years.

  19. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, M.; Schnell, S.; Wu, C.; Bollache, E.; Jarvis, K.; Barker, A.J.; Robinson, J.D.; Rigsby, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented.

  20. Video-rate resonant scanning multiphoton microscopy: An emerging technique for intravital imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D; Chung, Euiheon; Cook, Daniel C; Han, Xiaoxing; Gruionu, Gabriel; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L; Padera, Timothy P; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K

    2012-01-01

    The abnormal tumor microenvironment fuels tumor progression, metastasis, immune suppression, and treatment resistance. Over last several decades, developments in and applications of intravital microscopy have provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, intravital multiphoton microscopy has revealed the abnormal structure and function of tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vessels, the role of aberrant tumor matrix in drug delivery, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, the dynamics of immune cell trafficking to and within tumors, and gene expression in tumors. However, traditional multiphoton microscopy suffers from inherently slow imaging rates-only a few frames per second, thus unable to capture more rapid events such as blood flow, lymphatic flow, and cell movement within vessels. Here, we report the development and implementation of a video-rate multiphoton microscope (VR-MPLSM) based on resonant galvanometer mirror scanning that is capable of recording at 30 frames per second and acquiring intravital multispectral images. We show that the design of the system can be readily implemented and is adaptable to various experimental models. As examples, we demonstrate the utility of the system to directly measure flow within tumors, capture metastatic cancer cells moving within the brain vasculature and cells in lymphatic vessels, and image acute responses to changes in a vascular network. VR-MPLSM thus has the potential to further advance intravital imaging and provide new insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment.

  1. Psoriatic arthritis: imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lubrano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques to assess psoriatic arthritis (PsA include radiography, ultrasonography (US, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT and bone scintigraphy. The radiographic hallmark of PsA is the combination of destructive changes (joint erosions, tuft resorption, osteolysis with bone proliferation (including periarticular and shaft periostitis, ankylosis, spur formation and non-marginal syndesmophytes. US has an increasing important role in the evaluation of PsA. In fact, power Doppler US is useful mainly for its ability to assess musculoskeletal (joints, tendons, entheses and cutaneous (skin and nails involvement, to monitor efficacy of therapy and to guide steroid injections at the level of inflamed joints, tendon sheaths and entheses. MRI allows direct visualization of inflammation in peripheral and axial joints, and peripheral and axial entheses, and has dramatically improved the possibilities for early diagnosis and objective monitoring of the disease process in PsA. MRI has allowed explaining the relationships among enthesitis, synovitis and osteitis in PsA, supporting a SpA pattern of inflammation where enthesitis is the primary target of inflammation. CT has little role in assessment of peripheral joints, but it may be useful in assessing elements of spine disease. CT accuracy is similar to MRI in assessment of erosions in sacroiliac joint involvement, but CT is not as effective in detecting synovial inflammation. Bone scintigraphy lacks specificity and is now supplanted with US and MRI techniques.

  2. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivit, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  3. Emerging Dynamic Design Techniques for Mechanical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emerging Dynamic Design Techniques for Mechanical ... through this school to bring about an awareness of the state-of-art of the software and ... those mentioned above, cannot be ensured on the basis of approaches involving numerical.

  4. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  5. Automated medical image segmentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Neeraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT and Magnetic resonance (MR imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.

  6. Urologic imaging and interventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book provides an overview of all imaging modalities and invasive techniques of the genitourinary system. Three general chapters discuss ionic and nonionic contrast media, the management of reactions to contrast media, and radiation doses from various uroradiologic procedures. Chapters are devoted to intravenous pyelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, lymphography, arteriography, and venography. Two chapters discuss the pediatric applications of uroradiology and ultrasound. Two chapters integrate the various imaging techniques of the upper and lower genitourinary systems into an algorithmic approach for various pathologic entities

  7. The challenging image-guided abdominal mass biopsy: established and emerging techniques 'if you can see it, you can biopsy it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainani, Nisha I; Arellano, Ronald S; Shyn, Paul B; Gervais, Debra A; Mueller, Peter R; Silverman, Stuart G

    2013-08-01

    Image-guided percutaneous biopsy of abdominal masses is among the most commonly performed procedures in interventional radiology. While most abdominal masses are readily amenable to percutaneous biopsy, some may be technically challenging for a number of reasons. Low lesion conspicuity, small size, overlying or intervening structures, motion, such as that due to respiration, are some of the factors that can influence the ability and ultimately the success of an abdominal biopsy. Various techniques or technologies, such as choice of imaging modality, use of intravenous contrast and anatomic landmarks, patient positioning, organ displacement or trans-organ approach, angling CT gantry, triangulation method, real-time guidance with CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound, sedation or breath-hold, pre-procedural image fusion, electromagnetic tracking, and others, when used singularly or in combination, can overcome these challenges to facilitate needle placement in abdominal masses that otherwise would be considered not amenable to percutaneous biopsy. Familiarity and awareness of these techniques allows the interventional radiologist to expand the use of percutaneous biopsy in clinical practice, and help choose the most appropriate technique for a particular patient.

  8. Developments in medical imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Cornelis

    1979-01-01

    A review of the developments in medical imaging in the past 25 years shows a strong increase in the number of physical methods which have become available for obtaining images of diagnostic value. It is shown that despite this proliferation of methods the equipment used for obtaining the images can be based on a common structure. Also the resulting images can be characterized by a few relevant parameters which indicate their information content. On the basis of this common architecture a study is made of the potential capabilities of the large number of medical imaging techniques available now and in the future. Also the requirements and possibilities for handling the images obtained and for controlling the diagnostic systems are investigated [fr

  9. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  10. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  11. Image fusion techniques in permanent seed implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Polo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years major software and hardware developments in brachytherapy treatment planning, intraoperative navigation and dose delivery have been made. Image-guided brachytherapy has emerged as the ultimate conformal radiation therapy, allowing precise dose deposition on small volumes under direct image visualization. In thisprocess imaging plays a central role and novel imaging techniques are being developed (PET, MRI-MRS and power Doppler US imaging are among them, creating a new paradigm (dose-guided brachytherapy, where imaging is used to map the exact coordinates of the tumour cells, and to guide applicator insertion to the correct position. Each of these modalities has limitations providing all of the physical and geometric information required for the brachytherapy workflow.Therefore, image fusion can be used as a solution in order to take full advantage of the information from each modality in treatment planning, intraoperative navigation, dose delivery, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation.Image fusion, understood as the visualization of any morphological volume (i.e. US, CT, MRI together with an additional second morpholo gical volume (i.e. CT, MRI or functional dataset (functional MRI, SPECT, PET, is a well known method for treatment planning, verification and follow-up of interstitial irradiation. The term image fusion is used when multiple patient image datasets are registered and overlaid or merged to provide additional information. Fused images may be created from multiple images from the same imaging modality taken at different moments (multi-temporalapproach, or by combining information from multiple modalities. Quality means that the fused images should provide additional information to the brachythe rapy process (diagnosis and staging, treatment planning, intraoperative imaging, treatment delivery and follow-up that cannot be obtained in other ways. In this review I will focus on the role of

  12. Emerging wireless networks concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Makaya, Christian

    2011-01-01

    An authoritative collection of research papers and surveys, Emerging Wireless Networks: Concepts, Techniques, and Applications explores recent developments in next-generation wireless networks (NGWNs) and mobile broadband networks technologies, including 4G (LTE, WiMAX), 3G (UMTS, HSPA), WiFi, mobile ad hoc networks, mesh networks, and wireless sensor networks. Focusing on improving the performance of wireless networks and provisioning better quality of service and quality of experience for users, it reports on the standards of different emerging wireless networks, applications, and service fr

  13. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [de

  14. Radar rainfall image repair techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Wesson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various quality problems associated with radar rainfall data viewed in images that include ground clutter, beam blocking and anomalous propagation, to name a few. To obtain the best rainfall estimate possible, techniques for removing ground clutter (non-meteorological echoes that influence radar data quality on 2-D radar rainfall image data sets are presented here. These techniques concentrate on repairing the images in both a computationally fast and accurate manner, and are nearest neighbour techniques of two sub-types: Individual Target and Border Tracing. The contaminated data is estimated through Kriging, considered the optimal technique for the spatial interpolation of Gaussian data, where the 'screening effect' that occurs with the Kriging weighting distribution around target points is exploited to ensure computational efficiency. Matrix rank reduction techniques in combination with Singular Value Decomposition (SVD are also suggested for finding an efficient solution to the Kriging Equations which can cope with near singular systems. Rainfall estimation at ground level from radar rainfall volume scan data is of interest and importance in earth bound applications such as hydrology and agriculture. As an extension of the above, Ordinary Kriging is applied to three-dimensional radar rainfall data to estimate rainfall rate at ground level. Keywords: ground clutter, data infilling, Ordinary Kriging, nearest neighbours, Singular Value Decomposition, border tracing, computation time, ground level rainfall estimation

  15. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  16. Imaging XPS - a new technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurker, N.; Ebel, M.F.; Ebel, H.

    1983-01-01

    XPS imaging promises to be a powerful analytic tool because it enables specific information on both elements and bonding to be recorded on a two-dimensional distribution map. As far as the authors are aware, the only scanning XPS method to date which has been found to be practical is essentially a scanned-particle-beam method, like scanning AES, and it is only applicable to thin film specimens. This paper provides the basic ideas of a new imaging XPS technique based on a quite different concept. It will be applicable to any kind of specimen that can be analysed in a conventional XPS system. It makes use of the dispersion properties of a spherical condenser-type spectrometer and applies a two-dimensional electron detection device for decoding the energy and emission position of an analysed photoelectron. Experimental arrangement and theory of operation are presented. (author)

  17. Imaging techniques for myocardial inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.B.; Henkin, R.E.; Robinson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) represents a heterogeneous group of disorders which results in morbidity and mortality in young individuals. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of these patients have histologic evidence of myocarditis which is potentially treatable with immunosuppression. The identification of myocardial inflammation may therefore lead to development of therapeutic regimens designed to treat the cause rather than the effect of the myocardial disease. Ultimately, this may result in improvement in the abysmal prognosis of DC. The currently accepted technique for identification of active myocardial inflammation is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is not perfect, however, since pathologic standards for the diagnosis of myocarditis have not been established. Furthermore, focal inflammation may give rise to sampling error. The inflammation-avid radioisotope gallium-67 citrate has been used as an adjunct to biopsy improving the yield of myocarditis from 7 percent to 36 percent. Serial imaging correlates well to biopsy results. Future studies are designed to study the applicability of lymphocyte labelling techniques to myocardial inflammatory disease

  18. Tooling Techniques Enhance Medical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    mission. The manufacturing techniques developed to create the components have yielded innovations advancing medical imaging, transportation security, and even energy efficiency.

  19. Digital image display system for emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, R.C.; Lane, T.J.; Miax, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a digital image display system for the emergency room (ER) in a major trauma hospital. Its objective is to reduce radiographic image delivery time to a busy ER while simultaneously providing a multimodality capability. Image storage, retrieval, and display will also be facilitated with this system. The system's backbone is a token-ring network of RISC and personal computers. The display terminals are higher- function RISC computers with 1,024 2 color or gray-scale monitors. The PCs serve as administrative terminals. Nuclear medicine, CT, MR, and digitized film images are transferred to the image display system

  20. Mathematics and physics of emerging biomedical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Although the mathematical sciences were used in a general way for image processing, they were of little importance in biomedical work until the development in the 1970s of computed tomography (CT) for the imaging of x-rays and isotope emission tomography. In the 1980s, MRI eclipsed the other modalities in many ways as the most informative medical imaging methodology. Besides these well-established techniques, computer-based mathematical methods are being explored in applications to other well-known methods, such as ultrasound and electroencephalography, as well as new techniques of optical imaging, impedance tomography, and magnetic source imaging. It is worth pointing out that, while the final images of many of these techniques bear many similarities to each other, the technologies involved in each are completely different and the parameters represented in the images are very different in character as well as in medical usefulness. In each case, rather different mathematical or statistical models are used, with different equations. One common thread is the paradigm of reconstruction from indirect measurements--this is the unifying theme of this report. The imaging methods used in biomedical applications that this report discusses include: (1) x-ray projection imaging; (2) x-ray computed tomography (CT); (3) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; (4) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT); (5) positron emission tomography (PET); (6) ultrasonics; (7) electrical source imaging (ESI); (8) electrical impedance tomography (EIT); (9) magnetic source imaging (MSI); and (10) medical optical imaging

  1. Medical emergencies in the imaging department of a university hospital: event and imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tonder, F C; Sutherland, T; Smith, R J; Chock, J M E; Santamaria, J D

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to describe the characteristics of medical emergencies that occurred in the medical imaging department (MID) of a university hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A database of 'Respond Medical Emergency Team (MET)' and 'Respond Blue' calls was retrospectively examined for the period June 2003 to November 2010 in relation to events that occurred in the MID. The hospital medical imaging database was also examined in relation to these events and, where necessary, patients' notes were reviewed. Ethics approval was granted by the hospital ethics review board. There were 124 medical emergency calls in the MID during the study period, 28% Respond Blue and 72% Respond MET. Of these 124 calls, 26% occurred outside of usual work hours and 12% involved cardiac arrest. The most common reasons for the emergency calls were seizures (14%) and altered conscious state (13%). Contrast anaphylaxis precipitated the emergency in 4% of cases. In 83% of cases the emergency calls were for patients attending the MID for diagnostic imaging, the remainder being for a procedure. Of the scheduled imaging techniques, 45% were for computed tomography. The scheduled imaging was abandoned due to the emergency in 12% of cases. When performed, imaging informed patient management in 34% of cases in diagnostic imaging and in all cases in the context of image-guided procedures. Medical emergency calls in the MID often occurred outside usual work hours and were attributed to a range of medical problems. The emergencies occurred in relation to all imaging techniques and imaging informed patient management in many cases. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  3. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  4. Status and developing of nuclear emergency response techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangang, Zhang; Bing, Zhao; Rongyao, Tang; Xiaoxiao, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Emergency preparedness and response in China is consistent with international basic principle of nuclear safety and emergency response. Nuclear emergency response techniques in China developed with nuclear power from 1980s. The status of nuclear emergency techniques in China are: 1) China have plentiful experiences and abilities in the fields of nuclear facility emergency planning and preparedness, nuclear accident consequence assessment, emergency monitoring, and emergency advisory; 2) Emergency assistance ability in China has a foundation, however it cannot satisfy national requirement; 3) Emergency planning and preparedness is not based on hazard assessment; 4) Remote monitoring and robot techniques in not adaptable to the requirements of nuclear emergency response; 5) A consistent emergency assessment system is lack in China. In this paper, it is analyzed what is the developing focal points of nuclear emergency response techniques in China, and it is proposed that the main points are: a) To develop the research of emergency preparedness on the base of hazard analysis; b) To improve remote monitoring and robot ability during nuclear emergency; c) To develop the response technique research with anti-terrorism. (author)

  5. Satellite SAR interferometric techniques applied to emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova Vassileva, Magdalena; Riccardi, Paolo; Lecci, Daniele; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Boccardo Boccardo, Piero; Chiesa, Giuliana; Angeluccetti, Irene

    2017-04-01

    This paper aim to investigate the capabilities of the currently available SAR interferometric algorithms in the field of emergency mapping. Several tests have been performed exploiting the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data using the COTS software ENVI/SARscape 5.3. Emergency Mapping can be defined as "creation of maps, geo-information products and spatial analyses dedicated to providing situational awareness emergency management and immediate crisis information for response by means of extraction of reference (pre-event) and crisis (post-event) geographic information/data from satellite or aerial imagery". The conventional differential SAR interferometric technique (DInSAR) and the two currently available multi-temporal SAR interferometric approaches, i.e. Permanent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) and Small BAseline Subset (SBAS), have been applied to provide crisis information useful for the emergency management activities. Depending on the considered Emergency Management phase, it may be distinguished between rapid mapping, i.e. fast provision of geospatial data regarding the area affected for the immediate emergency response, and monitoring mapping, i.e. detection of phenomena for risk prevention and mitigation activities. In order to evaluate the potential and limitations of the aforementioned SAR interferometric approaches for the specific rapid and monitoring mapping application, five main factors have been taken into account: crisis information extracted, input data required, processing time and expected accuracy. The results highlight that DInSAR has the capacity to delineate areas affected by large and sudden deformations and fulfills most of the immediate response requirements. The main limiting factor of interferometry is the availability of suitable SAR acquisition immediately after the event (e.g. Sentinel-1 mission characterized by 6-day revisiting time may not always satisfy the immediate emergency request). PSI and SBAS techniques are suitable to produce

  6. Technique for image interpolation using polynomial transforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escalante Ramírez, B.; Martens, J.B.; Haskell, G.G.; Hang, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present a new technique for image interpolation based on polynomial transforms. This is an image representation model that analyzes an image by locally expanding it into a weighted sum of orthogonal polynomials. In the discrete case, the image segment within every window of analysis is

  7. From experimental imaging techniques to virtual embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weninger, Wolfgang J; Tassy, Olivier; Darras, Sébastien; Geyer, Stefan H; Thieffry, Denis

    2004-01-01

    Modern embryology increasingly relies on descriptive and functional three dimensional (3D) and four dimensional (4D) analysis of physically, optically, or virtually sectioned specimens. To cope with the technical requirements, new methods for high detailed in vivo imaging, as well as the generation of high resolution digital volume data sets for the accurate visualisation of transgene activity and gene product presence, in the context of embryo morphology, were recently developed and are under construction. These methods profoundly change the scientific applicability, appearance and style of modern embryo representations. In this paper, we present an overview of the emerging techniques to create, visualise and administrate embryo representations (databases, digital data sets, 3-4D embryo reconstructions, models, etc.), and discuss the implications of these new methods on the work of modern embryologists, including, research, teaching, the selection of specific model organisms, and potential collaborators.

  8. REQUIREMENTS FOR IMAGE QUALITY OF EMERGENCY SPACECRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Altukhov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the method for formation of quality requirements to the images of emergency spacecrafts. The images are obtained by means of remote sensing of near-earth space orbital deployment in the visible range. of electromagnetic radiation. The method is based on a joint taking into account conditions of space survey, characteristics of surveillance equipment, main design features of the observed spacecrafts and orbital inspection tasks. Method. Quality score is the predicted linear resolution image that gives the possibility to create a complete view of pictorial properties of the space image obtained by electro-optical system from the observing satellite. Formulation of requirements to the numerical value of this indicator is proposed to perform based on the properties of remote sensing system, forming images in the conditions of outer space, and the properties of the observed emergency spacecraft: dimensions, platform construction of the satellite, on-board equipment placement. For method implementation the authors have developed a predictive model of requirements to a linear resolution for images of emergency spacecrafts, making it possible to select the intervals of space shooting and get the satellite images required for quality interpretation. Main results. To verify the proposed model functionality we have carried out calculations of the numerical values for the linear resolution of the image, ensuring the successful task of determining the gross structural damage of the spacecrafts and identifying changes in their spatial orientation. As input data were used with dimensions and geometric primitives corresponding to the shape of deemed inspected spacecrafts: Resurs-P", "Canopus-B", "Electro-L". Numerical values of the linear resolution images have been obtained, ensuring the successful task solution for determining the gross structural damage of spacecrafts.

  9. Survey Of Lossless Image Coding Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuck, Paul W.; Rabbani, Majid

    1989-04-01

    Many image transmission/storage applications requiring some form of data compression additionally require that the decoded image be an exact replica of the original. Lossless image coding algorithms meet this requirement by generating a decoded image that is numerically identical to the original. Several lossless coding techniques are modifications of well-known lossy schemes, whereas others are new. Traditional Markov-based models and newer arithmetic coding techniques are applied to predictive coding, bit plane processing, and lossy plus residual coding. Generally speaking, the compression ratio offered by these techniques are in the area of 1.6:1 to 3:1 for 8-bit pictorial images. Compression ratios for 12-bit radiological images approach 3:1, as these images have less detailed structure, and hence, their higher pel correlation leads to a greater removal of image redundancy.

  10. Imaging techniques for medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudden, F.

    1982-01-01

    In the last few decades, science, engineering and medicine have combinded to improve the quality of our lives to a level previously unimagined. Within the framework of medical engineering - the field of activity of the Medical Engineering Group of Siemens AG - diagnostic image-generating systems have played an important role in effecting these changes and improvements. The importance of these systems to the success of the Group is clearly evident. Diagnostic imaging systems account for 65% of the sales achieved by this Group. In this article an overview is presented of the major innovations and the aims of developments in the field of imaging systems. (orig.)

  11. Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ibrahim Abood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S, composite wavelet technique (W and composite multi-wavelet technique (M. For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En and compression ratio (CR and least values of bit per pixel (bpp, time (T and rate distortion R(D. Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.

  12. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  13. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  14. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance... and spatial co-ordinates into discrete components. The mathematical concepts involved are the sampling and transform theory. Two dimensional transforms are used for image enhancement, restoration, encoding and description too. The main objective of the image...

  15. Real-time emergency forecasting technique for situation management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytov, V. V.; Kharechkin, P. V.; Naumenko, V. V.; Tretyak, R. S.; Tebueva, F. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the real-time emergency forecasting technique that allows increasing accuracy and reliability of forecasting results of any emergency computational model applied for decision making in situation management systems. Computational models are improved by the Improved Brown’s method applying fractal dimension to forecast short time series data being received from sensors and control systems. Reliability of emergency forecasting results is ensured by the invalid sensed data filtering according to the methods of correlation analysis.

  16. Transmission techniques for emergent multicast and broadcast systems

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Mario Marques; Dinis, Rui; Souto, Nuno; Silva, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Describing efficient transmission schemes for broadband wireless systems, Transmission Techniques for Emergent Multicast and Broadcast Systems examines advances in transmission techniques and receiver designs capable of supporting the emergent wireless needs for multimedia broadcast and multicast service (MBMS) requirements. It summarizes the research and development taking place in wireless communications for multimedia MBMS and addresses the means to improved spectral efficiency to allow for increased user bit rate, as well as increased capacity of the digital cellular radio network.The text

  17. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  18. Evaluation of a new image compression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, P.R.; Kroon, H.M.; Noordveld, R.B.; DeValk, J.P.J.; Seeley, G.W.; Westerink, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the evaluation of a new image compression technique, subband coding using vector quantization, on 44 CT examinations of the upper abdomen. Three independent radiologists reviewed the original images and compressed versions. The compression ratios used were 16:1 and 20:1. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed no difference in the diagnostic contents between originals and their compressed versions. Subjective visibility of anatomic structures was equal. Except for a few 20:1 compressed images, the observers could not distinguish compressed versions from original images. They conclude that subband coding using vector quantization is a valuable method for data compression in CT scans of the abdomen

  19. Oncologic applications of diagnostic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Before appropriate therapy can be instituted for a cancer patient, the presence and extent of tumor must be evaluated. Deciding which imaging technique to use depends on tumor location, type, and biologic behavior. Conventional radiography provides important information at a relatively low cost compared with other imaging modalities. Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to radiography, but does not replace it because both imaging modalities provide unique information. Nuclear medicine procedures contribute additional, unique data by providing physiological information, but specificity is lacking. Both CT and MRI provide images with exquisite anatomic detail, but availability and cost prohibit their general use

  20. Diagnosis of scaphoid fracture: optimal imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geijer M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mats Geijer Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Skåne University Hospital and Lund University, Lund, Sweden Abstract: This review aims to provide an overview of modern imaging techniques for evaluation of scaphoid fracture, with emphasis on occult fractures and an outlook on the possible evolution of imaging; it also gives an overview of the pathologic and anatomic basis for selection of techniques. Displaced scaphoid fractures detected by wrist radiography, with or without special scaphoid views, pose no diagnostic problems. After wrist trauma with clinically suspected scaphoid fracture and normal scaphoid radiography, most patients will have no clinically important fracture. Between 5% and 19% of patients (on average 16% in meta-analyses will, however, have an occult scaphoid fracture which, untreated, may lead to later, potentially devastating, complications. Follow-up imaging may be done with repeat radiography, tomosynthesis, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, or bone scintigraphy. However, no method is perfect, and choice of imaging may be based on availability, cost, perceived accuracy, or personal preference. Generally, MRI and bone scintigraphy are regarded as the most sensitive modalities, but both are flawed by false positive results at various rates. Keywords: occult fracture, wrist, radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide imaging

  1. Secondary hypertension: Place of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marichez, M.; Jeunemaitre, X.; Despres, E.; Plouin, P.F.; Melki, J.P.; Taleb, A.

    1987-01-01

    To determine and illustrate the place of various imaging techniques in the diagnosis of arterial hypertension, a retrospective study of 4,530 patients examined during the past 2 years at Broussals and Saint Joseph Hospitals in Paris was undertaken. Between 1975 and 1984, only 20% of our patients underwent surgery, but in the past 2 years, 6% of patients with hypertension underwent either surgery or transluminal angioplasty. At our institution, imaging studies performed were Doppler US, excretory urography, CT, MR imaging, scintigraphy, adrenal venography, and arteriography. The authors encountered over 156 cases of renovascular hypertension, 23 Conn adenomas, 13 pheochromocytomas, four adrenal carcinomas, and 46 parenchymatous renal anomalies. This paper presents the modalities and the pitfalls of each imaging technique. The authors also indicate the strategies used in the diagnostic approach and the results the authors obtained

  2. Emerging mass spectrometry techniques for the direct analysis of microbial colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jinshu; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-01-01

    One of the emerging areas in microbiology is detecting specialized metabolites produced by microbial colonies and communities with mass spectrometry. In this review/perspective, we illustrate the emerging mass spectrometry methodologies that enable the interrogation of specialized metabolites directly from microbial colonies. Mass spectrometry techniques such as imaging mass spectrometry and real-time mass spectrometry allow two and three dimensional visualization of the distri...

  3. Steganalysis Techniques for Documents and Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    steganography . We then illustrated the efficacy of our model using variations of LSB steganography . For binary images , we have made significant progress in...efforts have focused on two areas. The first area is LSB steganalysis for grayscale images . Here, as we had proposed (as a challenging task), we have...generalized our previous steganalysis technique of sample pair analysis to a theoretical framework for the detection of the LSB steganography . The new

  4. Novel imaging techniques for the nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint, A.

    1998-01-01

    Many of the developments of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been paralleled during the development of the scanning nuclear microprobe. Secondary electrons were used in the early development of both devices to provide specimen imaging due to the large numbers of secondaries produced per incident charged particle. Other imaging contrast techniques have also been developed on both machines. These include X-ray analysis, scattering contrast, transmission microscopy, channelling induced charge and others. The 'cross-section dependent' imaging techniques such as PIXE, RBS, NRA, etc., rely on the beam current on target for a given resolution. This has prompted research and development of brighter ion sources to maintain probe resolution at high beam current. Higher beam current bring problems with beam damage to the specimen. Low beam current techniques however rely on high countrate data collection systems, but this is only for spectroscopy. To produce an image we can increase beam currents to produce live-time images for specimen manipulation and observation. The work presented here will focus on some developments in live-time imaging with a nuclear micro probe that have taken place recently at the School of Physics, Microanalytical Research Centre (MARC), University of Melbourne

  5. Cellular imaging electron tomography and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book highlights important techniques for cellular imaging and covers the basics and applications of electron tomography and related techniques. In addition, it considers practical aspects and broadens the technological focus by incorporating techniques that are only now becoming accessible (e.g. block face imaging).  The first part of the book describes the electron microscopy 3D technique available to scientists around the world, allowing them to characterize organelles, cells and tissues. The major emphasis is on new technologies like scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography, though the book also reviews some of the more proven technologies like electron tomography. In turn, the second part is dedicated to the reconstruction of data sets, signal improvement and interpretation.

  6. Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastassopoulos, G; Lymberopoulos, D [Wire Communications Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Patras, Greece (Greece); Panayiotakis, G; Bezerianos, A [Medical Physics Department, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Greece (Greece)

    1994-12-31

    Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors). 12 refs, 4 figs.

  7. Performance evaluation of breast image compression techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastassopoulos, G.; Lymberopoulos, D.; Panayiotakis, G.; Bezerianos, A.

    1994-01-01

    Novel diagnosis orienting tele working systems manipulate, store, and process medical data through real time communication - conferencing schemes. One of the most important factors affecting the performance of these systems is image handling. Compression algorithms can be applied to the medical images, in order to minimize : a) the volume of data to be stored in the database, b) the demanded bandwidth from the network, c) the transmission costs, and to minimize the speed of the transmitted data. In this paper an estimation of all the factors of the process that affect the presentation of breast images is made, from the time the images are produced from a modality, till the compressed images are stored, or transmitted in a Broadband network (e.g. B-ISDN). The images used were scanned images of the TOR(MAX) Leeds breast phantom, as well as typical breast images. A comparison of seven compression techniques has been done, based on objective criteria such as Mean Square Error (MSE), resolution, contrast, etc. The user can choose the appropriate compression ratio in order to achieve the desired image quality. (authors)

  8. Retinal Imaging Techniques for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, James Kang Hao; Cheung, Carol Y.; Sim, Shaun Sebastian; Tan, Pok Chien; Tan, Gavin Siew Wei; Wong, Tien Yin

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus, demand for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening platforms is steeply increasing. Early detection and treatment of DR are key public health interventions that can greatly reduce the likelihood of vision loss. Current DR screening programs typically employ retinal fundus photography, which relies on skilled readers for manual DR assessment. However, this is labor-intensive and suffers from inconsistency across sites. Hence, there has been a recent proliferation of automated retinal image analysis software that may potentially alleviate this burden cost-effectively. Furthermore, current screening programs based on 2-dimensional fundus photography do not effectively screen for diabetic macular edema (DME). Optical coherence tomography is becoming increasingly recognized as the reference standard for DME assessment and can potentially provide a cost-effective solution for improving DME detection in large-scale DR screening programs. Current screening techniques are also unable to image the peripheral retina and require pharmacological pupil dilation; ultra-widefield imaging and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, which address these drawbacks, possess great potential. In this review, we summarize the current DR screening methods using various retinal imaging techniques, and also outline future possibilities. Advances in retinal imaging techniques can potentially transform the management of patients with diabetes, providing savings in health care costs and resources. PMID:26830491

  9. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in vascular surgical emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelzang, R.L.; Fisher, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning is now universally accepted as an extremely useful tool in the investigation of disease throughout the body. CT has revolutionized the practice of medicine in virtually every specialty. In vascular surgery the routine use of CT in a variety of problems has changed the way diagnoses are made. It allows prompt recognition of conditions that were difficult if not impossible to diagnose using older techniques. Nowhere is this concept better epitomized than in the realm of vascular surgical emergencies. In these cases, life or limb threatening conditions such as hemorrhage, prosthetic graft infection, or vascular occlusion exist as the result of aneurysm, trauma, dissection, tumor, or previous arterial surgery. Prompt and appropriate diagnosis of the immediate problem and its cause is afforded by the use of contrast enhanced CT. This frequently obviates the need for angiography and eliminates less accurate tests such as plain films, barium studies, nuclear medicine scans, and/or ultrasound. In the past several years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body has become a practical reality. The technique offers promise in the imaging of many disease processes. In the neural axis it has become a preferred modality due to inherently higher contrast resolution and freedom from artifacts. Progress in body imaging has been slower due to problems with motion artifact but early results in cardiovascular imaging demonstrate that MRI offers theoretical advantages over CT that may make it the imaging test of choice in vascular disease. This paper identifies those vascular surgical emergencies in which CT and MRI are most useful and clarifies and illustrates the diagnostic features of the various conditions encountered

  10. Microvascular imaging: techniques and opportunities for clinical physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, John; Howell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The microvasculature presents a particular challenge in physiological measurement because the vessel structure is spatially inhomogeneous and perfusion can exhibit high variability over time. This review describes, with a clinical focus, the wide variety of methods now available for imaging of the microvasculature and their key applications. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging are established, commercially-available techniques for determining microvascular perfusion, with proven clinical utility for applications such as burn-depth assessment. Nailfold capillaroscopy is also commercially available, with significant published literature that supports its use for detecting microangiopathy secondary to specific connective tissue diseases in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon. Infrared thermography measures skin temperature and not perfusion directly, and it has only gained acceptance for some surgical and peripheral microvascular applications. Other emerging technologies including imaging photoplethysmography, optical coherence tomography, photoacoustic tomography, hyperspectral imaging, and tissue viability imaging are also described to show their potential as techniques that could become established tools for clinical microvascular assessment. Growing interest in the microcirculation has helped drive the rapid development in perfusion imaging of the microvessels, bringing exciting opportunities in microvascular research. (topical review)

  11. Comparative study of image restoration techniques in forensic image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijhold, Jurrien; Kuijper, Arjan; Westhuis, Jaap-Harm

    1997-02-01

    In this work we investigated the forensic applicability of some state-of-the-art image restoration techniques for digitized video-images and photographs: classical Wiener filtering, constrained maximum entropy, and some variants of constrained minimum total variation. Basic concepts and experimental results are discussed. Because all methods appeared to produce different results, a discussion is given of which method is the most suitable, depending on the image objects that are questioned, prior knowledge and type of blur and noise. Constrained minimum total variation methods produced the best results for test images with simulated noise and blur. In cases where images are the most substantial part of the evidence, constrained maximum entropy might be more suitable, because its theoretical basis predicts a restoration result that shows the most likely pixel values, given all the prior knowledge used during restoration.

  12. Tablet surface characterisation by various imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seitavuopio, Paulus; Rantanen, Jukka; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise tablet surfaces using different imaging and roughness analytical techniques including optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The test materials compressed were potassium chloride (KCl......) and sodium chloride (NaCl). It was found that all methods used suggested that the KCl tablets were smoother than the NaCl tablets and higher compression pressure made the tablets smoother. Imaging methods like optical microscopy and SEM can give useful information about the roughness of the sample surface...

  13. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  14. Recent Advances in Techniques for Hyperspectral Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Antonio; Benediktsson, Jon Atli; Boardman, Joseph W.; Brazile, Jason; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Chanussot, Jocelyn; Fauvel, Mathieu; Gamba, Paolo; Gualtieri, Anthony; hide

    2009-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral imaging, has been transformed in less than 30 years from being a sparse research tool into a commodity product available to a broad user community. Currently, there is a need for standardized data processing techniques able to take into account the special properties of hyperspectral data. In this paper, we provide a seminal view on recent advances in techniques for hyperspectral image processing. Our main focus is on the design of techniques able to deal with the highdimensional nature of the data, and to integrate the spatial and spectral information. Performance of the discussed techniques is evaluated in different analysis scenarios. To satisfy time-critical constraints in specific applications, we also develop efficient parallel implementations of some of the discussed algorithms. Combined, these parts provide an excellent snapshot of the state-of-the-art in those areas, and offer a thoughtful perspective on future potentials and emerging challenges in the design of robust hyperspectral imaging algorithms

  15. Coronary imaging techniques with emphasis on CT and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederlin, Mathieu; Latrabe, Valerie; Corneloup, Olivier; Cochet, Hubert; Montaudon, Michel; Laurent, Francois; Thambo, Jean-Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery imaging in children is challenging, with high demands both on temporal and spatial resolution due to high heart rates and smaller anatomy. Although invasive conventional coronary angiography remains the benchmark technique, over the past 10 years, CT and MRI have emerged in the field of coronary imaging. The choice of hardware is important. For CT, the minimum requirement is a 64-channel scanner. The temporal resolution of the scanner is most important for optimising image quality and minimising radiation dose. Manufacturers have developed several modes of electrocardiographic (ECG) triggering to facilitate dose reduction. Recent technical advances have opened new possibilities in MRI coronary imaging. As a non-ionising radiation technique, MRI is of great interest in paediatric imaging. It is currently recommended in centres with appropriate expertise for the screening of patients with suspected congenital coronary anomalies. However, MRI is still not feasible in infants. This review describes and discusses the technical requirements and the pros and cons of all three techniques. (orig.)

  16. Authenticity techniques for PACS images and records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.; Abundo, Marco; Huang, H. K.

    1995-05-01

    Along with the digital radiology environment supported by picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) comes a new problem: How to establish trust in multimedia medical data that exist only in the easily altered memory of a computer. Trust is characterized in terms of integrity and privacy of digital data. Two major self-enforcing techniques can be used to assure the authenticity of electronic images and text -- key-based cryptography and digital time stamping. Key-based cryptography associates the content of an image with the originator using one or two distinct keys and prevents alteration of the document by anyone other than the originator. A digital time stamping algorithm generates a characteristic `digital fingerprint' for the original document using a mathematical hash function, and checks that it has not been modified. This paper discusses these cryptographic algorithms and their appropriateness for a PACS environment. It also presents experimental results of cryptographic algorithms on several imaging modalities.

  17. Advanced imaging techniques in pediatric body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtier, Jesse [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rao, Anil G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Anupindi, Sudha A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    While there are many challenges specific to pediatric abdomino-pelvic MRI, many recent advances are addressing these challenges. It is therefore essential for radiologists to be familiar with the latest advances in MR imaging. Laudable efforts have also recently been implemented in many centers to improve the overall experience of pediatric patients, including the use of dedicated radiology child life specialists, MRI video goggles, and improved MR suite environments. These efforts have allowed a larger number of children to be scanned while awake, with fewer studies being done under sedation or anesthesia; this has resulted in additional challenges from patient motion and difficulties with breath-holding and tolerating longer scan times. In this review, we highlight common challenges faced in imaging the pediatric abdomen and pelvis and discuss the application of the newest techniques to address these challenges. Additionally, we highlight the newest advances in quantified imaging techniques, specifically in MR liver iron quantification. The techniques described in this review are all commercially available and can be readily implemented. (orig.)

  18. Upright CBCT: A novel imaging technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenia J Fave

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We present a method for acquiring and correcting upright images using the on board CBCT imager. An upright imaging technique would allow for the introduction of upright radiation therapy treatments, which would benefit a variety of patients including those with thoracic cancers whose lung volumes are increased in an upright position and those who experience substantial discomfort during supine treatment positions.Methods: To acquire upright CBCT images, the linac head was positioned at 0 degrees, the KV imager and detector arms extended to their lateral positions, and the couch placed at 270 degrees. The KV imager was programmed to begin taking continuous fluoroscopic projections as the couch rotated from 270 to 90 degrees. The FOV was extended by performing this procedure twice, once with the detector shifted 14.5 cm towards the gantry and once with it shifted 14.5 cm away from the gantry. The two resulting sets of images were stitched together prior to reconstruction. The imaging parameters were chosen to deliver the some dose as that delivered during a simulation CT. A simulation CT was deformably registered to an upright CBCT reconstruction in order to evaluate the possibility of correcting the HU values via mapping.Results: Both spatial linearity and high contrast resolution were maintained in upright CBCT when compared to a simulation CT. Low contrast resolution and HU linearity decreased. Streaking artifacts were caused by the limited 180 degree arc angle and a sharp point artifact in the center of the axial slices resulted at the site of the stitching. A method for correcting the HUs was shown to be robust against these artifacts.Conclusion: Upright CBCT could be of great benefit to many patients. This study demonstrates its feasibility and presents solutions to some of its first hurdles before clinical implementation.--------------------------Cite this article as:Fave X, Yang J, Balter P, Court L. Upright CBCT: A novel imaging

  19. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  20. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  1. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitami, Masahiro [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  2. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  3. Radioanalytical and imaging techniques. Challenges and opportunities in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Where human health worldwide is under threat, radioanalytical and imaging scientists are expected to make significant difference and contribution. Diabetes, malnutrition, Alzheimer's and cardiovascular diseases can be better understood by probing elemental distributions to nano-scales and quantifying elemental compositions to ultratrace levels. As we aim towards personalized medicine, cancer management awaits new diagnostic and therapy methods which account, for example, for tissue oxygenation. In the context of such biomedical issues, recent trends and future developments are presented taking into consideration the availability of research reactors and ion beam facilities, as well as alternative and emerging techniques such as PIXE tomography (PIXE-T) and two- and three-gamma PET. (author)

  4. Emerging Endoscopic and Photodynamic Techniques for Bladder Cancer Detection and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of emerging techniques, namely, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD, narrow band imaging (NBI, Raman spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, virtual cystoscopy, and endoscopic microscopy for its use in the diagnosis and surveillance of bladder cancer. The technology, clinical evidence and future applications of these approaches are discussed with particular emphasis on PDD and NBI. These approaches show promise to optimise cystoscopy and transurethral resection of bladder tumours.

  5. Computer technique for correction of nonhomogeneous distribution in radiologic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florian, Rogerio V.; Frere, Annie F.; Schiable, Homero; Marques, Paulo M.A.; Marques, Marcio A.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing technique to provide a 'Heel' effect compensation on medical images is presented. It is reported that the technique can improve the structures detection due to background homogeneity and can be used for any radiologic system

  6. Mathematics and physics of emerging biomedical imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Dynamic Biomedical Imaging, National Research Council

    .... Incorporating input from dozens of biomedical researchers who described what they perceived as key open problems of imaging that are amenable to attack by mathematical scientists and physicists...

  7. Ultrasonic imaging in LMFBRs using digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, J.R.; McKnight, J.A.; Barrett, L.M.

    Ultrasonic technology for providing images of components immersed in the opaque sodium of LMFBRs is being developed at RNL. For many years the application has been restricted by the unavailability of convenient ultrasonic sources and receivers capable of withstanding the reactor environment. Until recently, for example, important ultrasonic instrument design, such as for future sweep arms, had to be based on waveguided ultrasonics. RNL have developed an economic immersible transducer that can be deployed during reactor shut-down, when many demands for ultrasonic imaging are made. The transducer design is not suited at present to the sophisticated techniques of phased arrays; consequently image formation must depend on the physical scanning of a target using one or more transducers in pulse-echo mode. The difficulties of access into a fast reactor impose further restrictions. Some applications may involve easy scanning sequences, thus the sweep arm requires only a rotation to provide a map of the reactor core area. For a more detailed examination of the same area, however, special engineering solutions are needed to provide a more satisfactory scanning sequence. A compromise solution involving the rotating shield movement is being used for a PFR experiment to examine a limited area of the core. (author)

  8. Three dimensional image presentation techniques in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Fuchs, H.

    1987-01-01

    Medical images can be presented three-dimensionally by techniques that either calculate the effect of reflections from surfaces predefined from slices or project a three-space of luminosities computed from voxel intensities onto the visual receptors. Sliced-based reflective displays are the most common type. Means of producing surface descriptions both via voxel sets and via slice contours are reviewed. Advantages of and means of transparent display to allow the appreciation of the 3D relationships among objects are set forth. Ways to produce additional depth cues by stereoscopy and the kinetic depth effect are discussed, and the importance of interactive modification of viewpoint, clipping plane, displayed objects, etc. are explained. A new device, UNC's Pixel-planes, for accomplishing this in real time are illustrated. Voxel intensity based display methods avoid the need for time-consuming predefinition of object surfaces and thus can allow exploration of 3D image data. Varifocal mirror hardware and fast computation of one or more projections based on object probabilities are two of the more important approaches. While 3D display provides important information about 3D relationships, it cannot provide the kind of appreciation of subtle grey-scale changes that 2D display can. Methods that can combine these two kinds of information by superimposing 2D grey-scale slices on or in the context of 3D displays are discussed. Applications of these techniques for both diagnosis and radiotherapy planning are used as illustrations and guides to the usefulness of these techniques with CT, MRI, and other 3D medical imaging modalities. 24 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Gynecologic imaging: Current and emerging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Common diagnostic challenges in gynecology and the role of imaging in their evaluation are reviewed. Etiologies of abnormal uterine bleeding identified on pelvic sonography and sonohysterography are presented. An algorithmic approach for characterizing an incidentally detected adnexal mass and use of magnetic resonance imaging for definitive diagnosis are discussed. Finally, the role of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the management of gynecological malignancies, and pitfalls associated with their use are examined.

  10. Poison control center - Emergency number (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a poison emergency call 1-800-222-1222 anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the U.S. use this national ...

