WorldWideScience

Sample records for emerging american identities

  1. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Suicide Ideation: Moderating Roles of Anxiety Symptoms and Ethnic Identity among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheref, Soumia; Talavera, David; Walker, Rheeda L

    2018-05-03

    Suicide is a leading cause of death for vulnerable ethnic minority emerging adults in the United States (Web-based injury statistics query and reporting system [WISQARS], 2015). Perceived discrimination (Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 2011, 1465) and anxiety symptoms (Asian American Journal of Psychology, 1, 2010, 18) are two predictors that are theoretically and conceptually related, but have yet to be examined in a simultaneous model for suicide ideation. Existing theory and research suggest that these variables activate similar pathways (American Behavioral Scientist, 51, 2007, 551). This study sought to address this gap in the literature by examining the simultaneous relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms as predictors of suicide ideation. The moderating effect of anxiety symptoms on the relationship between perceived discrimination and suicide ideation was examined in a multiethnic sample of emerging adults. Results indicated that anxiety symptoms moderated the perceived discrimination-suicide ideation relationship for Hispanic emerging adults, but not for their Asian American and African American counterparts. Furthermore, ethnic identity has been shown to mitigate suicide risk in the face of other stressors (Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14, 2008, 75). Ethnic identity emerged as a protective factor for Hispanic emerging adults by further interacting with perceived discrimination and anxiety symptoms to negatively predict suicide ideation. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  3. Understanding American Identity: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    this leads to is, how can we begin this transformation ? D. HOW TO GET THERE: PATRIOTIC BUILDING BLOCKS 1. Civic Education Many have argued that civic... transformation of the U.S. public education system and writes, “High schools brought young people together into an adolescent world that helped to obscure...Revamped civic education and national service programs can serve to form those cross-cutting ties. 14. SUBJECT TERMS American identity, national identity

  4. Arab American Women Negotiating Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Oraib

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…

  5. Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    Throughout the United States, many Filipino Americans, especially students, are beginning to want to know more about their cultural heritage and future. Overall, there has been very little written to transmit knowledge about Filipino history, ideas, and values, even though Filipinos make up the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States.…

  6. Biracial Japanese American identity: an evolving process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J F

    2000-05-01

    This qualitative study explored the complexity of biracial identity development in Japanese Americans. It is based on the constant comparable method of analysis, or grounded theory. The study focused on how Japanese Americans perceived themselves in relation to other individuals, groups, and their environment. The data consisted of 15 extensive semistructured interviews with 8 men and 7 women (ages 20 to 40 years), each with 1 Japanese parent and 1 non-Asian parent. Findings relate to participants' initiating explorations of identity and perseverance in pursuing a biracial identity, which depended on the degree of support or negative experience within their social networks. Participants explored identity options attempting to develop their own meaning of identity, to develop a confident sense of themselves, and to secure a positive ethnic identity. Identity development among participants varied. It was a long-term process involving changes in the individual-environment relationship, which differed in the way individual participants influenced or selected from environmental opportunities, even creating or recreating some aspects. Within a given setting, as youths, the potential for social experiences were relatively fixed and changed only gradually. As adults, there were opportunities for participants to select their own social and geographic settings, providing opportunity for change. In their new environments, participants were exposed to new contacts and role models, acquired new behavioral repertoire, and underwent role transitions. Depending on this, new and different aspects of biracial identity developed. Participants indicated it was an emotional and conflictual process to positive assertion of identity. Before reaching this, all of the participants experienced periods of confusion. Most asserted biracial identity gradually, through a process of racial identity development consisting of the individual's changing or maintaining certain reference group

  7. Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocha, Witchayanee

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.

  8. Making meaning of urban American Indian identity: a multistage integrative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M

    2010-10-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of American Indians who had lived since childhood in urban areas, away from their reservations or tribal communities. Seven urban Indian adults, each from a different tribe, shared their experiences related to coming to understand what it means to be American Indian and the development of their American Indian cultural identity. Four themes emerged from participant interviews and were seen to correspond to stages that participants passed through, from their teens through their 30s, that led to understanding and integration of their American Indian identity. Findings point to the importance of considering issues of cultural identity development when providing social work services to urban American Indian young adults.

  9. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development.

  10. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Contextual Influences on Gendered Racial Identity Development of African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Hoxha, Denada; Hacker, Jason Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the contextual factors and socialization experiences most salient to the identity development of African American girls. Seventeen African American young women participated in dyadic focus groups. Themes that emerged included exposure to stereotypes, negative classroom environments, and parental and peer…

  12. Asian American Education: Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages. Research on the Education of Asian Pacific Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xue Lan, Ed.; Endo, Russell, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Asian American Education--Asian American Identities, Racial Issues, and Languages presents groundbreaking research that critically challenges the invisibility, stereotyping, and common misunderstandings of Asian Americans by disrupting "customary" discourse and disputing "familiar" knowledge. The chapters in this anthology…

  13. Family cultural socialization practices and ethnic identity in college-going emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Syed, Moin

    2010-06-01

    We examined how family cultural socialization related to the ethnic identity of Asian American, Latino, White, and Mixed-Ethnic emerging adults (N=225). Greater family cultural socialization was related to greater ethnic identity exploration and commitment. Ethnic minority students reported higher levels of family cultural socialization and ethnic identity compared to White students. The family cultural socialization-ethnic identity link was more pronounced for females compared to males, and for White compared to ethnic minority students. The findings highlight the importance of the family for identity development beyond adolescence.