  11. Use of imaging techniques in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.; Rudder, D.; Jimenez, P.

    2002-01-01

    Imaging techniques are used in radiation oncology for: disease diagnosis, tumor localization and staging, treatment simulation, treatment planning, clinical dosimetry displays, treatment verification and patient follow up. In industrialized countries, up to the 1970's, conventional radiology was used for diagnosis, simulation and planning. Gamma cameras helped tumor staging by detecting metastases. In the 1970's, simulators were developed for exclusive use in radiation oncology departments. Clinical dosimetry displays consisted mainly in axial dose distributions. Treatment verification was done placing films in the radiation beam with the patient under treatment. In the 1980's, 2-D imaging was replaced by 3-D displays with the incorporation of computerized tomography (CT) scanners, and in the 1990's of magnetic resonance imagers (MRI). Ultrasound units, briefly used in the 1960's for treatment planning purposes, were found again useful, mainly for brachytherapy dosimetry. Digital portal imagers allowed accurate treatment field verification. Treatment planning systems incorporated the capability of 'inverse planning', i.e. once the desired dose distribution is decided, the field size, gantry, collimator and couch angles, etc, can be automatically selected. At the end of the millennium, image fusion permitted excellent anatomical display of tumors and adjacent sensitive structures. The 2000's are seeing a change from anatomical to functional imaging with the advent of MRI units capable of spectroscopy at 3 Tesla and positron emission tomography (PET) units. In 2001 combined CT/PET units appeared in RT departments. In 2002, fusion of CT, MRI and PET images became available. Molecular imaging is being developed. The situation in developing countries is quite different. To start with, cancer incidence is different in developing and in industrialized countries. In addition, the health services pattern is different: Cancer treatment is mostly done in public institutions

  12. Ex vivo confocal microscopy: an emerging technique in dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, Jean Luc; Labeille, Bruno; Cambazard, Frédéric; Rubegni, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to give an overview of the current available applications of ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) in dermatology. EVCM is a relatively new imaging technique that allows microscopic examination of freshly excised unfixed tissue. It enables a rapid examination of the skin sample directly in the surgery room and thus represents an alternative to the intraoperative micrographic control of the surgical margins of cutaneous tumors by standard microscopic examination on cryopreserved sections during Mohs surgery. Although this technique has mainly been developed for the margin’s control of basal cell carcinoma, many other skin tumors have been studied, including melanoma. Use of EVCM is continuing to evolve, and many possible applications are under investigation, such as the study of nails and hair diseases and the diagnosis of skin infections. PMID:29785327

  13. Errors in imaging patients in the emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antonio; Reginelli, Alfonso; Pinto, Fabio; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Midiri, Federico; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia; Brunese, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Emergency and trauma care produces a "perfect storm" for radiological errors: uncooperative patients, inadequate histories, time-critical decisions, concurrent tasks and often junior personnel working after hours in busy emergency departments. The main cause of diagnostic errors in the emergency department is the failure to correctly interpret radiographs, and the majority of diagnoses missed on radiographs are fractures. Missed diagnoses potentially have important consequences for patients, clinicians and radiologists. Radiologists play a pivotal role in the diagnostic assessment of polytrauma patients and of patients with non-traumatic craniothoracoabdominal emergencies, and key elements to reduce errors in the emergency setting are knowledge, experience and the correct application of imaging protocols. This article aims to highlight the definition and classification of errors in radiology, the causes of errors in emergency radiology and the spectrum of diagnostic errors in radiography, ultrasonography and CT in the emergency setting.

  14. TU-G-207-00: Emerging Applications of X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Last few years has witnessed the development of novel of X-ray imaging modalities, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT, and X-ray acoustic/fluorescence/luminescence imaging. This symposium will present the recent advances of these emerging X-ray imaging modalities and update the attendees with knowledge in various related topics, including X-ray photon-counting detectors, X-ray physics underlying the emerging applications beyond the traditional X-ray imaging, image reconstruction for the novel modalities, characterization and evaluation of the systems, and their practical implications. In addition, the concept and practical aspects of X-ray activatable targeted nanoparticles for molecular X-ray imaging will be discussed in the context of X-ray fluorescence and luminescence CT. Learning Objectives: Present background knowledge of various emerging X-ray imaging techniques, such as spectral CT, phase contrast CT and X-ray fluorescence/luminescence CT. Discuss the practical need, technical aspects and current status of the emerging X-ray imaging modalities. Describe utility and future impact of the new generation of X-ray imaging applications

  15. Image Mosaic Techniques OptimizationUsing Wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUAn-qi; CUILi

    2014-01-01

    This essay concentrates on two key procedures of image mosaic——image registration and imagefusion.Becauseof the character of geometric transformation invariance of edge points, wecalculate the angle difference of the direction vector ofedge points in different images anddraw an angle difference histogramto adjust the rotationproblem. Through this way, algorithm based on gray information is expandedandcan be used in images withdisplacementand rotation. Inthe term of image fusion, wavelet multi-scale analysis is used to fuse spliced images. In order to choose the best method of imagefusion,weevaluate the results of different methods of image fusion by cross entropy.

  16. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  17. Revisiting renovascular imaging for renal sympathetic denervation: current techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng; Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong

    2015-01-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)

  18. Application of lean manufacturing techniques in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eric W; Singh, Sabi; Cheung, Dickson S; Wyatt, Christopher C; Nugent, Andrew S

    2009-08-01

    "Lean" is a set of principles and techniques that drive organizations to continually add value to the product they deliver by enhancing process steps that are necessary, relevant, and valuable while eliminating those that fail to add value. Lean has been used in manufacturing for decades and has been associated with enhanced product quality and overall corporate success. To evaluate whether the adoption of Lean principles by an Emergency Department (ED) improves the value of emergency care delivered. Beginning in December 2005, we implemented a variety of Lean techniques in an effort to enhance patient and staff satisfaction. The implementation followed a six-step process of Lean education, ED observation, patient flow analysis, process redesign, new process testing, and full implementation. Process redesign focused on generating improvement ideas from frontline workers across all departmental units. Value-based and operational outcome measures, including patient satisfaction, expense per patient, ED length of stay (LOS), and patient volume were compared for calendar year 2005 (pre-Lean) and periodically after 2006 (post-Lean). Patient visits increased by 9.23% in 2006. Despite this increase, LOS decreased slightly and patient satisfaction increased significantly without raising the inflation adjusted cost per patient. Lean improved the value of the care we delivered to our patients. Generating and instituting ideas from our frontline providers have been the key to the success of our Lean program. Although Lean represents a fundamental change in the way we think of delivering care, the specific process changes we employed tended to be simple, small procedure modifications specific to our unique people, process, and place. We, therefore, believe that institutions or departments aspiring to adopt Lean should focus on the core principles of Lean rather than on emulating specific process changes made at other institutions.

  19. A review of equine renal imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H.K.; Toal, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Radiography has a limited role in the evaluation of the kidneys in foals and adult horses. Ultrasonography is the current method of choice for structural evaluation of the kidneys in horses as it provides additional information to standard serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluation. A variety of structural abnormalities have been identified in diseased equine kidneys with the use of ultrasound. Ultrasound guided renal biopsy is the preferred method for performing renal biopsy in the horse. The use of Duplex Doppler ultrasound may allow for the characterization of regional hemodynamics of the equine kidney, but is currently an untapped method for evaluation of equine renal hemodynamics. Radionuclide methods including scintigraphy and quantitative renal function measurement can be used to provide further information about equine renal function. Scintigraphy can provide structural and possibly functional information. Quantitative methods using radiopharmaceuticals can provide precise measurement of glomerular filtration rate and effective renal blood flow. This method is especially helpful in identifying acute renal failure and in guiding response to treatment. All equine renal imaging techniques should be a supplement to the physical examination and standard laboratory tests. Additional diagnostic aids such as urinary tract endoscopy should also be considered in horses with hematuria, hydroureter, and suspected calculi. Taken together, all these modalities provide a thorough evaluation of the equine renal system and provide a basis for the clinician to select treatment options and provide prognostic information to the owner

  20. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ohlendieck, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.

  1. Digital image processing techniques in archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santanam, K.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Tripati, S.

    Digital image processing involves the manipulation and interpretation of digital images with the aid of a computer. This form of remote sensing actually began in the 1960's with a limited number of researchers analysing multispectral scanner data...

  2. Technique for producing cardiac radionuclide motion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, I.C.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Sequential frames of different portions of the cardiac cycle are gated into a minicomputer by using an EKG signal recorded onto digital tape simultaneously with imaging information. Serial display of these frames on the computer oscilloscope or projection of 35-mm half frames of these images provides a cardiac motion image with information content adequate for qualitatively assessing cardiac motion. (U.S.)

  3. MO-FG-BRD-00: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  4. MO-FG-BRD-00: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  5. Imaging of gynecologic emergencies; Bildgebende Diagnostik gynaekologischer Notfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Matthias W. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Imaging and Imaging Science; John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Pediatrc Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology; Kubik, Rahel A. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Baden (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-09-15

    Acute abdominal pain related to the female genital organs is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Gynecological emergencies are diseases of the female reproductive system that are potentially life-threatening and peril the sexual function and fertility. In the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain, a wide variety of differential diagnoses needs to be considered depending on the age of the patient and a concomitant pregnancy. There is significant clinical overlap with gastrointestinal emergencies. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in diagnosing the cause of the pain and the planning of the therapy. The aim of this review is to illustrate the significant role of imaging in frequently encountered gynecologic emergencies.

  6. A Hybrid Technique for Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Nyma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical image segmentation is an essential and challenging aspect in computer-aided diagnosis and also in pattern recognition research. This paper proposes a hybrid method for magnetic resonance (MR image segmentation. We first remove impulsive noise inherent in MR images by utilizing a vector median filter. Subsequently, Otsu thresholding is used as an initial coarse segmentation method that finds the homogeneous regions of the input image. Finally, an enhanced suppressed fuzzy c-means is used to partition brain MR images into multiple segments, which employs an optimal suppression factor for the perfect clustering in the given data set. To evaluate the robustness of the proposed approach in noisy environment, we add different types of noise and different amount of noise to T1-weighted brain MR images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms other FCM based algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy for both noise-free and noise-inserted MR images.

  7. The technique of Cerenkov ring image detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerveld, D.

    1990-01-01

    Charged particles with an energy between 2 GeV and 25 GeV can be identified in the DELPHI barrel RICH detector by using the technique of Cerenkov ring image detection. The method of identification is based on a determination of the Cerenkov angle by measuring the positions of the emitted Cerenkov photons to high precision in a photon detector. The resolution in the photon that can be obtained depends mainly on the chromatic dispersion in the radiators and on the resolution in the photon detector is used in the barrel RICH in combination with two radiators. The photon detector consists of 48 drift tubes, constructed from quarz plates, each equipped with a wire chamber at the end. The drift gas with which the tubes are filled contains a small admixture of TMAE vapour from which the Cerenkov photons can liberate photoelectrons. It is shown in this thesis that an efficient photon detection and an accurate localization of the photon conversion points is possible. The spatial resolution of the photon detector is determind by the resolution of the wire chambe, the accuracy of the drift measurement, the distortions in the paths of the drifting electrons. The resolution of the wire chamber has been measured to be 0.8 mm in the x- and 1.7 mm in the y-coordinate. The error in the z-coordinate introduced by the drift time measurement is 0.2 mm. The distortions in the paths of the drifting electrons have been measured both in the x and y-direction. The longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients have been measured as a function of the field strength for two different drift gas mixtures. (author). 96 refs.; 61 figs.; 11 tabs

  8. Dual-energy chest imaging with the variable compensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobbins, J.T.; Powell, A.O.

    1988-01-01

    The authors reported on a new imaging algorithm, termed the variable compensation (VC) technique, that combines the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) advantages of x-ray beam compensation with the ability to adjust retrospectively the amount of displayed image equalization. The VC technique acquires a compensated image of the patient and also an image of the modulated beam profile incident on the patient. A fraction of the beam profile image is then subtracted from the compensated image. A limitation of traditional dual-energy techniques is the significant S/N degradation in poorly penetrated regions. Their new VC technique permits improvement in image S/N before formation of the dual-energy image pair. Specifically, the authors subtract 100% of the beam image from the compensated image for both the high- and low-energy images and produce a pair of images that appear similar to the normal high- and low-energy pair, except for improved S/N in the mediastinum due to the beam compensator. S/N measurements in tissue-canceled chest phantom images show the improved S/N visualization of calcified squares in the mediastinum with our technique

  9. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Shivani [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fayad, Laura M. [The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  10. Diffusion weighted imaging demystified. The technique and potential clinical applications for soft tissue imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlawat, Shivani; Fayad, Laura M.

    2018-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a fast, non-contrast technique that is readily available and easy to integrate into an existing imaging protocol. DWI with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping offers a quantitative metric for soft tissue evaluation and provides information regarding the cellularity of a region of interest. There are several available methods of performing DWI, and artifacts and pitfalls must be considered when interpreting DWI studies. This review article will review the various techniques of DWI acquisition and utility of qualitative as well as quantitative methods of image interpretation, with emphasis on optimal methods for ADC measurement. The current clinical applications for DWI are primarily related to oncologic evaluation: For the assessment of de novo soft tissue masses, ADC mapping can serve as a useful adjunct technique to routine anatomic sequences for lesion characterization as cyst or solid and, if solid, benign or malignant. For treated soft tissue masses, the role of DWI/ADC mapping in the assessment of treatment response as well as recurrent or residual neoplasm in the setting of operative management is discussed, especially when intravenous contrast medium cannot be given. Emerging DWI applications for non-neoplastic clinical indications are also reviewed. (orig.)

  11. Digital image analysis in breast pathology-from image processing techniques to artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Azizpour, Hossein; Smith, Kevin; Hartman, Johan

    2018-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide. In recent decades, earlier diagnosis and better adjuvant therapy have substantially improved patient outcome. Diagnosis by histopathology has proven to be instrumental to guide breast cancer treatment, but new challenges have emerged as our increasing understanding of cancer over the years has revealed its complex nature. As patient demand for personalized breast cancer therapy grows, we face an urgent need for more precise biomarker assessment and more accurate histopathologic breast cancer diagnosis to make better therapy decisions. The digitization of pathology data has opened the door to faster, more reproducible, and more precise diagnoses through computerized image analysis. Software to assist diagnostic breast pathology through image processing techniques have been around for years. But recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence (AI) promise to fundamentally change the way we detect and treat breast cancer in the near future. Machine learning, a subfield of AI that applies statistical methods to learn from data, has seen an explosion of interest in recent years because of its ability to recognize patterns in data with less need for human instruction. One technique in particular, known as deep learning, has produced groundbreaking results in many important problems including image classification and speech recognition. In this review, we will cover the use of AI and deep learning in diagnostic breast pathology, and other recent developments in digital image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Project cost estimation techniques used by most emerging building ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Cost estimation, estimation methods, emerging contractors, tender. Dr Solly Matshonisa .... historical cost data (data from cost accounting records and/ ..... emerging contractors in tendering. Table 13: Use of project risk management versus responsibility: expected. Internal document analysis. Checklist analysis.

  13. Magnetic resonance image examinations in emergency medical care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashiro, Takanobu; Yoshizumi, Tohru; Ogura, Akio; Hongou, Takaharu; Kikumoto, Rikiya

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing consensus in terms of the need for effective use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic devices in emergency medical care. However, a thorough assessment of risk management in emergency medical care is required because of the high magnetic field in the MRI room. To understand the conditions required for the execution of emergency MRI examinations in individual medical facilities, and to prepare guidelines for emergency MRI examinations, we carried out a questionnaire survey concerning emergency MRI examinations. We obtained responses from 71% of 230 medical facilities and used this information in considering a system of emergency MRI examinations. Moreover, some difficulties were experienced in half of the facilities where emergency MRI examinations had been enacted, the main cause of which was the medics. Based on the results of the questionnaire, guidelines are necessary to maintain an urgent system for MRI examinations. Moreover, we were able to comprehend the current state of emergency MRI examinations in other medical facilities through this investigation, and we are preparing a system for the implementation of emergency MRI examinations. (author)

  14. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantify uncertain emergency search techniques (QUEST) -- Theory and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Porter, T.L.; West, T.H.; Wilcox, W.B.; Hensley, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to the national security. Sandia National laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Bechtel Nevada, Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response for various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables, including source type, search location and structure geometry (including shielding), search dynamics (path and speed), and detector type and size. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used as a tool to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training

  16. Compositional images from the Diffraction Enhanced Imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnah, M.O.; Zhong, Z.; Parham, C.; Zhang, H.; Chapman, D.

    2007-01-01

    Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI) derives X-ray contrast from absorption, refraction, and extinction. While the refraction angle image of DEI represents the gradient of the projected mass density of the object, the absorption image measures the projected attenuation (μt)-bar of an object. Using a simple integral method it has been shown that a mass density image (ρt)-bar can be obtained from the refraction angle image. It then is a simple matter to develop a combinational image by dividing these two images to create a μ/ρ image. The μ/ρ is a fundamental property of a material and is therefore useful for identifying the composition of an object. In projection X-ray imaging the μ/ρ image identifies the integrated composition of the elements along the beam path. When applied to DEI computed tomography (CT), the image identifies the composition in each voxel. This method presents a new type of spectroscopy based in radiography. We present the method of obtaining the compositional image, the results of experiments in which we verify the method with known standards and an application of the method to breast cancer imaging

  17. Vesical endometriosis: utility of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, M.; Cascon, E.; Robledo, R.; Perez, M.

    1999-01-01

    We present three cases of vesical endometriosis initially studied with ultrasound. One case was also studied with intravenous urography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss on the utility of these imaging methods in the diagnosis of vesical endometriosis. (Author) 9 refs

  18. Development of flow velocity measurement techniques in visible images. Improvement of particle image velocimetry techniques on image process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Nobuyuki; Nishimura, Motohiko; Kamide, Hideki; Hishida, Koichi

    1999-10-01

    Noise reduction system was developed to improve applicability of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to complicated configure bounded flows. For fast reactor safety and thermal hydraulic studies, experiments are performed in scale models which usually have rather complicated geometry and structures such as fuel subassemblies, heat exchangers, etc. The structures and stuck dusts on the view window of the models obscure the particle image. Thus the image except the moving particles can be regarded as a noise. In the present study, two noise reduction techniques are proposed. The one is the Time-averaged Light Intensity Subtraction method (TIS) which subtracts the time-averaged light intensity of each pixel in the sequential images from the each corresponding pixel. The other one is the Minimum Light Intensity Subtraction method (MIS) which subtracts the minimum light intensity of each pixel in the sequential images from the each corresponding pixel. Both methods are examined on their capabilities of noise reduction. As for the original 'bench mark' image, the image made from Large Eddy Simulation was used. To the bench mark image, noises are added which are referred as sample images. Both methods reduce the rate of vector with the error of more than one pixel from 90% to less than 5%. Also, more than 50% of the vectors have the error of less than 0.2 pixel. The analysis of uncertainty shows that these methods enhances the accuracy of vector measurement 3 ∼ 12 times if the image with noise were processed, and the MIS method has 1.1 ∼ 2.1 times accuracy compared to the TIS. Thus the present noise reduction methods are quite efficient to enhance the accuracy of flow velocity fields measured with particle images including structures and deposits on the view window. (author)

  19. Emerging imaging tools for use with traumatic brain injury research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jill V; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Tong, Karen A; Holshouser, Barbara A

    2012-03-01

    This article identifies emerging neuroimaging measures considered by the inter-agency Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Neuroimaging Workgroup. This article attempts to address some of the potential uses of more advanced forms of imaging in TBI as well as highlight some of the current considerations and unresolved challenges of using them. We summarize emerging elements likely to gain more widespread use in the coming years, because of 1) their utility in diagnosis, prognosis, and understanding the natural course of degeneration or recovery following TBI, and potential for evaluating treatment strategies; 2) the ability of many centers to acquire these data with scanners and equipment that are readily available in existing clinical and research settings; and 3) advances in software that provide more automated, readily available, and cost-effective analysis methods for large scale data image analysis. These include multi-slice CT, volumetric MRI analysis, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), arterial spin tag labeling (ASL), functional MRI (fMRI), including resting state and connectivity MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and hyperpolarization scanning. However, we also include brief introductions to other specialized forms of advanced imaging that currently do require specialized equipment, for example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), encephalography (EEG), and magnetoencephalography (MEG)/magnetic source imaging (MSI). Finally, we identify some of the challenges that users of the emerging imaging CDEs may wish to consider, including quality control, performing multi-site and longitudinal imaging studies, and MR scanning in infants and children.

  20. Color image Segmentation using automatic thresholding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, R.; Ben Braiek, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, entropy and between-class variance based thresholding methods for color images segmentation are studied. The maximization of the between-class variance (MVI) and the entropy (ME) have been used as a criterion functions to determine an optimal threshold to segment images into nearly homogenous regions. Segmentation results from the two methods are validated and the segmentation sensitivity for the test data available is evaluated, and a comparative study between these methods in different color spaces is presented. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the MVI method for color image segmentation.

  1. Research priorities for the influence of gender on diagnostic imaging choices in the emergency department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashurst, John V; Cherney, Alan R; Evans, Elizabeth M; Kennedy Hall, Michael; Hess, Erik P; Kline, Jeffrey A; Mitchell, Alice M; Mills, Angela M; Weigner, Michael B; Moore, Christopher L

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic imaging is a cornerstone of patient evaluation in the acute care setting, but little effort has been devoted to understanding the appropriate influence of sex and gender on imaging choices. This article provides background on this issue and a description of the working group and consensus findings reached during the diagnostic imaging breakout session at the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes." Our goal was to determine research priorities for how sex and gender may (or should) affect imaging choices in the acute care setting. Prior to the conference, the working group identified five areas for discussion regarding the research agenda in sex- and gender-based imaging using literature review and expert consensus. The nominal group technique was used to identify areas for discussion for common presenting complaints to the emergency department where ionizing radiation is often used for diagnosis: suspected pulmonary embolism, suspected kidney stone, lower abdominal pain with a concern for appendicitis, and chest pain concerning for coronary artery disease. The role of sex- and gender-based shared decision-making in diagnostic imaging decisions is also raised. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  2. Imaging techniques in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaife RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert A Quaife, Jennifer Dorosz, John C Messenger, Ernesto E Salcedo Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Calcific aortic stenosis is now understood as a complex valvular degenerative process sharing many risk factors with atherosclerosis. Once patients develop symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, the only effective treatment is aortic valve replacement. In the past decade, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR has been developed as an alternative to surgery to treat severe calcific aortic stenosis. Cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the contemporary management of patients with calcific aortic stenosis, and particularly in patients being considered for TAVR, who demand detailed imaging of the aortic valve apparatus. In this review, we highlight the role of cardiac imaging for patient selection, procedural guidance, and evaluation of results of TAVR. Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiovascular imaging, transcutaneous aortic valve replacement

  3. Analysis of Piezoelectric Structural Sensors with Emergent Computing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramers, Douglas L.

    2005-01-01

    pressurizing the bottle on a test stand, and running sweeps of excitations frequencies for each of the piezo sensors and recording the resulting impedance. The sweeps were limited to 401 points by the available analyzer, and it was decided to perform individual sweeps at five different excitation frequency ranges. The frequency ranges used for the PZTs were different in two of the five ranges from the ranges used for the SCP. The bottles were pressurized to empty (no water), 0psig, 77 psig, 155 psig, 227 psig in nearly uniform increments of about 77psi. One of each of the two types of piezo sensors was fastened on to the bottle surface at two locations: about midway between the ends on cylindrical portion of the bottle and at the very edge of one of the end domes. The data was collected in files by sensor type (2 cases), by location (2 cases), by frequency range (5 cases), and pressure (5cases) to produce 100 data sets of 401 impedances. After familiarization with the piezo sensing technology and obtaining the data, the team developed a set of questions to try to answer regarding the data and made assignments of responsibilities. The next section lists the questions, and the remainder of the report describes the data analysis work performed by Dr. Ramers. This includes a discussion of the data, the approach to answering the question using statistical techniques, the use of an emergent system to investigate the data where statistical techniques were not usable, conclusions regarding the data, and recommendations.

  4. Merits and limitations of functional imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The functional image is a powerful tool to look at physiologic information. It is ideally suited to the radiotracer method which measures regional physiology. It is ideal for regional analysis, providing a format which nicely complements the more traditional and anatomically oriented data displays. The functional image must be used intelligently, however, with the user aware of its limitations and of the meaning of indices which it is measuring. (orig.)

  5. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  6. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  7. Millimeter-wave Imaging Systems with Aperture Synthesis Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löffler, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes development of a millimetre-wave imaging system using multi-element aperture filling techniques [1]. Such imaging systems are increasingly demonstrated for security applications and in particular standoff imaging of persons and bonding flaw and defect detection [2]. The major ...

  8. An efficient similarity measure technique for medical image registration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, an efficient similarity measure technique is proposed for medical image registration. The proposed approach is based on the Gerschgorin circles theorem. In this approach, image registration is carried out by considering Gerschgorin bounds of a covariance matrix of two compared images with normalized ...

  9. Enhancement of SAR images using fuzzy shrinkage technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents speckle noise reduction in SAR images using a combination of curvelet and fuzzy logic technique to restore speckle-affected images. This method overcomes the limitation of discontinuity in hard threshold and permanent deviation in soft threshold. First, it decomposes noise image into different ...

  10. Image processing techniques for quantification and assessment of brain MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijf, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used technique to acquire digital images of the human brain. A variety of acquisition protocols is available to generate images in vivo and noninvasively, giving great opportunities to study the anatomy and physiology of the human brain. In my thesis,

  11. Red blood cell image enhancement techniques for cells with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality or challenging conditions of the images such as poor illumination of blood smear and most importantly overlapping RBC. The algorithm comprises of two RBC segmentation that can be selected based on the image quality, circle mask technique and grayscale blood smear image processing. Detail explanations ...

  12. Combined neutron imaging techniques for cultural heritage purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materna, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the different new neutron techniques developed by the Ancient Charm collaboration to image objects of cultural heritage importance: Prompt-gamma-ray activation imaging (PGAI) coupled to cold/thermal neutron transmission tomography, Neutron Resonance Capture Imaging (NRCI) and Neutron Resonance Tomography.

  13. Characterization of controlled bone defects using 2D and 3D ultrasound imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Biren J; Longsine, Whitney; Han, Arum; Righetti, Raffaella [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dwight Look College of Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Sabonghy, Eric P [OneOrtho Orthopedic Surgery Clinic, Houston, TX (United States); Tasciotti, Ennio; Ferrari, Mauro [Department of Nanomedicine and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Weiner, Bradley K, E-mail: righetti@ece.tamu.ed [Division of Spinal Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-08-21

    Ultrasound is emerging as an attractive alternative modality to standard x-ray and CT methods for bone assessment applications. As of today, however, there is a lack of systematic studies that investigate the performance of diagnostic ultrasound techniques in bone imaging applications. This study aims at understanding the performance limitations of new ultrasound techniques for imaging bones in controlled experiments in vitro. Experiments are performed on samples of mammalian and non-mammalian bones with controlled defects with size ranging from 400 {mu}m to 5 mm. Ultrasound findings are statistically compared with those obtained from the same samples using standard x-ray imaging modalities and optical microscopy. The results of this study demonstrate that it is feasible to use diagnostic ultrasound imaging techniques to assess sub-millimeter bone defects in real time and with high accuracy and precision. These results also demonstrate that ultrasound imaging techniques perform comparably better than x-ray imaging and optical imaging methods, in the assessment of a wide range of controlled defects both in mammalian and non-mammalian bones. In the future, ultrasound imaging techniques might provide a cost-effective, real-time, safe and portable diagnostic tool for bone imaging applications.

  14. Using the Technique of Journal Writing to Learn Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswar, Chaya; Stern, Theodore; Beresin, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss journal writing in learning emergency psychiatry. Methods: The journal of a psychiatry intern rotating through an emergency department is used as sample material for analysis that could take place in supervision or a resident support group. A range of articles are reviewed that illuminate the relevance of journal…

  15. Advanced techniques in digital mammographic images recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, R. Azir

    2011-01-01

    Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis is used in digital radiography as a second thought in the process of determining diagnoses, which reduces the percentage of wrong diagnoses of the established interpretation of mammographic images. The issues that are discussed in the dissertation are the analyses and improvement of advanced technologies in the field of artificial intelligence, more specifically in the field of machine learning for solving diagnostic problems and automatic detection of speculated lesions in digital mammograms. The developed of SVM-based ICAD system with cascade architecture for analyses and comparison mammographic images in both projections (CC and MLO) gives excellent result for detection and masses and microcalcifications. In order to develop a system with optimal performances of sensitivity, specificity and time complexity, a set of relevant characteristics need to be created which will show all the pathological regions that might be present in the mammographic image. The structure of the mammographic image, size and the large number of pathological structures in this area are the reason why the creation of a set of these features is necessary for the presentation of good indicators. These pathological structures are a real challenge today and the world of science is working in that direction. The doctoral dissertation showed that the system has optimal results, which are confirmed by experts, and institutions, which are dealing with these same issues. Also, the thesis presents a new approach for automatic identification of regions of interest in the mammographic image where regions of interest are automatically selected for further processing mammography in cases when the number of examined patients is higher. Out of 480 mammographic images downloaded from MIAS database and tested with ICAD system the author shows that, after separation and selection of relevant features of ICAD system the accuracy is 89.7% (96.4% for microcalcifications

  16. MINER - A Mobile Imager of Neutrons for Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John E. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, James S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark D [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kiff, Scott D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mascarenhas, Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Van De Vreugde, James L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a mobile fast neutron imaging platform to enhance the capabilities of emergency responders in the localization and characterization of special nuclear material. This mobile imager of neutrons for emergency responders (MINER) is based on the Neutron Scatter Camera, a large segmented imaging system that was optimized for large-area search applications. Due to the reduced size and power requirements of a man-portable system, MINER has been engineered to fit a much smaller form factor, and to be operated from either a battery or AC power. We chose a design that enabled omnidirectional (4π) imaging, with only a ~twofold decrease in sensitivity compared to the much larger neutron scatter cameras. The system was designed to optimize its performance for neutron imaging and spectroscopy, but it does also function as a Compton camera for gamma imaging. This document outlines the project activities, broadly characterized as system development, laboratory measurements, and deployments, and presents sample results in these areas. Additional information can be found in the documents that reside in WebPMIS.

  17. New calibration technique for KCD-based megavoltage imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Zheng, Wei; DiBianca, Frank A.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Laughter, Joseph S.

    1999-05-01

    In megavoltage imaging, current commercial electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), despite having the advantage of immediate digital imaging over film, suffer from poor image contrast and spatial resolution. The feasibility of using a kinestatic charge detector (KCD) as an EPID to provide superior image contrast and spatial resolution for portal imaging has already been demonstrated in a previous paper. The KCD system had the additional advantage of requiring an extremely low dose per acquired image, allowing for superior imaging to be reconstructed form a single linac pulse per image pixel. The KCD based images utilized a dose of two orders of magnitude less that for EPIDs and film. Compared with the current commercial EPIDs and film, the prototype KCD system exhibited promising image qualities, despite being handicapped by the use of a relatively simple image calibration technique, and the performance limits of medical linacs on the maximum linac pulse frequency and energy flux per pulse delivered. This image calibration technique fixed relative image pixel values based on a linear interpolation of extrema provided by an air-water calibration, and accounted only for channel-to-channel variations. The counterpart of this for area detectors is the standard flat fielding method. A comprehensive calibration protocol has been developed. The new technique additionally corrects for geometric distortions due to variations in the scan velocity, and timing artifacts caused by mis-synchronization between the linear accelerator and the data acquisition system (DAS). The role of variations in energy flux (2 - 3%) on imaging is demonstrated to be not significant for the images considered. The methodology is presented, and the results are discussed for simulated images. It also allows for significant improvements in the signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the dose using multiple images without having to increase the linac pulse frequency or energy flux per pulse. The

  18. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seniutinas Gediminas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, focused ion beam (FIB milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D nano-structuring within a 1−100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of precision is critically in enabling the cross-over between different device platforms (e.g. from electronics to micro-/nano-fluidics and/or photonics within future devices that will be interfacing with biological and molecular systems in a 3D fashion. Prospective trends in electron, ion, and nano-tip based fabrication techniques are presented.

  19. Mass Spectrometry Imaging, an Emerging Technology in Neuropsychopharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Svenningsson, Per; Andrén, Per E

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool for directly determining the distribution of proteins, peptides, lipids, neurotransmitters, metabolites and drugs in neural tissue sections in situ. Molecule-specific imaging can be achieved using various ionization techniques that are suited to different applications but which all yield data with high mass accuracies and spatial resolutions. The ability to simultaneously obtain images showing the distributions of chemical species ranging from metal ions to macromolecules makes it possible to explore the chemical organization of a sample and to correlate the results obtained with specific anatomical features. The imaging of biomolecules has provided new insights into multiple neurological diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Mass spectrometry imaging can also be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques in order to identify correlations between changes in the distribution of important chemical species and other changes in the properties of the tissue. Here we review the applications of mass spectrometry imaging in neuroscience research and discuss its potential. The results presented demonstrate that mass spectrometry imaging is a useful experimental method with diverse applications in neuroscience. PMID:23966069

  20. Mass spectrometry imaging, an emerging technology in neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Svenningsson, Per; Andrén, Per E

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool for directly determining the distribution of proteins, peptides, lipids, neurotransmitters, metabolites and drugs in neural tissue sections in situ. Molecule-specific imaging can be achieved using various ionization techniques that are suited to different applications but which all yield data with high mass accuracies and spatial resolutions. The ability to simultaneously obtain images showing the distributions of chemical species ranging from metal ions to macromolecules makes it possible to explore the chemical organization of a sample and to correlate the results obtained with specific anatomical features. The imaging of biomolecules has provided new insights into multiple neurological diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Mass spectrometry imaging can also be used in conjunction with other imaging techniques in order to identify correlations between changes in the distribution of important chemical species and other changes in the properties of the tissue. Here we review the applications of mass spectrometry imaging in neuroscience research and discuss its potential. The results presented demonstrate that mass spectrometry imaging is a useful experimental method with diverse applications in neuroscience.

  1. Optical replication techniques for image slicers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmoll, J.; Robertson, D.J.; Dubbeldam, C.M.; Bortoletto, F.; Pína, L.; Hudec, René; Prieto, E.; Norrie, C.; Ramsay- Howat, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, 4-5 (2006), s. 263-266 ISSN 1387-6473 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : smart focal planes * image slicers * replication Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.914, year: 2006

  2. Comparing imaging procedures: techniques and examples. Gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The distinct advantages of nuclear medicine procedures, in comparison to radiography, contrast studies, computerized tomography and ultrasound, are emphasized. Scintigraphic methods offer quantitative data regarding function which competing imaging modalities are unable to provide, and make them the studies of choice in the evaluation of gastrointestinal physiology and functional abnormalities

  3. Multi-Detector Computed Tomography Imaging Techniques in Arterial Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Adler

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional imaging has become a critical aspect in the evaluation of arterial injuries. In particular, angiography using computed tomography (CT is the imaging of choice. A variety of techniques and options are available when evaluating for arterial injuries. Techniques involve contrast bolus, various phases of contrast enhancement, multiplanar reconstruction, volume rendering, and maximum intensity projection. After the images are rendered, a variety of features may be seen that diagnose the injury. This article provides a general overview of the techniques, important findings, and pitfalls in cross sectional imaging of arterial imaging, particularly in relation to computed tomography. In addition, the future directions of computed tomography, including a few techniques in the process of development, is also discussed.

  4. Pancreatic fluid collections: What is the ideal imaging technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaka, Narendra; Samanta, Jayanta; Kochhar, Suman; Kalra, Navin; Appasani, Sreekanth; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2015-12-28

    Pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) are seen in up to 50% of cases of acute pancreatitis. The Revised Atlanta classification categorized these collections on the basis of duration of disease and contents, whether liquid alone or a mixture of fluid and necrotic debris. Management of these different types of collections differs because of the variable quantity of debris; while patients with pseudocysts can be drained by straight-forward stent placement, walled-off necrosis requires multi-disciplinary approach. Differentiating these collections on the basis of clinical severity alone is not reliable, so imaging is primarily performed. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is the commonly used modality for the diagnosis and assessment of proportion of solid contents in PFCs; however with certain limitations such as use of iodinated contrast material especially in renal failure patients and radiation exposure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performs better than computed tomography (CT) in characterization of pancreatic/peripancreatic fluid collections especially for quantification of solid debris and fat necrosis (seen as fat density globules), and is an alternative in those situations where CT is contraindicated. Also magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is highly sensitive for detecting pancreatic duct disruption and choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic ultrasound is an evolving technique with higher reproducibility for fluid-to-debris component estimation with the added advantage of being a single stage procedure for both diagnosis (solid debris delineation) and management (drainage of collection) in the same sitting. Recently role of diffusion weighted MRI and positron emission tomography/CT with (18)F-FDG labeled autologous leukocytes is also emerging for detection of infection noninvasively. Comparative studies between these imaging modalities are still limited. However we look forward to a time when this gap in literature will be fulfilled.

  5. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)

    2015-02-18

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  6. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  7. Acoustical holographic Siamese image technique for imaging radial cracks in reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes a unique technique (i.e., ''Siamese imaging'') for imaging quasi-vertical defects in reactor pipe weldments. The Siamese image is a bi-symmetrical view of the inner surface defect. Image construction geometry consists of two probes (i.e., source/receiver) operating either from opposite sides or the same side of the defect to be imaged. As the probes are scanned across a lower surface connected defect, they encounter two images - first the normal upright image and then the inverted image. The final integrated image consists of two images connected along their baselines, thus we call it a ''Siamese image.'' The experimental imaging results on simulated and natural cracks in reactor piping weldments graphically illustrate this unique technique. Excellent images of mechanical fatique and thermal cracks were obtained on ferritic and austenitic piping

  8. Emerging Technology Update Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Fw van der Steen, Antonius; Regar, Evelyn; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-10-01

    The identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries is emerging as an important tool for guiding atherosclerosis diagnosis and interventions. Assessment of plaque vulnerability requires knowledge of both the structure and composition of the plaque. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is able to show the morphology and composition of atherosclerotic plaque. With imminent improvements in IVPA imaging, it is becoming possible to assess human coronary artery disease in vivo . Although some challenges remain, IVPA imaging is on its way to being a powerful tool for visualising coronary atherosclerotic features that have been specifically associated with plaque vulnerability and clinical syndromes, and thus such imaging might become valuable for clinical risk assessment in the catheterisation laboratory.

  9. Techniques for depth-resolved imaging through turbid media including coherence-gated imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsby, C; French, P M W

    2003-01-01

    This article aims to review the panoply of techniques for realising optical imaging through turbid media such as biological tissue. It begins by briefly discussing optical scattering and outlines the various approaches that have been developed to image through scattering media including spatial filtering, time-gated imaging and coherence-based techniques. The discussion includes scanning and wide-field techniques and concentrates on techniques to discriminate in favour of unscattered ballistic light although imaging with scattered light is briefly reviewed. Wide-field coherence-gated imaging techniques are discussed in some detail with particular emphasis placed on techniques to achieve real-time high-resolution three-dimensional imaging including through turbid media, providing rapid whole-field acquisition and high depth and transverse spatial resolution images. (topical review)

  10. Resolution revival technique for subwavelength imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Repän, Taavi; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    The method to achieve a high resolution of subwavelength features (to improve the contrast function) for a dark-field hyperlens—hyperbolic metamaterial slab possessing metallic properties at the interface — is developed. The technique requires the introduction of the phase difference between the o...

  11. Single photon imaging. New instrumentation and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of Anger scintillation cameras continues to be enhanced through a series of small improvements which result in significantly better imaging characteristics. The most recent changes in camera design consist of: (1) the introduction of photomultipliers with better photocathode and electron collection efficiencies, (2) the use of thinner (3/8 or 1/4 in) crystals giving slightly better intrinsic resolution for low gamma-ray energies, (3) inclusion of a spatially varying energy window to compensate for variations of light collection efficiency, (4) event-by-event, real-time distortion removal for uniformity correction, and (5) introduction of new methods to improve the count-rate capability. Whereas some of these improvements are due to better understanding of the fundamentals of camera design, others are the result of technological advances in electronic components such as analogue-to-digital converters, microprocessors and high-density digital memories. The development of single photon tomography has developed along two parallel paths. Multipinhole and rotating slant-hole collimator attachments provide some degree of longitudinal tomography, and are currently being applied to cardiac imaging. At the same time rotating camera systems capable of transverse as well as longitudinal imaging are being refined technically and evaluated clinically. Longitudinal tomography is of limited use in quantitative studies and is likely to be an interim solution to three-dimensional imaging. Rotating camera systems, on the other hand, not only provide equal resolution in all three dimensions but are also capable of providing quantitative accuracy. This is the result of progress in attenuation correction and the design of special collimators. Single photon tomography provides a small but noticeable improvement in diagnostic accuracy which is likely to result in widespread use of rotating camera systems in the future

  12. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

  13. A review of imaging techniques for systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po Ming J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a review of imaging techniques and of their utility in system biology. During the last decade systems biology has matured into a distinct field and imaging has been increasingly used to enable the interplay of experimental and theoretical biology. In this review, we describe and compare the roles of microscopy, ultrasound, CT (Computed Tomography, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET (Positron Emission Tomography, and molecular probes such as quantum dots and nanoshells in systems biology. As a unified application area among these different imaging techniques, examples in cancer targeting are highlighted.

  14. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated synthesis of image processing procedures using AI planning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Mortensen, Helen

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the Multimission VICAR (Video Image Communication and Retrieval) Planner (MVP) (Chien 1994) system, which uses artificial intelligence planning techniques (Iwasaki & Friedland, 1985, Pemberthy & Weld, 1992, Stefik, 1981) to automatically construct executable complex image processing procedures (using models of the smaller constituent image processing subprograms) in response to image processing requests made to the JPL Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL). The MVP system allows the user to specify the image processing requirements in terms of the various types of correction required. Given this information, MVP derives unspecified required processing steps and determines appropriate image processing programs and parameters to achieve the specified image processing goals. This information is output as an executable image processing program which can then be executed to fill the processing request.

  16. New approaches in intelligent image analysis techniques, methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Introduction and 11 independent chapters, which are devoted to various new approaches of intelligent image processing and analysis. The book also presents new methods, algorithms and applied systems for intelligent image processing, on the following basic topics: Methods for Hierarchical Image Decomposition; Intelligent Digital Signal Processing and Feature Extraction; Data Clustering and Visualization via Echo State Networks; Clustering of Natural Images in Automatic Image Annotation Systems; Control System for Remote Sensing Image Processing; Tissue Segmentation of MR Brain Images Sequence; Kidney Cysts Segmentation in CT Images; Audio Visual Attention Models in Mobile Robots Navigation; Local Adaptive Image Processing; Learning Techniques for Intelligent Access Control; Resolution Improvement in Acoustic Maps. Each chapter is self-contained with its own references. Some of the chapters are devoted to the theoretical aspects while the others are presenting the practical aspects and the...

  17. Whole slide imaging in pathology: advantages, limitations, and emerging perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani N

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Navid Farahani,1 Anil V Parwani,2 Liron Pantanowitz2 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Significant technologic gains have led to the adoption of innovative digital imaging solutions in pathology. Whole slide imaging (WSI, which refers to scanning of conventional glass slides in order to produce digital slides, is the most recent imaging modality being employed by pathology departments worldwide. WSI continues to gain traction among pathologists for diagnostic, educational, and research purposes. This article provides a technologic review of WSI platforms and covers clinical and nonclinical pathology applications of these imaging systems. Barriers to adoption of WSI include limiting technology, image quality, problems with scanning all materials (eg, cytology slides, cost, digital slide storage, inability to handle high-throughput routine work, regulatory barriers, ergonomics, and pathologists' reluctance. Emerging issues related to clinical validation, standardization, and forthcoming advances in the field are also addressed. Keywords: digital, imaging, microscopy, pathology, validation, whole slide image, telepathology

  18. CT and MR imaging of gynecological emergency disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Tahara, Takatoshi; Matsusue, Eiji; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2004-01-01

    We describe the CT and MRI findings of gynecologic emergency diseases: pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian hemorrhage, ovarian torsion, rupture of ovarian tumor, eclampsia, and HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Diagnostic keys to these diseases are presented in this review. CT and MRI play a complementary role to sonography in accurately diagnosing these diseases. In situations that require an exact, immediate diagnosis, radiologists should be familiar with the key imaging findings. (author)

  19. CATEGORICAL IMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE FORMING SYSTEM OF A MARKETING TECHNIQUES MANAGER’S IMAGE CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova

    2015-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marke...

  20. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  1. Coded Aperture Nuclear Scintigraphy: A Novel Small Animal Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid Schellingerhout

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and demonstrate the utility of coded aperture (CA nuclear scintigraphy for imaging small animals. CA imaging uses multiple pinholes in a carefully designed mask pattern, mounted on a conventional gamma camera. System performance was assessed using point sources and phantoms, while several animal experiments were performed to test the usefulness of the imaging system in vivo, with commonly used radiopharmaceuticals. The sensitivity of the CA system for 99mTc was 4.2 × 103 cps/Bq (9400 cpm/μCi, compared to 4.4 × 104 cps/Bq (990 cpm/μCi for a conventional collimator system. The system resolution was 1.7 mm, as compared to 4–6 mm for the conventional imaging system (using a high-sensitivity low-energy collimator. Animal imaging demonstrated artifact-free imaging with superior resolution and image quality compared to conventional collimator images in several mouse and rat models. We conclude that: (a CA imaging is a useful nuclear imaging technique for small animal imaging. The advantage in signal-to-noise can be traded to achieve higher resolution, decreased dose or reduced imaging time. (b CA imaging works best for images where activity is concentrated in small volumes; a low count outline may be better demonstrated using conventional collimator imaging. Thus, CA imaging should be viewed as a technique to complement rather than replace traditional nuclear imaging methods. (c CA hardware and software can be readily adapted to existing gamma cameras, making their implementation a relatively inexpensive retrofit to most systems.

  2. Evaluation of radiographic imaging techniques in lung nodule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.T.; Kruger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Dual-energy radiography appears to be the most effective technique to address bone superposition that compromises conventional chest radiography. A dual-energy, single-exposure, film-based technique was compared with a dual-energy, dual-exposure technique and conventional chest radiography in a simulated lung nodule detection study. Observers detected more nodules on images produced by dual-energy techniques than on images produced by conventional chest radiography. The difference between dual-energy and conventional chest radiography is statistically significant and the difference between dual-energy, dual-exposure and single-exposure techniques is statistically insignificant. The single-exposure technique has the potential to replace the dual-exposure technique in future clinical application

  3. Peering beneath the surface: novel imaging techniques to noninvasively select gametes and embryos for ART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasensky, Joshua; Swain, Jason E

    2013-10-01

    Embryo imaging has long been a critical tool for in vitro fertilization laboratories, aiding in morphological assessment of embryos, which remains the primary tool for embryo selection. With the recent emergence of clinically applicable real-time imaging systems to assess embryo morphokinetics, a renewed interest has emerged regarding noninvasive methods to assess gamete and embryo development as a means of inferring quality. Several studies exist that utilize novel imaging techniques to visualize or quantify intracellular components of gametes and embryos with the intent of correlating localization of organelles or molecular constitution with quality or outcome. However, the safety of these approaches varies due to the potential detrimental impact of light exposure or other variables. Along with complexity of equipment and cost, these drawbacks currently limit clinical application of these novel microscopes and imaging techniques. However, as evidenced by clinical incorporation of some real-time imaging devices as well as use of polarized microscopy, some of these imaging approaches may prove to be useful. This review summarizes the existing literature on novel imaging approaches utilized to examine gametes and embryos. Refinement of some of these imaging systems may permit clinical application and serve as a means to offer new, noninvasive selection tools to improve outcomes for various assisted reproductive technology procedures.

  4. CATEGORICAL IMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE FORMING SYSTEM OF A MARKETING TECHNIQUES MANAGER’S IMAGE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marketing techniques manager: object-communicative categorical component, subject-activity categorical component of image, personality-oriented categorical component, value-acmeological categorical component of image.The aim is to identify and justify the image categorical components as a component of image culture of the marketing techniques manager.Method and methodology of work – a general scientific research approach reflecting scientific apparatus of research.Results. Categorical components of the image, as an image culture component of manager of marketing techniques were defined.Practical implication of the results. The theoretical part of «Imageology» course, special course «Image culture of manager of marketing techniques», the theoretical and methodological study and the formation of image culture.

  5. The new techniques of scintigraphic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatal, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of scintigraphic imaging is not to explore the morphology of an organ (or its abnormalities) but rather its functional and metabolic characteristics. It is thus important that a molecular structure (e.g., a hormonal receptor or an antigen) closely linked to the functional activity of an organ or tissue be targeted on its cell surface. Such diagnostic targeting requires the synthesis and labeling of a radiopharmaceutical substance specific for the receptor or antigen in question. It also requires a detection system adapted to count rates and signal-to-background ratios (generally moderate). The synthesis of new radiopharmaceutical agents, a critical stage for the future of nuclear medicine, is a long and often risky process in which success is difficult to foresee. Radiolabeling must be stable in vitro and in vivo, and the radiopharmaceutical must subsequently retain its capability of recognizing the targeted molecule. In endocrinology, the exemplary achievement in this direction has been the synthesis of 131 I-6-iodomethylnorcholesterol and 131 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine for functional scintigraphy of the adrenal cortex and medulla. Progress in detection equipment has been marked by the development of monophotonic tomoscintigraphy, using gamma cameras with a revolving head to obtain slices in different spatial planes showing the distribution in the organism of the injected radiopharmaceutical agent [fr

  6. Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    The book presents the latest technological advances in Raman spectroscopy that are presently redrawing the landscape of many fields of biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. Numerous examples are given to illustrate the application of the new methods and compared with established and related techniques. The book is suitable for both new researchers and practitioners in this area as well as for those familiar with the Raman technique but seeking to keep abreast of the latest dramatic advances in this field.

  7. Neutron activation analysis: an emerging technique for conservation/preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, E.V.

    1976-01-01

    The diverse applications of neutron activation in analysis, preservation, and documentation of art works and artifacts are described with illustrations for each application. The uses of this technique to solve problems of attribution and authentication, to reveal the inner structure and composition of art objects, and, in some instances to recreate details of the objects are described. A brief discussion of the theory and techniques of neutron activation analysis is also included

  8. Techniques and software architectures for medical visualisation and image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botha, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a flexible software platform for medical visualisation and image processing, a technique for the segmentation of the shoulder skeleton from CT data and three techniques that make contributions to the field of direct volume rendering. Our primary goal was to investigate the use

  9. Muscle perfusion and metabolic heterogeneity: insights from noninvasive imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Kari K; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Kjaer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recent developments in noninvasive imaging techniques have enabled the study of local changes in perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle as well as patterns of heterogeneity in these variables in humans. In this review, the principles of these techniques along with some recent findings...... on functional heterogeneity in human skeletal muscle will be presented....

  10. A Novel Contrast Enhancement Technique on Palm Bone Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhancement plays a fundamental role in image processing. Many histogram-based techniques are widely used for contrast enhancement of given images, due to their simple function and effectiveness. However, the conventional histogram equalization (HE methods result in excessive contrast enhancement, which causes natural looking and satisfactory results for a variety of low contrast images. To solve such problems, a novel multi-histogram equalization technique is proposed to enhance the contrast of the palm bone X-ray radiographs in this paper. For images, the mean-variance analysis method is employed to partition the histogram of the original grey scale image into multiple sub-histograms. These histograms are independently equalized. By using this mean-variance partition method, a proposed multi-histogram equalization technique is employed to achieve the contrast enhancement of the palm bone X-ray radiographs. Experimental results show that the multi-histogram equalization technique achieves a lower average absolute mean brightness error (AMBE value. The multi-histogram equalization technique simultaneously preserved the mean brightness and enhanced the local contrast of the original image.

  11. Techniques for combining isotopic images obtained at different energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussaline, F.; Di Paola, R.; Bazin, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The technique described should be considered as a first step towards the classification of scintigraphic data where the energy is included. As in all such studies the interpretation of the resulting images is not necessarily at first evident, and certain experience needs to be established. This applies in particular to the images obtained with the higher factors. It is possible that the use of this technique may resolve, without requiring a priori information, the problem previously encountered using the other 'subtraction' type techniques [fr

  12. A Blind High-Capacity Wavelet-Based Steganography Technique for Hiding Images into other Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMAD, S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flourishing field of Steganography is providing effective techniques to hide data into different types of digital media. In this paper, a novel technique is proposed to hide large amounts of image data into true colored images. The proposed method employs wavelet transforms to decompose images in a way similar to the Human Visual System (HVS for more secure and effective data hiding. The designed model can blindly extract the embedded message without the need to refer to the original cover image. Experimental results showed that the proposed method outperformed all of the existing techniques not only imperceptibility but also in terms of capacity. In fact, the proposed technique showed an outstanding performance on hiding a secret image whose size equals 100% of the cover image while maintaining excellent visual quality of the resultant stego-images.

  13. Line-Scan Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques for Food Safety and Quality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging technologies in the food and agricultural area have been evolving rapidly over the past 15 years owing to tremendous interest from both academic and industrial fields. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging is a major method that has been intensively researched and developed using different physical principles (e.g., reflectance, transmittance, fluorescence, Raman, and spatially resolved spectroscopy and wavelength regions (e.g., visible (VIS, near infrared (NIR, and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR. Line-scan hyperspectral imaging systems are mainly developed and used for surface inspection of food and agricultural products using area or line light sources. Some of these systems can also be configured to conduct spatially resolved spectroscopy measurements for internal or subsurface food inspection using point light sources. This paper reviews line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques, with introduction, demonstration, and summarization of existing and emerging techniques for food and agricultural applications. The main topics include related spectroscopy techniques, line-scan measurement methods, hardware components and systems, system calibration methods, and spectral and image analysis techniques. Applications in food safety and quality are also presented to reveal current practices and future trends of line-scan hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  14. Development of phase-contrast imaging technique for material science and medical science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Y.S.; Roy, Tushar; Sarkar, P.S; Shukla, Mayank; Yadav, P.S; Sinha, Amar; Verma, Vishnu; Ghosh, A.K.

    2007-07-01

    In-line phase contrast imaging technique is an emerging method for study of materials such as carbon fibres, carbon composite materials, polymers etc. These represent the class of materials for which x-ray attenuation cross-section is very small. Similarly, this technique is also well suited for imaging of soft materials such as tissues, distinguishing between tumour and normal tissue. Thus this method promises a far better contrast for low x-ray absorbing substances than the conventional radiography method for material and medical science applications. Though the conventional radiography technique has been carried out for decades, the phase-imaging technique is being demonstrated for the first time within, the country. We have set up an experimental facility for phase contrast imaging using a combination of x-ray CCD detector and a microfocus x-ray source. This facility is dedicated for micro-imaging experiments such as micro-tomography and high resolution phase contrast experiments. In this report, the results of phase contrast imaging using microfocus source and ELETTRA, synchrotron source are discussed. We have also discussed the basic design and heat load calculation for upcoming imaging beamline at Indus-II, RRCAT, Indore. (author)

  15. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  16. Imaging of mass distribution in paper by electrography technique, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, Hiroshi; Luner, P.

    1991-01-01

    Four paper imaging techniques (β-radiography, electrography, light transmission, and soft x-radiography) were compared in terms of their process parameters and image characteristics (exposure time, spatial variation, contrast, spatial resolution, correlation with mass, and limitation in basis weight range) with the same newsprint sample and electron microscope film. As far as the imaging conditions chosen here are concerned, electrography gave a higher spatial resolution, shorter exposure time, and the wider basis weight range than β-radiography. Light transmission image could be obtained in a very short time, but gave the poorest spatial resolution and correlation with mass. Soft x-radiography gave the highest spatial resolution, but the poorest spatial variation and contrast. The proper imaging technique and conditions need to be selected depending on the specific paper property in question. (author)

  17. An enhanced approach for biomedical image restoration using image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ghada Sabah; Abbas, Fatma Ismail; Abood, Ziad M.; Kadhim, Kadhim K.; Karam, Nada S.

    2018-05-01

    Biomedical image is generally noisy and little blur due to the physical mechanisms of the acquisition process, so one of the common degradations in biomedical image is their noise and poor contrast. The idea of biomedical image enhancement is to improve the quality of the image for early diagnosis. In this paper we are using Wavelet Transformation to remove the Gaussian noise from biomedical images: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image and Radiography (Radio) image, in different color spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr), and we perform the fusion of the denoised images resulting from the above denoising techniques using add image method. Then some quantive performance metrics such as signal -to -noise ratio (SNR), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and Mean Square Error (MSE), etc. are computed. Since this statistical measurement helps in the assessment of fidelity and image quality. The results showed that our approach can be applied of Image types of color spaces for biomedical images.

  18. An Image Morphing Technique Based on Optimal Mass Preserving Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128

  19. Chest trauma in children: current imaging guidelines and techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael A

    2011-09-01

    Given the heterogeneous nature of pediatric chest trauma, the optimal imaging approach is tailored to the specific patient. Chest radiography remains the most important imaging modality for initial triage. The decision to perform a chest computed tomography scan should be based on the nature of the trauma, the child\\'s clinical condition, and the initial radiographic findings, taking the age-related pretest probabilities of serious injury into account. The principles of as low as reasonably achievable and Image Gently should be followed. The epidemiology and pathophysiology, imaging techniques, characteristic findings, and evidence-based algorithms for pediatric chest trauma are discussed.

  20. Regenerative liver surgeries: the alphabet soup of emerging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Maansi; Kluger, Michael D; Griesemer, Adam; Bentley-Hibbert, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    New surgical procedures taking advantage of the regenerative abilities of the liver are being introduced as potential curative therapies to these patients either to provide auxiliary support while the native liver recovers or undergoes hypertrophy. For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma outside of the Milan criteria or bilobar colorectal metastases liver transplantation is not an option. Fulminant hepatic failure can be treated but requires life-long immunosuppression. These complex surgical procedures require high quality and directed imaging.

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF ELASTOGRAPHY – AN EMERGING BRANCH OF MEDICAL IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, Armen; Hall, Timothy J.; Urban, Matthew W.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Aglyamov, Salavat R.; Garra, Brian S.

    2011-01-01

    From times immemorial manual palpation served as a source of information on the state of soft tissues and allowed detection of various diseases accompanied by changes in tissue elasticity. During the last two decades, the ancient art of palpation gained new life due to numerous emerging elasticity imaging (EI) methods. Areas of applications of EI in medical diagnostics and treatment monitoring are steadily expanding. Elasticity imaging methods are emerging as commercial applications, a true testament to the progress and importance of the field. In this paper we present a brief history and theoretical basis of EI, describe various techniques of EI and, analyze their advantages and limitations, and overview main clinical applications. We present a classification of elasticity measurement and imaging techniques based on the methods used for generating a stress in the tissue (external mechanical force, internal ultrasound radiation force, or an internal endogenous force), and measurement of the tissue response. The measurement method can be performed using differing physical principles including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound imaging, X-ray imaging, optical and acoustic signals. Until recently, EI was largely a research method used by a few select institutions having the special equipment needed to perform the studies. Since 2005 however, increasing numbers of mainstream manufacturers have added EI to their ultrasound systems so that today the majority of manufacturers offer some sort of Elastography or tissue stiffness imaging on their clinical systems. Now it is safe to say that some sort of elasticity imaging may be performed on virtually all types of focal and diffuse disease. Most of the new applications are still in the early stages of research, but a few are becoming common applications in clinical practice. PMID:22308105

  2. Safety technology: Emergency equipment and sea rescue techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-06-01

    In June 1986, a two day workshop was convened to review mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) evacuation research and development (R D) requirements for programs currently sponsored by the Marine Engineering Committee for PERD (Panel on Energy Research and Development) task 6.2. The proceedings of the workshop are presented in terms of: evacuation technology needs; a review of current R D projects for their relevance to the technological needs; recommended changes to current projects where warranted; and recommended priority R D projects that are not presently being undertaken to meet the evacuation technology needs. Current R D projects reviewed include: preferred orientation and displacement (PROD) lifeboat launching, personal transfer baskets, arctic escape system (AES), fast rescue craft (FRC), helicopter survival suits, diving bell emergency heaters, working immersion suits, diving bell emergency ascent system, undersea robotics systems and DCIEM decompression tables. It was concluded that gaps in offshore safety/evacuation capability cannot be adequately addressed by one or two major projects. Rather, a wider range of problems exist that require attention through a greater financial commitment than is presently the case. Government-industry cooperation in this field is required. Overall, the projects were judged to have been well planned, managed, and relevant to offshore safety needs. The only exception was a feeling that diving related projects consummed a disproportionate share of the available funding. Further, there was some reservation that the robotics study was outside the 6.2 PERD R D mandate. A list of recommendations is presented. 1 tab.

  3. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manikandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The image processing is one of the leading technologies of computer applications. Image processing is a type of signal processing, the input for image processor is an image or video frame and the output will be an image or subset of image [1]. Computer graphics and computer vision process uses an image processing techniques. Image processing systems are used in various environments like medical fields, computer-aided design (CAD, research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP [2]. Loan approval process has been tedious process, the E-LAP system attempts to reduce the complexity of loan approval process. Customers have to login to fill the loan application form online with all details and submit the form. The loan department then processes the submitted form and then sends an acknowledgement mail via the E-LAP to the requested customer with the details about list of documents required for the loan approval process [3]. The approaching customer can upload the scanned copies of all required documents. All this interaction between customer and bank take place using an E-LAP system.

  4. Fundamentals of functional imaging I: current clinical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, A; Martín Noguerol, T; Mata, L Alcalá

    2018-05-01

    Imaging techniques can establish a structural, physiological, and molecular phenotype for cancer, which helps enable accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment. In recent years, various imaging techniques that make it possible to study the functional characteristics of tumors quantitatively and reproducibly have been introduced and have become established in routine clinical practice. Perfusion studies enable us to estimate the microcirculation as well as tumor angiogenesis and permeability using ultrafast dynamic acquisitions with ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Diffusion-weighted sequences now form part of state-of-the-art MR imaging protocols to evaluate oncologic lesions in any anatomic location. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides information about the occupation of the extracellular and extravascular space and indirectly estimates the cellularity and apoptosis of tumors, having demonstrated its relation with biologic aggressiveness in various tumor lines and its usefulness in the evaluation of the early response to systemic and local targeted therapies. Another tool is hydrogen proton MR spectroscopy, which is used mainly in the study of the metabolic characteristics of brain tumors. However, the complexity of the technique and its lack of reproducibility have limited its clinical use in other anatomic areas, although much experience with the use of this technique in the assessment of prostate and breast cancers as well as liver lesions has also accumulated. This review analyzes the imaging techniques that make it possible to evaluate the physiological and molecular characteristics of cancer that have already been introduced into clinical practice, such as techniques that evaluate angiogenesis through dynamic acquisitions after the administration of contrast material, diffusion-weighted imaging, or hydrogen proton MR spectroscopy, as well as their principal applications in oncology. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado

  5. IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELD AND WATERSHED TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented a method that incorporates Markov Random Field(MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. MRF is used to obtain an initial estimate of x regions in the image under process where in MRF model, gray level x, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The process needs an initial segmented result. An initial segmentation is got based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance, then the region process in modeled by MRF to obtain an image contains different intensity regions. Starting from this we calculate the gradient values of that image and then employ a watershed technique. When using MRF method it obtains an image that has different intensity regions and has all the edge and region information, then it improves the segmentation result by superimpose closed and an accurate boundary of each region using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions have been processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. Finally, a merge process based on averaged mean values is employed. The final segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  6. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  7. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  8. MICROARRAY IMAGE GRIDDING USING GRID LINE REFINEMENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An important stage in microarray image analysis is gridding. Microarray image gridding is done to locate sub arrays in a microarray image and find co-ordinates of spots within each sub array. For accurate identification of spots, most of the proposed gridding methods require human intervention. In this paper a fully automatic gridding method which enhances spot intensity in the preprocessing step as per a histogram based threshold method is used. The gridding step finds co-ordinates of spots from horizontal and vertical profile of the image. To correct errors due to the grid line placement, a grid line refinement technique is proposed. The algorithm is applied on different image databases and results are compared based on spot detection accuracy and time. An average spot detection accuracy of 95.06% depicts the proposed method’s flexibility and accuracy in finding the spot co-ordinates for different database images.

  9. Reconstructing flaw image using dataset of full matrix capture technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Jeong Seok [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A conventional phased array ultrasonic system offers the ability to steer an ultrasonic beam by applying independent time delays of individual elements in the array and produce an ultrasonic image. In contrast, full matrix capture (FMC) is a data acquisition process that collects a complete matrix of A-scans from every possible independent transmit-receive combination in a phased array transducer and makes it possible to reconstruct various images that cannot be produced by conventional phased array with the post processing as well as images equivalent to a conventional phased array image. In this paper, a basic algorithm based on the LLL mode total focusing method (TFM) that can image crack type flaws is described. And this technique was applied to reconstruct flaw images from the FMC dataset obtained from the experiments and ultrasonic simulation.

  10. Spatial Angular Compounding Technique for H-Scan Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairalseed, Mawia; Xiong, Fangyuan; Kim, Jung-Whan; Mattrey, Robert F; Parker, Kevin J; Hoyt, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    H-Scan is a new ultrasound imaging technique that relies on matching a model of pulse-echo formation to the mathematics of a class of Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials. This technique may be beneficial in the measurement of relative scatterer sizes and in cancer therapy, particularly for early response to drug treatment. Because current H-scan techniques use focused ultrasound data acquisitions, spatial resolution degrades away from the focal region and inherently affects relative scatterer size estimation. Although the resolution of ultrasound plane wave imaging can be inferior to that of traditional focused ultrasound approaches, the former exhibits a homogeneous spatial resolution throughout the image plane. The purpose of this study was to implement H-scan using plane wave imaging and investigate the impact of spatial angular compounding on H-scan image quality. Parallel convolution filters using two different Gaussian-weighted Hermite polynomials that describe ultrasound scattering events are applied to the radiofrequency data. The H-scan processing is done on each radiofrequency image plane before averaging to get the angular compounded image. The relative strength from each convolution is color-coded to represent relative scatterer size. Given results from a series of phantom materials, H-scan imaging with spatial angular compounding more accurately reflects the true scatterer size caused by reductions in the system point spread function and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Preliminary in vivo H-scan imaging of tumor-bearing animals suggests this modality may be useful for monitoring early response to chemotherapeutic treatment. Overall, H-scan imaging using ultrasound plane waves and spatial angular compounding is a promising approach for visualizing the relative size and distribution of acoustic scattering sources. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Innovative Hyperspectral Imaging-Based Techniques for Quality Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New, non-destructive sensing techniques for fast and more effective quality assessment of fruits and vegetables are needed to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand for better, more consistent and safer food products. Over the past 15 years, hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a new generation of sensing technology for non-destructive food quality and safety evaluation, because it integrates the major features of imaging and spectroscopy, thus enabling the acquisition of both spectral and spatial information from an object simultaneously. This paper first provides a brief overview of hyperspectral imaging configurations and common sensing modes used for food quality and safety evaluation. The paper is, however, focused on the three innovative hyperspectral imaging-based techniques or sensing platforms, i.e., spectral scattering, integrated reflectance and transmittance, and spatially-resolved spectroscopy, which have been developed in our laboratory for property and quality evaluation of fruits, vegetables and other food products. The basic principle and instrumentation of each technique are described, followed by the mathematical methods for processing and extracting critical information from the acquired data. Applications of these techniques for property and quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables are then presented. Finally, concluding remarks are given on future research needs to move forward these hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  12. Imaging of the hip and bony pelvis. Techniques and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.M. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom). MRI Centre; Johnson, K.J. [Princess of Wales Birmingham Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Whitehouse, R.W. (eds.) [Manchester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Radiology

    2006-07-01

    This is a comprehensive textbook on imaging of the bony pelvis and hip joint that provides a detailed description of the techniques and imaging findings relevant to this complex anatomical region. In the first part of the book, the various techniques and procedures employed for imaging the pelvis and hip are discussed in detail. The second part of the book documents the application of these techniques to the diverse clinical problems and diseases encountered. Among the many topics addressed are congenital and developmental disorders including developmental dysplasia of the hip, irritable hip and septic arthritis, Perthes' disease and avascular necrosis, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, bony and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, tumours and hip prostheses. Each chapter is written by an acknowledged expert in the field, and a wealth of illustrative material is included. This book will be of great value to musculoskeletal and general radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists. (orig.)

  13. Unsupervised color image segmentation using a lattice algebra clustering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcid, Gonzalo; Ritter, Gerhard X.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we introduce a lattice algebra clustering technique for segmenting digital images in the Red-Green- Blue (RGB) color space. The proposed technique is a two step procedure. Given an input color image, the first step determines the finite set of its extreme pixel vectors within the color cube by means of the scaled min-W and max-M lattice auto-associative memory matrices, including the minimum and maximum vector bounds. In the second step, maximal rectangular boxes enclosing each extreme color pixel are found using the Chebychev distance between color pixels; afterwards, clustering is performed by assigning each image pixel to its corresponding maximal box. The two steps in our proposed method are completely unsupervised or autonomous. Illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the color segmentation results including a brief numerical comparison with two other non-maximal variations of the same clustering technique.

  14. Improving face image extraction by using deep learning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. R.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2016-03-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has made a collection of over a 1.2 million research articles containing 3.2 million figure images searchable using the Open-iSM multimodal (text+image) search engine. Many images are visible light photographs, some of which are images containing faces ("face images"). Some of these face images are acquired in unconstrained settings, while others are studio photos. To extract the face regions in the images, we first applied one of the most widely-used face detectors, a pre-trained Viola-Jones detector implemented in Matlab and OpenCV. The Viola-Jones detector was trained for unconstrained face image detection, but the results for the NLM database included many false positives, which resulted in a very low precision. To improve this performance, we applied a deep learning technique, which reduced the number of false positives and as a result, the detection precision was improved significantly. (For example, the classification accuracy for identifying whether the face regions output by this Viola- Jones detector are true positives or not in a test set is about 96%.) By combining these two techniques (Viola-Jones and deep learning) we were able to increase the system precision considerably, while avoiding the need to manually construct a large training set by manual delineation of the face regions.

  15. Electromagnetic considerations for RF current density imaging [MRI technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, G C; Joy, M G; Armstrong, R L; Henkelman, R M

    1995-01-01

    Radio frequency current density imaging (RF-CDI) is a recent MRI technique that can image a Larmor frequency current density component parallel to B(0). Because the feasibility of the technique was demonstrated only for homogeneous media, the authors' goal here is to clarify the electromagnetic assumptions and field theory to allow imaging RF currents in heterogeneous media. The complete RF field and current density imaging problem is posed. General solutions are given for measuring lab frame magnetic fields from the rotating frame magnetic field measurements. For the general case of elliptically polarized fields, in which current and magnetic field components are not in phase, one can obtain a modified single rotation approximation. Sufficient information exists to image the amplitude and phase of the RF current density parallel to B(0) if the partial derivative in the B(0) direction of the RF magnetic field (amplitude and phase) parallel to B(0) is much smaller than the corresponding current density component. The heterogeneous extension was verified by imaging conduction and displacement currents in a phantom containing saline and pure water compartments. Finally, the issues required to image eddy currents are presented. Eddy currents within a sample will distort both the transmitter coil reference system, and create measurable rotating frame magnetic fields. However, a three-dimensional electro-magnetic analysis will be required to determine how the reference system distortion affects computed eddy current images.

  16. Adapting protocols of CT imaging in a pediatric emergency department. Evaluation of image quality and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista Arce, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.; Catalan Acosta, A.; Casares Magaz, O.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the picture quality in relation to the radiation dose delivered in CT studies of computer tomograph Pediatric Emergency Department of Hospital Universitario de Canarias (HUC) in order to optimize the technical parameters used these radiological examinations so as to obtain optimal image quality at the lowest possible dose.

  17. Osteonecrosis of the sesamoid bone: contribution of modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleu, J.P.; Heno, P.; Rispal, P.; Joullie, M.; Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of osteonecrosis of the sesamoid bone or Renander disease in a young male serviceman. Modern imaging techniques proved useful for identifying the lesion. CT scan and above all magnetic resonance imaging established the accurate diagnosis. The combination of a hypointense signal from the sesamoid bone with an effusion in the first metatarsophalangeal joint should be considered as characteristic of osteonecrosis of the sesamoid bone [fr

  18. Detection of Glaucoma Using Image Processing Techniques: A Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B Naveen; Chauhan, R P; Dahiya, Nidhi

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to present a summary of different types of image processing methods employed for the detection of glaucoma, a serious eye disease. Glaucoma affects the optic nerve in which retinal ganglion cells become dead, and this leads to loss of vision. The principal cause is the increase in intraocular pressure, which occurs in open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, the two major types affecting the optic nerve. In the early stages of glaucoma, no perceptible symptoms appear. As the disease progresses, vision starts to become hazy, leading to blindness. Therefore, early detection of glaucoma is needed for prevention. Manual analysis of ophthalmic images is fairly time-consuming and accuracy depends on the expertise of the professionals. Automatic analysis of retinal images is an important tool. Automation aids in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of risks associated with the disease. Fundus images obtained from a fundus camera have been used for the analysis. Requisite pre-processing techniques have been applied to the image and, depending upon the technique, various classifiers have been used to detect glaucoma. The techniques mentioned in the present review have certain advantages and disadvantages. Based on this study, one can determine which technique provides an optimum result.

  19. Prognostic aspects on the development of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehl, H.

    1985-01-01

    The development of imaging techniques designed for medical diagnostics and their application within the health service system are forecast up to the year 2000. The changes in the structure of the imaging methods that are to be expected in the GDR are outlined. Considering the users' needs and demands to be met by the manufacturers, in the long-term forecast it is dealt with more specifically with X-ray techniques, computer tomography, ultrasonic diagnostics, video endoscopy and the use of expert systems. (author)

  20. A novel data processing technique for image reconstruction of penumbral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongwei; Li, Hongyun; Xu, Zeping; Song, Guzhou; Zhang, Faqiang; Zhou, Lin

    2011-06-01

    CT image reconstruction technique was applied to the data processing of the penumbral imaging. Compared with other traditional processing techniques for penumbral coded pinhole image such as Wiener, Lucy-Richardson and blind technique, this approach is brand new. In this method, the coded aperture processing method was used for the first time independent to the point spread function of the image diagnostic system. In this way, the technical obstacles was overcome in the traditional coded pinhole image processing caused by the uncertainty of point spread function of the image diagnostic system. Then based on the theoretical study, the simulation of penumbral imaging and image reconstruction was carried out to provide fairly good results. While in the visible light experiment, the point source of light was used to irradiate a 5mm×5mm object after diffuse scattering and volume scattering. The penumbral imaging was made with aperture size of ~20mm. Finally, the CT image reconstruction technique was used for image reconstruction to provide a fairly good reconstruction result.

  1. MO-DE-202-00: Image-Guided Interventions: Advances in Intraoperative Imaging, Guidance, and An Emerging Role for Medical Physics in Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    At least three major trends in surgical intervention have emerged over the last decade: a move toward more minimally invasive (or non-invasive) approach to the surgical target; the development of high-precision treatment delivery techniques; and the increasing role of multi-modality intraoperative imaging in support of such procedures. This symposium includes invited presentations on recent advances in each of these areas and the emerging role for medical physics research in the development and translation of high-precision interventional techniques. The four speakers are: Keyvan Farahani, “Image-guided focused ultrasound surgery and therapy” Jeffrey H. Siewerdsen, “Advances in image registration and reconstruction for image-guided neurosurgery” Tina Kapur, “Image-guided surgery and interventions in the advanced multimodality image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite” Raj Shekhar, “Multimodality image-guided interventions: Multimodality for the rest of us” Learning Objectives: Understand the principles and applications of HIFU in surgical ablation. Learn about recent advances in 3D–2D and 3D deformable image registration in support of surgical safety and precision. Learn about recent advances in model-based 3D image reconstruction in application to intraoperative 3D imaging. Understand the multi-modality imaging technologies and clinical applications investigated in the AMIGO suite. Understand the emerging need and techniques to implement multi-modality image guidance in surgical applications such as neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology. Research supported by the NIH and Siemens Healthcare.; J. Siewerdsen; Grant Support - National Institutes of Health; Grant Support - Siemens Healthcare; Grant Support - Carestream Health; Advisory Board - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Carestream Health; Licensing Agreement - Elekta Oncology.; T. Kapur, P41EB015898; R. Shekhar, Funding: R42CA137886 and R41CA192504

  2. New partially parallel acquisition technique in cerebral imaging: preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tintera, Jaroslav; Gawehn, Joachim; Bauermann, Thomas; Vucurevic, Goran; Stoeter, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In MRI applications where short acquisition time is necessary, the increase of acquisition speed is often at the expense of image resolution and SNR. In such cases, the newly developed parallel acquisition techniques could provide images without mentioned limitations and in reasonably shortened measurement time. A newly designed eight-channel head coil array (i-PAT coil) allowing for parallel acquisition of independently reconstructed images (GRAPPA mode) has been tested for its applicability in neuroradiology. Image homogeneity was tested in standard phantom and healthy volunteers. BOLD signal changes were studied in a group of six volunteers using finger tapping stimulation. Phantom studies revealed an important drop of signal even after the use of a normalization filter in the center of the image and an important increase of artifact power with reduction of measurement time strongly depending on the combination of acceleration parameters. The additional application of a parallel acquisition technique such as GRAPPA decreases measurement time in the range of about 30%, but further reduction is often possible only at the expense of SNR. This technique performs best in conditions in which imaging speed is important, such as CE MRA, but time resolution still does not allow the acquisition of angiograms separating the arterial and venous phase. Significantly larger areas of BOLD activation were found using the i-PAT coil compared to the standard head coil. Being an eight-channel surface coil array, peripheral cortical structures profit from high SNR as high-resolution imaging of small cortical dysplasias and functional activation of cortical areas imaged by BOLD contrast. In BOLD contrast imaging, susceptibility artifacts are reduced, but only if an appropriate combination of acceleration parameters is used. (orig.)

  3. New partially parallel acquisition technique in cerebral imaging: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tintera, Jaroslav [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Gawehn, Joachim; Bauermann, Thomas; Vucurevic, Goran; Stoeter, Peter [University Clinic Mainz, Institute of Neuroradiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    In MRI applications where short acquisition time is necessary, the increase of acquisition speed is often at the expense of image resolution and SNR. In such cases, the newly developed parallel acquisition techniques could provide images without mentioned limitations and in reasonably shortened measurement time. A newly designed eight-channel head coil array (i-PAT coil) allowing for parallel acquisition of independently reconstructed images (GRAPPA mode) has been tested for its applicability in neuroradiology. Image homogeneity was tested in standard phantom and healthy volunteers. BOLD signal changes were studied in a group of six volunteers using finger tapping stimulation. Phantom studies revealed an important drop of signal even after the use of a normalization filter in the center of the image and an important increase of artifact power with reduction of measurement time strongly depending on the combination of acceleration parameters. The additional application of a parallel acquisition technique such as GRAPPA decreases measurement time in the range of about 30%, but further reduction is often possible only at the expense of SNR. This technique performs best in conditions in which imaging speed is important, such as CE MRA, but time resolution still does not allow the acquisition of angiograms separating the arterial and venous phase. Significantly larger areas of BOLD activation were found using the i-PAT coil compared to the standard head coil. Being an eight-channel surface coil array, peripheral cortical structures profit from high SNR as high-resolution imaging of small cortical dysplasias and functional activation of cortical areas imaged by BOLD contrast. In BOLD contrast imaging, susceptibility artifacts are reduced, but only if an appropriate combination of acceleration parameters is used. (orig.)

  4. Review and Implementation of the Emerging CCSDS Recommended Standard for Multispectral and Hyperspectral Lossless Image Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose Enrique; Auge, Estanislau; Santalo, Josep; Blanes, Ian; Serra-Sagrista, Joan; Kiely, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    A new standard for image coding is being developed by the MHDC working group of the CCSDS, targeting onboard compression of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery captured by aircraft and satellites. The proposed standard is based on the "Fast Lossless" adaptive linear predictive compressor, and is adapted to better overcome issues of onboard scenarios. In this paper, we present a review of the state of the art in this field, and provide an experimental comparison of the coding performance of the emerging standard in relation to other state-of-the-art coding techniques. Our own independent implementation of the MHDC Recommended Standard, as well as of some of the other techniques, has been used to provide extensive results over the vast corpus of test images from the CCSDS-MHDC.

  5. improvement of digital image watermarking techniques based on FPGA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Hadedy, M.E

    2006-01-01

    digital watermarking provides the ownership of a piece of digital data by marking the considered data invisibly or visibly. this can be used to protect several types of multimedia objects such as audio, text, image and video. this thesis demonstrates the different types of watermarking techniques such as (discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and their characteristics. then, it classifies these techniques declaring their advantages and disadvantages. an improved technique with distinguished features, such as peak signal to noise ratio ( PSNR) and similarity ratio (SR) has been introduced. the modified technique has been compared with the other techniques by measuring heir robustness against differ attacks. finally, field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) based implementation and comparison, for the proposed watermarking technique have been presented and discussed

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the osseous structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and can be used to evaluate the size, location, stability, and viability of the osteochondritis dissecans fragment. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early stress injury to the proximal ulna in athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect radiographically occult fractures of the elbow in both children and adults. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful in children to further evaluate elbow fractures which are detected on plain-film radiographs. (orig.)

  7. Indications and technique of fetal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenbaum, U.; Woitek, R.; Furtner, J.; Prayer, D.; Brugger, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation and confirmation of fetal pathologies previously suspected or diagnosed with ultrasound. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Technique for prenatal fetal examination. Fetal MRI is an established supplementary technique to prenatal ultrasound. Fetal MRI should only be used as an additional method in prenatal diagnostics and not for routine screening. Fetal MRI should only be performed in perinatal medicine centers after a previous level III ultrasound examination. (orig.) [de

  8. New and Emerging Satellite Imaging Capabilities in Support of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.; Paquette, J.P.; Spyropoulos, N.; Rainville, L.; Schichor, P.; Hong, M.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract is focused on new and emerging commercial satellite imagery (CSI) capabilities. For more than a decade, experienced imagery analysts have been exploiting and analyzing CSI in support of the Department of Safeguards. As the remote sensing industry continues to evolve, additional CSI imagery types are becoming available that could enhance our ability to evaluate and verify States' declarations and to investigate the possible presence of undeclared activities. A newly available and promising CSI capability that may have a Safeguards application is Full Motion Video (FMV) imagery collection from satellites. For quite some time, FMV imagery has been collected from airborne platforms, but now FMV sensors are being deployed into space. Like its airborne counterpart, satellite FMV imagery could provide analysts with a great deal of information, including insight into the operational status of facilities and patterns of activity. From a Safeguards perspective, FMV imagery could help the Agency in the evaluation and verification of States' declared facilities and activities. There are advantages of FMV imaging capabilities that cannot be duplicated with other CSI capabilities, including the ability to loiter over areas of interest and the potential to revisit sites multiple times per day. Additional sensor capabilities applicable to the Safeguards mission include, but are not limited to, the following sensors: · Thermal Infrared imaging sensors will be launched in late 2014 to monitor operational status, e.g., heat from a transformer. · High resolution ShortWave Infrared sensors able to characterize materials that could support verification of Additional Protocol declarations under Article 2.a(v). · Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with individual sensors or specific sensor combinations. The Safeguards Symposium provides a forum to showcase and demonstrate safeguards applications for these emerging satellite imaging capabilities. (author)

  9. Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400-1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes.

  10. Image acquisition system using on sensor compressed sampling technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pravir Singh; Choi, Gwan Seong

    2018-01-01

    Advances in CMOS technology have made high-resolution image sensors possible. These image sensors pose significant challenges in terms of the amount of raw data generated, energy efficiency, and frame rate. This paper presents a design methodology for an imaging system and a simplified image sensor pixel design to be used in the system so that the compressed sensing (CS) technique can be implemented easily at the sensor level. This results in significant energy savings as it not only cuts the raw data rate but also reduces transistor count per pixel; decreases pixel size; increases fill factor; simplifies analog-to-digital converter, JPEG encoder, and JPEG decoder design; decreases wiring; and reduces the decoder size by half. Thus, CS has the potential to increase the resolution of image sensors for a given technology and die size while significantly decreasing the power consumption and design complexity. We show that it has potential to reduce power consumption by about 23% to 65%.

  11. Acquisition and visualization techniques for narrow spectral color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, László; García, Rafael; Basa, János; Hegedüs, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new approach in narrow-band imaging (NBI). Existing NBI techniques generate images by selecting discrete bands over the full visible spectrum or an even wider spectral range. In contrast, here we perform the sampling with filters covering a tight spectral window. This image acquisition method, named narrow spectral imaging, can be particularly useful when optical information is only available within a narrow spectral window, such as in the case of deep-water transmittance, which constitutes the principal motivation of this work. In this study we demonstrate the potential of the proposed photographic technique on nonunderwater scenes recorded under controlled conditions. To this end three multilayer narrow bandpass filters were employed, which transmit at 440, 456, and 470 nm bluish wavelengths, respectively. Since the differences among the images captured in such a narrow spectral window can be extremely small, both image acquisition and visualization require a novel approach. First, high-bit-depth images were acquired with multilayer narrow-band filters either placed in front of the illumination or mounted on the camera lens. Second, a color-mapping method is proposed, using which the input data can be transformed onto the entire display color gamut with a continuous and perceptually nearly uniform mapping, while ensuring optimally high information content for human perception.

  12. A Kalman filter technique applied for medical image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goliaei, S.; Ghorshi, S.; Manzuri, M. T.; Mortazavi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Medical images contain information about vital organic tissues inside of human body and are widely used for diagnoses of disease or for surgical purposes. Image reconstruction is essential for medical images for some applications such as suppression of noise or de-blurring the image in order to provide images with better quality and contrast. Due to vital rule of image reconstruction in medical sciences the corresponding algorithms with better efficiency and higher speed is desirable. Most algorithms in image reconstruction are operated on frequency domain such as the most popular one known as filtered back projection. In this paper we introduce a Kalman filter technique which is operated in time domain for medical image reconstruction. Results indicated that as the number of projection increases in both normal collected ray sum and the collected ray sum corrupted by noise the quality of reconstructed image becomes better in terms of contract and transparency. It is also seen that as the number of projection increases the error index decreases.

  13. The parallel-sequential field subtraction technique for coherent nonlinear ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingwei; Potter, Jack N.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear imaging techniques have recently emerged which have the potential to detect cracks at a much earlier stage than was previously possible and have sensitivity to partially closed defects. This study explores a coherent imaging technique based on the subtraction of two modes of focusing: parallel, in which the elements are fired together with a delay law and sequential, in which elements are fired independently. In the parallel focusing a high intensity ultrasonic beam is formed in the specimen at the focal point. However, in sequential focusing only low intensity signals from individual elements enter the sample and the full matrix of transmit-receive signals is recorded and post-processed to form an image. Under linear elastic assumptions, both parallel and sequential images are expected to be identical. Here we measure the difference between these images and use this to characterise the nonlinearity of small closed fatigue cracks. In particular we monitor the change in relative phase and amplitude at the fundamental frequencies for each focal point and use this nonlinear coherent imaging metric to form images of the spatial distribution of nonlinearity. The results suggest the subtracted image can suppress linear features (e.g. back wall or large scatters) effectively when instrumentation noise compensation in applied, thereby allowing damage to be detected at an early stage (c. 15% of fatigue life) and reliably quantified in later fatigue life.

  14. Study of CT image texture using deep learning techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sandeep; Fan, Jiahua; Chevalier, David

    2018-03-01

    For CT imaging, reduction of radiation dose while improving or maintaining image quality (IQ) is currently a very active research and development topic. Iterative Reconstruction (IR) approaches have been suggested to be able to offer better IQ to dose ratio compared to the conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) reconstruction. However, it has been widely reported that often CT image texture from IR is different compared to that from FBP. Researchers have proposed different figure of metrics to quantitate the texture from different reconstruction methods. But there is still a lack of practical and robust method in the field for texture description. This work applied deep learning method for CT image texture study. Multiple dose scans of a 20cm diameter cylindrical water phantom was performed on Revolution CT scanner (GE Healthcare, Waukesha) and the images were reconstructed with FBP and four different IR reconstruction settings. The training images generated were randomly allotted (80:20) to a training and validation set. An independent test set of 256-512 images/class were collected with the same scan and reconstruction settings. Multiple deep learning (DL) networks with Convolution, RELU activation, max-pooling, fully-connected, global average pooling and softmax activation layers were investigated. Impact of different image patch size for training was investigated. Original pixel data as well as normalized image data were evaluated. DL models were reliably able to classify CT image texture with accuracy up to 99%. Results show that the deep learning techniques suggest that CT IR techniques may help lower the radiation dose compared to FBP.

  15. Generating color terrain images in an emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.D.

    1985-08-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time assessments of the consequences resulting from an atmospheric release of radioactive material. In support of this operation, a system has been created which integrates numerical models, data acquisition systems, data analysis techniques, and professional staff. Of particular importance is the rapid generation of graphical images of the terrain surface in the vicinity of the accident site. A terrain data base and an associated acquisition system have been developed that provide the required terrain data. This data is then used as input to a collection of graphics programs which create and display realistic color images of the terrain. The graphics system currently has the capability of generating color shaded relief images from both overhead and perspective viewpoints within minutes. These images serve to quickly familiarize ARAC assessors with the terrain near the release location, and thus permit them to make better informed decisions in modeling the behavior of the released material. 7 refs., 8 figs

  16. Performance evaluation of cardiac MRI image denoising techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AlAttar, M.A.; Mohamed, A.G.A.; Osman, N.F.; Fahmy, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Black-blood cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in diagnosing a number of heart diseases. The technique suffers inherently from low contrast-to-noise ratio between the myocardium and the blood. In this work, we examined the performance of different classification

  17. Wavelet techniques for reversible data embedding into images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Kamstra; H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe proliferation of digital information in our society has enticed a lot of research into data embedding techniques that add information to digital content like images, audio and video. This additional information can be used for various purposes and different applications place

  18. An improved technique for the prediction of optimal image resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJEST ... robust technique for predicting optimal image resolution for the mapping of savannah ecosystems was developed. .... whether to purchase multi-spectral imagery acquired by GeoEye-2 ..... Analysis of the spectral behaviour of the pasture class in.

  19. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  20. Comparing Generative Adversarial Network Techniques for Image Creation and Modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Mathijs; Wiering, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have demonstrated to be successful at generating realistic real-world images. In this paper we compare various GAN techniques, both supervised and unsupervised. The effects on training stability of different objective functions are compared. We add an encoder

  1. Reducing the absorbed dose in analogue radiography of infant chest images by improving the image quality, using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, A.; Yazdani, S.; Askari, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiographic inspection is one of the most widely employed techniques for medical testing methods. Because of poor contrast and high un-sharpness of radiographic image quality in films, converting radiographs to a digital format and using further digital image processing is the best method of enhancing the image quality and assisting the interpreter in their evaluation. In this research work, radiographic films of 70 infant chest images with different sizes of defects were selected. To digitise the chest images and employ image processing the two algorithms (i) spatial domain and (ii) frequency domain techniques were used. The MATLAB environment was selected for processing in the digital format. Our results showed that by using these two techniques, the defects with small dimensions are detectable. Therefore, these suggested techniques may help medical specialists to diagnose the defects in the primary stages and help to prevent more repeat X-ray examination of paediatric patients. (authors)

  2. Comparison of mouse mammary gland imaging techniques and applications: Reflectance confocal microscopy, GFP Imaging, and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilli, Maddalena T; Parrish, Angela R; Cotarla, Ion; Jones, Laundette P; Johnson, Michael D; Furth, Priscilla A

    2008-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of mammary gland cancer enable the in vivo study of molecular mechanisms and signaling during development and cancer pathophysiology. However, traditional whole mount and histological imaging modalities are only applicable to non-viable tissue. We evaluated three techniques that can be quickly applied to living tissue for imaging normal and cancerous mammary gland: reflectance confocal microscopy, green fluorescent protein imaging, and ultrasound imaging. In the current study, reflectance confocal imaging offered the highest resolution and was used to optically section mammary ductal structures in the whole mammary gland. Glands remained viable in mammary gland whole organ culture when 1% acetic acid was used as a contrast agent. Our application of using green fluorescent protein expressing transgenic mice in our study allowed for whole mammary gland ductal structures imaging and enabled straightforward serial imaging of mammary gland ducts in whole organ culture to visualize the growth and differentiation process. Ultrasound imaging showed the lowest resolution. However, ultrasound was able to detect mammary preneoplastic lesions 0.2 mm in size and was used to follow cancer growth with serial imaging in living mice. In conclusion, each technique enabled serial imaging of living mammary tissue and visualization of growth and development, quickly and with minimal tissue preparation. The use of the higher resolution reflectance confocal and green fluorescent protein imaging techniques and lower resolution ultrasound were complementary

  3. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  4. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  5. MO-FG-BRD-01: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: Introduction and KV Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahimian, B.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  6. MO-FG-BRD-02: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MV Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbeco, R. [Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  7. MO-FG-BRD-04: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D. [University of California Los Angeles: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  8. MO-FG-BRD-03: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: EM Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, P. [University of Sydney (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  9. MO-FG-BRD-01: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: Introduction and KV Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahimian, B. [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  10. MO-FG-BRD-04: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, D.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  11. MO-FG-BRD-03: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: EM Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  12. MO-FG-BRD-02: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MV Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbeco, R.

    2015-01-01

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow

  13. Image reconstruction technique using projection data from neutron tomography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Abd el Bar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutron tomography is a very powerful technique for nondestructive evaluation of heavy industrial components as well as for soft hydrogenous materials enclosed in heavy metals which are usually difficult to image using X-rays. Due to the properties of the image acquisition system, the projection images are distorted by several artifacts, and these reduce the quality of the reconstruction. In order to eliminate these harmful effects the projection images should be corrected before reconstruction. This paper gives a description of a filter back projection (FBP technique, which is used for reconstruction of projected data obtained from transmission measurements by neutron tomography system We demonstrated the use of spatial Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT and the 2D Inverse DFT in the formulation of the method, and outlined the theory of reconstruction of a 2D neutron image from a sequence of 1D projections taken at different angles between 0 and π in MATLAB environment. Projections are generated by applying the Radon transform to the original image at different angles.

  14. Appropriate electromagnetic techniques for imaging geothermal fracture zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R; Walker, P [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    Electromagnetic surface detection of fracture zones has often been approached by using the magnetotelluric method. This technique suffers greatly from the quantity and scale of the conductive inhomogeneities lying above the fracture zones. Additionally, it suffers from the inherent inability to focus the source on the target. There are no such source focusing capabilities in magnetotellurics. Accordingly, the quantity of magnetotelluric data required to resolve targets in such complex conditions can make the technique inefficient and insufficient from a cost perspective. When attempting to reveal a subsurface structure and image it, the basic physical responses at hand must be kept in mind, and the appropriate source must be utilized, which most effectively illuminates the target. A further advantage to controlled sources is that imaging techniques may be used to accentuate the response due to knowledge and control of the source.

  15. Multi-technique hybrid imaging in PET/CT and PET/MR: what does the future hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiza Barbosa, F. de; Delso, G.; Voert, E.E.G.W. ter; Huellner, M.W.; Herrmann, K.; Veit-Haibach, P.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron-emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) is one of the most important imaging techniques to have emerged in oncological practice in the last decade. Hybrid imaging, in general, remains a rapidly growing field, not only in developing countries, but also in western industrialised healthcare systems. A great deal of technological development and research is focused on improving hybrid imaging technology further and introducing new techniques, e.g., integrated PET and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Additionally, there are several new PET tracers on the horizon, which have the potential to broaden clinical applications in hybrid imaging for diagnosis as well as therapy. This article aims to highlight some of the major technical and clinical advances that are currently taking place in PET/CT and PET/MRI that will potentially maintain the position of hybrid techniques at the forefront of medical imaging technologies.

  16. A dual-view digital tomosynthesis imaging technique for improved chest imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuncheng; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C., E-mail: cshaw@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) has been shown to be useful for reducing the overlapping of abnormalities with anatomical structures at various depth levels along the posterior–anterior (PA) direction in chest radiography. However, DTS provides crude three-dimensional (3D) images that have poor resolution in the lateral view and can only be displayed with reasonable quality in the PA view. Furthermore, the spillover of high-contrast objects from off-fulcrum planes generates artifacts that may impede the diagnostic use of the DTS images. In this paper, the authors describe and demonstrate the use of a dual-view DTS technique to improve the accuracy of the reconstructed volume image data for more accurate rendition of the anatomy and slice images with improved resolution and reduced artifacts, thus allowing the 3D image data to be viewed in views other than the PA view. Methods: With the dual-view DTS technique, limited angle scans are performed and projection images are acquired in two orthogonal views: PA and lateral. The dual-view projection data are used together to reconstruct 3D images using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization iterative algorithm. In this study, projection images were simulated or experimentally acquired over 360° using the scanning geometry for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). While all projections were used to reconstruct CBCT images, selected projections were extracted and used to reconstruct single- and dual-view DTS images for comparison with the CBCT images. For realistic demonstration and comparison, a digital chest phantom derived from clinical CT images was used for the simulation study. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged for the experimental study. The resultant dual-view DTS images were visually compared with the single-view DTS images and CBCT images for the presence of image artifacts and accuracy of CT numbers and anatomy and quantitatively compared with root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) values

  17. The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine

  18. Quantitation of structural distortion with gradient-echo imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, R.D.; Schwaighofer, B.W.; Hesselink, J.R.; Chu, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the structural distortion and measurement error associated with fast MR imaging of the spinal neural foramina. Dry skeletal specimens and a thin cadaveric sagittal section through the neural foramina were placed in a water bath. MR images were obtained with a 1.5-T unit in different planes and with various pulse sequences. The size and shape of each neural foramen were carefully measured on the images and on the skeletal specimens. Gradient-echo (GRE) techniques (gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state, MPGR, three-dimensional volume acquisition) resulted in structural distortion in up to 10% on the fresh skeleton and 30% of the dry skeleton specimens when a small TE was used (the foramina appear narrower on the images)

  19. Development of fuel number reader by ultrasonic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omote, T.; Yoshida, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a spent fuel ID number reader using ultrasonic imaging techniques that has been developed to realize efficient and automatic verification of fuel numbers, thereby to reduce mental load and radiation exposure for operators engaged in the verification task. The ultrasonic imaging techniques for automatic fuel number recognition are described. High-speed and high reliability imaging of the spent fuel ID number are obtained by using linear array type ultrasonic probe. The ultrasonic wave is scanned by switching array probe in vertical direction, and scanned mechanically in horizontal direction. Time for imaging of spent fuel ID number on assembly was confirmed less than three seconds by these techniques. And it can recognize spent fuel ID number even if spent fuel ID number can not be visualized by an optical method because of depositing fuel number regions by soft card. In order to recognize spent fuel ID number more rapidly and more reliably, coded fuel number expressed by plural separate recesses form is developed. Every coded fuel number consists of six small holes (about 1 mm dia.) and can be marked adjacent to the existing fuel number expressed by letters and numbers

  20. Statistical methods of evaluating and comparing imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past 20 years several new methods of generating images of internal organs and the anatomy of the body have been developed and used to enhance the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment. These include ultrasonic scanning, radioisotope scanning, computerised X-ray tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The new techniques have made a considerable impact on radiological practice in hospital departments, not least on the investigational process for patients suspected or known to have malignant disease. As a consequence of the increased range of imaging techniques now available, there has developed a need to evaluate and compare their usefulness. Over the past 10 years formal studies of the application of imaging technology have been conducted and many reports have appeared in the literature. These studies cover a range of clinical situations. Likewise, the methodologies employed for evaluating and comparing the techniques in question have differed widely. While not attempting an exhaustive review of the clinical studies which have been reported, this paper aims to examine the statistical designs and analyses which have been used. First a brief review of the different types of study is given. Examples of each type are then chosen to illustrate statistical issues related to their design and analysis. In the final sections it is argued that a form of classification for these different types of study might be helpful in clarifying relationships between them and bringing a perspective to the field. A classification based upon a limited analogy with clinical trials is suggested

  1. Astronomical Image Compression Techniques Based on ACC and KLT Coder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schindler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a compression of image data in applications in astronomy. Astronomical images have typical specific properties — high grayscale bit depth, size, noise occurrence and special processing algorithms. They belong to the class of scientific images. Their processing and compression is quite different from the classical approach of multimedia image processing. The database of images from BOOTES (Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System has been chosen as a source of the testing signal. BOOTES is a Czech-Spanish robotic telescope for observing AGN (active galactic nuclei and the optical transient of GRB (gamma ray bursts searching. This paper discusses an approach based on an analysis of statistical properties of image data. A comparison of two irrelevancy reduction methods is presented from a scientific (astrometric and photometric point of view. The first method is based on a statistical approach, using the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT with uniform quantization in the spectral domain. The second technique is derived from wavelet decomposition with adaptive selection of used prediction coefficients. Finally, the comparison of three redundancy reduction methods is discussed. Multimedia format JPEG2000 and HCOMPRESS, designed especially for astronomical images, are compared with the new Astronomical Context Coder (ACC coder based on adaptive median regression.

  2. Applicability of three-dimensional imaging techniques in fetal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner Junior, Heron; Daltro, Pedro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro, E-mail: heronwerner@hotmail.com [Clinica de Diagnostico Por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jorge Lopes dos; Belmonte, Simone; Ribeiro, Gerson [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. Materials and Methods: We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format. A single observer performed slice-by-slice manual segmentation using a digital high resolution screen. Virtual 3D models were obtained from software that converts medical images into numerical models. Those models were then generated in physical form through the use of additive manufacturing techniques. Results: Physical models based upon 3D-US, MRI, and CT images were successfully generated. The postnatal appearance of either the aborted fetus or the neonate closely resembled the physical models, particularly in cases of malformations. Conclusion: The combined use of 3D-US, MRI, and CT could help improve our understanding of fetal anatomy. These three screening modalities can be used for educational purposes and as tools to enable parents to visualize their unborn baby. The images can be segmented and then applied, separately or jointly, in order to construct virtual and physical 3D models. (author)

  3. Applicability of three-dimensional imaging techniques in fetal medicine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner Júnior, Heron; dos Santos, Jorge Lopes; Belmonte, Simone; Ribeiro, Gerson; Daltro, Pedro; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Marchiori, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Objective To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. Materials and Methods We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format. A single observer performed slice-by-slice manual segmentation using a digital high resolution screen. Virtual 3D models were obtained from software that converts medical images into numerical models. Those models were then generated in physical form through the use of additive manufacturing techniques. Results Physical models based upon 3D-US, MRI, and CT images were successfully generated. The postnatal appearance of either the aborted fetus or the neonate closely resembled the physical models, particularly in cases of malformations. Conclusion The combined use of 3D-US, MRI, and CT could help improve our understanding of fetal anatomy. These three screening modalities can be used for educational purposes and as tools to enable parents to visualize their unborn baby. The images can be segmented and then applied, separately or jointly, in order to construct virtual and physical 3D models. PMID:27818540

  4. New techniques for imaging and analyzing lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; Ingram, P.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Mastin, P.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The recent technological revolution in the field of imaging techniques has provided pathologists and toxicologists with an expanding repertoire of analytical techniques for studying the interaction between the lung and the various exogenous materials to which it is exposed. Analytical problems requiring elemental sensitivity or specificity beyond the range of that offered by conventional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis are particularly appropriate for the application of these newer techniques. Electron energy loss spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser microprobe mass analysis each offer unique advantages in this regard, but also possess their own limitations and disadvantages. Diffraction techniques provide crystalline structural information available through no other means. Bulk chemical techniques provide useful cross-checks on the data obtained by microanalytical approaches. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the methodology of these techniques, acknowledge situations in which they have been used in addressing problems in pulmonary toxicology, and comment on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach. It is necessary for an investigator to weigh6 each of these factors when deciding which technique is best suited for any given analytical problem; often it is useful to employ a combination of two or more of the techniques discussed. It is anticipated that there will be increasing utilization of these technologies for problems in pulmonary toxicology in the decades to come. 92 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  5. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  6. TOF-SIMS imaging technique with information entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Satoka; Kawashima, Y.; Kudo, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is capable of chemical imaging of proteins on insulated samples in principal. However, selection of specific peaks related to a particular protein, which are necessary for chemical imaging, out of numerous candidates had been difficult without an appropriate spectrum analysis technique. Therefore multivariate analysis techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), and analysis with mutual information defined by information theory, have been applied to interpret SIMS spectra of protein samples. In this study mutual information was applied to select specific peaks related to proteins in order to obtain chemical images. Proteins on insulated materials were measured with TOF-SIMS and then SIMS spectra were analyzed by means of the analysis method based on the comparison using mutual information. Chemical mapping of each protein was obtained using specific peaks related to each protein selected based on values of mutual information. The results of TOF-SIMS images of proteins on the materials provide some useful information on properties of protein adsorption, optimality of immobilization processes and reaction between proteins. Thus chemical images of proteins by TOF-SIMS contribute to understand interactions between material surfaces and proteins and to develop sophisticated biomaterials

  7. Review of quantitative phase-digital holographic microscopy: promising novel imaging technique to resolve neuronal network activity and identify cellular biomarkers of psychiatric disorders

    KAUST Repository

    Marquet, Pierre; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) has recently emerged as a new powerful quantitative imaging technique well suited to noninvasively explore a transparent specimen with a nanometric axial sensitivity. In this review, we expose the recent

  8. The Handbook of Medical Image Perception and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samei, Ehsan; Krupinski, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    Peter Ayton; Part V. Optimization and Practical Issues: 25. Optimization of 2D and 3D radiographic systems Jeff Siewerdson; 26. Applications of AFC methodology in optimization of CT imaging systems Kent Ogden and Walter Huda; 27. Perceptual issues in reading mammograms Margarita Zuley; 28. Perceptual optimization of display processing techniques Richard Van Metter; 29. Optimization of display systems Elizabeth Krupinski and Hans Roehrig; 30. Ergonomic radiologist workplaces in the PACS environment Carl Zylack; Part VI. Epilogue: 31. Future prospects of medical image perception Ehsan Samei and Elizabeth Krupinski; Index.

  9. Imaging techniques in clay sciences: a key tool to go a step further

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinet, J.C.; Michau, N.; Schaefer, T.

    2012-01-01

    the need to study microstructure of clay-rocks and clay based materials from multi-scale techniques and multiple scientific disciplines. Nevertheless at the end of the 90's, several scientific and/or technological bottlenecks, like the imaging the clays in 3D, limited our capacity to bridge small scale processes to macro-scale behaviors and properties. Over the last decade, R and D programs on nuclear waste disposal have tackled many issues to go further in our understanding of clays. Through different results and current studies, we have reviewed various developments and improvements on imaging techniques and their applications on clay-rocks and clay based materials currently under investigations. The presentation will address successively the different questions asked at each step, from the acquisition to the use of the data: - improvement and development of sampling and microstructure preservation methods to image undisturbed samples, - emergence of 3D techniques (X-ray microtomography, FIB/SEM...) and their application to clay based materials and clay rocks, - improvement of image acquisition and treatment of 2D/3D images, - development of multi-scale methodologies, - cross-cutting between imaging and analytical techniques to get quantitative information on pore and mineral spatial distribution, - imaging in 2D/3D the microstructure of clay materials under THMC conditions and environmental conditions, - extraction of quantitative information from image analysis using statistical approaches or cross-correlation to quantitative techniques, - correlation between microstructure characteristic parameters and macroscopic properties, - modeling of multi-scale THMC processes using data extracted from images. Conclusions drawn up from this review show up that imaging techniques have progressively turned into an essential tool to support THMC experimental or numerical studies in a sense that they have gradually evolved from a qualitative observation mean to a quantitative

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of new imaging techniques in breast diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordenne, W; Bauduin, E [Liege Univ. (Belgium)

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothetical carcinogenic effects of mammography have lead to new technical developments in X-ray diagnosis and to use of other imaging techniques such as ultrasonography (US), transillumination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many preliminary studies were published but few clinical trials are really convincing. According to the definition of a diagnostic tool, none of these new modalities is supposed to supplant mammography in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Improvements are expected by digital mammography in the near future. (Authors).

  11. Mesh adaptation technique for Fourier-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, Vadim Y.

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptive mesh technique in the Fourier domain is introduced for problems in fluorescence lifetime imaging. A dynamical adaptation of the three-dimensional scheme based on the finite volume formulation reduces computational time and balances the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem. Light propagation in the medium is modeled by the telegraph equation, while the lifetime reconstruction algorithm is derived from the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Stability and computational efficiency of the method are demonstrated by image reconstruction of two spherical fluorescent objects embedded in a tissue phantom

  12. Cardiac CT for the assessment of chest pain: Imaging techniques and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Hans-Christoph; Johnson, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Immediate and efficient risk stratification and management of patients with acute chest pain in the emergency department is challenging. Traditional management of these patients includes serial ECG, laboratory tests and further on radionuclide perfusion imaging or ECG treadmill testing. Due to the advances of multi-detector CT technology, dedicated coronary CT angiography provides the potential to rapidly and reliably diagnose or exclude acute coronary artery disease. Life-threatening causes of chest pain, such as aortic dissection and pulmonary embolism can simultaneously be assessed with a single scan, sometimes referred to as “triple rule out” scan. With appropriate patient selection, cardiac CT can accurately diagnose heart disease or other sources of chest pain, markedly decrease health care costs, and reliably predict clinical outcomes. This article reviews imaging techniques and clinical results for CT been used to evaluate patients with chest pain entering the emergency department.

  13. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, J.I.; Torres, E.; Martinez-Cuesta, A. [Department of Radiology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Avda Pio XII, s/n, Apt. 192, 31080 Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    Radiologist and radiological techniques play a crucial role in imaging and interventional procedures in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. They are involved in emergency situations that may lead to the death of the patient. Therefore correct diagnosis and treatment are absolutely decisive. We have a great potential in tools of diagnosis, with angiography serving not only as the gold standard for diagnosis even offering a potentially effective treatment for various pathologies. Nevertheless, other techniques have developed greatly during the past decade, including in standard protocols for the management of vascular pathologies such as those discussed here. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging and their applications in the vascular field such as in as Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography provide sensitivity as high as that of angiography for detecting vascular-dependent lesions and for evaluating and excluding other causes of acute or chronic abdomen disorders. This contribution evaluates clinical aspects, various imaging techniques, and interventional effectiveness related to gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. (orig.)

  14. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, J.I.; Torres, E.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiologist and radiological techniques play a crucial role in imaging and interventional procedures in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. They are involved in emergency situations that may lead to the death of the patient. Therefore correct diagnosis and treatment are absolutely decisive. We have a great potential in tools of diagnosis, with angiography serving not only as the gold standard for diagnosis even offering a potentially effective treatment for various pathologies. Nevertheless, other techniques have developed greatly during the past decade, including in standard protocols for the management of vascular pathologies such as those discussed here. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging and their applications in the vascular field such as in as Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography provide sensitivity as high as that of angiography for detecting vascular-dependent lesions and for evaluating and excluding other causes of acute or chronic abdomen disorders. This contribution evaluates clinical aspects, various imaging techniques, and interventional effectiveness related to gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of biological leaf tissue using biospeckle laser imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. Z.; Mujeeb, A.; Nirala, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the application of an optical imaging technique, the biospeckle laser, as a potential tool to assess biological and medicinal plant leaves. The biospeckle laser technique is a non-invasive and non-destructive optical technique used to investigate biological objects. Just after their removal from plants, the torn leaves were used for biospeckle laser imaging. Quantitative evaluation of the biospeckle data using the inertia moment (IM) of the time history speckle pattern, showed that the IM can be utilized to provide a biospeckle signature to the plant leaves. It showed that leaves from different plants can have their own characteristic IM values. We further investigated the infected regions of the leaves that display a relatively lower biospeckle activity than the healthy tissue. It was easy to discriminate between the infected and healthy regions of the leaf tissue. The biospeckle technique can successfully be implemented as a potential tool for the taxonomy of quality leaves. Furthermore, the technique can help boost the quality of ayurvedic medicines.

  16. Monitoring of civil engineering structures using Digital Image Correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesa, M.; Szczepanek, D.; Kujawińska, M.; Świercz, A.; Kołakowski, P.

    2010-06-01

    The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique enables full field, noncontact measurements of displacements and strains of a wide variety of objects. An adaptation of the DIC technique for monitoring of civil-engineering structures is presented in the paper. A general concept of the complex, automatic monitoring system, in which the DIC sensor plays an important role is described. Some new software features, which aim to facilitate outdoor measurements and speed up the correlation analysis, is also introduced. As an example of application, measurements of a railway bridge in Nieporet (Poland) are presented. The experimental results are compared with displacements of a FEM model of the bridge.

  17. The eletermiation of GER using gastroesophageal image in technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guowei; Shang Kezhong; Han Pinfang; Ma Jixiao

    1995-01-01

    The Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) using radionuclide imaging is a simple, sensitive, non-invasive and quantitative technique. The authors reported the results of 18 normal persons and 84 cases of suspected GER patients examined by this technique. No reflux was found in normal group, there were 78.6% detectability in patients group, while the detectability X-ray examination were 70.2% in same group of patients. 23 cases were undergoing endoscopic examination, only 6 cases had revealed the presence of reflux, thereby eletectability was only 26.0%

  18. A Novel Technique for Prealignment in Multimodality Medical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Image pair is often aligned initially based on a rigid or affine transformation before a deformable registration method is applied in medical image registration. Inappropriate initial registration may compromise the registration speed or impede the convergence of the optimization algorithm. In this work, a novel technique was proposed for prealignment in both monomodality and multimodality image registration based on statistical correlation of gradient information. A simple and robust algorithm was proposed to determine the rotational differences between two images based on orientation histogram matching accumulated from local orientation of each pixel without any feature extraction. Experimental results showed that it was effective to acquire the orientation angle between two unregistered images with advantages over the existed method based on edge-map in multimodalities. Applying the orientation detection into the registration of CT/MR, T1/T2 MRI, and monomadality images with respect to rigid and nonrigid deformation improved the chances of finding the global optimization of the registration and reduced the search space of optimization.

  19. A new approach to electrical impedance imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroj Quadir, K.; Nasir, F.; Rahman, M.; Rabbani, K.S.

    2004-09-01

    It is possible to obtain a 2 dimensional (2D) image of a volume conductor, to locate a few widely separated objects, by driving ac constant currents through two orthogonal pairs of electrodes and measuring the resulting potential differences between several diagonally placed electrodes at the centre and back-projecting their impedance values along equi-potential lines. This has been termed as Pigeon Hole Imaging (PHI). Experimental verification has been attempted using a small insulating object placed at different locations in a saline filled 2D phantom. For a 6 x 6 matrix, the image in 16 pixels in close proximity of the diagonal along which electrodes are arranged, coincide with the object positions, while they do nt for the remaining 20 pixels. We applied a new technique where image smearing patterns have been used to correct the images in 14 of these pixels while 6 pixels near the two opposite comers still remain uncertain. Thus 30 pixels out of 36 give the right object position which may be termed a success. The concept may be extended further to higher order matrices by increasing the number of diagonal electrodes. The present work mainly concentrates on the feasibility of localization of a single small object in one matrix position of the image. (author)

  20. A Review On Segmentation Based Image Compression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Thayammal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract -The storage and transmission of imagery become more challenging task in the current scenario of multimedia applications. Hence, an efficient compression scheme is highly essential for imagery, which reduces the requirement of storage medium and transmission bandwidth. Not only improvement in performance and also the compression techniques must converge quickly in order to apply them for real time applications. There are various algorithms have been done in image compression, but everyone has its own pros and cons. Here, an extensive analysis between existing methods is performed. Also, the use of existing works is highlighted, for developing the novel techniques which face the challenging task of image storage and transmission in multimedia applications.

  1. A secure cyclic steganographic technique for color images using randomization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, K.; Ahmad, J.; Rehman, N.U.

    2014-01-01

    Information Security is a major concern in today's modern era. Almost all the communicating bodies want the security, confidentiality and integrity of their personal data. But this security goal cannot be achieved easily when we are using an open network like internet. Steganography provides one of the best solutions to this problem. This paper represents a new Cyclic Steganographic Technique (CST) based on Least Significant Bit (LSB) for true color (RGB) images. The proposed method hides the secret data in the LSBs of cover image pixels in a randomized cyclic manner. The proposed technique is evaluated using both subjective and objective analysis using histograms changeability, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE). Experimentally it is found that the proposed method gives promising results in terms of security, imperceptibility and robustness as compared to some existent methods and vindicates this new algorithm. (author)

  2. Study on Efficiency of Fusion Techniques for IKONOS Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanmei; Yu, Haiyang; Guijun, Yang; Nie, Chenwei; Yang, Xiaodong; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Many image fusion techniques have been proposed to achieve optimal resolution in the spatial and spectral domains. Six different merging methods were listed in this paper and the efficiency of fusion techniques was assessed in qualitative and quantitative aspect. Both local and global evaluation parameters were used in the spectral quality and a Laplace filter method was used in spatial quality assessment. By simulation, the spectral quality of the images merged by Brovery was demonstrated to be the worst. In contrast, GS and PCA algorithms, especially the Pansharpening provided higher spectral quality than the standard Brovery, wavelet and CN methods. In spatial quality assessment, the CN method represented best compared with that of others, while the Brovery algorithm was worst. The wavelet parameters that performed best achieved acceptable spectral and spatial quality compared to the others

  3. A maximum entropy reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilsky, A V; Lozhkin, V A; Markovich, D M; Tokarev, M P

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies a novel approach for reducing tomographic PIV computational complexity. The proposed approach is an algebraic reconstruction technique, termed MENT (maximum entropy). This technique computes the three-dimensional light intensity distribution several times faster than SMART, using at least ten times less memory. Additionally, the reconstruction quality remains nearly the same as with SMART. This paper presents the theoretical computation performance comparison for MENT, SMART and MART, followed by validation using synthetic particle images. Both the theoretical assessment and validation of synthetic images demonstrate significant computational time reduction. The data processing accuracy of MENT was compared to that of SMART in a slot jet experiment. A comparison of the average velocity profiles shows a high level of agreement between the results obtained with MENT and those obtained with SMART. (paper)

  4. Enhanced EDX images by fusion of multimodal SEM images using pansharpening techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, G; Angulo, J; Moreaud, M; Sorbier, L

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX. To achieve this goal, we have compared the results obtained with classical pansharpening techniques for image fusion with an original approach tailored for multimodal SEM fusion of information. Quantitative assessment is obtained by means of two SEM images and a simulated dataset produced by a software based on PENELOPE. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Investigation progress of imaging techniques monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; An Rui

    2006-01-01

    Recently stem cell therapy has showed potential clinical application in diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumor and trauma. Efficient techniques of non-invasively monitoring stem cell transplants will accelerate the development of stem cell therapies. This paper briefly reviews the clinical practice of stem cell, in addition, makes a review of monitoring methods including magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging which have been used in stem cell therapy. (authors)

  6. Analysis of Cultural Heritage by Accelerator Techniques and Analytical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide-Ektessabi, Ari; Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we present the result of experimental investigation using two very important accelerator techniques: (1) synchrotron radiation XRF and XAFS; and (2) accelerator mass spectrometry and multispectral analytical imaging for the investigation of cultural heritage. We also want to introduce a complementary approach to the investigation of artworks which is noninvasive and nondestructive that can be applied in situ. Four major projects will be discussed to illustrate the potential applications of these accelerator and analytical imaging techniques: (1) investigation of Mongolian Textile (Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan Period) using XRF, AMS and electron microscopy; (2) XRF studies of pigments collected from Korean Buddhist paintings; (3) creating a database of elemental composition and spectral reflectance of more than 1000 Japanese pigments which have been used for traditional Japanese paintings; and (4) visible light-near infrared spectroscopy and multispectral imaging of degraded malachite and azurite. The XRF measurements of the Japanese and Korean pigments could be used to complement the results of pigment identification by analytical imaging through spectral reflectance reconstruction. On the other hand, analysis of the Mongolian textiles revealed that they were produced between 12th and 13th century. Elemental analysis of the samples showed that they contained traces of gold, copper, iron and titanium. Based on the age and trace elements in the samples, it was concluded that the textiles were produced during the height of power of the Mongol empire, which makes them a valuable cultural heritage. Finally, the analysis of the degraded and discolored malachite and azurite demonstrates how multispectral analytical imaging could be used to complement the results of high energy-based techniques.

  7. Multispectral fluorescence imaging techniques for nondestructive food safety inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2004-03-01

    The use of spectral sensing has gained acceptance as a rapid means for nondestructive inspection of postharvest food produce. Current technologies generally use color or a single wavelength camera technology. The applicability and sensitivity of these techniques can be expanded through the use of multiple wavelengths. Reflectance in the Vis/NIR is the prevalent spectral technique. Fluorescence, compared to reflectance, is regarded as a more sensitive technique due to its dynamic responses to subtle changes in biological entities. Our laboratory has been exploring fluorescence as a potential means for detection of quality and wholesomeness of food products. Applications of fluorescence sensing require an understanding of the spectral characteristics emanating from constituents and potential contaminants. A number of factors affecting fluorescence emission characteristics are discussed. Because of relatively low fluorescence quantum yield from biological samples, a system with a powerful pulse light source such as a laser coupled with a gated detection device is used to harvest fluorescence, in the presence of ambient light. Several fluorescence sensor platforms developed in our laboratory, including hyperspectral imaging, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and steady-state fluorescence imaging systems with multispectral capabilities are presented. We demonstrate the potential uses of recently developed fluorescence imaging platforms in food safety inspection of apples contaminated with animal feces.

  8. Comparative study of low-energy neutral atom imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Scime, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging promise to be a revolutionary tool for global imaging of space plasmas. The technical challenges of LENA detection include separating them from the intense ambient UV without losing information about their incident trajectories, quantifying their trajectories, and obtaining high-sensitivity measurements. Two techniques that have been proposed for this purpose are based on fundamentally different atomic interaction mechanisms between LENAs and a solid; LENA transmission through an ultra thin foil and LENA reflection from a solid surface. Both of these methods provide LENA ionization (for subsequent removal from the UV by electrostatic deflection) and secondary electron emission (for time-of-flight start pulse generation and/or coincidence). They present a comparative study of the transmission and reflection techniques based on differences in atomic interactions with solids and surfaces. Transmission methods are shown to be superior for secondary electron emission rather than reflection methods. Furthermore, transmission methods are shown to be a sufficient for LENA imaging at LENA energies of approximately 1 keV to greater than 30 keV. A hybrid instrument using reflection from a low work function surface for LENA ionization and transmission for secondary electron emission is optimal for imaging of LENAs with energies less than approximately 1 keV

  9. Application of magnetic resonance techniques for imaging tumour physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques have the unique ability to measure in vivo the biochemical content of living tissue in the body in a dynamic, non-invasive and non-destructive manner. MR also permits serial investigations of steady-state tumour physiology and biochemistry, as well as the response of a tumour to treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and a mixture of the two techniques (spectroscopic imaging) allow some physiological parameters, for example pH, to be 'imaged'. Using these methods, information on tissue bioenergetics and phospolipid membrane turnover, pH, hypoxia, oxygenation, and various aspects of vascularity including blood flow, angiogenesis, permeability and vascular volume can be obtained. In addition, MRS methods can be used for monitoring anticancer drugs (e.g. 5FU, ifosfamide) and their metabolites at their sites of action. The role of these state-of-the-art MR methods in imaging tumour physiology and their potential role in the clinic are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Watermarking techniques for electronic delivery of remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2002-09-01

    Earth observation missions have recently attracted a growing interest, mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable of exploiting remotely sensed data and images. Along with the increase of market potential, the need arises for the protection of the image products. Such a need is a very crucial one, because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred means of data exchange. A critical issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. A question that obviously arises is whether the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: assessment of the requirements imposed by remote sensing applications on watermark-based copyright protection, and modification of two well-established digital watermarking techniques to meet such constraints. More specifically, the concept of near-lossless watermarking is introduced and two possible algorithms matching such a requirement are presented. Experimental results are shown to measure the impact of watermark introduction on a typical remote sensing application, i.e., unsupervised image classification.

  11. PLEIADES-HR INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR RADIOMETRIC IMAGE QUALITY COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blanchet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The first Pleiades-HR satellite, part of a constellation of two, has been launched on December 17, 2011. This satellite produces high resolution optical images. In order to achieve good image quality, Pleiades-HR should first undergo an important 6 month commissioning phase period. This phase consists in calibrating and assessing the radiometric and geometric image quality to offer the best images to end users. This new satellite has benefited from technology improvements in various fields which make it stand out from other Earth observation satellites. In particular, its best-in-class agility performance enables new calibration and assessment techniques. This paper is dedicated to presenting these innovative techniques that have been tested for the first time for the Pleiades- HR radiometric commissioning. Radiometric activities concern compression, absolute calibration, detector normalization, and refocusing operations, MTF (Modulation Transfer Function assessment, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimation, and tuning of the ground processing parameters. The radiometric performances of each activity are summarized in this paper.

  12. Compressed Sensing Techniques Applied to Ultrasonic Imaging of Cargo Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Álvarez López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key issues in the fight against the smuggling of goods has been the development of scanners for cargo inspection. X-ray-based radiographic system scanners are the most developed sensing modality. However, they are costly and use bulky sources that emit hazardous, ionizing radiation. Aiming to improve the probability of threat detection, an ultrasonic-based technique, capable of detecting the footprint of metallic containers or compartments concealed within the metallic structure of the inspected cargo, has been proposed. The system consists of an array of acoustic transceivers that is attached to the metallic structure-under-inspection, creating a guided acoustic Lamb wave. Reflections due to discontinuities are detected in the images, provided by an imaging algorithm. Taking into consideration that the majority of those images are sparse, this contribution analyzes the application of Compressed Sensing (CS techniques in order to reduce the amount of measurements needed, thus achieving faster scanning, without compromising the detection capabilities of the system. A parametric study of the image quality, as a function of the samples needed in spatial and frequency domains, is presented, as well as the dependence on the sampling pattern. For this purpose, realistic cargo inspection scenarios have been simulated.

  13. Prewarping techniques in imaging: applications in nanotechnology and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawala, Amyn; Milanfar, Peyman

    2005-03-01

    In all imaging systems, the underlying process introduces undesirable distortions that cause the output signal to be a warped version of the input. When the input to such systems can be controlled, pre-warping techniques can be employed which consist of systematically modifying the input such that it cancels out (or compensates for) the process losses. In this paper, we focus on the mask (reticle) design problem for 'optical micro-lithography', a process similar to photographic printing used for transferring binary circuit patterns onto silicon wafers. We use a pixel-based mask representation and model the above process as a cascade of convolution (aerial image formation) and thresholding (high-contrast recording) operations. The pre-distorted mask is obtained by minimizing the norm of the difference between the 'desired' output image and the 'reproduced' output image. We employ the regularization framework to ensure that the resulting masks are close-to-binary as well as simple and easy to fabricate. Finally, we provide insight into two additional applications of pre-warping techniques. First is 'e-beam lithography', used for fabricating nano-scale structures, and second is 'electronic visual prosthesis' which aims at providing limited vision to the blind by using a prosthetic retinally implanted chip capable of electrically stimulating the retinal neuron cells.

  14. Opportunities and applications of medical imaging and image processing techniques for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Samuel Moon Ho; Cho, Jung Ho; Son, Sang Rock; Sung, Je Jonng; Ahn, Hyung Keun; Lee, Jeong Soon

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) of structures strives to extract all relevant data regarding the state of the structure without altering its form or properties. The success enjoyed by imaging and image processing technologies in the field of modem medicine forecasts similar success of image processing related techniques both in research and practice of NDT. In this paper, we focus on two particular instances of such applications: a modern vision technique for 3-D profile and shape measurement, and ultrasonic imaging with rendering for 3-D visualization. Ultrasonic imaging of 3-D structures for nondestructive evaluation purposes must provide readily recognizable 3-D images with enough details to clearly show various faults that may or may not be present. As a step towards Improving conspicuity and thus detection of faults, we propose a pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging technique to generate a 3-D image of the 3-D object under evaluation through strategic scanning and processing of the pulse-echo data. This three-dimensional processing and display improves conspicuity of faults and in addition, provides manipulation capabilities, such as pan and rotation of the 3-D structure. As a second application, we consider an image based three-dimensional shape determination system. The shape, and thus the three-dimensional coordinate information of the 3-D object, is determined solely from captured images of the 3-D object from a prescribed set of viewpoints. The approach is based on the shape from silhouette (SFS) technique and the efficacy of the SFS method is tested using a sample data set. This system may be used to visualize the 3-D object efficiently, or to quickly generate initial CAD data for reverse engineering purposes. The proposed system potentially may be used in three dimensional design applications such as 3-D animation and 3-D games.

  15. Characterization of European sword blades through neutron imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, F.; Grazzi, F.; Peetermans, S.; Gener, M.; Lehmann, E. H.; Zoppi, M.

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied two European rapier blades, dating back to the period ranging from the Late Renaissance to the Early Modern Age (about 17th to 18th century). In order to determine variation in quality and differences in technology, a study was undertaken with the purpose to observe variations in the blade microstructure (and consequently in the construction processes). The samples, which in the present case were expendable, have been investigated, preliminarily, through standard metallography and then by means of white beam and energy-selective neutron imaging. The comparison of the results, using the two techniques, turned out to be satisfactory, with a substantial quantitative agreement of the results obtained with the two techniques, and show the complementarity of the two methods. Metallography has been considered up to now the method of choice for metal material characterization. The correspondence between the two methods, as well as the non-invasive character of the neutron-based techniques and its possibility to obtain 3D reconstruction, candidate neutron imaging as an important and quantitatively reliable technique for metal characterization.

  16. Optimisation of imaging technique used in direct digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J A; Evans, S C; Rees, M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to optimise the technique employed for AP shoulder and lateral cervical spine examinations following an investigation into image quality, based on clinical assessment, and effective dose, calculated from patient entrance surface dose measurements. A study was therefore conducted in an attempt to determine whether the increased radiation dose to the patient following the introduction of an anti-scatter grid was justified by the level of improvement in image quality. The study, involving 100 patients, was able to demonstrate that the increase in radiation dose to the patient when using an anti-scatter grid for AP shoulder examinations is not justified by the improved image quality. A poor level of inter-rater reliability between the consultants scoring the lateral cervical spine images prevented a firm conclusion from being reached. The fact that all images were of diagnostic quality, however, suggested that the use of the anti-scatter grid was unnecessary. Following completion of the project the hospital involved was informed of all findings

  17. RESTORATION TECHNIQUE FOR PLEIADES-HR PANCHROMATIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Latry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available 17th of December 2011 from Kourou Space Centre, French Guyana. Like others high resolution optical satellites, it acquires both panchromatic images, with 70cm spatial resolution, and lower resolution multispectral images with 2.8m spatial resolution. Pleiades-HR is an optimized system, which means that the Modulation Transfer Function has a low value at Nyquist frequency, in order to reduce both the telescope diameter and aliasing effects. Shannon sampling condition is thus met at first order, which also makes classical ground processing, such as image matching or resampling, more justified for a mathematical point of view. Raw images are thus blurry which implies a deconvolution stage that restores sharpness but also increases the noise level in the high frequency domain. A denoising step, based upon wavelet packet coefficients thresholding/shrinkage technique, allows controlling the final noise level. Each of these methods includes numerous parameters that have to be assessed during the inflight commissioning period: deconvolution filter that depends on MTF assessment, instrumental noise model, noise level target for denoised images, wavelet packet decomposition level. This paper aims to precisely describe the deconvolution/denoising algorithms and how their main parameters have been set up during the inflight commissioning stage. Special attention will be given to structured noise induced by Pleiades-HR on board wavelet-based compression algorithm

  18. Functional imaging of the pancreas. Image processing techniques and clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Fumiko

    1984-02-01

    An image processing technique for functional imaging of the pancreas was developed and is here reported. In this paper, clinical efficacy of the technique for detecting pancreatic abnormality is evaluated in comparison with conventional pancreatic scintigraphy and CT. For quantitative evaluation, functional rate, i.e. the rate of normal functioning pancreatic area, was calculated from the functional image and subtraction image. Two hundred and ninety-five cases were studied using this technique. Conventional image had a sensitivity of 65% and a specificity of 78%, while the use of functional imaging improved sensitivity to 88% and specificity to 88%. The mean functional rate in patients with pancreatic disease was significantly lower (33.3 +- 24.5 in patients with chronic pancreatitis, 28.1 +- 26.9 in patients with acute pancreatitis, 43.4 +- 22.3 in patients with diabetes mellitus, 20.4 +- 23.4 in patients with pancreatic cancer) than the mean functional rate in cases without pancreatic disease (86.4 +- 14.2). It is suggested that functional image of the pancreas reflecting pancreatic exocrine function and functional rate is a useful indicator of pancreatic exocrine function.

  19. New developments in techniques for information processing in radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1981-01-01

    Processing of scintigraphic data has passed through different stages in the past fifteen years. After an 'euphoric' era when large off-line computer facilities were used to process very low-quality rectilinear scan pictures, a much more critical period followed the introduction of on-line minicomputer systems to acquire, process and visualize scintillation camera data. A selection of some of the available techniques that could improve the extraction of information from scintigraphic examinations in routine is presented. Tomography has been excluded. As examples, the different techniques of (a) inhomogeneity correction of camera response and (b) respiratory motion corrections are used to show one evolutionary process in the use of computer systems. Filtering has been for a long time the major area of research in scintigraphic image processing. Only very simple (usually smoothing) filters are widely distributed. Little use of more 'powerful' filters in clinical data has been made, and very few serious evaluations have been published. Nevertheless, the number of installed minicomputer and microprocessor systems is increasing rapidly, but in general performing tasks other than filtering. The reasons for this (relative) failure are examined. Some 'new' techniques of image processing are presented. The compression of scintigraphic information is important because of the expected need in the near future for handling of large numbers of static pictures as in dynamic and tomographic studies. For dynamic information processing, the present methodology has been narrowed to those techniques that permit the entire 'data space' to be manipulated (as opposed to curve fitting after region of interest definition). 'Functional' imaging was the first step in this process. 'Factor analysis' could be the next. The results obtained by various research laboratories are reviewed. (author)

  20. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  1. A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests

  2. A computer code to simulate X-ray imaging techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvauchelle, Philippe E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr; Freud, Nicolas; Kaftandjian, Valerie; Babot, Daniel

    2000-09-01

    A computer code was developed to simulate the operation of radiographic, radioscopic or tomographic devices. The simulation is based on ray-tracing techniques and on the X-ray attenuation law. The use of computer-aided drawing (CAD) models enables simulations to be carried out with complex three-dimensional (3D) objects and the geometry of every component of the imaging chain, from the source to the detector, can be defined. Geometric unsharpness, for example, can be easily taken into account, even in complex configurations. Automatic translations or rotations of the object can be performed to simulate radioscopic or tomographic image acquisition. Simulations can be carried out with monochromatic or polychromatic beam spectra. This feature enables, for example, the beam hardening phenomenon to be dealt with or dual energy imaging techniques to be studied. The simulation principle is completely deterministic and consequently the computed images present no photon noise. Nevertheless, the variance of the signal associated with each pixel of the detector can be determined, which enables contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) maps to be computed, in order to predict quantitatively the detectability of defects in the inspected object. The CNR is a relevant indicator for optimizing the experimental parameters. This paper provides several examples of simulated images that illustrate some of the rich possibilities offered by our software. Depending on the simulation type, the computation time order of magnitude can vary from 0.1 s (simple radiographic projection) up to several hours (3D tomography) on a PC, with a 400 MHz microprocessor. Our simulation tool proves to be useful in developing new specific applications, in choosing the most suitable components when designing a new testing chain, and in saving time by reducing the number of experimental tests.

  3. Signal-to-noise ratio analysis and evaluation of the Hadamard imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Spiers, R. B., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio performance of the Hadamard imaging technique is analyzed and an experimental evaluation of a laboratory Hadamard imager is presented. A comparison between the performances of Hadamard and conventional imaging techniques shows that the Hadamard technique is superior only when the imaging objective lens is required to have an effective F (focus) number of about 2 or slower.

  4. Overcoming barriers to the use of osteopathic manipulation techniques in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Raymond J; Roberge, Marc R

    2009-08-01

    Osteopathic Manipulation Techniques (OMT) have been shown to be effective therapeutic modalities in various clinical settings, but appear to be underutilized in the emergency department (ED) setting. To examine barriers to the use of OMT in the ED and provide suggestions to ameliorate these barriers. Literature review While the medical literature cites numerous obstacles to the use of OMT in the ED setting, most can be positively addressed through education, careful planning, and ongoing research into use of these techniques. Recent prospective clinical trials of OMT have demonstrated the utility of these modalities. Osteopathic Manipulation Techniques are useful therapeutic modalities that could be utilized to a greater degree in the ED. As the number of osteopathic emergency physicians increases, the opportunity to employ these techniques should increase.

  5. Image-analysis techniques for investigation localized corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.J.; Bailey, M.G.; Ikeda, B.M.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    We have developed a procedure for determining the mode and depth of penetration of localized corrosion by combining metallography and image analysis of corroded coupons. Two techniques, involving either a face-profiling or an edge-profiling procedure, have been developed. In the face-profiling procedure, successive surface grindings and image analyses were performed until corrosion was no longer visible. In this manner, the distribution of corroded sites on the surface and the total area of the surface corroded were determined as a function of depth into the specimen. In the edge-profiling procedure, surface grinding exposed successive cross sections of the corroded region. Image analysis of the cross section quantified the distribution of depths across the corroded section, and a three-dimensional distribution of penetration depths was obtained. To develop these procedures, we used artificially creviced Grade-2 titanium specimens that were corroded in saline solutions containing various amounts of chloride maintained at various fixed temperatures (105 to 150 degrees C) using a previously developed galvanic-coupling technique. We discuss some results from these experiments to illustrate how the procedures developed can be applied to a real corroded system. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 21 figs

  6. Kalman filter techniques for accelerated Cartesian dynamic cardiac imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Salerno, Michael; Kramer, Christopher M; Meyer, Craig H

    2013-05-01

    In dynamic MRI, spatial and temporal parallel imaging can be exploited to reduce scan time. Real-time reconstruction enables immediate visualization during the scan. Commonly used view-sharing techniques suffer from limited temporal resolution, and many of the more advanced reconstruction methods are either retrospective, time-consuming, or both. A Kalman filter model capable of real-time reconstruction can be used to increase the spatial and temporal resolution in dynamic MRI reconstruction. The original study describing the use of the Kalman filter in dynamic MRI was limited to non-Cartesian trajectories because of a limitation intrinsic to the dynamic model used in that study. Here the limitation is overcome, and the model is applied to the more commonly used Cartesian trajectory with fast reconstruction. Furthermore, a combination of the Kalman filter model with Cartesian parallel imaging is presented to further increase the spatial and temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. Simulations and experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the Kalman filter model can increase the temporal resolution of the image series compared with view-sharing techniques and decrease the spatial aliasing compared with TGRAPPA. The method requires relatively little computation, and thus is suitable for real-time reconstruction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  8. Image Analysis Technique for Material Behavior Evaluation in Civil Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Michele; Rossi, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a hybrid monitoring technique for the measurement of the deformation field. The goal is to obtain information about crack propagation in existing structures, for the purpose of monitoring their state of health. The measurement technique is based on the capture and analysis of a digital image set. Special markers were used on the surface of the structures that can be removed without damaging existing structures as the historical masonry. The digital image analysis was done using software specifically designed in Matlab to follow the tracking of the markers and determine the evolution of the deformation state. The method can be used in any type of structure but is particularly suitable when it is necessary not to damage the surface of structures. A series of experiments carried out on masonry walls of the Oliverian Museum (Pesaro, Italy) and Palazzo Silvi (Perugia, Italy) have allowed the validation of the procedure elaborated by comparing the results with those derived from traditional measuring techniques. PMID:28773129

  9. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing; Bildgebende Verfahren fuer die Ultraschallpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [German] Dieser Seminarband enthaelt 16 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: 1. Von der Bildgebung bis zur Quantifizierung - Ultraschallverfahren in der medizinischen Diagnostik; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array

  10. Imaging of Hip Pain: From Radiography to Cross-Sectional Imaging Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Santiago Chinchilla, Alicia; Ansari, Afshin; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, Maria del Mar; Martínez Martínez, Alberto; Tercedor Sánchez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain can have multiple causes, including intra-articular, juxta-articular, and referred pain, mainly from spine or sacroiliac joints. In this review, we discuss the causes of intra-articular hip pain from childhood to adulthood and the role of the appropriate imaging techniques according to clinical suspicion and age of the patient. Stress is put on the findings of radiographs, currently considered the first imaging technique, not only in older people with degenerative disease but also in young people without osteoarthritis. In this case plain radiography allows categorization of the hip as normal or dysplastic or with impingement signs, pincer, cam, or a combination of both

  11. The role of functional imaging techniques in the dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Young Hoon

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of dementia in patients with early symptoms of cognitive decline is clinically challenging, but the need for early, accurate diagnosis has become more crucial, since several medication for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer' disease are available. Many neurodegenerative diseases produce significant brain function alteration even when structural imaging (CT of MRI) reveal no specific abnormalities. The role of PET and SPECT brain imaging in the initial assessment and differential diagnosis of dementia is beginning to evolve rapidly and growing evidence indicates that appropriate incorporation of PET into the clinical work up can improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy with respect to Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia in the geriatric population. In the fast few years, studies comparing neuropathologic examination with PET have established reliable and consistent accuracy for diagnostic evaluations using PET - accuracies substantially exceeding those of comparable studies of diagnostic value of SPECT or of both modalities assessed side by side, or of clinical evaluations done without nuclear imaging. This review deals the role of functional brian imaging techniques in the evaluation of dementias and the role of nuclear neuroimaging in the early detection and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

  12. A review of the associated particle imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, J.P.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Tunnell, L.

    1992-01-01

    Associated particle imaging (API) is a fast-neutron reaction imaging system. An object is illuminated with 14-MeV neutrons and these neutron interaction sites are imaged. The T(d,n) 4 He reaction is used to produce a neutron and an alpha particle which move apart in opposite directions. By detecting the alpha particle, the direction of travel of the neutron is known. When the neutron strikes any material (except hydrogen and helium) it causes the material to emit gamma radiation. If one of the gamma-rays is detected it is then known that a reaction has taken place. By measuring the time between alpha detection and gammadetection, it is known how long the neutron traveled before reacting. By constructing a tally (or histogram) of these reaction sites an image is constructed. By examining the gamma-ray spectra corresponding to each region of space, elemental analysis of that region can be performed. This technique and it's applications are discussed in this paper

  13. Imaging evidence and recommendations for traumatic brain injury: advanced neuro- and neurovascular imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Sanelli, P C; Anzai, Y; Tsiouris, A J; Whitlow, C T

    2015-02-01

    Neuroimaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of patients with traumatic brain injury, with NCCT as the first-line of imaging for patients with traumatic brain injury and MR imaging being recommended in specific settings. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including MR imaging DTI, blood oxygen level-dependent fMRI, MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, PET/SPECT, and magnetoencephalography, are of particular interest in identifying further injury in patients with traumatic brain injury when conventional NCCT and MR imaging findings are normal, as well as for prognostication in patients with persistent symptoms. These advanced neuroimaging techniques are currently under investigation in an attempt to optimize them and substantiate their clinical relevance in individual patients. However, the data currently available confine their use to the research arena for group comparisons, and there remains insufficient evidence at the time of this writing to conclude that these advanced techniques can be used for routine clinical use at the individual patient level. TBI imaging is a rapidly evolving field, and a number of the recommendations presented will be updated in the future to reflect the advances in medical knowledge. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  14. A neural network image reconstruction technique for electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, A.; Guardo, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reconstruction of Images in Electrical Impedance Tomography requires the solution of a nonlinear inverse problem on noisy data. This problem is typically ill-conditioned and requires either simplifying assumptions or regularization based on a priori knowledge. This paper presents a reconstruction algorithm using neural network techniques which calculates a linear approximation of the inverse problem directly from finite element simulations of the forward problem. This inverse is adapted to the geometry of the medium and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) used during network training. Results show good conductivity reconstruction where measurement SNR is similar to the training conditions. The advantages of this method are its conceptual simplicity and ease of implementation, and the ability to control the compromise between the noise performance and resolution of the image reconstruction

  15. Examination of image diagnosis system at high level emergency medical service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masaharu; Endo, Toshio; Aoki, Tomio

    1983-01-01

    This is a report of the basic idea on imaging system focussing on a necessary X-ray system for high-level emergencies which was worked out due to the establishment of the independent emergency medical institute specialized in the tertiary lifesaving and emergency, and of examinations on satisfactory results we gained for about three years of usage. (author)

  16. Imaging nuclear medicine techniques for diagnostic evaluation of arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, B.M.; Linss, G.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial hypertension may be caused by a malfunction of organs and in turn may lead to secondary organic lesions. Modern diagnostic nuclear medicine is applied for function studies in order to detect or exclude secondary hypertension and functional or perfusion disturbances due to hypertension, or to assess and follow up hemodynamic conditions and cardiac functions prior to and during therapy. The article presents a survey of imaging diagnostic nuclear medicine techniques for the eamination of the heart, the brain, the kidneys and endocrine glands in patients with arterial hypertension, discussing the methods with a view to obtainable information, limits of detection, and indications. (orig.) [de

  17. Automatic identification of corrosion damage using image processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bento, Mariana P.; Ramalho, Geraldo L.B.; Medeiros, Fatima N.S. de; Ribeiro, Elvis S. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Medeiros, Luiz C.L. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) method for atmospheric corrosion detection on metallic surfaces using digital images. In this study, the uniform corrosion is characterized by texture attributes extracted from co-occurrence matrix and the Self Organizing Mapping (SOM) clustering algorithm. We present a technique for automatic inspection of oil and gas storage tanks and pipelines of petrochemical industries without disturbing their properties and performance. Experimental results are promising and encourage the possibility of using this methodology in designing trustful and robust early failure detection systems. (author)

  18. Static telescope aberration measurement using lucky imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Marrero, Marcos; Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis Fernando; Marichal-Hernández, José Gil; Rodríguez-Ramos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    A procedure has been developed to compute static aberrations once the telescope PSF has been measured with the lucky imaging technique, using a nearby star close to the object of interest as the point source to probe the optical system. This PSF is iteratively turned into a phase map at the pupil using the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm and then converted to the appropriate actuation information for a deformable mirror having low actuator number but large stroke capability. The main advantage of this procedure is related with the capability of correcting static aberration at the specific pointing direction and without the need of a wavefront sensor.

  19. A fast image reconstruction technique based on ART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shunli; Zhang Dinghua; Wang Kai; Huang Kuidong; Li Weibin

    2007-01-01

    Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) is an iterative method for image reconstruction. Improving its reconstruction speed has been one of the important researching aspects of ART. For the simplified weight coefficients reconstruction model of ART, a fast grid traverse algorithm is proposed, which can determine the grid index by simple operations such as addition, subtraction and comparison. Since the weight coefficients are calculated at real time during iteration, large amount of storage is saved and the reconstruction speed is greatly increased. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is very effective and the reconstruction speed is improved about 10 times compared with the traditional algorithm. (authors)

  20. Application of object modeling technique to medical image retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Fumiaki; Abe, Takeshi

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of discussions on the object-oriented analysis methodology, which is one of the object-oriented paradigms. In particular, we considered application of the object modeling technique (OMT) to the analysis of a medical image retrieval system. The object-oriented methodology places emphasis on the construction of an abstract model from real-world entities. The effectiveness of and future improvements to OMT are discussed from the standpoint of the system's expandability. These discussions have elucidated that the methodology is sufficiently well-organized and practical to be applied to commercial products, provided that it is applied to the appropriate problem domain. (author)

  1. Elastography of the Breast: Imaging Techniques and Pitfalls in Interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) elastography is a tool that indicates the hardness of a lesion. Recent studies using elastography with freehand compression have shown similar diagnostic performance to conventional US in differentiating benign lesions from malignant breast masses. On the other hand, the acquired information is not quantitative, and the reliability of the imaging technique to correctly compress the tissue depends on the skill of the operator, resulting in substantial interobserver variability during data acquisition and interpretation. To overcome this, shear wave elastography was developed to provide quantitative information on the tissue elasticity. The system works by remotely inducing mechanical vibrations through the acoustic radiation force created by a focused US beam. This review discusses the principles and examination techniques of the two types of elastography systems and provides practical points to reduce the interobserver variability or errors during data acquisition and interpretation

  2. Elastography of the Breast: Imaging Techniques and Pitfalls in Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Woo Kyung; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Ultrasound (US) elastography is a tool that indicates the hardness of a lesion. Recent studies using elastography with freehand compression have shown similar diagnostic performance to conventional US in differentiating benign lesions from malignant breast masses. On the other hand, the acquired information is not quantitative, and the reliability of the imaging technique to correctly compress the tissue depends on the skill of the operator, resulting in substantial interobserver variability during data acquisition and interpretation. To overcome this, shear wave elastography was developed to provide quantitative information on the tissue elasticity. The system works by remotely inducing mechanical vibrations through the acoustic radiation force created by a focused US beam. This review discusses the principles and examination techniques of the two types of elastography systems and provides practical points to reduce the interobserver variability or errors during data acquisition and interpretation

  3. Volumetric image processing: A new technique for three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Drebin, B.; Magid, D.; St Ville, J.A.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Siegelman, S.S.; Ney, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Volumetric three-dimensional (3D) image processing was performed on CT scans of 25 normal hips, and image quality and potential diagnostic applications were assessed. In contrast to surface detection 3D techniques, volumetric processing preserves every pixel of transaxial CT data, replacing the gray scale with transparent ''gels'' and shading. Anatomically, accurate 3D images can be rotated and manipulated in real time, including simulated tissue layer ''peeling'' and mock surgery or disarticulation. This pilot study suggests that volumetric rendering is a major advance in signal processing of medical image data, producing a high quality, uniquely maneuverable image that is useful for fracture interpretation, soft-tissue analysis, surgical planning, and surgical rehearsal

  4. STUDY OF IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES ON RETINAL IMAGES FOR HEALTH CARE MANAGEMENT WITH FAST COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Prabhu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of segmentation in image processing is to separate foreground from background. In this process, the features become clearly visible when appropriate filters are applied on the image. In this paper emphasis has been laid on segmentation of biometric retinal images to filter out the vessels explicitly for evaluating the bifurcation points and features for diabetic retinopathy. Segmentation on images is performed by calculating ridges or morphology. Ridges are those areas in the images where there is sharp contrast in features. Morphology targets the features using structuring elements. Structuring elements are of different shapes like disk, line which is used for extracting features of those shapes. When segmentation was performed on retinal images problems were encountered during image pre-processing stage. Also edge detection techniques have been deployed to find out the contours of the retinal images. After the segmentation has been performed, it has been seen that artifacts of the retinal images have been minimal when ridge based segmentation technique was deployed. In the field of Health Care Management, image segmentation has an important role to play as it determines whether a person is normal or having any disease specially diabetes. During the process of segmentation, diseased features are classified as diseased one’s or artifacts. The problem comes when artifacts are classified as diseased ones. This results in misclassification which has been discussed in the analysis Section. We have achieved fast computing with better performance, in terms of speed for non-repeating features, when compared to repeating features.

  5. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Apichart; Kaewkamnerd, Saowaluck; Shaw, Philip J; Ukosakit, Kittipat; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tongsima, Sissades

    2015-01-01

    DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. This work presents an automated genotyping tool from DNA

  6. Automatic DNA Diagnosis for 1D Gel Electrophoresis Images using Bio-image Processing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA gel electrophoresis is a molecular biology technique for separating different sizes of DNA fragments. Applications of DNA gel electrophoresis include DNA fingerprinting (genetic diagnosis), size estimation of DNA, and DNA separation for Southern blotting. Accurate interpretation of DNA banding patterns from electrophoretic images can be laborious and error prone when a large number of bands are interrogated manually. Although many bio-imaging techniques have been proposed, none of them can fully automate the typing of DNA owing to the complexities of migration patterns typically obtained. Results We developed an image-processing tool that automatically calls genotypes from DNA gel electrophoresis images. The image processing workflow comprises three main steps: 1) lane segmentation, 2) extraction of DNA bands and 3) band genotyping classification. The tool was originally intended to facilitate large-scale genotyping analysis of sugarcane cultivars. We tested the proposed tool on 10 gel images (433 cultivars) obtained from polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) of PCR amplicons for detecting intron length polymorphisms (ILP) on one locus of the sugarcanes. These gel images demonstrated many challenges in automated lane/band segmentation in image processing including lane distortion, band deformity, high degree of noise in the background, and bands that are very close together (doublets). Using the proposed bio-imaging workflow, lanes and DNA bands contained within are properly segmented, even for adjacent bands with aberrant migration that cannot be separated by conventional techniques. The software, called GELect, automatically performs genotype calling on each lane by comparing with an all-banding reference, which was created by clustering the existing bands into the non-redundant set of reference bands. The automated genotype calling results were verified by independent manual typing by molecular biologists. Conclusions This work presents an

  7. A new imaging technique for detecting interstellar communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, John; Welsh, Barry; Kotze, Marissa; Siegmund, Oswald

    2017-01-01

    We report on a unique detection methodology using the Berkeley Visible Image Tube (BVIT) mounted on the 10m Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) to search for laser pulses originating in communications from advanced extraterrestrial (ET) civilizations residing on nearby Earth-like planets located within their habitability zones. The detection technique assumes that ET communicates through high powered pulsed lasers with pulse durations on the order of 5 nanoseconds, the signals thereby being brighter than that of the host star within this very short period of time. Our technique turns down the gain of the optically sensitive photon counting microchannel plate detector such that ~30 photons are required in a 5ns window to generate an imaged event. Picking a priori targets with planets in the habitable zone substantially reduces the false alarm rate. Interplanetary communication by optical masers was first postulated by Schwartz and Townes in 1961. Under the assumption that ET has access to a 10 m class telescope operated as a transmitter then we could detect lasers with a similar power to that of the Livermore Laboratory laser (~1.8Mj per pulse), to a distance of ~ 1000 pc. In this talk we present the results of 2400 seconds of BVIT observations on the SALT of the star Wolf 1061, which is known to harbor an Earth-sized exoplanet located in the habitability zone. At this distance (4.3 pc), BVIT on SALT could detect a 48 joule per pulse laser, now commercially available as tabletop devices.

  8. Comparison of de-noising techniques of scintigraphic images; Comparaison de techniques de debruitage des images scintigraphiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkove, M.; Seret, A. [Liege Univ., Imagerie Medicale Experimentale, Institut de Physique (Belgium)

    2007-05-15

    Scintigraphic images are strongly affected by Poisson noise. This article presents the results of a comparison between de-noising methods for Poisson noise according to different criteria: the gain in signal-to-noise ratio, the preservation of resolution and contrast. and the visual quality. The wavelet techniques recently developed to de-noise Poisson noise limited images are divided into two groups based on: (1) the Haar representation. 1 (2) the transformation of Poisson noise into white Gaussian noise by the Haar-Fisz transform followed by a de-noising. In this study, three variants of the first group and three variants of the second. including the adaptative Wiener filter, four types of wavelet thresholding and the Bayesian method of Pizurica were compared to Metz and Hanning filters and to Shine, a systematic noise elimination process. All these methods, except Shine, are parametric. For each of them, ranges of optimal values for the parameters were highlighted as a function of the aforementioned criteria. The intersection of ranges for the wavelet methods without thresholding was empty, and these methods were therefore not further compared quantitatively. The thresholding techniques and Shine gave the best results in resolution and contrast. The largest improvement in signal-to-noise ratio was obtained by the filters. Ideally, these filters should be accurately defined for each image. This is difficult in the clinical context. Moreover. they generate oscillation artefacts. In addition, the wavelet techniques did not bring significant improvements, and are rather slow. Therefore, Shine, which is fast and works automatically, appears to be an interesting alternative. (authors)

  9. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Wendy; Ren, Lei; Cai, Jing; Zhang, You; Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a techique to generate on-board volumetric cine-magnetic resonance imaging (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling, and on-board 2-dimensional cine MRI. Methods and Materials: One phase of a 4-dimensional MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. Three major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4-dimensional MRI based on principal-component analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2-dimensional cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both digital extended-cardiac torso (XCAT) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from 4 real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using volume-percent-difference (VPD), center-of-mass-shift (COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change, and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Results: Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between normalized profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was, on average, 8.43 ± 1.52% and the COMS was, on average, 0.93 ± 0.58 mm across all time steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against

  10. A Technique for Generating Volumetric Cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Wendy [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Ren, Lei, E-mail: lei.ren@duke.edu [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Cai, Jing [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Zhang, You [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng; Yin, Fang-Fang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a techique to generate on-board volumetric cine-magnetic resonance imaging (VC-MRI) using patient prior images, motion modeling, and on-board 2-dimensional cine MRI. Methods and Materials: One phase of a 4-dimensional MRI acquired during patient simulation is used as patient prior images. Three major respiratory deformation patterns of the patient are extracted from 4-dimensional MRI based on principal-component analysis. The on-board VC-MRI at any instant is considered as a deformation of the prior MRI. The deformation field is represented as a linear combination of the 3 major deformation patterns. The coefficients of the deformation patterns are solved by the data fidelity constraint using the acquired on-board single 2-dimensional cine MRI. The method was evaluated using both digital extended-cardiac torso (XCAT) simulation of lung cancer patients and MRI data from 4 real liver cancer patients. The accuracy of the estimated VC-MRI was quantitatively evaluated using volume-percent-difference (VPD), center-of-mass-shift (COMS), and target tracking errors. Effects of acquisition orientation, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, patient breathing pattern change, and noise on the estimation accuracy were also evaluated. Results: Image subtraction of ground-truth with estimated on-board VC-MRI shows fewer differences than image subtraction of ground-truth with prior image. Agreement between normalized profiles in the estimated and ground-truth VC-MRI was achieved with less than 6% error for both XCAT and patient data. Among all XCAT scenarios, the VPD between ground-truth and estimated lesion volumes was, on average, 8.43 ± 1.52% and the COMS was, on average, 0.93 ± 0.58 mm across all time steps for estimation based on the ROI region in the sagittal cine images. Matching to ROI in the sagittal view achieved better accuracy when there was substantial breathing pattern change. The technique was robust against

  11. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  12. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-11-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  13. Time-Domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Techniques Suitable for Solid-State Imaging Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Henderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully demonstrated video-rate CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD-based cameras for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM by applying innovative FLIM algorithms. We also review and compare several time-domain techniques and solid-state FLIM systems, and adapt the proposed algorithms for massive CMOS SPAD-based arrays and hardware implementations. The theoretical error equations are derived and their performances are demonstrated on the data obtained from 0.13 μm CMOS SPAD arrays and the multiple-decay data obtained from scanning PMT systems. In vivo two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging data of FITC-albumin labeled vasculature of a P22 rat carcinosarcoma (BD9 rat window chamber are used to test how different algorithms perform on bi-decay data. The proposed techniques are capable of producing lifetime images with enough contrast.

  14. Quantum correlated imaging is a promising new technique in medical imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Zhang; Zhaohua Yang

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-cerebral vascular diseases are common and frequently occurring serious diseases that threaten humans. In recent years, Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) has played a vital role in the diagnosis and treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases. However, DSA is not able to visualize intravascular structures in real time, and it is especially difficult to evaluate each layer of the vascular wall and the composition of atherosclerotic plaques with DSA. Quantum correlated imaging is a new technique that can be used to perform real-time online imaging of intravascular flow, vascular wall structure, and atherosclerotic plaque composition. Quantum correlated imaging is a promising new technique that will soon be used in the diagnosis and treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular diseases.

  15. Distributed Source Coding Techniques for Lossless Compression of Hyperspectral Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barni Mauro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of distributed source coding (DSC theory to remote sensing image compression. Although DSC exhibits a significant potential in many application fields, up till now the results obtained on real signals fall short of the theoretical bounds, and often impose additional system-level constraints. The objective of this paper is to assess the potential of DSC for lossless image compression carried out onboard a remote platform. We first provide a brief overview of DSC of correlated information sources. We then focus on onboard lossless image compression, and apply DSC techniques in order to reduce the complexity of the onboard encoder, at the expense of the decoder's, by exploiting the correlation of different bands of a hyperspectral dataset. Specifically, we propose two different compression schemes, one based on powerful binary error-correcting codes employed as source codes, and one based on simpler multilevel coset codes. The performance of both schemes is evaluated on a few AVIRIS scenes, and is compared with other state-of-the-art 2D and 3D coders. Both schemes turn out to achieve competitive compression performance, and one of them also has reduced complexity. Based on these results, we highlight the main issues that are still to be solved to further improve the performance of DSC-based remote sensing systems.

  16. Computer processing of the scintigraphic image using digital filtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Michimasa

    1976-01-01

    The theory of digital filtering was studied as a method for the computer processing of scintigraphic images. The characteristics and design techniques of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters with linear phases were examined using the z-transform. The conventional data processing method, smoothing, could be recognized as one kind of linear phase FIR low-pass digital filtering. Ten representatives of FIR low-pass digital filters with various cut-off frequencies were scrutinized from the frequency domain in one-dimension and two-dimensions. These filters were applied to phantom studies with cold targets, using a Scinticamera-Minicomputer on-line System. These studies revealed that the resultant images had a direct connection with the magnitude response of the filter, that is, they could be estimated fairly well from the frequency response of the digital filter used. The filter, which was estimated from phantom studies as optimal for liver scintigrams using 198 Au-colloid, was successfully applied in clinical use for detecting true cold lesions and, at the same time, for eliminating spurious images. (J.P.N.)

  17. Assessment of tumors of the lung apex by imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda, J.; Serrano, F.; Pain, M.I.; Rodriguez, F.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of MR in the preoperative staging of tumors of the lung apex and detection of local invasion of adjacent structures to determine its influence on the therapeutic approach. We obtained plain X-ray images in two planes, as well as CT and Mr images, in 12 patients with Pan coast tumor in whom there was surgical (n=8) or clinical (n=4) evidence of invasion. The objective was to assess local infiltration of brain stem and chest wall soft tissue, enveloping of the subclavian artery, substantial involvement of the brachial plexus and destruction of the vertebral body. In our series, MR was superior to the other imaging techniques in predicting the involvement of the structures surrounding the tumor. In conclusion, MR should be performed in a patient diagnosed by plain radiography as having an apical tumors to assess local tumor extension, while CT should be done to detect mediastinal lymph node involvement and distant metastases. 19 refs

  18. Doppler ultrasound imaging techniques for assessment of synovial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippucci E

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emilio Filippucci,1 Fausto Salaffi,1 Marina Carotti,2 Walter Grassi1 1Rheumatology Department, Polytechnic University of the Marche, Ancona, Italy; 2Department of Radiology, Polytechnic University of the Marche, Ancona, Italy Abstract: Ultrasound is an evolving technique, and the rapid progress made in ultrasound technology over the past ten years has dramatically increased its range of applications in rheumatology. One of the most exciting advances is the use of Doppler ultrasound imaging in the assessment of blood flow abnormalities at the synovial tissue level in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis. This review describes the Doppler techniques available and their main applications in patients with inflammatory arthritis, discusses the evidence supporting their use, and outlines the latest advances in hardware and software. Spectral, color, and power Doppler allow sensitive assessment of vascular abnormalities at the synovial tissue level. Use of contrast agents enhances visualization of the small synovial vessels using color or power Doppler ultrasound and allows for accurate characterization of the rheumatoid pannus. Doppler techniques represent a unique method for assessment of synovial inflammation, showing blood flow characteristics in real time. They are safe, noninvasive, cost-effective, and have high sensitivity in revealing and monitoring synovitis. However, several questions still need to be answered. In the near future, the Doppler techniques described here, together with upcoming hardware and software facilities, will be investigated further and a consensus will be reached on their feasibility and appropriate use in daily rheumatologic practice. Keywords: power and color Doppler techniques, ultrasound, contrast media, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis

  19. Performance evaluation of emerging JPEGXR compression standard for medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Medical images require loss less compression as a small error due to lossy compression may be considered as a diagnostic error. JPEG XR is the latest image compression standard designed for variety of applications and has a support for lossy and loss less modes. This paper provides in-depth performance evaluation of latest JPEGXR with existing image coding standards for medical images using loss less compression. Various medical images are used for evaluation and ten images of each organ are tested. Performance of JPEGXR is compared with JPEG2000 and JPEGLS using mean square error, peak signal to noise ratio, mean absolute error and structural similarity index. JPEGXR shows improvement of 20.73 dB and 5.98 dB over JPEGLS and JPEG2000 respectively for various test images used in experimentation. (author)

  20. Advances in high-resolution imaging--techniques for three-dimensional imaging of cellular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidke, Diane S; Lidke, Keith A

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental goal in biology is to determine how cellular organization is coupled to function. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of organelle composition and structure is needed. Although visualization of cellular organelles using fluorescence or electron microscopy (EM) has become a common tool for the cell biologist, recent advances are providing a clearer picture of the cell than ever before. In particular, advanced light-microscopy techniques are achieving resolutions below the diffraction limit and EM tomography provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) images of cellular structures. The ability to perform both fluorescence and electron microscopy on the same sample (correlative light and electron microscopy, CLEM) makes it possible to identify where a fluorescently labeled protein is located with respect to organelle structures visualized by EM. Here, we review the current state of the art in 3D biological imaging techniques with a focus on recent advances in electron microscopy and fluorescence super-resolution techniques.

  1. Final Project Report: Imaging Fault Zones Using a Novel Elastic Reverse-Time Migration Imaging Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Ting [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, Sirui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Imaging fault zones and fractures is crucial for geothermal operators, providing important information for reservoir evaluation and management strategies. However, there are no existing techniques available for directly and clearly imaging fault zones, particularly for steeply dipping faults and fracture zones. In this project, we developed novel acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion methods for high-resolution velocity model building. In addition, we developed acoustic and elastic reverse-time migration methods for high-resolution subsurface imaging of complex subsurface structures and steeply-dipping fault/fracture zones. We first evaluated and verified the improved capabilities of our newly developed seismic inversion and migration imaging methods using synthetic seismic data. Our numerical tests verified that our new methods directly image subsurface fracture/fault zones using surface seismic reflection data. We then applied our novel seismic inversion and migration imaging methods to a field 3D surface seismic dataset acquired at the Soda Lake geothermal field using Vibroseis sources. Our migration images of the Soda Lake geothermal field obtained using our seismic inversion and migration imaging algorithms revealed several possible fault/fracture zones. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with Cyrq Energy, Inc. to refine the geologic interpretation at the Soda Lake geothermal field. Trenton Cladouhos, Senior Vice President R&D of AltaRock, was very interested in our imaging results of 3D surface seismic data from the Soda Lake geothermal field. He planed to perform detailed interpretation of our images in collaboration with James Faulds and Holly McLachlan of University of Nevada at Reno. Using our high-resolution seismic inversion and migration imaging results can help determine the optimal locations to drill wells for geothermal energy production and reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.

  2. Techniques for preparing flowchart-format emergency operating procedures: Background (Sections 1.0-9.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, V.E.; Moore, C.J.; Wieringa, D.R.; Isakson, C.S.; Kono, B.K.; Gruel, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This two-volume report describes the activities, findings, and recommendations of a project entitled ''Techniques for Presenting Flowchart-Format Emergency Operating Procedures.'' The project team surveyed the literature pertaining to flowcharts, reviewed existing flowchart emergency operating procedures (EOPs), interviewed consultants who produced flowcharts, and interviewed reactor operator licensing examiners about the use of flowcharts in nuclear power plants. This document, and Volume 1 of this report, discusses the use of flowchart-format EOPs in nuclear power plants and presents issue to be addressed in the design and implementation of flowchart EOPs. 66 refs., 76 figs., 2 tabs

  3. WE-H-202-04: Advanced Medical Image Registration Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deformable image registration has now been commercially available for several years, with solid performance in a number of sites and for several applications including contour and dose mapping. However, more complex applications have arisen, such as assessing response to radiation therapy over time, registering images pre- and post-surgery, and auto-segmentation from atlases. These applications require innovative registration algorithms to achieve accurate alignment. The goal of this session is to highlight emerging registration technology and these new applications. The state of the art in image registration will be presented from an engineering perspective. Translational clinical applications will also be discussed to tie these new registration approaches together with imaging and radiation therapy applications in specific diseases such as cervical and lung cancers. Learning Objectives: To understand developing techniques and algorithms in deformable image registration that are likely to translate into clinical tools in the near future. To understand emerging imaging and radiation therapy clinical applications that require such new registration algorithms. Research supported in part by the National Institutes of Health under award numbers P01CA059827, R01CA166119, and R01CA166703. Disclosures: Phillips Medical systems (Hugo), Roger Koch (Christensen) support, Varian Medical Systems (Brock), licensing agreements from Raysearch (Brock) and Varian (Hugo).; K. Brock, Licensing Agreement - RaySearch Laboratories. Research Funding - Varian Medical Systems; G. Hugo, Research grant from National Institutes of Health, award number R01CA166119.; G. Christensen, Research support from NIH grants CA166119 and CA166703 and a gift from Roger Koch. There are no conflicts of interest.

  4. WE-H-202-04: Advanced Medical Image Registration Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, G. [University of Iowa (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Deformable image registration has now been commercially available for several years, with solid performance in a number of sites and for several applications including contour and dose mapping. However, more complex applications have arisen, such as assessing response to radiation therapy over time, registering images pre- and post-surgery, and auto-segmentation from atlases. These applications require innovative registration algorithms to achieve accurate alignment. The goal of this session is to highlight emerging registration technology and these new applications. The state of the art in image registration will be presented from an engineering perspective. Translational clinical applications will also be discussed to tie these new registration approaches together with imaging and radiation therapy applications in specific diseases such as cervical and lung cancers. Learning Objectives: To understand developing techniques and algorithms in deformable image registration that are likely to translate into clinical tools in the near future. To understand emerging imaging and radiation therapy clinical applications that require such new registration algorithms. Research supported in part by the National Institutes of Health under award numbers P01CA059827, R01CA166119, and R01CA166703. Disclosures: Phillips Medical systems (Hugo), Roger Koch (Christensen) support, Varian Medical Systems (Brock), licensing agreements from Raysearch (Brock) and Varian (Hugo).; K. Brock, Licensing Agreement - RaySearch Laboratories. Research Funding - Varian Medical Systems; G. Hugo, Research grant from National Institutes of Health, award number R01CA166119.; G. Christensen, Research support from NIH grants CA166119 and CA166703 and a gift from Roger Koch. There are no conflicts of interest.

  5. Introduction to the virtual special issue on super-resolution imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangcai; Liu, Zhengjun

    2017-12-01

    Until quite recently, the resolution of optical imaging instruments, including telescopes, cameras and microscopes, was considered to be limited by the diffraction of light and by image sensors. In the past few years, many exciting super-resolution approaches have emerged that demonstrate intriguing ways to bypass the classical limit in optics and detectors. More and more research groups are engaged in the study of advanced super-resolution schemes, devices, algorithms, systems, and applications [1-6]. Super-resolution techniques involve new methods in science and engineering of optics [7,8], measurements [9,10], chemistry [11,12] and information [13,14]. Promising applications, particularly in biomedical research and semiconductor industry, have been successfully demonstrated.

  6. Recent developments at JPL in the application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.; Lynn, D. J.; Benton, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques of a digital image-processing nature are illustrated which have proved useful in visual analysis of astronomical pictorial data. Processed digital scans of photographic plates of Stephans Quintet and NGC 4151 are used as examples to show how faint nebulosity is enhanced by high-pass filtering, how foreground stars are suppressed by linear interpolation, and how relative color differences between two images recorded on plates with different spectral sensitivities can be revealed by generating ratio images. Analyses are outlined which are intended to compensate partially for the blurring effects of the atmosphere on images of Stephans Quintet and to obtain more detailed information about Saturn's ring structure from low- and high-resolution scans of the planet and its ring system. The employment of a correlation picture to determine the tilt angle of an average spectral line in a low-quality spectrum is demonstrated for a section of the spectrum of Uranus.

  7. Progress in emerging techniques for characterization of immobilized viable whole-cell biocatalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bučko, M.; Vikartovská, A.; Schenkmayerová, A.; Tkáč, J.; Filip, J.; Chorvát Jr., D.; Neděla, Vilém; Ansorge-Schumacher, M.B.; Gemeiner, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 11 (2017), s. 2309-2324 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : bioelectrocatalysis * imaging techniques * immobilized whole-cell biocatalyst * multienzyme cascade reactions * online kinetics Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Bioprocessing technologies (industrial processes relying on biological agents to drive the process) biocatalysis, fermentation Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  8. Fast and improved examplar-based inpainting techniques for natural images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.; Do, Q.L.; With, de P.H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Image inpainting is an image completion technique that has a wide range of applications such as image restoration, object removal and occlusion lling in view synthesis. In this paper, two novel techniques are proposed to enhance the performance of Criminisi's algorithm, which inpaints images with an

  9. Probabilistic images (PBIS): A concise image representation technique for multiple parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, L.C.; Yeh, S.H.; Chen, Z.; Liu, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Based on m parametric images (PIs) derived from a dynamic series (DS), each pixel of DS is regarded as an m-dimensional vector. Given one set of normal samples (pixels) N and another of abnormal samples A, probability density functions (pdfs) of both sets are estimated. Any unknown sample is classified into N or A by calculating the probability of its being in the abnormal set using the Bayes' theorem. Instead of estimating the multivariate pdfs, a distance ratio transformation is introduced to map the m-dimensional sample space to one dimensional Euclidean space. Consequently, the image that localizes the regional abnormalities is characterized by the probability of being abnormal. This leads to the new representation scheme of PBIs. Tc-99m HIDA study for detecting intrahepatic lithiasis (IL) was chosen as an example of constructing PBI from 3 parameters derived from DS and such a PBI was compared with those 3 PIs, namely, retention ratio image (RRI), peak time image (TNMAX) and excretion mean transit time image (EMTT). 32 normal subjects and 20 patients with proved IL were collected and analyzed. The resultant sensitivity and specificity of PBI were 97% and 98% respectively. They were superior to those of any of the 3 PIs: RRI (94/97), TMAX (86/88) and EMTT (94/97). Furthermore, the contrast of PBI was much better than that of any other image. This new image formation technique, based on multiple parameters, shows the functional abnormalities in a structural way. Its good contrast makes the interpretation easy. This technique is powerful compared to the existing parametric image method

  10. Multimodality characterization of nuclear waste drums using emerging techniques for nondestructive examination and assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    We are developing an x-ray imaging system that incorporates several inspection technologies for complete, nondestructive evaluation of containers of nuclear waste. In Phase I and Phase II SBIR programs for the DOE, we proved the feasibility of using x-ray computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR)-imaging techniques using x-rays transmitted through the object-for container inspection. Now, with further funding from DOE and working with scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Lab., we are designing a mobile inspection system that will use CT and DR as well as two x-ray emission imaging techniques-single photon emission computed tomography and nondestructive assay. This system will provide much more information about the contents of containers than currently used inspection methods, and will provide archiving of digital data. In this paper, we describe inspection system and present recent results from the CT and DR evaluations

  11. A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatelli, A; Bizai, G; Barbosa, G; Drozdowicz, B; Delrieux, C

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising

  12. A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatelli, A [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Bizai, G [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Barbosa, G [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Drozdowicz, B [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Delrieux, C [Electric and Computing Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Alem 1253, BahIa Blanca, (Partially funded by SECyT-UNS) (Argentina)], E-mail: claudio@acm.org

    2007-11-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising.

  13. In Vivo Imaging of Nitric Oxide by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO biosensors are novel tools for real-time bioimaging of tissue oxygen changes and physiological monitoring of tissue vasculature. Nitric oxide behavior further enhances its role in mapping signal transduction at the molecular level. Spectrometric electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR and fluorometric imaging are well known techniques with the potential for in vivo bioimaging of NO. In tissues, NO is a specific target of nitrosyl compounds for chemical reaction, which provides a unique opportunity for application of newly identified NO biosensors. However, the accuracy and sensitivity of NO biosensors still need to be improved. Another potential magnetic resonance technique based on short term NO effects on proton relaxation enhancement is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and some NO biosensors may be used as potent imaging contrast agents for measurement of tumor size by MRI combined with fluorescent imaging. The present review provides supporting information regarding the possible use of nitrosyl compounds as NO biosensors in MRI and fluorescent bioimaging showing their measurement limitations and quantitative accuracy. These new approaches open a perspective regarding bioimaging of NO and the in vivo elucidation of NO effects by magnetic resonance techniques.

  14. Emergency treatment of exertional heatstroke and comparison of whole body cooling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrini, A

    1990-02-01

    This manuscript compares the whole body cooling techniques in the emergency treatment of heatstroke. Historically, the use of cold water immersion with skin massage has been quite successful in rapidly lowering body temperature and in avoiding severe complications or death. Recent studies have suggested alternative therapies, including the use of a warm air spray, the use of helicopter downdraft, and pharmacological agents. While evidence exists to support these methods, they have not been shown to reduce fatalities as effectively as ice water immersion. Although several cooling methods may have clinical use, all techniques rely on the prompt recognition of symptoms and immediate action in the field.

  15. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging of acute intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P.; Kessler, N.; Lesnik, A.; Blayac, P.M.; Morcos, L. [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Lapeyronie, 371, avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Bruel, J.M. [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Saint-Eloi, 80 rue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the main clinical questions in bowel obstruction, to discuss the value of various imaging modalities, including conventional radiography, ultrasound, and CT, to underline the impact of imaging in the management of patients with suspect bowel obstruction, and then to suggest a diagnostic triage in such patients. (orig.)

  16. Three-dimensional particle image velocimetry measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Seeley, C.H.; Henderson, J.A.; Schmidl, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The experimental flow visualization tool, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is being used to determine the velocity field in two-dimensional fluid flows. In the past few years, the technique has been improved to allow the capture of flow fields in three dimensions. This paper describes changes which were made to two existing two-dimensional tracking algorithms to enable them to track three-dimensional PIV data. Results of the tests performed on these three-dimensional routines with synthetic data are presented. Experimental data was also used to test the tracking algorithms. The test setup which was used to acquire the three-dimensional experimental data is described, along with the results from both of the tracking routines which were used to analyze the experimental data. (author)

  17. Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of liver echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotritsch, K.H.; Goebel, N.

    1986-01-01

    Liver echinococcosis, the most frequently occuring form of parasitosis, is caused by the following two types of tapeworm: echinococcus granulosus and echinococcus multilocularis. Both types are to be found in Austria, the latter even being endemic. Imaging techniques such as computed tomography and sonography enable the diagnosis to be made easily, quickly and accurately, although the number of conditions to be considered in the differential diagnosis is considerable. A comparison of the two methods in 32 patients, 25 with echinococcus multilocularis and 7 with echinococcus granulosus demonstrates that ultrasound is slightly inferior to computed tomography. However, ultrasound should be the primary method of investigation and is of great importance in followup, whilst computed tomography is necessary pre-operatively to assess the extrahepatic involvement. (Author)

  18. Extending Driving Vision Based on Image Mosaic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Car cameras have been used extensively to assist driving by make driving visible. However, due to the limitation of the Angle of View (AoV, the dead zone still exists, which is a primary origin of car accidents. In this paper, we introduce a system to extend the vision of drivers to 360 degrees. Our system consists of four wide-angle cameras, which are mounted at different sides of a car. Although the AoV of each camera is within 180 degrees, relying on the image mosaic technique, our system can seamlessly integrate 4-channel videos into a panorama video. The panorama video enable drivers to observe everywhere around a car as far as three meters from a top view. We performed experiments in a laboratory environment. Preliminary results show that our system can eliminate vision dead zone completely. Additionally, the real-time performance of our system can satisfy requirements for practical use.

  19. Valve Calcification in Aortic Stenosis: Etiology and Diagnostic Imaging Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Izquierdo-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most common valvulopathy in the Western world. Its prevalence has increased significantly in recent years due to population aging; hence, up to 8% of westerners above the age of 84 now have severe aortic stenosis (Lindroos et al., 1993. This causes increased morbidity and mortality and therein lies the importance of adequate diagnosis and stratification of the degree of severity which allows planning the best therapeutic option in each case. Long understood as a passive age-related degenerative process, it is now considered a rather more complex entity involving mechanisms and factors similar to those of atherosclerosis (Stewart et al., 1997. In this review, we summarize the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of the disease and analyze the current role of cardiac imaging techniques for diagnosis.

  20. Improved techniques in radionuclides imaging of prostatic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, R.A.; Fitzpatrick, J.M.; Constable, A.R.; Cranage, R.W.; O'Donoghue, E.P.N.; Wickham, J.E.A.

    1979-01-01

    Further improvements were made in the techniques of human prostatic lymphoscintigraphy, allowing better anatomical localisation of the areas of uptake of activity. A single median injection into the capsule of sup(99m)Tc labelled antimony sulphide colloid was found to give as good imaging as 2 injections on either side of the midline. By placing markers on the umbilicus, pubic symphysis and both anterior superior iliac spines, a 'pelvic grid' could be superimposed on the antero-posterior view. Further help with accurate localisation may be attained by taking 3 views; anterio-posterior, postero-anterior and lateral. In 9 instances, prostatic injection was performed without any sedation or anaesthesia. The resulting scintigrams were indistinguishable in quality from those of anaesthetised patients. (author)

  1. Importance of ultrasonic holography as imaging technique of material faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, V.

    1978-01-01

    In ultra-sound testing of thick-wall components the reconstruction of shape and position of material faults stands in the foreground. Ultra-sound holography allows imaging of this kind. The principle of this technique is to completely measure the amount and phase of a sound field arising from the fault location on the surface of the material-piece. The quantity is measured as a complex quantity. To accomplish this, ultra-sound holography works with monochromatic burst-signals. The recording of phase and amplitude formation can be made optically by means of a film carrier as well as numerically in a computer. Corresponding to this fact the reconstruction takes place by means of a laser beam or by means of mathematical formalisms in the computer. Both the methods are realized today and are applied in destruction-free testing. (orig./DG) [de

  2. BATMAN: Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, J.; Ascasibar, Y.; García-Benito, R.; Guidi, G.; Choudhury, O. S.; Bellocchi, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; Díaz, A. I.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis (BATMAN), a novel image-segmentation technique based on Bayesian statistics that characterizes any astronomical data set containing spatial information and performs a tessellation based on the measurements and errors provided as input. The algorithm iteratively merges spatial elements as long as they are statistically consistent with carrying the same information (I.e. identical signal within the errors). We illustrate its operation and performance with a set of test cases including both synthetic and real integral-field spectroscopic data. The output segmentations adapt to the underlying spatial structure, regardless of its morphology and/or the statistical properties of the noise. The quality of the recovered signal represents an improvement with respect to the input, especially in regions with low signal-to-noise ratio. However, the algorithm may be sensitive to small-scale random fluctuations, and its performance in presence of spatial gradients is limited. Due to these effects, errors may be underestimated by as much as a factor of 2. Our analysis reveals that the algorithm prioritizes conservation of all the statistically significant information over noise reduction, and that the precise choice of the input data has a crucial impact on the results. Hence, the philosophy of BaTMAn is not to be used as a 'black box' to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, but as a new approach to characterize spatially resolved data prior to its analysis. The source code is publicly available at http://astro.ft.uam.es/SELGIFS/BaTMAn.

  3. Experimental validation of incomplete data CT image reconstruction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, J.W.; Hsiao, M.L.; Tam, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    X-ray CT inspection of large metal parts is often limited by x-ray penetration problems along many of the ray paths required for a complete CT data set. In addition, because of the complex geometry of many industrial parts, manipulation difficulties often prevent scanning over some range of angles. CT images reconstructed from these incomplete data sets contain a variety of artifacts which limit their usefulness in part quality determination. Over the past several years, the authors' company has developed 2 new methods of incorporating a priori information about the parts under inspection to significantly improve incomplete data CT image quality. This work reviews the methods which were developed and presents experimental results which confirm the effectiveness of the techniques. The new methods for dealing with incomplete CT data sets rely on a priori information from part blueprints (in electronic form), outer boundary information from touch sensors, estimates of part outer boundaries from available x-ray data, and linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of the part. The two methods make use of this information in different fashions. The relative performance of the two methods in detecting various flaw types is compared. Methods for accurately registering a priori information with x-ray data are also described. These results are critical to a new industrial x-ray inspection cell built for inspection of large aircraft engine parts

  4. Imaging techniques for the assessment of fracture repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augat, P; Morgan, E F; Lujan, T J; MacGillivray, T J; Cheung, W H

    2014-06-01

    Imaging of a healing fracture provides a non-invasive and often instructive reproduction of the fracture repair progress and the healing status of bone. However, the interpretation of this reproduction is often qualitative and provides only an indirect and surrogate measure of the mechanical stability of the healing fracture. Refinements of the available imaging techniques have been suggested to more accurately determine the healing status of bone. Plain radiographs provide the ability to determine the degree of bridging of the fracture gap and to quantify the amount of periosteal callus formation. Absorptiometric measures including dual X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography provide quantitative information on the amount and the density of newly formed bone around the site of the fracture. To include the effect of spatial distribution of newly formed bone, finite element models of healing fracture can be employed to estimate its load bearing capacity. Ultrasound technology not only avoids radiation doses to the patients but also provides the ability to additionally measure vascularity in the surrounding soft tissue of the fracture and in the fracture itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Retail store image in emerging markets: An initial study among Chinese retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    differences regarding store characteristics, purchasing behavior, and supplier selection criteria among the three identified store image segments are revealed. The implications of these findings for practitioners and for future research on store image in emerging markets are highlighted....... their stores to defend and sustain the image (i.e. retailers' perspective). Here Chinese food retailing is used as an example of emerging markets. The study finds three unique store images, corresponding to up-market, middle-range, and down-market store segments. Contrasting the two studies, significant...

  6. Measurement of spatial correlation functions using image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A procedure for using digital image processing techniques to measure the spatial correlation functions of composite heterogeneous materials is presented. Methods for eliminating undesirable biases and warping in digitized photographs are discussed. Fourier transform methods and array processor techniques for calculating the spatial correlation functions are treated. By introducing a minimal set of lattice-commensurate triangles, a method of sorting and storing the values of three-point correlation functions in a compact one-dimensional array is developed. Examples are presented at each stage of the analysis using synthetic photographs of cross sections of a model random material (the penetrable sphere model) for which the analytical form of the spatial correlations functions is known. Although results depend somewhat on magnification and on relative volume fraction, it is found that photographs digitized with 512 x 512 pixels generally have sufficiently good statistics for most practical purposes. To illustrate the use of the correlation functions, bounds on conductivity for the penetrable sphere model are calculated with a general numerical scheme developed for treating the singular three-dimensional integrals which must be evaluated

  7. MR fingerprinting using the quick echo splitting NMR imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yun; Ma, Dan; Jerecic, Renate; Duerk, Jeffrey; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas; Griswold, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to develop a quantitative method for the relaxation properties with a reduced radio frequency (RF) power deposition by combining magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) technique with quick echo splitting NMR imaging technique (QUEST). A QUEST-based MRF sequence was implemented to acquire high-order echoes by increasing the gaps between RF pulses. Bloch simulations were used to calculate a dictionary containing the range of physically plausible signal evolutions using a range of T 1 and T 2 values based on the pulse sequence. MRF-QUEST was evaluated by comparing to the results of spin-echo methods. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of MRF-QUEST was compared with the clinically available methods. MRF-QUEST quantifies the relaxation properties with good accuracy at the estimated head SAR of 0.03 W/kg. T 1 and T 2 values estimated by MRF-QUEST are in good agreement with the traditional methods. The combination of the MRF and the QUEST provides an accurate quantification of T 1 and T 2 simultaneously with reduced RF power deposition. The resulting lower SAR may provide a new acquisition strategy for MRF when RF energy deposition is problematic. Magn Reson Med 77:979-988, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  9. Burnout prediction using advance image analysis coal characterization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Lester; Dave Watts; Michael Cloke [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Chemical Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The link between petrographic composition and burnout has been investigated previously by the authors. However, these predictions were based on 'bulk' properties of the coal, including the proportion of each maceral or the reflectance of the macerals in the whole sample. Combustion studies relating burnout with microlithotype analysis, or similar, remain less common partly because the technique is more complex than maceral analysis. Despite this, it is likely that any burnout prediction based on petrographic characteristics will become more accurate if it includes information about the maceral associations and the size of each particle. Chars from 13 coals, 106-125 micron size fractions, were prepared using a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF) at 1300{degree}C and 200 millisecond and 1% Oxygen. These chars were then refired in the DTF at 1300{degree}C 5% oxygen and residence times of 200, 400 and 600 milliseconds. The progressive burnout of each char was compared with the characteristics of the initial coals. This paper presents an extension of previous studies in that it relates combustion behaviour to coals that have been characterized on a particle by particle basis using advanced image analysis techniques. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Near-field three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, David; McMakin, Douglas; Hall, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Three-dimensional radio frequency imaging techniques have been developed for a variety of near-field applications, including radar cross-section imaging, concealed weapon detection, ground penetrating radar imaging, through-barrier imaging, and nondestructive evaluation. These methods employ active radar transceivers that operate at various frequency ranges covering a wide range, from less than 100 MHz to in excess of 350 GHz, with the frequency range customized for each application. Computational wavefront reconstruction imaging techniques have been developed that optimize the resolution and illumination quality of the images. In this paper, rectilinear and cylindrical three-dimensional imaging techniques are described along with several application results.

  11. Obtention of tumor volumes in PET images stacks using techniques of colored image segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jose W.; Lopes Filho, Ferdinand J.; Vieira, Igor F.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrated step by step how to segment color images of the chest of an adult in order to separate the tumor volume without significantly changing the values of the components R (Red), G (Green) and B (blue) of the colors of the pixels. For having information which allow to build color map you need to segment and classify the colors present at appropriate intervals in images. The used segmentation technique is to select a small rectangle with color samples in a given region and then erase with a specific color called 'rubber' the other regions of image. The tumor region was segmented into one of the images available and the procedure is displayed in tutorial format. All necessary computational tools have been implemented in DIP (Digital Image Processing), software developed by the authors. The results obtained, in addition to permitting the construction the colorful map of the distribution of the concentration of activity in PET images will also be useful in future work to enter tumors in voxel phantoms in order to perform dosimetric assessments

  12. Technique Based on Image Pyramid and Bayes Rule for Noise Reduction in Unsupervised Change Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-qiang; HUO hong; FANG Tao; ZHU Ju-lian; GE Wei-li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a technique based on image pyramid and Bayes rule for reducing noise effects in unsupervised change detection is proposed. By using Gaussian pyramid to process two multitemporal images respectively, two image pyramids are constructed. The difference pyramid images are obtained by point-by-point subtraction between the same level images of the two image pyramids. By resizing all difference pyramid images to the size of the original multitemporal image and then making product operator among them, a map being similar to the difference image is obtained. The difference image is generated by point-by-point subtraction between the two multitemporal images directly. At last, the Bayes rule is used to distinguish the changed pixels. Both synthetic and real data sets are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. Experimental results show that the map from the proposed technique is more robust to noise than the difference image.

  13. Multi-energy spectral CT: adding value in emergency body imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Gopal V

    2018-04-01

    Most vendors offer scanners capable of dual- or multi-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging. Advantages of multi-energy CT scanning include superior tissue characterization, detection of subtle iodine uptake differences, and opportunities to reduce contrast dose. However, utilization of this technology in the emergency department (ED) remains low. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the value of multi-energy CT scanning in emergency body imaging.

  14. Structural Image Analysis of the Brain in Neuropsychology Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Erin D

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain provides exceptional image quality for visualization and neuroanatomical classification of brain structure. A variety of image analysis techniques provide both qualitative as well as quantitative methods to relate brain structure with neuropsychological outcome and are reviewed herein. Of particular importance are more automated methods that permit analysis of a broad spectrum of anatomical measures including volume, thickness and shape. The challenge for neuropsychology is which metric to use, for which disorder and the timing of when image analysis methods are applied to assess brain structure and pathology. A basic overview is provided as to the anatomical and pathoanatomical relations of different MRI sequences in assessing normal and abnormal findings. Some interpretive guidelines are offered including factors related to similarity and symmetry of typical brain development along with size-normalcy features of brain anatomy related to function. The review concludes with a detailed example of various quantitative techniques applied to analyzing brain structure for neuropsychological outcome studies in traumatic brain injury.

  15. Requirements for radiation emergency urine bioassay techniques for the public and first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Vlahovich, Slavica; Dai, Xiongxin; Richardson, Richard B; Daka, Joseph N; Kramer, Gary H

    2010-11-01

    Following a radiation emergency, the affected public and the first responders may need to be quickly assessed for internal contamination by the radionuclides involved. Urine bioassay is one of the most commonly used methods for assessing radionuclide intake and radiation dose. This paper attempts to derive the sensitivity requirements (from inhalation exposure) for the urine bioassay techniques for the top 10 high-risk radionuclides that might be used in a terrorist attack. The requirements are based on a proposed reference dose to adults of 0.1 Sv (CED, committed effective dose). In addition, requirements related to sample turnaround time and field deployability of the assay techniques are also discussed. A review of currently available assay techniques summarized in this paper reveals that method development for ²⁴¹Am, ²²⁶Ra, ²³⁸Pu, and ⁹⁰Sr urine bioassay is needed.

  16. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with the rotational fluoroscopy imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannavale, Alessandro; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Wlderk, Andrea; Cirelli, Carlo; D' Adamo, Alessandro; Fanelli, Fabrizio [University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Unit, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of the rotational angiography unit (RAU) as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Twenty-five consecutive patients (35 vertebral bodies, 20 lumbar and 15 thoracic) were treated using RA fluoroscopy. Using a state-of-the-art flat-panel angiographer (Artis zee, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), rotational acquisitions were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure 2D/3D reconstructions. Pre- and postoperative back pain was assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS). Fluoroscopy time, patient radiation dose exposure, technical success, mean procedure time, mean number of rotational acquisitions and procedural complications were recorded. All features were compared with a historical cohort of patients (N = 25) who underwent PVP under CT and mobile C-arm fluoroscopy guidance. In all cases, safe and accurate control of the needle insertion and bone-cement injection was successfully obtained with high-quality fluoroscopy images. One cement leakage was detected in the RAU group, and two leakages were detected in the CT and C-arm fluoroscopy group. Technical features were significantly different between the two groups (RAU vs. CT): mean procedure time: 38.2 min vs. 60.2 min (p = 0.02); median fluoroscopy time: 14.58 and 4.58 min (p = 0.02); median number of rotational acquisitions: 5 vs. 10 (p = 0.02); mean patient dose: 6 ± 1.3 mSv vs. 23 ± 1.3 mSv (p = 0.02). There were minor complications (pain, small hematoma) in two patients (8%) in the study group and three cases (12%) in the control group. RAU guidance is an effective and safe technique for performing PVP because it reduces the procedural time and radiation exposure. (orig.)

  17. Ancestry of indirect techniques for X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, L.

    1989-01-01

    Historical citations concerning the origins of coded-aperture imaging are corrected. Another scheme is presented for synthetic indirect imaging to overcome certain shortcomings of simple coded apertures. Pairs of Fresnel zone patterns are used to create moire patterns that can be Fourier transformed for image reconstruction. It is also conjectured that image reconstructions that are constrained to be nonnegative should overcome certain complaints concerning indirect imaging. 20 refs

  18. Quality Improvement of Liver Ultrasound Images Using Fuzzy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Azadeh; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Radmard, Amir Reza; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh

    2016-12-01

    Liver ultrasound images are so common and are applied so often to diagnose diffuse liver diseases like fatty liver. However, the low quality of such images makes it difficult to analyze them and diagnose diseases. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to improve the contrast and quality of liver ultrasound images. In this study, a number of image contrast enhancement algorithms which are based on fuzzy logic were applied to liver ultrasound images - in which the view of kidney is observable - using Matlab2013b to improve the image contrast and quality which has a fuzzy definition; just like image contrast improvement algorithms using a fuzzy intensification operator, contrast improvement algorithms applying fuzzy image histogram hyperbolization, and contrast improvement algorithms by fuzzy IF-THEN rules. With the measurement of Mean Squared Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio obtained from different images, fuzzy methods provided better results, and their implementation - compared with histogram equalization method - led both to the improvement of contrast and visual quality of images and to the improvement of liver segmentation algorithms results in images. Comparison of the four algorithms revealed the power of fuzzy logic in improving image contrast compared with traditional image processing algorithms. Moreover, contrast improvement algorithm based on a fuzzy intensification operator was selected as the strongest algorithm considering the measured indicators. This method can also be used in future studies on other ultrasound images for quality improvement and other image processing and analysis applications.

  19. Emerging Techniques in Stratified Designs and Continuous Gradients for Tissue Engineering of Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormer, Nathan H.; Berkland, Cory J.; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacial tissue engineering is an emerging branch of regenerative medicine, where engineers are faced with developing methods for the repair of one or many functional tissue systems simultaneously. Early and recent solutions for complex tissue formation have utilized stratified designs, where scaffold formulations are segregated into two or more layers, with discrete changes in physical or chemical properties, mimicking a corresponding number of interfacing tissue types. This method has brought forth promising results, along with a myriad of regenerative techniques. The latest designs, however, are employing “continuous gradients” in properties, where there is no discrete segregation between scaffold layers. This review compares the methods and applications of recent stratified approaches to emerging continuously graded methods. PMID:20411333

  20. USE OF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION EFFICIENCY ON WEARABLE GADGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD EHSAN RANA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the effects of image enhancement techniques on face recognition performance of wearable gadgets with an emphasis on recognition rate.In this research, a number of image enhancement techniques are selected that include brightness normalization, contrast normalization, sharpening, smoothing, and various combinations of these. Subsequently test images are obtained from AT&T database and Yale Face Database B to investigate the effect of these image enhancement techniques under various conditions such as change of illumination and face orientation and expression.The evaluation of data, collected during this research, revealed that the effect of image pre-processing techniques on face recognition highly depends on the illumination condition under which these images are taken. It is revealed that the benefit of applying image enhancement techniques on face images is best seen when there is high variation of illumination among images. Results also indicate that highest recognition rate is achieved when images are taken under low light condition and image contrast is enhanced using histogram equalization technique and then image noise is reduced using median smoothing filter. Additionally combination of contrast normalization and mean smoothing filter shows good result in all scenarios. Results obtained from test cases illustrate up to 75% improvement in face recognition rate when image enhancement is applied to images in given scenarios.

  1. Role of Imaging Techniques in Percutaneous Treatment of Mitral Regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chi-Hion; Arzamendi, Dabit; Carreras, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Mitral regurgitation is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the United States and the second most prevalent in Europe. Patients with severe mitral regurgitation have a poor prognosis with medical therapy once they become symptomatic or develop signs of significant cardiac dysfunction. However, as many as half of these patients are inoperable because of advanced age, ventricular dysfunction, or other comorbidities. Studies have shown that surgery increases survival in patients with organic mitral regurgitation due to valve prolapse but has no clinical benefit in those with functional mitral regurgitation. In this scenario, percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation in native valves provides alternative management of valvular heart disease in patients at high surgical risk. Percutaneous repair for mitral regurgitation is a growing field that relies heavily on imaging techniques to diagnose functional anatomy and guide repair procedures. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. An efficient simultaneous reconstruction technique for tomographic particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Callum; Soria, Julio

    2009-10-01

    To date, Tomo-PIV has involved the use of the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART), where the intensity of each 3D voxel is iteratively corrected to satisfy one recorded projection, or pixel intensity, at a time. This results in reconstruction times of multiple hours for each velocity field and requires considerable computer memory in order to store the associated weighting coefficients and intensity values for each point in the volume. In this paper, a rapid and less memory intensive reconstruction algorithm is presented based on a multiplicative line-of-sight (MLOS) estimation that determines possible particle locations in the volume, followed by simultaneous iterative correction. Reconstructions of simulated images are presented for two simultaneous algorithms (SART and SMART) as well as the now standard MART algorithm, which indicate that the same accuracy as MART can be achieved 5.5 times faster or 77 times faster with 15 times less memory if the processing and storage of the weighting matrix is considered. Application of MLOS-SMART and MART to a turbulent boundary layer at Re θ = 2200 using a 4 camera Tomo-PIV system with a volume of 1,000 × 1,000 × 160 voxels is discussed. Results indicate improvements in reconstruction speed of 15 times that of MART with precalculated weighting matrix, or 65 times if calculation of the weighting matrix is considered. Furthermore the memory needed to store a large weighting matrix and volume intensity is reduced by almost 40 times in this case.

  3. CT and MRI techniques for imaging around orthopedic hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Thuy Duong; Skornitzke, Stephan; Weber, Marc-Andre [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Sutter, Reto [Uniklinik Balgrist, Zurich (Switzerland). Radiology

    2018-01-15

    Orthopedic hardware impairs image quality in cross-sectional imaging. With an increasing number of orthopedic implants in an aging population, the need to mitigate metal artifacts in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is becoming increasingly relevant. This review provides an overview of the major artifacts in CT and MRI and state-of-the-art solutions to improve image quality. All steps of image acquisition from device selection, scan preparations and parameters to image post-processing influence the magnitude of metal artifacts. Technological advances like dual-energy CT with the possibility of virtual monochromatic imaging (VMI) and new materials offer opportunities to further reduce artifacts in CT and MRI. Dedicated metal artifact reduction sequences contain algorithms to reduce artifacts and improve imaging of surrounding tissue and are essential tools in orthopedic imaging to detect postoperative complications in early stages.

  4. A comparative study of surface- and volume-based techniques for the automatic registration between CT and SPECT brain images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagadis, George C.; Delibasis, Konstantinos K.; Matsopoulos, George K.; Mouravliansky, Nikolaos A.; Asvestas, Pantelis A.; Nikiforidis, George C.

    2002-01-01

    Image registration of multimodality images is an essential task in numerous applications in three-dimensional medical image processing. Medical diagnosis can benefit from the complementary information in different modality images. Surface-based registration techniques, while still widely used, were succeeded by volume-based registration algorithms that appear to be theoretically advantageous in terms of reliability and accuracy. Several applications of such algorithms for the registration of CT-MRI, CT-PET, MRI-PET, and SPECT-MRI images have emerged in the literature, using local optimization techniques for the matching of images. Our purpose in this work is the development of automatic techniques for the registration of real CT and SPECT images, based on either surface- or volume-based algorithms. Optimization is achieved using genetic algorithms that are known for their robustness. The two techniques are compared against a well-established method, the Iterative Closest Point--ICP. The correlation coefficient was employed as an independent measure of spatial match, to produce unbiased results. The repeated measures ANOVA indicates the significant impact of the choice of registration method on the magnitude of the correlation (F=4.968, p=0.0396). The volume-based method achieves an average correlation coefficient value of 0.454 with a standard deviation of 0.0395, as opposed to an average of 0.380 with a standard deviation of 0.0603 achieved by the surface-based method and an average of 0.396 with a standard deviation equal to 0.0353 achieved by ICP. The volume-based technique performs significantly better compared to both ICP (p<0.05, Neuman Keuls test) and the surface-based technique (p<0.05, Neuman-Keuls test). Surface-based registration and ICP do not differ significantly in performance

  5. A Novel Feature Extraction Technique Using Binarization of Bit Planes for Content Based Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Thepade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of techniques have been proposed earlier for feature extraction using image binarization. Efficiency of the techniques was dependent on proper threshold selection for the binarization method. In this paper, a new feature extraction technique using image binarization has been proposed. The technique has binarized the significant bit planes of an image by selecting local thresholds. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a public dataset and has been compared with existing widely used techniques using binarization for extraction of features. It has been inferred that the proposed method has outclassed all the existing techniques and has shown consistent classification performance.

  6. Micro-structural characterization of materials using synchrotron hard X-ray imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Singh, Balwant; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging has been an important tool to study the materials microstructure with the laboratory based sources however the advent of third generation synchrotron sources has introduced new concepts in X-ray imaging such as phase contrast imaging, micro-tomography, fluorescence imaging and diffraction enhance imaging. These techniques are being used to provide information of materials about their density distribution, porosity, geometrical and morphological characteristics at sub-micron scalewith improved contrast. This paper discusses the development of various imaging techniques at synchrotron based imaging beamline Indus-2 and few recent experiments carried out at this facility

  7. AN IMAGE-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR 3D BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION USING MULTI-VIEW UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alidoost

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the development of the urban areas, the automatic reconstruction of the buildings, as an important objects of the city complex structures, became a challenging topic in computer vision and photogrammetric researches. In this paper, the capability of multi-view Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs images is examined to provide a 3D model of complex building façades using an efficient image-based modelling workflow. The main steps of this work include: pose estimation, point cloud generation, and 3D modelling. After improving the initial values of interior and exterior parameters at first step, an efficient image matching technique such as Semi Global Matching (SGM is applied on UAV images and a dense point cloud is generated. Then, a mesh model of points is calculated using Delaunay 2.5D triangulation and refined to obtain an accurate model of building. Finally, a texture is assigned to mesh in order to create a realistic 3D model. The resulting model has provided enough details of building based on visual assessment.

  8. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, José Augusto A; Rodrigues, Alexandre B; Mota, Cleonice Carvalho C; Barbosa, Márcia M; Simões e Silva, Ana C

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.

  9. CT urethrography. New imaging technique of the urethra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Munechika, Hirotsugu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the usefulness of CT urethrography for evaluation of the posterior urethra and surrounding structures. The CT images were performed with 4 channel multidetector row CT unit. Twenty-six cases (12 cases of CT urethrography and 14 cases of conventional urethrography) were included in this study. 3D-volume rendering (VR) images and VR-multiplaner reconstruction (MPR) sagittal images were compared with conventional retrograde urethrography (RUG) images to evaluate the following anatomical structures; the inferior wall of bladder, the neck of bladder, the posterior urethra, and the prostate. Two radiologists undertook a task of evaluation of the images. There was no significant difference in image quality between RUG and 3D-VR. However, VR-MPR sagittal images were significantly better than RUG or 3D-VR images in any anatomical structures set up beforehand for evaluation. CT urerthrography was useful for evaluation of the posterior urethra and surrounding structures. (author)

  10. A forward model and conjugate gradient inversion technique for low-frequency ultrasonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Koen W A; Wright, William M D

    2006-10-01

    Emerging methods of hyperthermia cancer treatment require noninvasive temperature monitoring, and ultrasonic techniques show promise in this regard. Various tomographic algorithms are available that reconstruct sound speed or contrast profiles, which can be related to temperature distribution. The requirement of a high enough frequency for adequate spatial resolution and a low enough frequency for adequate tissue penetration is a difficult compromise. In this study, the feasibility of using low frequency ultrasound for imaging and temperature monitoring was investigated. The transient probing wave field had a bandwidth spanning the frequency range 2.5-320.5 kHz. The results from a forward model which computed the propagation and scattering of low-frequency acoustic pressure and velocity wave fields were used to compare three imaging methods formulated within the Born approximation, representing two main types of reconstruction. The first uses Fourier techniques to reconstruct sound-speed profiles from projection or Radon data based on optical ray theory, seen as an asymptotical limit for comparison. The second uses backpropagation and conjugate gradient inversion methods based on acoustical wave theory. The results show that the accuracy in localization was 2.5 mm or better when using low frequencies and the conjugate gradient inversion scheme, which could be used for temperature monitoring.

  11. COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF CLUSTER BASED IMAGE SEGMENTATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Hetangi D. Mehta*, Daxa Vekariya, Pratixa Badelia

    2017-01-01

    Image segmentation is the classification of an image into different groups. Numerous algorithms using different approaches have been proposed for image segmentation. A major challenge in segmentation evaluation comes from the fundamental conflict between generality and objectivity. A review is done on different types of clustering methods used for image segmentation. Also a methodology is proposed to classify and quantify different clustering algorithms based on their consistency in different...

  12. Improvement of temporal and dynamic subtraction images on abdominal CT using 3D global image matching and nonlinear image warping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, E; Sanada, S; Suzuki, M; Takemura, A; Matsui, O

    2007-01-01

    Accurate registration of the corresponding non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images is necessary to create temporal and dynamic subtraction images for the enhancement of subtle abnormalities. However, respiratory movement causes misregistration at the periphery of the liver. To reduce these misregistration errors, we developed a temporal and dynamic subtraction technique to enhance small HCC by 3D global matching and nonlinear image warping techniques. The study population consisted of 21 patients with HCC. Using the 3D global matching and nonlinear image warping technique, we registered current and previous arterial-phase CT images or current non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images obtained in the same position. The temporal subtraction image was obtained by subtracting the previous arterial-phase CT image from the warped current arterial-phase CT image. The dynamic subtraction image was obtained by the subtraction of the current non-enhanced CT image from the warped current arterial-phase CT image. The percentage of fair or superior temporal subtraction images increased from 52.4% to 95.2% using the new technique, while on the dynamic subtraction images, the percentage increased from 66.6% to 95.2%. The new subtraction technique may facilitate the diagnosis of subtle HCC based on the superior ability of these subtraction images to show nodular and/or ring enhancement

  13. Corrections of residual fluorescence distortions for a glancing-emergence-angle x-ray-absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewe, D.L.; Pease, D.M.; Budnick, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Distortions appear in x-ray-absorption spectra obtained by monitoring the fluorescence from thick samples with concentrated absorbing species. The glancing-emergence-angle technique for obtaining spectra from this type of sample eliminates distortions from the measured spectra by monitoring the fluorescence leaving the sample at a small angle relative to the sample surface. This technique is limited by the small signal available from the inherently limited detector solid angle. In addition, no precise estimate of the required restriction on maximum emergent angle θ max has been available. We have calculated residual extended x-ray-absorption fine structure distortions as a function of θ max , and performed experimental tests of the calculations. These calculations provide a means to estimate the required detector geometry for negligible distortions, or alternatively, allow the use of a larger θ max , increasing the available signal, with the remaining residual distortions removed by application of the calculations. The calculations are also applicable to other detector geometries, and account for detectors subtending a large solid angle by an integration over the subtended angle. This represents an improvement over previous calculations. The application to more general detector configurations is also discussed

  14. Ultrasonic off-normal imaging techniques for under sodium viewing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, T.E.; Horn, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Advanced imaging methods have been evaluated for the purpose of constructing images of objects from ultrasonic data. Feasibility of imaging surfaces which are off-normal to the sound beam has been established. Laboratory results are presented which show a complete image of a typical core component. Using the previous system developed for under sodium viewing (USV), only normal surfaces of this object could be imaged. Using advanced methods, surfaces up to 60 degrees off-normal have been imaged. Details of equipment and procedures used for this image construction are described. Additional work on high temperature transducers, electronics, and signal analysis is required in order to adapt the off-normal viewing process described here to an eventual USV application

  15. Diagnostic imaging techniques in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, A.; Carcione, A.; Benenati, A.; Albano, S.; Rubino, F.P.; Reina, C.; Verde, V.; Giuffre, L.; Corsello, G.; Cammarata, M.; Piccione, M.

    1991-01-01

    Both etiology and pathogenesis of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) are still questionable, even though a genetic factor seems to be certain. A typical face, psychomotor delay, and thumb and halluces abnormalities (big, prevalently short, and often 'spoon-like' toes) are the main characteristic patterns of RTS. Eight subjects (4 male and 3 female children aged 26 days-7 years, and a 31-year old woman, mother of 1 of the affected children) with different signs of RTS were studied over the last 3 years. The results are here reported, with a special emphasis on malformations detected with conventional radiography (Rx), Computerized Tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US). Evaluated parameters were thumbs and halluces (Rx), bone age and skeleton (Rx), cranium (Rx) and encephalon (US, CT), cryptochidism (US, CT), and urogical (Rx, US) and carciovascolar (US) system. Atypical face and psycomotor delay were found in all cases, while thumb and halluces abnormalities were observed only in 6 cases. Among several clinical signs of RTS, we found: severe (<3rd centile) bone maturation delay in 4 cases; skull volume reduction (<50th centile) in 3 subjects and microcrania in 4; skeletal abnormalities in 7 cases (5 of them positive for bilateral coxofemoral abnormalities); urinary tract (4 cases) and cardiovascular (3 cases) malformation; and cryptorcidism in 3 of 4 males. A case was diagnosed during neonatal period (within the first month of life) it was a rare case associated with a variant form of Dandy-Walker anomaly; semiologic similarities were observed between mother and daughter patients. X-rays, US and CT rarely play an important role in the diagnosis of RTS, considering the several clinical signs, mainly tha face, affecting the patients. However, diagnostic imaging techniques help diagnose hidden malformations and confirm and integrate clinical signs

  16. Evaluation of the low dose cardiac CT imaging using ASIR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiahua; Hsieh, Jiang; Deubig, Amy; Sainath, Paavana; Crandall, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Today Cardiac imaging is one of the key driving forces for the research and development activities of Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. It requires high spatial and temporal resolution and is often associated with high radiation dose. The newly introduced ASIR technique presents an efficient method that offers the dose reduction benefits while maintaining image quality and providing fast reconstruction speed. This paper discusses the study of image quality of the ASIR technique for Cardiac CT imaging. Phantoms as well as clinical data have been evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of ASIR technique for Cardiac CT applications.

  17. Molecular Imaging of Tumors Using a Quantitative T1 Mapping Technique via Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Herrmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM with molecular imaging agents would allow for the specific localization of brain tumors. Prior studies using T1-weighted MR imaging demonstrated that the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 molecular imaging agent labeled heterotopic xenograft models of brain tumors more intensely than non-specific contrast agents using conventional T1-weighted imaging techniques. In this study, we used a dynamic quantitative T1 mapping strategy to more objectively compare intra-tumoral retention of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time in comparison to non-targeted control agents. Our results demonstrate that the targeted SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent, a scrambled-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 control agent, and the non-specific clinical contrast agent Optimark™ all enhanced flank tumors of human glioma cells with similar maximal changes on T1 mapping. However, the retention of the agents differs. The non-specific agents show significant recovery within 20 min by an increase in T1 while the specific agent SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 is retained in the tumors and shows little recovery over 60 min. The retention effect is demonstrated by percent change in T1 values and slope calculations as well as by calculations of gadolinium concentration in tumor compared to muscle. Quantitative T1 mapping demonstrates the superior binding and retention in tumors of the SBK2-Tris-(Gd-DOTA3 agent over time compared to the non-specific contrast agent currently in clinical use.

  18. Optimization of coronary optical coherence tomography imaging using the attenuation-compensated technique: a validation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teo, Jing Chun; Foin, Nicolas; Otsuka, Fumiyuki; Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Fam, Jiang Ming; Wong, Philip; Low, Fatt Hoe; Leo, Hwa Liang; Mari, Jean-Martial; Joner, Michael; Girard, Michael J A; Virmani, Renu; Bezerra, HG.; Costa, MA.; Guagliumi, G.; Rollins, AM.; Simon, D.; Gutiérrez-Chico, JL.; Alegría-Barrero, E.; Teijeiro-Mestre, R.; Chan, PH.; Tsujioka, H.; de Silva, R.; Otsuka, F.; Joner, M.; Prati, F.; Virmani, R.; Narula, J.; Members, WC.; Levine, GN.; Bates, ER.; Blankenship, JC.; Bailey, SR.; Bittl, JA.; Prati, F.; Guagliumi, G.; Mintz, G.S.; Costa, Marco; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Roleder, T.; Jąkała, J.; Kałuża, GL.; Partyka, Ł.; Proniewska, K.; Pociask, E.; Girard, MJA.; Strouthidis, NG.; Ethier, CR.; Mari, JM.; Mari, JM.; Strouthidis, NG.; Park, SC.; Girard, MJA.; van der Lee, R.; Foin, N.; Otsuka, F.; Wong, P.K.; Mari, J-M.; Joner, M.; Nakano, M.; Vorpahl, M.; Otsuka, F.; Taniwaki, M.; Yazdani, SK.; Finn, AV.; Nakano, M.; Yahagi, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Taniwaki, M.; Otsuka, F.; Ladich, ER.; Girard, MJ.; Ang, M.; Chung, CW.; Farook, M.; Strouthidis, N.; Mehta, JS.; Foin, N.; Mari, JM.; Nijjer, S.; Sen, S.; Petraco, R.; Ghione, M.; Liu, X.; Kang, JU.; Virmani, R.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Burke, AP.; Farb, A.; Schwartz, S.M.; Yahagi, K.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Otsuka, F.; Finn, AV.; Davis, HR.; Joner, M.; Kume, T.; Akasaka, T.; Kawamoto, T.; Watanabe, N.; Toyota, E.; Neishi, Y.; Rieber, J.; Meissner, O.; Babaryka, G.; Reim, S.; Oswald, M.E.; Koenig, A.S.; Tearney, G. J.; Regar, E.; Akasaka, T.; Adriaenssens, T.; Barlis, P.; Bezerra, HG.; Yabushita, H.; Bouma, BE.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; Guo, J.; Sun, L.; Chen, Y.D.; Tian, F.; Liu, HB.; Chen, L.; Kawasaki, M.; Bouma, BE.; Bressner, J. E.; Houser, S. L.; Nadkarni, S. K.; MacNeill, BD.; Jansen, CHP.; Onthank, DC.; Cuello, F.; Botnar, RM.; Wiethoff, AJ.; Warley, A.; von Birgelen, C.; Hartmann, A. M.; Kubo, T.; Akasaka, T.; Shite, J.; Suzuki, T.; Uemura, S.; Yu, B.; Habara, M.; Nasu, K.; Terashima, M.; Kaneda, H.; Yokota, D.; Ko, E.; Virmani, R.; Burke, AP.; Kolodgie, F.D.; Farb, A.; Takarada, S.; Imanishi, T.; Kubo, T.; Tanimoto, T.; Kitabata, H.; Nakamura, N.; Hattori, K.; Ozaki, Y.; Ismail, TF.; Okumura, M.; Naruse, H.; Kan, S.; Nishio, R.; Shinke, T.; Otake, H.; Nakagawa, M.; Nagoshi, R.; Inoue, T.; Sinclair, H.D.; Bourantas, C.; Bagnall, A.; Mintz, G.S.; Kunadian, V.; Tearney, G. J.; Yabushita, H.; Houser, S. L.; Aretz, HT.; Jang, I-K.; Schlendorf, KH.; van Soest, G.; Goderie, T.; Regar, E.; Koljenović, S.; Leenders, GL. van; Gonzalo, N.; Xu, C.; Schmitt, JM.; Carlier, SG.; Virmani, R.; van der Meer, FJ; Faber, D.J.; Sassoon, DMB.; Aalders, M.C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Leeuwen, TG. van; Schmitt, JM.; Knuttel, A.; Yadlowsky, M.; Eckhaus, MA.; Karamata, B.; Laubscher, M.; Leutenegger, M.; Bourquin, S.; Lasser, T.; Lambelet, P.; Vermeer, K.A.; Mo, J.; Weda, J.J.A.; Lemij, H.G.; Boer, JF. de

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To optimize conventional coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) images using the attenuation-compensated technique to improve identification of plaques and the external elastic lamina (EEL) contour. METHOD The attenuation-compensated technique was optimized via manipulating contrast

  19. Non-traumatic neurological emergencies: imaging of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Iris; Reith, Wolfgang [Department of Neuroradiology, Saarland University Clinic, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide with almost one-third of all cardiovascular deaths ascribed to stroke. Imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) provide tremendous insight into the pathophysiology of acute stroke. Computed tomography is considered the most important initial diagnostic study in patients with acute stroke, because underlying structural lesions, such as tumor, vascular malformation, or subdural hematoma, can mimic stroke clinically. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the ability to visualize changes in diffusion within minutes after the onset of ischemia and has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with stroke syndrome. Territories with diffusion and perfusion mismatch may define tissues at risk, but with potential recovery. An alternative strategy with CT technology uses rapid CT for dynamic perfusion imaging, with similar goals in mind. Angiography can be performed in the hyperacute stage if thrombolytic therapy is being considered. Indications for diagnostic angiography include transient ischemic attacks in a carotid distribution, amaurosis fugax, prior stroke in a carotid distribution, a high-grade stenotic lesion in a carotid artery, acquiring an angiographic correlation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) concerning stenotic findings. In 50% of all angiograms performed in the hyperacute stage, occlusion of a vessel is observed; however, the need for angiography has been made less necessary due to the improvements of MRA, duplex ultrasound, and CTA. Numerous etiologies can lead to infarction. In children, pediatric stroke is very uncommon. The most common cause is an embolus from congenital heart disease with right-to-left shunts. Also a dissection of large extracranial vessels may result in cerebral infarction, and although the brain is equipped with numerous venous drainage routes

  20. Non-traumatic neurological emergencies: imaging of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Iris; Reith, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide with almost one-third of all cardiovascular deaths ascribed to stroke. Imaging modalities, such as CT, MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) provide tremendous insight into the pathophysiology of acute stroke. Computed tomography is considered the most important initial diagnostic study in patients with acute stroke, because underlying structural lesions, such as tumor, vascular malformation, or subdural hematoma, can mimic stroke clinically. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the ability to visualize changes in diffusion within minutes after the onset of ischemia and has become a powerful tool in the evaluation of patients with stroke syndrome. Territories with diffusion and perfusion mismatch may define tissues at risk, but with potential recovery. An alternative strategy with CT technology uses rapid CT for dynamic perfusion imaging, with similar goals in mind. Angiography can be performed in the hyperacute stage if thrombolytic therapy is being considered. Indications for diagnostic angiography include transient ischemic attacks in a carotid distribution, amaurosis fugax, prior stroke in a carotid distribution, a high-grade stenotic lesion in a carotid artery, acquiring an angiographic correlation of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA) concerning stenotic findings. In 50% of all angiograms performed in the hyperacute stage, occlusion of a vessel is observed; however, the need for angiography has been made less necessary due to the improvements of MRA, duplex ultrasound, and CTA. Numerous etiologies can lead to infarction. In children, pediatric stroke is very uncommon. The most common cause is an embolus from congenital heart disease with right-to-left shunts. Also a dissection of large extracranial vessels may result in cerebral infarction, and although the brain is equipped with numerous venous drainage routes

  1. Monitoring techniques for the impact assessment during nuclear and radiological emergencies: current status and the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    Preparedness and response capability for Nuclear and Radiological emergencies, existing world over, are mainly based on the requirement of responding to radiation emergency caused by nuclear or radiological accidents. Cosmos satellite accident, plutonium contamination at Polaris, nuclear accidents like Kystium, Windscale, TMI and Chernobyl, radiological accidents at Goiania etc have demonstrated the requirement of improved radiation monitoring techniques. For quick decision making, state of the art monitoring methodology which can support quantitative and qualitative impact assessment is essential. Evaluation of radiological mapping of the area suspected to be contaminated needs ground based as well as aerial based monitoring systems to predict the level of radioactive contamination on ground. This will help in delineating the area and deciding the required countermeasures, based on the quantity and type of radionuclides responsible for it. The response can be successful with the effective use of i) Early Warning System ii) Mobile Monitoring System and iii) Aerial Gamma Spectrometric System. Selection of the monitoring methodology and survey parameters and assessment of situation using available resources etc. are to be optimized depending on the accident scenario. Recently, many countries and agencies like IAEA have expressed the requirement for responding to other types of nuclear/radiological emergencies i.e, man made radiation emergency situations aimed at harming public at large that can also lead to environmental contamination and significant exposure to public. Reports of lost / misplaced / stolen radioactive sources from many countries are alarming as safety and security of these radioactive sources are under challenge. The monitoring methodology has to take into account of the increase in such demands and more periodic monitoring in suspected locations is to be carried out. Detection of orphan sources possible amidst large heap of metallic scraps may pose

  2. The emerging role of magnetic resonance imaging in rheumatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, P L; Vellet, A D; Romano, C; Levin, M F; Harth, M F; Bell, D A [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    1994-08-01

    The current applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reviewed, with special emphasis on rheumatoid practice. MRI was found to be the most powerful tool currently available for detecting avascular necrosis at a stage when the condition might still be reversible, especially for hip cases. MRI can also be used to visualize abnormal synovial tissue, effusion, and loose bodies and debris within the joint. Tendonitis and tendosynovitis are other applications for MRI because of the sensitivity of MRI to changes in free water content. Interest has recently increased in the use of MRI in the assessment of neuromuscular disorders, for example dermatomyositis. The fact that MRI is non-invasive makes it particularly suitable for the assessment of a large variety of other immunologic and musculoskeletal conditions. 5 figs., 44 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Aliasless fresnel transform image reconstruction in phase scrambling fourier transform technique by data interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Liu, Na; Ito, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The signal in the Fresnel transform technique corresponds to a blurred one of the spin density image. Because the amplitudes of adjacent sampled signals have a high interrelation, the signal amplitude at a point between sampled points can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy even if the sampling is so coarse as to generate aliasing in the reconstructed images. In this report, we describe a new aliasless image reconstruction technique in the phase scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique in which the PSFT signals are converted to Fresnel transform signals by multiplying them by a quadratic phase term and are then interpolated using polynomial expressions to generate fully encoded signals. Numerical simulation using MR images showed that almost completely aliasless images are reconstructed by this technique. Experiments using ultra-low-field PSFT MRI were conducted, and aliasless images were reconstructed from coarsely sampled PSFT signals. (author)

  4. Study and analysis of wavelet based image compression techniques

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is a recently developed compression ... serve emerging areas of mobile multimedia and internet communication, ..... In global thresholding the best trade-off between PSNR and compression is provided by.

  5. A general technique for interstudy registration of multifunction and multimodality images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, K.P.; Huang, S.C.; Bacter, L.R.; Phelps, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    A technique that can register anatomic/structural brain images (e.g., MRI) with various functional images (e.g., PET-FDG and PET-FDOPA) of the same subject has been developed. The procedure of this technique includes the following steps: (1) segmentation of MRI brain images into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and, muscle (MS) components, (2) assignment of appropriate radio-tracer concentrations to various components depending on the kind of functional image that is being registered, (3) generation of simulated functional images to have a spatial resolution that is comparable to that of the measured ones, (4) alignment of the measured functional images to the simulated ones that are based on MRI images. A self-organization clustering method is used to segment the MRI images. The image alignment is based on the criterion of least squares of the pixel-by-pixel differences between the two sets of images that are being matched and on the Powell's algorithm for minimization. The technique was applied successfully for registering the MRI, PET-FDG, and PET-FDOPA images. This technique offers a general solution to the registration of structural images to functional images and to the registration of different functional images of markedly different distributions

  6. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  7. Imaging transport phenomena during lysozyme protein crystal growth by the hanging drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethia Gupta, Anamika; Gupta, Rajive; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.

    2013-06-01

    The present study reports the transport process that occurs during the growth of lysozyme protein crystals by the hanging drop technique. A rainbow schlieren technique has been employed for imaging changes in salt concentration. A one dimensional color filter is used to record the deflection of the light beam. An optical microscope and an X-ray crystallography unit are used to characterize the size, tetragonal shape and Bravais lattice constants of the grown crystals. A parametric study on the effect of drop composition, drop size, reservoir height and number of drops on the crystal size and quality is reported. Changes in refractive index are not large enough to create a meaningful schlieren image in the air gap between the drop and the reservoir. However, condensation of fresh water over the reservoir solution creates large changes in the concentration of NaCl, giving rise to clear color patterns in the schlieren images. These have been analyzed to obtain salt concentration profiles near the free surface of the reservoir solution as a function of time. The diffusion of fresh water into the reservoir solution at the early stages of crystal growth followed by the mass flux of salt from the bulk solution towards the free surface has been recorded. The overall crystal growth process can be classified into two regimes, as demarcated by the changes in slope of salt concentration within the reservoir. The salt concentration in the reservoir equilibrates at long times when the crystallization process is complete. Thus, transport processes in the reservoir emerge as the route to monitor protein crystal growth in the hanging drop configuration. Results show that crystal growth rate is faster for a higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drops, and larger reservoir heights.

  8. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  9. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  10. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed.

  11. Update on emerging regional techniques and novel local anesthetics in ambulatory anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szafran MJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Martin J Szafran, Eldhose Abrahams, Tong Joo Gan Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA Abstract: New regional anesthetic techniques have been incorporated into the multimodal approach to postoperative analgesia. Blocks such as the transversus abdominis plane block, adductor canal block, and pectoral nerves blocks all show promise as potential tools used in opioid-sparing techniques, but at the same time have significant limitations to their utility. Novel long-acting formulations of local anesthetics further add to the possible benefit of these blocks, but their application to peripheral nerve blocks is currently being investigated and is not well defined. This review focuses on evaluating the relevant anatomy, technique, and indications of several newer peripheral nerve blocks, the emerging evidence supporting the use of liposomal bupivacaine and SABER®-Bupivacaine, and the application of both in ambulatory anesthesia. Keywords: transversus abdominis plane (TAP block, adductor canal block, pectoral nerves block, regional anesthesia, liposomal bupivacaine, SABER®-Bupivacaine

  12. Content analysis of Australian direct-to-consumer websites for emerging breast cancer imaging devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreugdenburg, Thomas D; Laurence, Caroline O; Willis, Cameron D; Mundy, Linda; Hiller, Janet E

    2014-09-01

    To describe the nature and frequency of information presented on direct-to-consumer websites for emerging breast cancer imaging devices. Content analysis of Australian website advertisements from 2 March 2011 to 30 March 2012, for three emerging breast cancer imaging devices: digital infrared thermal imaging, electrical impedance scanning and electronic palpation imaging. Type of imaging offered, device safety, device performance, application of device, target population, supporting evidence and comparator tests. Thirty-nine unique Australian websites promoting a direct-to-consumer breast imaging device were identified. Despite a lack of supporting evidence, 22 websites advertised devices for diagnosis, 20 advertised devices for screening, 13 advertised devices for prevention and 13 advertised devices for identifying breast cancer risk factors. Similarly, advertised ranges of diagnostic sensitivity (78%-99%) and specificity (44%-91%) were relatively high compared with published literature. Direct comparisons with conventional screening tools that favoured the new device were highly prominent (31 websites), and one-third of websites (12) explicitly promoted their device as a suitable alternative. Australian websites for emerging breast imaging devices, which are also available internationally, promote the use of such devices as safe and effective solutions for breast cancer screening and diagnosis in a range of target populations. Many of these claims are not supported by peer-reviewed evidence, raising questions about the manner in which these devices and their advertising material are regulated, particularly when they are promoted as direct alternatives to established screening interventions.

  13. Radiation protection in newer medical imaging techniques: PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    A major part of patient exposure now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago, and the technological basis for their successful dissemination only began to flourish in the last decade or so. Hybrid imaging systems, such as the combination of computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET), are an example of a technique that has only been introduced in the last decade. PET/CT has established a valuable place for itself in medical research and diagnosis. However, it is an application that can result in high patient and staff doses. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practices lag (inevitably) behind the industrial and clinical innovations. This series of Safety Reports (Nos 58, 60 and 61) is designed to help fill the growing vacuum, by bringing up to date and timely advice from experienced practitioners to bear on the problems involved. The advice in this report has been developed within the IAEA's statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of these standards. The Fundamental Safety Principles and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) were issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by organizations including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), and require the radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and through

  14. Integrated photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging: applications and new techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is a unique combination of optical sensitivity to tissue chromophores like hemoglobin, and ultrasonic resolution. Research in this PhD thesis is made possible by the development of a probe that combines PAI with regular ultrasound imaging. This probe is handheld and

  15. A study of correlation technique on pyramid processed images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generated according to the REDUCE function, defined as gk Еi, jЖ И REDUCE ... (Intel user's guide 1985). The application program is ... As the information content in the reduced image of size is 5 ┬ 5 negligible, the 5 ┬ 5 image case is not ...

  16. Enhancement of SAR images using fuzzy shrinkage technique in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shivakumara Swamy Puranik Math

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... not use threshold approach only by proper selection of shrinking parameter the speckle in SAR image is ... but cost estimation of hyper-parameters will be high. The ..... To find the effectiveness of the proposed image in a.

  17. A novel image inpainting technique based on median diffusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    numerical methods such as anisotropic diffusion and multiresolution schemes. Some steps ... Roth & Black (2005) have developed a framework for learning a generic and expressive image priors that ..... This paper presents a new approach for image inpainting by propagating median information .... J. Graphics Tools 9(1):.

  18. The Images of Jesus in the Emergence of Christian Spirituality in Ming and Qing China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobai Chu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Images of Jesus Christ played an important role in the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming and Qing China. Of the great many images that we know from this period, this paper introduces five of them: Jesus as infant, criminal, gate, brother, and pig. The paper unfolds the historical, anthropological, and theological layers of these images to reveal the original tension between Christian spirituality and Chinese culture. The central thesis of the paper therefore is that this tension is reflected in the images of Jesus Christ and, moreover, that analyzing this tension allows us to achieve a more profound understanding of the emergence of Christian spirituality in Ming, Qing, and perhaps even today’s China.

  19. 'Sleeping with the enemy?' Expectations and reality in imaging children in the emergency setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, Donald P.; Frush, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    As an introduction to the ALARA conference titled ''Building Bridges between Radiology and Emergency Medicine: Consensus Conference on Imaging Safety and Quality for Children in the Emergency Setting,'' it is important for us to understand the landscapes of both the pediatric radiology and emergency medicine subspecialties. Recognizing potentially different practice patterns, including perspectives on pediatric care, as well as shared and sometimes unique professional pressures, can help us identify common concerns and problems and facilitate the development of strategies aimed at correcting these issues. (orig.)

  20. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  1. Techniques and approaches to proton NMR imaging of the head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pykett, I.L.; Buonanno, F.S.; Brady, T.J.; Kistler, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The next few years will undoubtedly see a refinement of proton imaging technology and a broader data base will indicate to what extent proton relaxation parameters are able to detect and characterize disease. In addition, it is likely that imaging of other nuclei (e.g. 31 P, 23 Na, 19 F) will become a reality, although it must be stated that due to their inherently lower sensitivity to NMR detection and/or lower physiological concentration, clinical images of nuclei other than 1 H will undoubtedly have a low spatial resolution and may require relatively long imaging times. Nonetheless, herein lies the exciting possibility of non-invasive metabolic or functional imaging. The realm of NMR contrast agents is just beginning to be explored, and developments in high-speed imaging indicate useful applications in cardiology. So whilst improvements in image quality can be expected, as was the case with X-ray CT, the application of NMR in medicine will diversify to yield information of a more specifically functional nature. This, together with the very low attendant biological risk, heralds a bright future for NMR in clinical diagnosis

  2. An application of A.I. techniques for the support of emergency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang-Sub; Yang, Joon-On; Park, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    For the support of emergency operation, COSMOS is being developed at KAERI using A.I. techniques. COSMOC consists of two parts; one is to identify CSF's status and to determine the overall response strategy and the other to generate a set of success paths which restore the challenged CSF's and to rank them. The status of CSF is identified by the rule-based reasoning. The overall response strategy is inferred according to the identified CSF's status. The success paths are generated by the given structure descriptions of systems and the general generation algorithm. Backtracking, an inherent feature of the Prolog language, is used for the search of next success path. Generated success paths are ranked according to either its respective reliability or the number of manual operator's actions required to complete each success path. For efficient man-machine interface, a color graphic display is utilized. COSMOS is being built on a workstation. (author)

  3. Emerging Technologies and Techniques for Wide Area Radiological Survey and Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhao, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Technologies to survey and decontaminate wide-area contamination and process the subsequent radioactive waste have been developed and implemented following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant release and the breach of a radiological source resulting in contamination in Goiania, Brazil. These civilian examples of radioactive material releases provided some of the first examples of urban radiological remediation. Many emerging technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in Japan following the release of radioactive cesium isotopes (Cs-134 and Cs-137) from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011. Information on technologies reported by several Japanese government agencies, such as the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the National Institute for Environmental Science (NIES), together with academic institutions and industry are summarized and compared to recently developed, deployed and available technologies in the United States. The technologies and techniques presented in this report may be deployed in response to a wide area contamination event in the United States. In some cases, additional research and testing is needed to adequately validate the technology effectiveness over wide areas. Survey techniques can be deployed on the ground or from the air, allowing a range of coverage rates and sensitivities. Survey technologies also include those useful in measuring decontamination progress and mapping contamination. Decontamination technologies and techniques range from non-destructive (e.g., high pressure washing) and minimally destructive (plowing), to fully destructive (surface removal or demolition). Waste minimization techniques can greatly impact the long-term environmental consequences and cost following remediation efforts. Recommendations on technical improvements to address technology gaps are presented together with observations on remediation in Japan.

  4. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off,

  5. High Resolution Radar Imaging using Coherent MultiBand Processing Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Ebeling, R.P.; Huizing, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    High resolution radar imaging techniques can be used in ballistic missile defence systems to determine the type of ballistic missile during the boost phase (threat typing) and to discriminate different parts of a ballistic missile after the boost phase. The applied radar imaging technique is 2D

  6. Optimizing the design and operation of reactor emergency systems using reliability analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snaith, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    Following a reactor trip various reactor emergency systems, e.g. essential power supplies, emergency core cooling and boiler feed water arrangements are required to operate with a high degree of reliability. These systems must therefore be critically assessed to confirm their capability of operation and determine their reliability of performance. The use of probability analysis techniques enables the potential operating reliability of the systems to be calculated and this can then be compared with the overall reliability requirements. However, a system reliability analysis does much more than calculate an overall reliability value for the system. It establishes the reliability of all parts of the system and thus identifies the most sensitive areas of unreliability. This indicates the areas where any required improvements should be made and enables the overall systems' designs and modes of operation to be optimized, to meet the system and hence the overall reactor safety criteria. This paper gives specific examples of sensitive areas of unreliability that were identified as a result of a reliability analysis that was carried out on a reactor emergency core cooling system. Details are given of modifications to design and operation that were implemented with a resulting improvement in reliability of various reactor sub-systems. The report concludes that an initial calculation of system reliability should represent only the beginning of continuing process of system assessment. Data on equipment and system performance, particularly in those areas shown to be sensitive in their effect on the overall nuclear power plant reliability, should be collected and processed to give reliability data. These data should then be applied in further probabilistic analyses and the results correlated with the original analysis. This will demonstrate whether the required and the originally predicted system reliability is likely to be achieved, in the light of the actual history to date of

  7. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Eliot; Groleau, Georgina; Reiner, Bruce; Stair, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP’s). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from...

  8. Development of technique for estimating primary cooling system break diameter in predicting nuclear emergency event sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatebe, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    If an emergency event occurs in a nuclear power plant, appropriate action is selected and taken in accordance with the plant status, which changes from time to time, in order to prevent escalation and mitigate the event consequences. It is thus important to predict the event sequence and identify the plant behavior resulting from the action taken. In predicting the event sequence during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), it is necessary to estimate break diameter. The conventional method for this estimation is time-consuming, since it involves multiple sensitivity analyses to determine the break diameter that is consistent with the plant behavior. To speed up the process of predicting the nuclear emergency event sequence, a new break diameter estimation technique that is applicable to pressurized water reactors was developed in this study. This technique enables the estimation of break diameter using the plant data sent from the safety parameter display system (SPDS), with focus on the depressurization rate in the reactor cooling system (RCS) during LOCA. The results of LOCA analysis, performed by varying the break diameter using the MAAP4 and RELAP5/MOD3.2 codes, confirmed that the RCS depressurization rate could be expressed by the log linear function of break diameter, except in the case of a small leak, in which RCS depressurization is affected by the coolant charging system and the high-pressure injection system. A correlation equation for break diameter estimation was developed from this function and tested for accuracy. Testing verified that the correlation equation could estimate break diameter accurately within an error of approximately 16%, even if the leak increases gradually, changing the plant status. (author)

  9. A novel 3D volumetric voxel registration technique for volume-view-guided image registration of multiple imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guang; Xie Huchen; Ning, Holly; Capala, Jacek; Arora, Barbara C.; Coleman, C. Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Miller, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide more clinically useful image registration with improved accuracy and reduced time, a novel technique of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric voxel registration of multimodality images is developed. Methods and Materials: This technique can register up to four concurrent images from multimodalities with volume view guidance. Various visualization effects can be applied, facilitating global and internal voxel registration. Fourteen computed tomography/magnetic resonance (CT/MR) image sets and two computed tomography/positron emission tomography (CT/PET) image sets are used. For comparison, an automatic registration technique using maximization of mutual information (MMI) and a three-orthogonal-planar (3P) registration technique are used. Results: Visually sensitive registration criteria for CT/MR and CT/PET have been established, including the homogeneity of color distribution. Based on the registration results of 14 CT/MR images, the 3D voxel technique is in excellent agreement with the automatic MMI technique and is indicatory of a global positioning error (defined as the means and standard deviations of the error distribution) using the 3P pixel technique: 1.8 deg ± 1.2 deg in rotation and 2.0 ± 1.3 (voxel unit) in translation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such positioning error has been addressed. Conclusion: This novel 3D voxel technique establishes volume-view-guided image registration of up to four modalities. It improves registration accuracy with reduced time, compared with the 3P pixel technique. This article suggests that any interactive and automatic registration should be safeguarded using the 3D voxel technique

  10. Improvements in image quality with pseudo-parallel imaging in the phase-scrambling fourier transform technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Satoshi; Kawawa, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    The signal obtained in the phase-scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique can be transformed to the signal described by the Fresnel transform of the objects, in which the amplitude of the PSFT presents some kind of blurred image of the objects. Therefore, the signal can be considered to exist in the object domain as well as the Fourier domain of the object. This notable feature makes it possible to assign weights to the reconstructed images by applying a weighting function to the PSFT signal after data acquisition, and as a result, pseudo-parallel image reconstruction using these aliased image data with different weights on the images is feasible. In this study, the improvements in image quality with such pseudo-parallel imaging were examined and demonstrated. The weighting function of the PSFT signal that provides a given weight on the image is estimated using the obtained image data and is iteratively updated after sensitivity encoding (SENSE)-based image reconstruction. Simulation studies showed that reconstruction errors were dramatically reduced and that the spatial resolution was also improved in almost all image spaces. The proposed method was applied to signals synthesized from MR image data with phase variations to verify its effectiveness. It was found that the image quality was improved and that images almost entirely free of aliasing artifacts could be obtained. (author)

  11. Imaging Spectroscopy: A Novel Use for the Velocity Mapped Ion Imaging Technique.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, Jennie S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Culberson, Lori [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strecker, Kevin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The ability to measure the velocity of neutral atoms and molecules with a precision of several meter/sec provides an opportunity to measure subtle perturbations on electronic states with high resolution. Using Velocity Mapped Ion Imaging we are able to measure induced perturbations of electronic states such as broadening and magnetic and electric field splittings . We demonstrate this ability utilizing the 5s[3/2]2 → 5p[5/2]3 cycling transition at 811.5 nm in metastable Kr atoms to investigate the saturation broadening caused by Rabi cycling on a resonant transition with MHz resolution. In addition we investigate the lifetime broadening associated with ionization from the cycling states and the Zeeman splitting of the states. We discuss the inherent limits to resolution obtained with this technique.

  12. New Image-Based Techniques for Prostate Biopsy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    correspondence between the pathology slices and the MR image slices. The processing and paraffin embedding were carried out in a routine manner, except using...results (Mor- ris et al., 2009). In this treatment, 40-150 small radioactive seeds (Iodine-125 or Palladium-103) are inserted through the perineum and...creating the VE images. Any out of plane motion, including the lat- eral motions caused by the slippage between the protective sheath on the probe and the

  13. An accelerated image matching technique for UAV orthoimage registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2017-06-01

    Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) drone with an attached non-metric camera has become a popular low-cost approach for collecting geospatial data. A well-georeferenced orthoimage is a fundamental product for geomatics professionals. To achieve high positioning accuracy of orthoimages, precise sensor position and orientation data, or a number of ground control points (GCPs), are often required. Alternatively, image registration is a solution for improving the accuracy of a UAV orthoimage, as long as a historical reference image is available. This study proposes a registration scheme, including an Accelerated Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (ABRISK) algorithm and spatial analysis of corresponding control points for image registration. To determine a match between two input images, feature descriptors from one image are compared with those from another image. A "Sorting Ring" is used to filter out uncorrected feature pairs as early as possible in the stage of matching feature points, to speed up the matching process. The results demonstrate that the proposed ABRISK approach outperforms the vector-based Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) approach where radiometric variations exist. ABRISK is 19.2 times and 312 times faster than SIFT for image sizes of 1000 × 1000 pixels and 4000 × 4000 pixels, respectively. ABRISK is 4.7 times faster than Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK). Furthermore, the positional accuracy of the UAV orthoimage after applying the proposed image registration scheme is improved by an average of root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.58 m for six test orthoimages whose spatial resolutions vary from 6.7 cm to 10.7 cm.

  14. A NEW TECHNIQUE BASED ON CHAOTIC STEGANOGRAPHY AND ENCRYPTION TEXT IN DCT DOMAIN FOR COLOR IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELAD J. SAEED

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Image steganography is the art of hiding information into a cover image. This paper presents a new technique based on chaotic steganography and encryption text in DCT domain for color image, where DCT is used to transform original image (cover image from spatial domain to frequency domain. This technique used chaotic function in two phases; firstly; for encryption secret message, second; for embedding in DCT cover image. With this new technique, good results are obtained through satisfying the important properties of steganography such as: imperceptibility; improved by having mean square error (MSE, peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and normalized correlation (NC, to phase and capacity; improved by encoding the secret message characters with variable length codes and embedding the secret message in one level of color image only.

  15. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images

    OpenAIRE

    Boix García, Macarena; Cantó Colomina, Begoña

    2013-01-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet...

  16. Motion estimation of tagged cardiac magnetic resonance images using variational techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carranza-Herrezuelo, N.; Bajo, A.; Šroubek, Filip; Santamarta, C.; Cristóbal, G.; Santos, A.; Ledesma-Carbayo, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2010), s. 514-522 ISSN 0895-6111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : medical imaging processing * motion estimation * variational techniques * tagged cardiac magnetic resonance images * optical flow Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.110, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZOI/sroubek- motion estimation of tagged cardiac magnetic resonance images using variational techniques.pdf

  17. Improvement in printing technique of spiral CT three-dimensional colour image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yicheng; Liu Feng; Zhang Ling

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the printing technique of spiral CT three-dimensional (3D) colour image. Methods: The 3D colour images of 136 patients were printed, with the equipment of Marconi spiral CT, personnel computer, colour ink printer, and network switchboard. Results: All printed images were satisfied by this method. Conclusion: This technique is economic, simple, and useful, and can meet the need for clinical diagnosis and operation. (authors)

  18. The Design and Development of Test Platform for Wheat Precision Seeding Based on Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Qing; Lin , Haibo; Xiu , Yu-Feng; Wang , Ruixue; Yi , Chuijie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The test platform of wheat precision seeding based on image processing techniques is designed to develop the wheat precision seed metering device with high efficiency and precision. Using image processing techniques, this platform gathers images of seeds (wheat) on the conveyer belt which are falling from seed metering device. Then these data are processed and analyzed to calculate the qualified rate, reseeding rate and leakage sowing rate, etc. This paper introduces t...

  19. A graphical simulator for teaching basic and advanced MR imaging techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars G

    2007-01-01

    Teaching of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques typically involves considerable handwaving, literally, to explain concepts such as resonance, rotating frames, dephasing, refocusing, sequences, and imaging. A proper understanding of MR contrast and imaging techniques is crucial for radiolog...... be visualized in an intuitive way. The cross-platform software is primarily designed for use in lectures, but is also useful for self studies and student assignments. Movies available at http://radiographics.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/e27/DC1 ....

  20. Cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and new diagnostic imaging techniques: the role of noninvasive image methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbosa JA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available José Augusto A Barbosa¹, Alexandre B Rodrigues¹, Cleonice Carvalho C Mota¹, Márcia M Barbosa², Ana C Simões e Silva¹¹Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; ²Ecocenter, Socor Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Obesity is a major public health problem affecting adults and children in both developed and developing countries. This condition often leads to metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A large number of studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction in obese patients. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of coronary artery disease, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Noninvasive methods in the field of cardiovascular imaging, such as measuring intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilatation, tissue Doppler, and strain, and strain rate, constitute new tools for the early detection of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. These techniques will certainly enable a better evaluation of initial cardiovascular injury and allow the correct, timely management of obese patients. The present review summarizes the main aspects of cardiovascular dysfunction in obesity and discusses the application of recent noninvasive imaging methods for the early detection of cardiovascular alterations.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, endothelium dysfunction, obesity, strain and strain rate, tissue Doppler

  1. Contribution of brain imaging techniques: CT-scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasco-Papon, A.; Gourdier, A.L.; Papon, X.; Caron-Poitreau, C.

    1996-01-01

    In light of the current lack of consensus on the benefit of carotid artery surgery to treat asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis, the decision to operate on a patient depends on individual evaluation and characterization of risk factors on carotid artery stenosis greater than 70 %. The assessment of such risk factors is based especially on non-invasive brain imaging techniques.Computed tomography scanning (CT-scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable two types of stenosis to be differentiated, i.e. stenoses which are symptomatic and those that are radiologically proven versus those which are clinically and radiologically silent. CT-scan investigation (with and without injection of iodinated contrast media) still continues to be a common routine test in 1996 whenever a surgical revascularization procedure is planned. The presence of deep lacunar infarcts ipsilateral to the carotid artery stenosis generally evidence the reality of stenosis and thus are useful to the surgeon in establishing whether surgery is indicated. In the absence a consensus on indications for surgical management, the surgeon could use the CT-scan and MRI as medicolegal records which could be compared to a subsequent postoperative CT-scan in case of ischemic complications associated with the surgical procedure. Furthermore, recent cerebral ischemia as evidenced by filling with contrast material, will call for postponing treatment by a few weeks. Although conventional MRI is more contributive than brain CT-scan in terms of sensibility and specificity, its indications are narrower because of its limited availability and cost constraints. But, development of angio-MRI and functional imaging promise that its future is assured and even perhaps as the sole diagnostic method if its indications are expanded to include preoperative angiographic evaluation of atheromatous lesions of supra-aortic trunks. (authors). 37 refs

  2. Radiation protection in newer medical imaging techniques: CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Multislice/detector computed tomography (CT) scanning, applied to visualization of the colon in CT colonography (CTC), also known as virtual colonoscopy (VC), is a relatively new application of CT introduced in recent years. The possibility of its application in population screening techniques raises a number of questions. Effort is required to ensure that the benefit of this new practice will not pose an undue level of detriment to the individual in multiple examinations. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that innovation has been driven by both the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind the industrial and clinical innovations being achieved. This series of Safety Reports (Nos 58, 60 and 61) is designed to help fill this growing vacuum, by bringing up to date and timely advice to bear on the problems involved. Under its statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for worldwide application of these standards, the IAEA has developed the Fundamental Safety Principles and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). The BSS was issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Organisation (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), and requires radiation protection of patients undergoing medical exposures through justification of the procedures involved and through optimization. The IAEA programme on radiation protection of patients encourages the reduction of patient doses without losing diagnostic benefits. To facilitate this

  3. Techniques and Emerging Trends for State of the Art Equipment Maintenance Systems—A Bibliometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Hoppenstedt

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interconnection of machines in industrial production on one hand, and the improved capabilities to store, retrieve, and analyze large amounts of data on the other, offer promising perspectives for maintaining production machines. Recently, predictive maintenance has gained increasing attention in the context of equipment maintenance systems. As opposed to other approaches, predictive maintenance relies on machine behavior models, which offer several advantages. In this highly interdisciplinary field, there is a lack of a literature review of relevant research fields and realization techniques. To obtain a comprehensive overview on the state of the art, large data sets of relevant literature need to be considered and, best case, be automatically partitioned into relevant research fields. A proper methodology to obtain such an overview is the bibliometric analysis method. In the presented work, we apply a bibliometric analysis to the field of equipment maintenance systems. To be more precise, we analyzed clusters of identified literature with the goal to obtain deeper insight into the related research fields. Moreover, cluster metrics reveal the importance of a single paper and an investigation of the temporal cluster development indicates the evolution of research topics. In this context, we introduce a new measure to compare results from different time periods in an appropriate way. In turn, among others, this simplifies the analysis of topics, with a vast amount of subtopics. Altogether, the obtained results particularly provide a comprehensive overview of established techniques and emerging trends for equipment maintenance systems.

  4. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  5. Meniscal tears: comparison of half-Fourier technique and conventional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabana, Wael; Maeseneer, Michel de; Machiels, Freddy; Ridder, Filip de; Osteaux, Michel

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether half-Fourier MR image acquisition technique can provide similar information to that of conventional MR acquisition technique for evaluation of meniscal tears. Materials and methods: We studied 101 menisci in 52 patients who were referred for evaluation of meniscal tears. Sagittal MR images of the knee were obtained for all patients by using proton density and T2-weighted SE sequences on a 1-T clinical system. The half-Fourier technique and conventional technique were used for all patients. All other imaging parameters were identical for both sequences (TR/TE=2400/20,70; 3 mm slice thickness; 200x256 matrix; field of view, 200; one signal acquired). Both sets of images were filmed with standard window and level settings. Images were randomised and interpreted independently by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Images were also subjectively assessed for image quality using a five-point grading scale. Results: On half-Fourier images, Reader 1 interpreted 23 menisci as torn, compared to 28 for Reader 2. On conventional images, Reader 1 interpreted 24 menisci as torn, compared to 26 for Reader 2. Agreement between interpretation of the conventional and that of the half-Fourier images was 99% for Reader 1, and 98% for Reader 2. Agreement between readers for the half-Fourier images was 95%, and for the conventional images 96%. No statistically significant difference was found in the subjective evaluation of image quality between the conventional and half-Fourier images. Conclusion: The half-Fourier acquisition technique compares favourably with the conventional technique for the evaluation of meniscal tears

  6. 3D temporal subtraction on multislice CT images using nonlinear warping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayuki; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Kawashita, Ikuo; Kim, Hyounseop; Itai, Yoshinori; Awai, Kazuo; Li, Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    The detection of very subtle lesions and/or lesions overlapped with vessels on CT images is a time consuming and difficult task for radiologists. In this study, we have developed a 3D temporal subtraction method to enhance interval changes between previous and current multislice CT images based on a nonlinear image warping technique. Our method provides a subtraction CT image which is obtained by subtraction of a previous CT image from a current CT image. Reduction of misregistration artifacts is important in the temporal subtraction method. Therefore, our computerized method includes global and local image matching techniques for accurate registration of current and previous CT images. For global image matching, we selected the corresponding previous section image for each current section image by using 2D cross-correlation between a blurred low-resolution current CT image and a blurred previous CT image. For local image matching, we applied the 3D template matching technique with translation and rotation of volumes of interests (VOIs) which were selected in the current and the previous CT images. The local shift vector for each VOI pair was determined when the cross-correlation value became the maximum in the 3D template matching. The local shift vectors at all voxels were determined by interpolation of shift vectors of VOIs, and then the previous CT image was nonlinearly warped according to the shift vector for each voxel. Finally, the warped previous CT image was subtracted from the current CT image. The 3D temporal subtraction method was applied to 19 clinical cases. The normal background structures such as vessels, ribs, and heart were removed without large misregistration artifacts. Thus, interval changes due to lung diseases were clearly enhanced as white shadows on subtraction CT images.

  7. Automated image-matching technique for comparative diagnosis of the liver on CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Eiichiro; Sanada, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito; Matsui, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    When interpreting enhanced computer tomography (CT) images of the upper abdomen, radiologists visually select a set of images of the same anatomical positions from two or more CT image series (i.e., non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT images at arterial and delayed phase) to depict and to characterize any abnormalities. The same process is also necessary to create subtraction images by computer. We have developed an automated image selection system using a template-matching technique that allows the recognition of image sets at the same anatomical position from two CT image series. Using the template-matching technique, we compared several anatomical structures in each CT image at the same anatomical position. As the position of the liver may shift according to respiratory movement, not only the shape of the liver but also the gallbladder and other prominent structures included in the CT images were compared to allow appropriate selection of a set of CT images. This novel technique was applied in 11 upper abdominal CT examinations. In CT images with a slice thickness of 7.0 or 7.5 mm, the percentage of image sets selected correctly by the automated procedure was 86.6±15.3% per case. In CT images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm, the percentages of correct selection of image sets by the automated procedure were 79.4±12.4% (non-enhanced and arterial-phase CT images) and 86.4±10.1% (arterial- and delayed-phase CT images). This automated method is useful for assisting in interpreting CT images and in creating digital subtraction images. (author)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfield, Julie; Kealey, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, Julie [University of Edinburgh, Child Life and Health, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kealey, Susan [Western General Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  10. Panoramic dental radiography image intensification employing minification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Panoramic dental x-ray machine wherein an x-ray source-camera assembly orbits a seated patient is described. A slot in the camera assembly collimates the x-rays which are continuously generated by the x-ray source, which x-rays are converted to light images of the patient's dental arch structure by only a single intensifying screen which remains stationary. This screen comprises about 1/40 the area of conventional intensifying screens and is made thicker for providing improved detection efficiency. A fiber optic minifying lens reduces the size of the image from the screen while proportionately increasing the light intensity of the image, thus making it possible to provide useable film images at reduced x-ray exposures due to non-linear film exposure versus optical density characteristics. The resultant minified, light-intensified image may now be recorded on 35 mm roll film, for example, as opposed to standard radiographic film of 5'' X 12'' size, or 12.70 cm X 30.48 cm

  11. Image Processing Techniques for Assessment of Dental Trays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yergin, E

    2001-01-01

    .... This technique was used for the alignment of six brands of perforated metal trays with 170 lower arch cast models collected from patients having Angle Class 1 type occlusion with minor malocclusions...

  12. Imaging of mass distribution in paper by electrography technique, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, Hiroshi; Baba, Susumu; Luner, P.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of photographic films and a TV monitor system as electron beam detectors were studied. A photographic film with thin emulsion layer showed a peak in the basis weight calibration curve because of its limited absorption of electron energy. On the other hand, a photographic film with thick emulsion layer showed no peak and provided wide measurable basis weight range. However, films with thick emulsion layer were found unsuitable for practical use since it requires very long development time. Real-time mass distribution image of a paper sample were obtained with a TV monitor system for transmission electron microscope combined with an image analyzer. The system can image the sample of 11x9 mm with spatial resolution of 20 μm at different electron accelerating voltages. The TV monitor system gave no peak in the basis weight calibration curve and provided wide measurable basis weight range. (author)

  13. Emerging Themes in Image Informatics and Molecular Analysis for Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-07-11

    Pathology is essential for research in disease and development, as well as for clinical decision making. For more than 100 years, pathology practice has involved analyzing images of stained, thin tissue sections by a trained human using an optical microscope. Technological advances are now driving major changes in this paradigm toward digital pathology (DP). The digital transformation of pathology goes beyond recording, archiving, and retrieving images, providing new computational tools to inform better decision making for precision medicine. First, we discuss some emerging innovations in both computational image analytics and imaging instrumentation in DP. Second, we discuss molecular contrast in pathology. Molecular DP has traditionally been an extension of pathology with molecularly specific dyes. Label-free, spectroscopic images are rapidly emerging as another important information source, and we describe the benefits and potential of this evolution. Third, we describe multimodal DP, which is enabled by computational algorithms and combines the best characteristics of structural and molecular pathology. Finally, we provide examples of application areas in telepathology, education, and precision medicine. We conclude by discussing challenges and emerging opportunities in this area.

  14. A technique for the deidentification of structural brain MR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Ozyurt, I Burak; Busa, Evelina

    2007-01-01

    inspection showed none had brain tissue removed. In a detailed analysis of the impact of defacing on skull-stripping, 16 datasets were bias corrected with N3 (Sled et al. [1998]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 17:87-97), defaced, and then skull-stripped using either a hybrid watershed algorithm (Ségonne et al. [2004...

  15. MR imaging of renal carcinoma: A comparison of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyke, P.L.; Frank, J.A.; Dwyer, A.J.; Doppman, J.L.; Sank, V.J.; Robertson, C.J.; Linehan, W.M.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The design of an optimal MR imaging protocol for renal cell carcinomas is complicated by the number of available pulse sequences and imaging planes. The authors evaluated nine different pulse sequences (SE, TR/TE = 200-300/80-120, 500-700/26, and IR 1,500/100/30) in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes in 26 patients with stage IV renal carcinoma at 0.5T. The IR 100 provided the greatest tumor-to-background signal ratio for both primary and secondary lesions in 24 of 24 of the patients. It alone allowed detection of 10% of the lesions. Anatomic and vascular data were provided best by the T1-weighted SE sequences. The least useful were the T2-weighted SE sequences, which had considerable motion artifact and little anatomic detail. Axial planes were best for displaying adenopathy and soft-tissue involvement. Coronal IR images provided a clear overview of the abdomen and lower thorax, paravertebral and vertebral metastases and impending cord compression. Imaging with an IR sequence of 1,500/100/30 in the axial and coronal planes and a T1-weighted SE sequence in the axial and coronal planes is an efficient, sensitive strategy for staging renal carcinoma

  16. An improved technique for the prediction of optimal image resolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past studies to predict optimal image resolution required for generating spatial information for savannah ecosystems have yielded different outcomes, hence providing a knowledge gap that was investigated in the present study. The postulation, for the present study, was that by graphically solving two simultaneous ...

  17. Experimental study of bubbly flow using image processing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yucheng, E-mail: ycfu@vt.edu; Liu, Yang, E-mail: liu130@vt.edu

    2016-12-15

    This paper presents an experimental study of bubbly flows at relatively high void fractions using an advanced image processing method. Bubble overlapping is a common problem in such flows and the past studies often treat the overlapping bubbles as a whole, which introduces considerable measurement uncertainties. In this study, a hybrid method combining intersection point detection and watershed segmentation is used to separate the overlapping bubbles. In order to reconstruct bubbles from separated segments, a systematic procedure is developed which can preserve more features captured in the raw image compared to the simple ellipse fitting method. The distributions of void fraction, interfacial area concentration, number density and velocity are obtained from the extracted bubble information. High-speed images of air-water bubbly flows are acquired and processed for eight test runs conducted in a 30 mm × 10 mm rectangular channel. The developed image processing scheme can effectively separate overlapping bubbles and the results compare well with the measurements by the gas flow meter and double-sensor conductivity probe. The development of flows in transverse and mainstream directions are analyzed and compared with the prediction made by the one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation (IATE) and the bubble number density transport equation.

  18. Application of digital-image-correlation techniques in analysing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basis theory of strain analysis using the digital image correlation method .... Type 304N Stainless Steel (Modulus of Elasticity = 193 MPa, Tensile Yield .... also proves the accuracy of the qualitative analyses by using the DIC ... We thank the National Science Council of Taiwan for supporting this research through grant. No.

  19. A proposed security technique based on watermarking and encryption for digital imaging and communications in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abd-Eldayem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays; modern Hospital Data Management Systems (HDMSs are applied in a computer network; in addition medicinal equipments produce medical images in a digital form. HDMS must store and exchange these images in a secured environment to provide image integrity and patient privacy. The reversible watermarking techniques can be used to provide the integrity and the privacy. In this paper, a security technique based on watermarking and encryption is proposed to be used for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM. It provides patient authentication, information confidentiality and integrity based on reversible watermark. To achieve integrity service at the sender side; a hash value based on encrypted MD5 is determined from the image. And to satisfy the reversible feature; R–S-Vector is determined from the image and is compressed based on a Huffman compression algorithm. After that to provide confidentiality and authentication services: the compressed R–S-Vector, the hash value and patient ID are concatenated to form a watermark then this watermark is encrypted using AES encryption technique, finally the watermark is embedded inside the medical image. Experimental results prove that the proposed technique can provide patient authentication services, image integrity service and information confidentiality service with excellent efficiency. Concluded results for all tested DICOM medical images and natural images show the following: BER equals 0, both of SNR and PSNR are consistent and have large values, and MSE has low value; the average values of SNR, PSNR and MSE are 52 dB, 57 dB and 0.12 respectively. Therefore, watermarked images have high imperceptibility, invisibility and transparency. In addition, the watermark extracted from the image at the receiver side is identical to the watermark embedded into the image in the sender side; as a result, the proposed technique is totally reversible, and the embedded watermark does not

  20. A new iterative triclass thresholding technique in image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongmin; Yang, Zhong; Cao, Xinhua; Xia, Weiming; Xu, Xiaoyin

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method in image segmentation that is based on Otsu's method but iteratively searches for subregions of the image for segmentation, instead of treating the full image as a whole region for processing. The iterative method starts with Otsu's threshold and computes the mean values of the two classes as separated by the threshold. Based on the Otsu's threshold and the two mean values, the method separates the image into three classes instead of two as the standard Otsu's method does. The first two classes are determined as the foreground and background and they will not be processed further. The third class is denoted as a to-be-determined (TBD) region that is processed at next iteration. At the succeeding iteration, Otsu's method is applied on the TBD region to calculate a new threshold and two class means and the TBD region is again separated into three classes, namely, foreground, background, and a new TBD region, which by definition is smaller than the previous TBD regions. Then, the new TBD region is processed in the similar manner. The process stops when the Otsu's thresholds calculated between two iterations is less than a preset threshold. Then, all the intermediate foreground and background regions are, respectively, combined to create the final segmentation result. Tests on synthetic and real images showed that the new iterative method can achieve better performance than the standard Otsu's method in many challenging cases, such as identifying weak objects and revealing fine structures of complex objects while the added computational cost is minimal.

  1. Quality comparison between DEF-10 digital image from simulation technique and Computed Tomography (CR) technique in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Nur Syatirah Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to make comparison of digital image quality of DEF-10 from the techniques of simulation and computed radiography (CR). The sample used is steel DEF-10 with thickness of 15.28 mm. In this study, the sample is exposed to radiation from X-ray machine (ISOVOLT Titan E) with certain parameters. The parameters used in this study such as current, volt, exposure time and distance are specified. The current and distance of 3 mA and 700 mm respectively are specified while the applied voltage varies at 140, 160, 180 and 200 kV. The exposure time is reduced at a rate of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % for each sample exposure. Digital image of simulation produced from aRTist software whereas digital image of computed radiography produced from imaging plate. Therefore, both images were compared qualitatively (sensitivity) and quantitatively (Signal to-Noise Ratio; SNR, Basic Spatial Resolution; SRb and LOP size) using Isee software. Radiographic sensitivity is indicated by Image Quality Indicator (IQI) which is the ability of the CR system and aRTist software to identify IQI of wire type when the time exposure is reduced up to 80% according to exposure chart ( D7; ISOVOLT Titan E). The image of the thinnest wire diameter achieved by radiograph from simulation and CR are the wire numbered 7 rather than the wire numbered 8 required by the standard. In quantitative comparison, this study shows that the SNR values decreases with reducing exposure time. SRb values increases for simulation and decreases for CR when the exposure time decreases and the good image quality can be achieved at 80% reduced exposure time. The high SNR and SRb values produced good image quality in CR and simulation techniques respectively. (author)

  2. An image filtering technique for SPIDER visible tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonnesu, N., E-mail: nicola.fonnesu@igi.cnr.it; Agostini, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The tomographic diagnostic developed for the beam generated in the SPIDER facility (100 keV, 50 A prototype negative ion source of ITER neutral beam injector) will characterize the two-dimensional particle density distribution of the beam. The simulations described in the paper show that instrumental noise has a large influence on the maximum achievable resolution of the diagnostic. To reduce its impact on beam pattern reconstruction, a filtering technique has been adapted and implemented in the tomography code. This technique is applied to the simulated tomographic reconstruction of the SPIDER beam, and the main results are reported.

  3. An image filtering technique for SPIDER visible tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonnesu, N.; Agostini, M.; Brombin, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.

    2014-01-01

    The tomographic diagnostic developed for the beam generated in the SPIDER facility (100 keV, 50 A prototype negative ion source of ITER neutral beam injector) will characterize the two-dimensional particle density distribution of the beam. The simulations described in the paper show that instrumental noise has a large influence on the maximum achievable resolution of the diagnostic. To reduce its impact on beam pattern reconstruction, a filtering technique has been adapted and implemented in the tomography code. This technique is applied to the simulated tomographic reconstruction of the SPIDER beam, and the main results are reported

  4. Paediatric pelvic imaging: optimisation of dose and technique using digital grid-controlled pulsed fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, R.; McCarty, M. [Div. of Radiology, South Cleveland Hospital, South Tees Acute Hospitals NHS Trust, Marton Road, Middlesbrough, Cleveland (United Kingdom); McCallum, H.M. [Regional Medical Physics Dept., South Cleveland Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Montgomery, R. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, South Tees Hospitals NITS Trust, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom); Aszkenasy, M. [Tees and North East Yorkshire NHS Trust, West Lane Hospital, Middlesbrough (United Kingdom)

    2001-05-01

    Background. An audit of paediatric pelvic radiographs identified deficiencies in gonad shield placement and radiographic technique. Objective. A technique using grid-controlled fluoroscopy (GCF), with hard copy images in frame grab and digital spot image (DSI) format was evaluated to optimise gonad shield placement and reduce the dose given to children with Perthes disease and Developmental Hip Dysplasia (DDH) attending for pelvic radiography. Materials and methods. Phantom and patient dose surveys of conventional and fluoroscopic techniques were carried out. Image quality and radiation dose were compared for the frame grab and DSI techniques. Retrospective evaluation was undertaken to compare their clinical acceptability. Results. Both fluoroscopic techniques gave considerably less radiation than conventional non-grid radiography (67-83 %, P < 0.05). The frame grab technique gave less radiation than DSI (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the clinical acceptability scores of the DSI and frame grab images. Conclusion. Fluoroscopy acquired images are now used since the fluoroscopic techniques give much less dose than conventional radiography and provide images of sufficient quality for clinical assessment. Indeed, as there was no significant difference in clinical usefulness between the frame grab and DSI techniques, it is planned to use frame grab alone, thus gaining additional dose saving. (orig.)

  5. Paediatric pelvic imaging: optimisation of dose and technique using digital grid-controlled pulsed fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, R; McCallum, H M; McCarty, M; Montgomery, R; Aszkenasy, M

    2001-05-01

    An audit of paediatric pelvic radiographs identified deficiencies in gonad shield placement and radiographic technique. A technique using grid-controlled fluoroscopy (GCF), with hard copy images in frame grab and digital spot image (DSI) format was evaluated to optimise gonad shield placement and reduce the dose given to children with Perthes disease and Developmental Hip Dysplasia (DDH) attending for pelvic radiography. Phantom and patient dose surveys of conventional and fluoroscopic techniques were carried out. Image quality and radiation dose were compared for the frame grab and DSI techniques. Retrospective evaluation was undertaken to compare their clinical acceptability. Both fluoroscopic techniques gave considerably less radiation than conventional non-grid radiography (67-83%, P < 0.05). The frame grab technique gave less radiation than DSI (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the clinical acceptability scores of the DSI and frame grab images. Fluoroscopy acquired images are now used since the fluoroscopic techniques give much less dose than conventional radiography and provide images of sufficient quality for clinical assessment. Indeed, as there was no significant difference in clinical usefulness between the frame grab and DSI techniques, it is planned to use frame grab alone, thus gaining additional dose saving.

  6. Paediatric pelvic imaging: optimisation of dose and technique using digital grid-controlled pulsed fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, R.; McCarty, M.; McCallum, H.M.; Montgomery, R.; Aszkenasy, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background. An audit of paediatric pelvic radiographs identified deficiencies in gonad shield placement and radiographic technique. Objective. A technique using grid-controlled fluoroscopy (GCF), with hard copy images in frame grab and digital spot image (DSI) format was evaluated to optimise gonad shield placement and reduce the dose given to children with Perthes disease and Developmental Hip Dysplasia (DDH) attending for pelvic radiography. Materials and methods. Phantom and patient dose surveys of conventional and fluoroscopic techniques were carried out. Image quality and radiation dose were compared for the frame grab and DSI techniques. Retrospective evaluation was undertaken to compare their clinical acceptability. Results. Both fluoroscopic techniques gave considerably less radiation than conventional non-grid radiography (67-83 %, P < 0.05). The frame grab technique gave less radiation than DSI (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the clinical acceptability scores of the DSI and frame grab images. Conclusion. Fluoroscopy acquired images are now used since the fluoroscopic techniques give much less dose than conventional radiography and provide images of sufficient quality for clinical assessment. Indeed, as there was no significant difference in clinical usefulness between the frame grab and DSI techniques, it is planned to use frame grab alone, thus gaining additional dose saving. (orig.)

  7. Dose classification scheme for digital imaging techniques in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojreh, A.

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: image quality in diagnostic radiology is determined in crucial extent by the signal-noise-ratio, which is proportional to the applied x-ray dose. Onward technological developments in the diagnostic radiology are therefore frequently connected with a dose increase, which subjectively is hardly or even not perceptible. The aim of this work was to define reproducible standards for image quality as a function of dose and expected therapeutical consequence in case of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and the upper and lower jaw (dental CT), whereby practical-clinical purposes are considered. Materials and methods: the image quality of computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and dental CT was determined by standard deviation of the CT-numbers (pixel noise) in a region of interest of the phantom of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM phantom) and additionally in the patients CT images. The diagnostic quality of the examination was classified on the basis of patients CT images in three dose levels (low dose, standard dose and high dose). Results: the pixel noise of CT of the paranasal sinuses with soft tissue reconstruction amounts to 19.3 Hounsfield units (HU) for low dose, 8.8 HU for standard dose, and below 8 HU for high dose. The pixel noise of the dental CT with bone (high resolution) reconstruction amounts to 344 HU for low dose, 221 HU for standard dose, and below 200 HU for high dose. Suitable indications for low dose CT are the scanning of body regions with high contrast differences, like the bony delimitations of air-filled spaces of the facial bones, and radiological follow-up examinations with dedicated questions such as axis determination in dental implantology, as well as the images of objects with small diameter such as in case of children. The standard dose CT can be recommended for all cases, in which precise staging of the illness plays an indispensable role for the diagnosis and therapy planning. With high dose

  8. Comparison of mosaicking techniques for airborne images from consumer-grade cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huaibo; Yang, Chenghai; Zhang, Jian; Hoffmann, Wesley Clint; He, Dongjian; Thomasson, J. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Images captured from airborne imaging systems can be mosaicked for diverse remote sensing applications. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate mosaicking techniques and software to generate mosaicked images for use by aerial applicators and other users. Three software packages-Photoshop CC, Autostitch, and Pix4Dmapper-were selected for mosaicking airborne images acquired from a large cropping area. Ground control points were collected for georeferencing the mosaicked images and for evaluating the accuracy of eight mosaicking techniques. Analysis and accuracy assessment showed that Pix4Dmapper can be the first choice if georeferenced imagery with high accuracy is required. The spherical method in Photoshop CC can be an alternative for cost considerations, and Autostitch can be used to quickly mosaic images with reduced spatial resolution. The results also showed that the accuracy of image mosaicking techniques could be greatly affected by the size of the imaging area or the number of the images and that the accuracy would be higher for a small area than for a large area. The results from this study will provide useful information for the selection of image mosaicking software and techniques for aerial applicators and other users.

  9. Segmentation Technique for Image Indexing and Retrieval on Discrete Cosines Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro Yusuf Irianto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses region growing segmentation technique to segment the Discrete Cosines (DC  image. The problem of content Based image retrieval (CBIR is the luck of accuracy in matching between image query and image in the database as it matches object and background in the same time.   This the reason previous CBIR techniques inaccurate and time consuming. The CBIR   based on the segmented region proposed in this work  separates object from background as CBIR need only match the object not the background.  By using region growing technique on DC image, it reduces the number of image       regions.    The proposed of recursive region growing is not new technique but its application on DC images to build    indexing keys is quite new and not yet presented by many     authors. The experimental results show  that the proposed methods on   segmented images present good precision which are higher than 0.60 on all classes . It can be concluded that  region growing segmented based CBIR more efficient    compare to DC images  in term of their precision 0.59 and 0.75, respectively. Moreover,  DC based CBIR  can save time and simplify algorithm compare to DCT images.

  10. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  11. Role of imaging techniques in the evaluation of cardiovascular drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugishita, Yasuro; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    1985-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of imaging in the evaluation of medical treatment in heart diseases, radionuclide angiocardiography, echocardiography and Doppler echocardiography were applied in the cases of various kinds of heart diseases. Acute and chronic effects of antianginal drugs (nitrates, calcium antagonists and beta-blockers) could be evaluated by exercise radionuclide angiocardiography or exercise echocardiography in the cases of effort angina. The effects of the drugs changing myocardial contractility, preload or afterload could be evaluated by echocardiography in various kinds of heart diseases, including valvular heart biseases. The effect of calcium antagonists in improving diastolic function in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could be evaluated by echocardiography or Doppler echocardiography. In conclusion, imaging techniqus are valuable and useful methods to evaluate the effects of cardiovascular drugs, by offering various informations. (author)

  12. Application of digital techniques to the restoration of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.

    1980-09-01

    The methods of constrained least squares and maximum entropy have been used to restore digital X and γ-ray radiographs. Both methods require the blurring of the image to be a linear, spatially invariant process. Although the blurring processes in radiography can be complex, situations have been identified where these simplifying assumptions are valid. Algorithms for deriving the point-spread function of each image are discussed. These include a pinhole method for X-ray radiographs, and reconstruction from edge profiles for γ-ray radiographs. The results from the restoration of geometrically blurred radiographs of sparking plugs are given. Maximum entropy gives results superior to those obtained by constrained least squares. The resolution is improved by a factor of about three when maximum entropy is used, and by a factor of about two for constrained least squares. (author)

  13. Zircaloy nodular corrosion analysis by an image processing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Junko; Sato, Kanemitsu; Kuwae, Ryosho; Higashinakagawa, Emiko

    1987-01-01

    An image processor has been fabricated to examine out-of-pile nodular corrosion for Zircaloy-2 tubings. The covering fraction, which is the percentage of the nodule occupying area on the Zircaloy surface, was measured with the processor. The covering fraction showed a strong correlation with the weight gain at any corrosion time of this experiment. The correlation observed can be explained by a model for the lenticular shape of the nodules. The image processor also gives unfolded pictures of the whole Zircaloy surface. By analyzing the picture, the location of the nodules generated was found to be determined in an early stage of corrosion. New nodules were not produced later, and the nodules only grew larger with time. (orig.)

  14. Eye gazing direction inspection based on image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Song, Yong

    2005-02-01

    According to the research result in neural biology, human eyes can obtain high resolution only at the center of view of field. In the research of Virtual Reality helmet, we design to detect the gazing direction of human eyes in real time and feed it back to the control system to improve the resolution of the graph at the center of field of view. In the case of current display instruments, this method can both give attention to the view field of virtual scene and resolution, and improve the immersion of virtual system greatly. Therefore, detecting the gazing direction of human eyes rapidly and exactly is the basis of realizing the design scheme of this novel VR helmet. In this paper, the conventional method of gazing direction detection that based on Purklinje spot is introduced firstly. In order to overcome the disadvantage of the method based on Purklinje spot, this paper proposed a method based on image processing to realize the detection and determination of the gazing direction. The locations of pupils and shapes of eye sockets change with the gazing directions. With the aid of these changes, analyzing the images of eyes captured by the cameras, gazing direction of human eyes can be determined finally. In this paper, experiments have been done to validate the efficiency of this method by analyzing the images. The algorithm can carry out the detection of gazing direction base on normal eye image directly, and it eliminates the need of special hardware. Experiment results show that the method is easy to implement and have high precision.

  15. A new imaging riometer based on Mills Cross technique

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, M.; Honary, F.; Nielsen, E.; Hagfors, T.; Dekoulis, G.; Chapman, P.; Yamagishi, H.

    2003-01-01

    A new type of imaging riometer system based on a Mills Cross antenna array is currently under construction by the Ionosphere and Radio Propagation Group, Department of Communication Systems, Lancaster in collaboration with the Max-Planck-Institut für Aeronomie, Germany. The system will have an unprecedented spatial resolution in a viewing area of 300x300km. It is located at Ramfjordmoen, near Tromsø, Norway. The riometer (relative ionospheric opacity meter) determines the radio-wave absorptio...

  16. Inside out: modern imaging techniques to reveal animal anatomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Lauridsen; Kasper Hansen; Tobias Wang; Peter Agger; Jonas L Andersen; Peter S Knudsen; Anne S Rasmussen; Lars Uhrenholt; Michael Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI,...

  17. An application of image processing techniques in computed tomography image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Fintan

    2007-01-01

    number of animals and image slices, automation of the process was desirable. The open-source and free image analysis program ImageJ was used. A macro procedure was created that provided the required functionality. The macro performs a number of basic image processing procedures. These include an initial...... process designed to remove the scanning table from the image and to center the animal in the image. This is followed by placement of a vertical line segment from the mid point of the upper border of the image to the image center. Measurements are made between automatically detected outer and inner...... boundaries of subcutaneous adipose tissue along this line segment. This process was repeated as the image was rotated (with the line position remaining unchanged) so that measurements around the complete circumference were obtained. Additionally, an image was created showing all detected boundary points so...

  18. Quality Assurance By Laser Scanning And Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchmalfuB, Harald J.; Schinner, Karl Ludwig

    1989-03-01

    Laser scanning systems are well established in the world of fast industrial in-process quality inspection systems. The materials inspected by laser scanning systems are e.g. "endless" sheets of steel, paper, textile, film or foils. The web width varies from 50 mm up to 5000 mm or more. The web speed depends strongly on the production process and can reach several hundred meters per minute. The continuous data flow in one of different channels of the optical receiving system exceeds ten Megapixels/sec. Therefore it is clear that the electronic evaluation system has to process these data streams in real time and no image storage is possible. But sometimes (e.g. first installation of the system, change of the defect classification) it would be very helpful to have the possibility for a visual look on the original, i.e. not processed sensor data. At first we show the principle set up of a standard laser scanning system. Then we will introduce a large image memory especially designed for the needs of high-speed inspection sensors. This image memory co-operates with the standard on-line evaluation electronics and provides therefore an easy comparison between processed and non-processed data. We will discuss the basic system structure and we will show the first industrial results.

  19. PLEIADES-HR INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR GEOMETRIC IMAGE QUALITY COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Greslou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of 2012, the first Pleiades-HR satellite of the program conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES, delivers 20 km wide color scenes with a 70 cm ground sampling distance. A second satellite should be launched in 2013 which will achieve an almost world-wide coverage with a revisit interval of 24h. The assessment of the image quality and the calibration operation have been performed by CNES Image Quality team during the 6 month commissioning phase that followed the satellite launch. The geometric commissioning activities consist in improve the geometric quality of the images in order to meet very demanding specifications as localization accuracy, local coherence, dynamic stability, length alteration … This goal has been achieved through the implementation of new methods of calibration and performance assessment. Some of these methods are based on the exploitation of very specific satellite acquisitions that have been achieved thanks to the amazing agility of the Pleiades satellite. Thus, many stars acquisitions and very slow earth pictures have been processed to characterize dynamic phenomena. Similarly, “along-cross track” pairs have been exploited to improve the accuracy of the focal plane description. This paper deals with these new methods. It describes their accuracy and their operational interests.

  20. Telemedicine using an image transfer system in the treatment of neurosurgical emergent cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Atsushi; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Kamiyama, Hironaga; Furuno, Yuuichi; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2007-01-01

    Our department is located in the Tsugaru district, which is famous for heavy snow fall, and the small number of neurosurgeon centers in the urban areas leads to an inadequate distribution of neurosurgeons for patients in this region. Such geographical and social constraints have made it difficult to offer sufficient neurosurgical care to all patients in the region. We describe the usefulness of a telemedicine triage system using an image transfer system in the treatment of neurosurgical emergent cases. Image transfer systems have been installed at our hospital and 11 regional hospitals in the Tsugaru district, and have been utilized for teleconsultation regarding neurosurgical patients via transferred computed tomography images since 1989. Consultations regarding 2,858 cases were directed to our department between 1989 and 2006, including 1,615 cases of stroke, 869 cases of head trauma, 97 cases of brain tumor, and 277 cases with other disorders. 84% of subarachnoid hemorrhage cases and 22% of head trauma cases needed emergent transfer. The state of consciousness in intracerebral hemorrhage, and the state of consciousness and time of consultation in head trauma were statistically significant factors for emergent transfer. The presert telemedicine triage system was useful for ensuring correct diagnosis and appropriate primary neurosurgical care in the regional hospitals without neurosurgical units, resulting in a reinforcement of the relationships among the regional hospitals and the efficient transfer of emergent neurosurgical patients. (author)

  1. Watermark Compression in Medical Image Watermarking Using Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) Lossless Compression Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    In teleradiology, image contents may be altered due to noisy communication channels and hacker manipulation. Medical image data is very sensitive and can not tolerate any illegal change. Illegally changed image-based analysis could result in wrong medical decision. Digital watermarking technique can be used to authenticate images and detect as well as recover illegal changes made to teleradiology images. Watermarking of medical images with heavy payload watermarks causes image perceptual degradation. The image perceptual degradation directly affects medical diagnosis. To maintain the image perceptual and diagnostic qualities standard during watermarking, the watermark should be lossless compressed. This paper focuses on watermarking of ultrasound medical images with Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless-compressed watermarks. The watermark lossless compression reduces watermark payload without data loss. In this research work, watermark is the combination of defined region of interest (ROI) and image watermarking secret key. The performance of the LZW compression technique was compared with other conventional compression methods based on compression ratio. LZW was found better and used for watermark lossless compression in ultrasound medical images watermarking. Tabulated results show the watermark bits reduction, image watermarking with effective tamper detection and lossless recovery.

  2. A new registration method with voxel-matching technique for temporal subtraction images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyoungseop; Ishikawa, Seiji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    A temporal subtraction image, which is obtained by subtraction of a previous image from a current one, can be used for enhancing interval changes on medical images by removing most of normal structures. One of the important problems in temporal subtraction is that subtraction images commonly include artifacts created by slight differences in the size, shape, and/or location of anatomical structures. In this paper, we developed a new registration method with voxel-matching technique for substantially removing the subtraction artifacts on the temporal subtraction image obtained from multiple-detector computed tomography (MDCT). With this technique, the voxel value in a warped (or non-warped) previous image is replaced by a voxel value within a kernel, such as a small cube centered at a given location, which would be closest (identical or nearly equal) to the voxel value in the corresponding location in the current image. Our new method was examined on 16 clinical cases with MDCT images. Preliminary results indicated that interval changes on the subtraction images were enhanced considerably, with a substantial reduction of misregistration artifacts. The temporal subtraction images obtained by use of the voxel-matching technique would be very useful for radiologists in the detection of interval changes on MDCT images.

  3. A Novel Technique for Shape Feature Extraction Using Content Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoa Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology and multimedia information, digital images are increasing very quickly. Various techniques are being developed to retrieve/search digital information or data contained in the image. Traditional Text Based Image Retrieval System is not plentiful. Since it is time consuming as it require manual image annotation. Also, the image annotation differs with different peoples. An alternate to this is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR system. It retrieves/search for image using its contents rather the text, keywords etc. A lot of exploration has been compassed in the range of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR with various feature extraction techniques. Shape is a significant image feature as it reflects the human perception. Moreover, Shape is quite simple to use by the user to define object in an image as compared to other features such as Color, texture etc. Over and above, if applied alone, no descriptor will give fruitful results. Further, by combining it with an improved classifier, one can use the positive features of both the descriptor and classifier. So, a tryout will be made to establish an algorithm for accurate feature (Shape extraction in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. The main objectives of this project are: (a To propose an algorithm for shape feature extraction using CBIR, (b To evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and (c To compare the proposed algorithm with state of art techniques.

  4. Copy-Move Forgery Detection Technique for Forensic Analysis in Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the powerful image editing tools images are open to several manipulations; therefore, their authenticity is becoming questionable especially when images have influential power, for example, in a court of law, news reports, and insurance claims. Image forensic techniques determine the integrity of images by applying various high-tech mechanisms developed in the literature. In this paper, the images are analyzed for a particular type of forgery where a region of an image is copied and pasted onto the same image to create a duplication or to conceal some existing objects. To detect the copy-move forgery attack, images are first divided into overlapping square blocks and DCT components are adopted as the block representations. Due to the high dimensional nature of the feature space, Gaussian RBF kernel PCA is applied to achieve the reduced dimensional feature vector representation that also improved the efficiency during the feature matching. Extensive experiments are performed to evaluate the proposed method in comparison to state of the art. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique precisely determines the copy-move forgery even when the images are contaminated with blurring, noise, and compression and can effectively detect multiple copy-move forgeries. Hence, the proposed technique provides a computationally efficient and reliable way of copy-move forgery detection that increases the credibility of images in evidence centered applications.

  5. Factors associated with imaging overuse in the emergency department: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Monica; Sharma, Ritu; Hinson, Jeremiah S; Nothelle, Stephanie; Pannikottu, Jean; Segal, Jodi B

    2018-02-01

    Emergency departments (ED) are sites of prevalent imaging overuse; however, determinants that drive imaging in this setting are not well-characterized. We systematically reviewed the literature to summarize the determinants of imaging overuse in the ED. We searched MEDLINE® and Embase® from January 1998 to March 2017. Studies were included if they were written in English, contained original data, pertained to a U.S. population, and identified a determinant associated with overuse of imaging in the ED. Twenty relevant studies were included. Fourteen evaluated computerized tomography (CT) scanning in patents presenting to a regional ED who were then transferred to a level 1 trauma center; incomplete transfer of data and poor image quality were the most frequently described reasons for repeat scanning. Unnecessary pre-transfer scanning or repeated scanning after transfer, in multiple studies, was highest among older patients, those with higher Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and those being transferred further. Six studies explored determinants of overused imaging in the ED in varied conditions, with overuse greater in older patients and those having more comorbid diseases. Defensive imaging reportedly influenced physician behavior. Less integration of services across the health system also predisposed to overuse of imaging. The literature is heterogeneous with surprisingly few studies of determinants of imaging in minor head injury or of spine imaging. Older patient age and higher ISS were the most consistently associated with ED imaging overuse. This review highlights the need for precise definitions of overuse of imaging in the ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emerging surface characterization techniques for carbon steel corrosion: a critical brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D.; Lepkova, K.; Becker, T.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The reviewed methods include time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy methods, particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry. Advantages and limitations of the analytical methods in thin-film surface investigations are discussed. Technical parameters of nominated analytical methods are provided to assist in the selection of suitable methods for analysis of metallic substrates deposited with surface films. The challenges associated with the applications of the emerging analytical methods in corrosion science are also addressed.

  7. QUEST: A model to quantify uncertain emergency search techniques, theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.M.; Goldsby, M.E.; Plantenga, T.D.; Wilcox, W.B.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-01-01

    As recent world events show, criminal and terrorist access to nuclear materials is a growing national concern. The national laboratories are taking the lead in developing technologies to counter these potential threats to our national security. Sandia National Laboratories, with support from Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Remote Sensing Laboratory, has developed QUEST (a model to Quantify Uncertain Emergency Search Techniques), to enhance the performance of organizations in the search for lost or stolen nuclear material. In addition, QUEST supports a wide range of other applications, such as environmental monitoring, nuclear facilities inspections, and searcher training. QUEST simulates the search for nuclear materials and calculates detector response fro various source types and locations. The probability of detecting a radioactive source during a search is a function of many different variables. Through calculation of dynamic detector response, QUEST makes possible quantitative comparisons of various sensor technologies and search patterns. The QUEST model can be used to examine the impact of new detector technologies, explore alternative search concepts, and provide interactive search/inspector training

  8. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.

    2013-08-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Autologous Cricoid Cartilage as a Graft for Airway Reconstruction in an Emergent Technique - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Izadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laryngotracheal stenosis can be caused after traumatic injuries to the neck from the subglottic larynx to the trachea. Patients with laryngotracheal stenosis often need a tracheotomy and occasionally may become tracheotomy dependent. Different procedures have been described for the management of these lesions. Management options include techniques of endoscopic dilation, laser resection, laryngo-fissure, and an innovative array of plastic reconstructions with or without the use of stents.   Case Report:This paper presents airway reconstruction in a young patient with severe subglottic stenosis due to a blunt trauma to the neck, who was treated using particles of an autologous fractured cricoid cartilage as the source for airway augmentation. An incision was made in the anterior midline of the cricoid lamina and deepened through the scar tissue to the posterior cricoid lamina. Then two lateral incisions (right & left were made in the cricoid lamina and fractured cartilage particles and the scar tissue were removed via these two lateral incisions. The mucosal lining at the right and left of the midline incision, after debulking, were sutured to a lateral position. Thereafter three cartilage particles were used to reconstruct the anterior cricoid lamina and augment the lumen.   Conclusion:  It is worth to mention that an autologus cartilage graft can be used for certain cases with traumatic airway stenosis. Further follow up and more patients are needed to approve this method of reconstructive surgery in emergent situations.

  10. Modelling Aedes aegypti mosquito control via transgenic and sterile insect techniques: Endemics and emerging outbreaks

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.; Baker, R.E.; Gaffney, E.A.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of pest insects often changes or destroys a native ecosystem, and can result in food shortages and disease endemics. Issues such as the environmental effects of chemical control methods, the economic burden of maintaining control strategies and the risk of pest resistance still remain, and mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever prevail in many countries, infecting over 100 million worldwide in 2010. One environmentally friendly method for mosquito control is the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This species-specific method of insect control relies on the mass rearing, sterilization and release of large numbers of sterile insects. An alternative transgenic method is the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL). Our objective is to consider contrasting control strategies for two invasive scenarios via SIT and RIDL: an endemic case and an emerging outbreak. We investigate how the release rate and size of release region influence both the potential for control success and the resources needed to achieve it, under a range of conditions and control strategies, and we discuss advantageous strategies with respect to reducing the release resources and strategy costs (in terms of control mosquito numbers) required to achieve complete eradication of wild-type mosquitoes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Visualization of brain surface structures by weighted summation technique using multislice MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Yoshio; Hatanaka, Masahiko; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Tadatoki; Katada, Kazuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    Surface anatomy scanning (SAS) technique which visualizes brain surface structures has been developed since 1987. In this paper, we propose a modified method called 'multislice SAS', which also generates such surface structure images, and has several advantages compared with conventional SAS technique. The conventional SAS technique uses a very long echo time sequence (e.g. SE(3000, 250)) with a thick slice and a surface coil to enhance CSF on the brain surface. Our modified technique also uses a long echo time sequence. But, added multislice images, each appropriately weighted, are used in stead of a thick slice and a surface coil. Our basic studies have shown that this modified method has the following advantage: Several surface images with slightly different summation directions are obtained, and they are used for stereographic display and cine display. This is very useful for visualizing the spatial relationship of brain surface structures. By choosing appropriate weighting, we can obtain clinically legible surface images. This technique dose not require a surface coil. It means that flexibility of selecting imaging direction is high. We can make a lot of modifications, because the original multislice images of weighted summation are arbitrary. And we also clarify some limitation or disadvantage of this modified method. In conclusion, we think that this technique is one of the practical approaches for surface anatomy imaging. (author)

  12. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  13. Interferometric and nonlinear-optical spectral-imaging techniques for outer space and live cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Multidimensional signals such as the spectral images allow us to have deeper insights into the natures of objects. In this paper the spectral imaging techniques that are based on optical interferometry and nonlinear optics are presented. The interferometric imaging technique is based on the unified theory of Van Cittert-Zernike and Wiener-Khintchine theorems and allows us to retrieve a spectral image of an object in the far zone from the 3D spatial coherence function. The retrieval principle is explained using a very simple object. The promising applications to space interferometers for astronomy that are currently in progress will also be briefly touched on. An interesting extension of interferometric spectral imaging is a 3D and spectral imaging technique that records 4D information of objects where the 3D and spectral information is retrieved from the cross-spectral density function of optical field. The 3D imaging is realized via the numerical inverse propagation of the cross-spectral density. A few techniques suggested recently are introduced. The nonlinear optical technique that utilizes stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for spectral imaging of biomedical targets is presented lastly. The strong signals of SRS permit us to get vibrational information of molecules in the live cell or tissue in real time. The vibrational information of unstained or unlabeled molecules is crucial especially for medical applications. The 3D information due to the optical nonlinearity is also the attractive feature of SRS spectral microscopy.

  14. Imaging techniques in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    1997-01-01

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Coronary angiography makes it possible to visualize coronary artery stenosis and can be used for angioplasty and stent implantation; however, it does not allow the assessment of changes in myocardial microcirculation. The severity of an angiographically evaluated coronary stenosis does not always correspond to the extent of myocardial ischemia. Nonivasive techniques are needed to reexamine our reliance on coronary angiography and to explore the clinical value fo the physiological assessment of coronary artery stenoses. Such noninvasive techniques might become important tools in the future following an overal evaluation of coronary morphology, myocardial function and perfusion ascertained by all available methods. (orig.) [de

  15. Synchrotron Phase Tomography: An Emerging Imaging Method for Microvessel Detection in Engineered Bone of Craniofacial Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Giuliani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of large 3D constructs, such as certain craniofacial bone districts, is nowadays a critical challenge. Indeed, the amount of oxygen needed for cell survival is able to reach a maximum diffusion distance of ~150–200 μm from the original vascularization vector, often hampering the long-term survival of the regenerated tissues. Thus, the rapid growth of new blood vessels, delivering oxygen and nutrients also to the inner cells of the bone grafts, is mandatory for their long-term function in clinical practice. Unfortunately, significant progress in this direction is currently hindered by a lack of methods with which to visualize these processes in 3D and reliably quantify them. In this regard, a challenging method for simultaneous 3D imaging and analysis of microvascularization and bone microstructure has emerged in recent years: it is based on the use of synchrotron phase tomography. This technique is able to simultaneously identify multiple tissue features in a craniofacial bone site (e.g., the microvascular and the calcified tissue structure. Moreover, it overcomes the intrinsic limitations of both histology, achieving only a 2D characterization, and conventional tomographic approaches, poorly resolving the vascularization net in the case of an incomplete filling of the newly formed microvessels by contrast agents. Indeed, phase tomography, being based on phase differences among the scattered X-ray waves, is capable of discriminating tissues with similar absorption coefficients (like vessels and woven bone in defined experimental conditions. The approach reviewed here is based on the most recent experiences applied to bone regeneration in the craniofacial region.

  16. IMAGE CONSTRUCTION TO AUTOMATION OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pavlova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for a solution of automation of the process of assessment of a psychological analysis of the person drawings created by it from an available set of some templates are presented at this article. It will allow to reveal more effectively infringements of persons mentality. In particular, such decision can be used for work with children who possess the developed figurative thinking, but are not yet capable of an accurate statement of the thoughts and experiences. For automation of testing by using a projective method, we construct interactive environment for visualization of compositions of the several images and then analyse

  17. Inside Out: Modern Imaging Techniques to Reveal Animal Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI, CT and mCT to create advanced representation of animal anatomy, including bones, inner organs...... and blood vessels in a variety of animals, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and spiders. The images have a similar quality to most traditional anatomical drawings and are presented together with interactive movies of the anatomical structures, where the object can be viewed from different...

  18. On the benefit of the negative-spherical-aberration imaging technique for quantitative HRTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, C.L.; Houben, L.; Thust, A.; Barthel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Employing an aberration corrector in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, the spherical aberration C S can be tuned to negative values, resulting in a novel imaging technique, which is called the negative C S imaging (NCSI) technique. The image contrast obtained with the NCSI technique is compared quantitatively with the image contrast formed with the traditional positive C S imaging (PCSI) technique. For the case of thin objects negative C S images are superior to positive C S images concerning the magnitude of the obtained contrast, which is due to constructive rather than destructive superposition of fundamental contrast contributions. As a consequence, the image signal obtained with a negative spherical aberration is significantly more robust against noise caused by amorphous surface layers, resulting in a measurement precision of atomic positions which is by a factor of 2-3 better at an identical noise level. The quantitative comparison of the two alternative C S -corrected imaging modes shows that the NCSI mode yields significantly more precise results in quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of thin objects than the traditional PCSI mode.

  19. Anatomical explorations of mind: Studies with modern imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichle, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    From studies of patients with various lesions affecting areas of the brain thought to be important in language processing, two general theories have emerged; a serial model that posits information flow in an obligatory, stepwise fashion from perception to speech, and a parallel model that posits a flexible modular organization governed by specific information processing requirements that can vary under particular circumstances. The processing of single words has been studied in normal adult humans using positron emission tomography to determine whether either of these theories best explains the manner in which single words are processed by the human brain. Results indicate that the processing of single words is accomplished in a highly modular, parallel fashion that is flexibly determined by specific task requirements and the familiarity of the subject with the task

  20. Importance of Doppler broadening in Compton scatter imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Donepudi V.; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Seltzer, S. M.; Hubbell, John H.; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Akatsuka, Takao; Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Gigante, Giovanni E.

    2001-12-01

    Compton scattering is a potential tool for the determination of bone mineral content or tissue density for dose planning purposes, and requires knowledge of the energy distribution of the X-rays through biological materials of medical interest in the X-ray and (gamma) -ray region. The energy distribution is utilized in a number of ways in diagnostic radiology, for example, in determining primary photon spectra, electron densities in separate volumes, and in tomography and imaging. The choice of the X-ray energy is more related to X-ray absorption, where as that of the scattering angle is more related to geometry. The evaluation of all the contributions are mandatory in Compton profile measurements and is important in X-ray imaging systems in order to achieve good results. In view of this, Compton profile cross-sections for few biological materials are estimated at nineteen K(alpha) X-ray energies and 60 keV (Am-241) photons. Energy broadening, geometrical broadening from 1 to 180 degree(s), FWHM of J(Pz) and FWHM of Compton energy broadening has been evaluated at various incident photon energies. These values are estimated around the centroid of the Compton profile with an energy interval of 0.1 keV and 1.0 keV for 60 keV photons. The interaction cross sections for the above materials are estimated using fractions-by-weight of the constituent elements. Input data for these tables are purely theoretical.

  1. An image processing technique for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Mahmoudian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD reportedly hibit hypersensitivity to much diluted tropicam solution (0.005%, a M4 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Therefore aocular application of 0.005% tropicamide ma be useful for screening dementia. The aim of this study was to simplify the pupil response test by using a new image analyzing system, which consists of a cheap, simple, and easy to use web-camera and a computer.
    • METHODS: Intraocular tropicamide of 0.005% concentration was administered in 3 groups: Alzheimer's disease patients (n = 8, average age = 76 ± 5, non-Alzheimer's disease elderly (n = 6, average age = 65 ± 7, and young subjects (n = 8, average age = 28 ± 5. Every 5 minutes for 60 minutes, image of the eye's shape were taken, and the diameter of the pupils was measured.
    • RESULTS: The results showed that differences in pupil dilation rate between Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's disease subjects were statistically significant. ROC analysis showed that after 35 minutes the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100%.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, we concluded that this recording system might be an appropriate and reliable tool for pupil response diagnosis test of Alzheimer's disease.
    • KEYWORDS: Alzheimer’s Disease, Tropicamide, Pupil.

  2. Basic studies in X-ray radiography and imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Paresh R.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the basic characteristics related to a new branch of radiography viz. the micro-focal radiography. The most important among them was to find methods of measurement of focal spot size of these X-ray sources. It is important to accomplish this because the design of such units is specifically meant to produce very fine source size. To this end. first the process of radiography test was introduced. Among other things. various properties of an image and image forming systems (like PSF, LSF, MTF etc.) were introduced and explained. Methods used for microfocus measurement of focal spot size in conventional units were reviewed. It was shown how they are not suitable for microfocal tubes. Next the microfocus X-ray unit meant for the study was installed and commissioned. Features which are different from conventional X-ray units were observed more carefully. Data was collected and analyzed for various aspects. Procedure for focussing the electron beam while getting the feed back about beam diameter from the oscilloscope was established by experiments. In addition, influence of change in tube voltage and tube current on the focal spot size was studied. Relationship between tube current and target current vis-a-vis focus size was established. Radiation zone was determined. Focal spot size was qualitatively compared with that of a conventional X-ray unit by taking radiographs of different wire meshes at different magnifications by both the units

  3. Modern imaging techniques in patients with multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannas, Peter; Adam, G.; Derlin, T.; Kroeger, N.

    2013-01-01

    Imaging studies are essential for both diagnosis and initial staging of multiple myeloma, as well as for differentiation from other monoclonal plasma cell diseases. Apart from conventional radiography, a variety of newer imaging modalities including whole-body low-dose-CT, whole-body MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT may be used for detection of osseous and extraosseous myeloma manifestations. Despite of known limitations such as limited sensitivity and specificity and the inability to detect extraosseous lesions, conventional radiography still remains the gold standard for staging newly diagnosed myeloma, partly due to its wide availability and low costs. Whole-body low-dose CT is increasingly used due to its higher sensitivity for the detection of osseous lesions and its ability to diagnose extraosseous lesions, and is replacing conventional radiography at selected centres. The highest sensitivity for both detection of bone marrow disease and extraosseous lesions can be achieved with whole-body MRI or 18F-FDG PET/CT. Diffuse bone marrow infiltration may be visualized by whole-body MRI with high sensitivity. Whole-body MRI is at least recommended in all patients with normal conventional radiography and in all patients with an apparently solitary plasmacytoma of bone. To obtain the most precise readings, optimized examination protocols and dedicated radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians familiar with the complex and variable morphologies of myeloma lesions are required. (orig.)

  4. Imaging monitoring techniques applications in the transient gratings detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-ming

    2009-07-01

    Experimental studies of Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in iodine vapor at atmospheric pressure and 0℃ and 25℃ are reported. The Laser-induced grating (LIG) studies are carried out by generating the thermal grating using a pulsed, narrow bandwidth, dye laser .A new image processing system for detecting forward DFWM spectroscopy on iodine vapor is reported. This system is composed of CCD camera, imaging processing card and the related software. With the help of the detecting system, phase matching can be easily achieved in the optical arrangement by crossing the two pumps and the probe as diagonals linking opposite corners of a rectangular box ,and providing a way to position the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) . Also it is practical to know the effect of the pointing stability on the optical path by monitoring facula changing with the laser beam pointing and disturbs of the environment. Finally the effects of Photostability of dye laser on the ration of signal to noise in DFWM using forward geometries have been investigated in iodine vapor. This system makes it feasible that the potential application of FG-DFWM is used as a diagnostic tool in combustion research and environment monitoring.

  5. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  6. Development of a novel fusion imaging technique in the diagnosis of hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Koichi; Ochiai, Jun; Miyajima, Takashi; Kassai, Kyoichi; Itani, Kenji; Yagi, Nobuaki; Naito, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Multi-row detector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) play an important role in the imaging diagnosis of hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions. Here we investigated whether unifying the MDCT and MRCP images onto the same screen using fusion imaging could overcome the limitations of each technique, while still maintaining their benefits. Moreover, because reports of fusion imaging using MDCT and MRCP are rare, we assessed the benefits and limitations of this method for its potential application in a clinical setting. The patient group included 9 men and 11 women. Among the 20 patients, the final diagnoses were as follows: 10 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, 5 biliary system carcinomas, 1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 5 non-neoplastic lesions. After transmitting the Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine data of the MDCT and MRCP images to a workstation, we performed a 3-D organisation of both sets of images using volume rendering for the image fusion. Fusion imaging enabled clear identification of the spatial relationship between a hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesion and the solid viscera and/or vessels. Further, this method facilitated the determination of the relationship between the anatomical position of the lesion and its surroundings more easily than either MDCT or MRCP alone. Fusion imaging is an easy technique to perform and may be a useful tool for planning treatment strategies and for examining pathological changes in hepatobiliary-pancreatic lesions. Additionally, the ease of obtaining the 3-D images suggests the possibility of using these images to plan intervention strategies.

  7. A rapid compression technique for 4-D functional MRI images using data rearrangement and modified binary array techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Vetri Selvi, G; Nadarajan, R

    2015-12-01

    Compression techniques are vital for efficient storage and fast transfer of medical image data. The existing compression techniques take significant amount of time for performing encoding and decoding and hence the purpose of compression is not fully satisfied. In this paper a rapid 4-D lossy compression method constructed using data rearrangement, wavelet-based contourlet transformation and a modified binary array technique has been proposed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images. In the proposed method, the image slices of fMRI data are rearranged so that the redundant slices form a sequence. The image sequence is then divided into slices and transformed using wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT). In WBCT, the high frequency sub-band obtained from wavelet transform is further decomposed into multiple directional sub-bands by directional filter bank to obtain more directional information. The relationship between the coefficients has been changed in WBCT as it has more directions. The differences in parent–child relationships are handled by a repositioning algorithm. The repositioned coefficients are then subjected to quantization. The quantized coefficients are further compressed by modified binary array technique where the most frequently occurring value of a sequence is coded only once. The proposed method has been experimented with fMRI images the results indicated that the processing time of the proposed method is less compared to existing wavelet-based set partitioning in hierarchical trees and set partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) compression schemes [1]. The proposed method could also yield a better compression performance compared to wavelet-based SPECK coder. The objective results showed that the proposed method could gain good compression ratio in maintaining a peak signal noise ratio value of above 70 for all the experimented sequences. The SSIM value is equal to 1 and the value of CC is greater than 0.9 for all

  8. Evaluation of New Ultrasound Techniques for Clinical Imaging in selected Liver and Vascular Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    blinded to information about the technique, which B-mode images they preferred, as well as detection of pathology. Evaluation showed that the techniques were preferred equally and tumor could be detected equally well. Study II deals with the ability of vector flow imaging (VFI) to monitor patients......This Ph.D. project is based on a longstanding collaboration between physicists and engineers from the Center of Fast Ultrasound Imaging (CFU) at the Technical University of Denmark and medical doctors from the department of Radiology at Rigshospitalet. The intent of this cooperation is to validate...... new ultrasonic methods for future clinical use. Study I compares two B-mode ultrasound methods: the new experimental technique Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming combined with Tissue Harmonic Imaging (SASB-THI), and a conventional technique combined with THI. While SASB reduces the amount...

  9. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  10. Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique on monitoring flower bud differentiation of tulip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Haojun; Yang Hongguang; Han Hongbin; Sun Xiaomei

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for observing morphogenesis process in the living specimen situation of tulip flower buds. Through a comparison of different MRI imaging formation technique (longitudinal relaxation-T1WI, transverse relaxation time weighted imaging-T2WI, proton density weighted imaging-PDWI), seeking for an accurate and practical MRI technique to observe tulip bulb and differentiation period of flower bud. The results showed that in the demonstration of the morphological characters as well as morphogenesis process of flower bud differentiation, the T1WI was completely consistent with the results of rough slice, PDWI and T1WI also had obviously higher map quality than the T2WI (P<0.05). It is indicated that the magnetic resonance imaging technique could monitor the development of flower bud differentiation in vivo. (authors)

  11. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Emergency Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaton JuanD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  13. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Emergency Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  14. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-05-01

    Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  15. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Diagnosis: Concept Development of the Next Generation Diagnostic Breast Imaging Using Digital Image Library and Networking Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chouikha, Mohamed F

    2004-01-01

    ...); and Georgetown University (Image Science and Information Systems, ISIS). In this partnership training program, we will train faculty and students in breast cancer imaging, digital image database library techniques and network communication strategy...

  16. Image and Imaging an Emergency Department: Expense and Benefit of Different Quality Assessment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Andrea Pfortmueller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this era of high-tech medicine, it is becoming increasingly important to assess patient satisfaction. There are several methods to do so, but these differ greatly in terms of cost, time, and labour and external validity. The aim of this study is to describe and compare the structure and implementation of different methods to assess the satisfaction of patients in an emergency department. Methods. The structure and implementation of the different methods to assess patient satisfaction were evaluated on the basis of a 90-minute standardised interview. Results. We identified a total of six different methods in six different hospitals. The average number of patients assessed was 5012, with a range from 230 (M5 to 20 000 patients (M2. In four methods (M1, M3, M5, and M6, the questionnaire was composed by a specialised external institute. In two methods, the questionnaire was created by the hospital itself (M2, M4.The median response rate was 58.4% (range 9–97.8%. With a reminder, the response rate increased by 60% (M3. Conclusion. The ideal method to assess patient satisfaction in the emergency department setting is to use a patient-based, in-emergency department-based assessment of patient satisfaction, planned and guided by expert personnel.

  17. An image processing technique for the radiographic assessment of vertebral derangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, A.C. (Anglo-European Coll. of Chiropractic, Bournemouth (UK)); Allen, R. (Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Morris, A. (Odstock Hospital, Salisbury (UK). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-01-01

    A technique for measuring inter-vertebral motion by the digitization and processing of intensifier images is described. The technique reduces the time and X-ray dosage currently required to make such assessments. The errors associated with computing kinematic indices at increments of coronal plane rotations in the lumbar spine have been calculated using a calibration model designed to produce a facsimile of in vivo conditions in terms of image quality and geometric distortion. (author).

  18. Development and application of the analyzer-based imaging technique with hard synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coan, P.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is twofold: from one side the application of the analyser-based X-ray phase contrast imaging to study cartilage, bone and bone implants using ESRF synchrotron radiation sources and on the other to contribute to the development of the phase contrast techniques from the theoretical and experimental point of view. Several human samples have been studied in vitro using the analyser based imaging (ABI) technique. Examination included projection and computed tomography imaging and 3-dimensional volume rendering of hip, big toe and ankle articular joints. X-ray ABI images have been critically compared with those obtained with conventional techniques, including radiography, computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance and histology, the latter taken as gold standard. Results show that only ABI imaging was able to either visualize or correctly estimate the early pathological status of the cartilage. The status of the bone ingrowth in sheep implants have also been examined in vitro: ABI images permitted to correctly distinguish between good and incomplete bone healing. Pioneering in-vivo ABI on guinea pigs were also successfully performed, confirming the possible use of the technique to follow up the progression of joint diseases, the bone/metal ingrowth and the efficacy of drugs treatments. As part of the development of the phase contrast techniques, two objectives have been reached. First, it has been experimentally demonstrated for the first time that the ABI and the propagation based imaging (PBI) can be combined to create images with original features (hybrid imaging, HI). Secondly, it has been proposed and experimentally tested a new simplified set-up capable to produce images with properties similar to those obtained with the ABI technique or HI. Finally, both the ABI and the HI have been theoretically studied with an innovative, wave-based simulation program, which was able to correctly reproduce experimental results. (author)

  19. Musculoskeletal imaging in pediatric emergencies: the basics through three clinical scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés Iñigo, E F; Guasp Vizcaíno, M; Gómez Fernández-Montes, J

    2016-05-01

    A high percentage of the pediatric imaging studies requested during calls are related to musculoskeletal disease. Since bones and joints in children are immature, constantly growing and remodeling, they have physiological and anatomical peculiarities that make it necessary to use an approach specific for pediatric patients. In this article, we use three clinical scenarios (limping, fractures, and musculoskeletal infections) to summarize and transmit the concepts that are essential in emergency musculoskeletal imaging in children. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurement and Image Processing Techniques for Particle Image Velocimetry Using Solid-Phase Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    stereoscopic PIV: the angular displacement configuration and the translation configuration. The angular displace