  14. Korean Adoptee Identity: Adoptive and Ethnic Identity Profiles of Adopted Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Adam J.; Reichwald, Reed; Zhou, Xiang; Raleigh, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted Korean adolescents face the task of grappling with their identity as Koreans and coming to terms with their adoptive status. In order to explore these dual identities, the authors conducted a person-centered study of the identity profiles of 189 adopted Korean American adolescents. Using cluster analytic procedures, the study examined…

  15. Political Identities and Latin American Film Portraits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bautista Lucca

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This assay uses the cinema as an expression of culture that has the ability to portray different ways to build identities, to condense on an image different identities path. For example, in the film Machuca, we can see how political identities experience a social split; in Memoria del saqueo we can observe how social and political construction of an identity could be understood as a sign of the past that came back to the present; in Fresa y chocolate and also the films Santera, La estrategia del caracol and La ley de Herodes, we can observe the identity clash with the “other”, that shapes and stressed that thing “we” are; finally, a film is also becomes a field to think about identity construction process that open a new future like in Diario de motocicleta, or open the possibility to return to our old certainties like in El hijo de la novia. Keywords:

  16. Entrepreneurial identity as emerging in innovative relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    rational or formative perspectives, which assume that entrepreneurial identity can be de ned and captured, in frameworks or generic models. These perspectives are most often based on the analysis of entrepreneurs, from questionnaires or interviews or from analyzing autobiographical accounts...... of their entrepreneurial experiences. Either represented as quanti able items which constitute identity. Or as archetypes, used to distinguish entrepreneurs based on narrative accounts of entrepreneurial processes. Neither of these perspectives accomplish to describe the notion of entrepreneurial identity...... as transformative, as ongoing interaction of the individual and the social. From a complex responsive process perspective, this PhD dissertation presents a transformative understanding of the notion of entrepreneurial process, opportunity and entrepreneurial identity. Through ve research papers, the author presents...

  17. Factors that Influence the Identity Development of Punjabi American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Satinder Kaur

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to understand the factors that contribute to the identity development of Punjabi American women in college. The identified factors are useful for enhancing the educational and psychological development of Punjabi American women in college. A qualitative phenomenological design was implemented to collect data from…

  18. American College of Emergency Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these... Read More More Than 850 Hours of Online Education Log In Now > Physicians Podcasts and Apps Reimbursement Quality Issues MOC Resource Center International Residents & Students Contracts & ... Medicine Foundation Online Buyers' Guide Emergency Care For You emCareers.org ...

  19. Medical identity theft in the emergency department: awareness is crucial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Michelino

    2014-11-01

    Medical identity theft in the emergency department (ED) can harm numerous individuals, and many frontline healthcare providers are unaware of this growing concern. The two cases described began as typical ED encounters until red flags were discovered upon validating the patient's identity. Educating all healthcare personnel within and outside the ED regarding the subtle signs of medical identity theft and implementing institutional policies to identify these criminals will discourage further fraudulent behavior.

  20. Medical Identity Theft in the Emergency Department: Awareness is Crucial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Michelino

    2014-01-01

    Medical Identity theft in the emergency department (ED) can harm numerous individuals, and many frontline healthcare providers are unaware of this growing concern. The two cases described began as typical ED encounters until red flags were discovered upon validating the patient’s identity. Educating all healthcare personnel within and outside the ED regarding the subtle signs of medical identity theft and implementing institutional policies to identify these criminals will discourage further fraudulent behavior. PMID:25493150

  1. Exploring a Metamorphosis: Identity Formation for an Emerging Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchione, Cayenna

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the manner in which professional identity formation in emerging conductors is entangled with the cultural context of orchestras, I focus on the amorphous evolution from a student identity to that of a professional, illuminating some underlying social conditions of the ever-elusive profession of conducting. Prevailing assumptions about…

  2. Identity and Culture: Theorizing Emergent Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Justin; Kelsey, Elin; Duque-Aristizabal, Ana Maria

    1999-01-01

    Examines the methodology and findings of the emergent environmentalism research project as reported in Environmental Education Research v4 n4. Challenges the ontological stance implicit in the research as well as explicit epistemology. (Author/CCM)

  3. Medical Identity Theft in the Emergency Department: Awareness is Crucial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelino Mancini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical Identity theft in the emergency department (ED can harm numerous individuals, and many frontline healthcare providers are unaware of this growing concern. The two cases described began as typical ED encounters until red flags were discovered upon validating the patient’s identity. Educating all healthcare personnel within and outside the ED regarding the subtle signs of medical identity theft and implementing institutional policies to identify these criminals will discourage further fraudulent behavior. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  4. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  5. Italian and Italian American Identity: A Visual Approach | Krase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay is a brief exploration of the related concepts of Italian Ethnicity and Italian Ethnic Identity via a Visual Sociological study of two geographically different venues — Italian American neighbourhoods in the United States and neighbourhoods in Rome, Italy. By studying the Vernacular Landscape (Jackson, 1984) via ...

  6. The emergence, structure and development of ethnic identity during childhood: the case of Roma identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Geka, Maria; Divane, Maria

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the emergence, development and structure of ethnic identity during childhood. Forty Roma children living in Greece aged between 2.8 and 11.9 years answered questions about their awareness/recognition of four aspects of their ethnic identity-namely place of habitation, traditional costumes, the Roma language, and early betrothal of children-their identity and their sense of stability and constancy. The study also investigates how the children feel about the abandonment of those four aspects. The evidence from the current data supports the hypothesis that awareness of ethnic identity emerges before the age of 4. Moreover, this study offers direct empirical evidence of the multidimensionality of ethnic identity. A model of three concentric rings is proposed, extending from a core containing the most highly valued aspects of ethnic identity to the outer annulus that comprises the nonpermanent and nonstable aspects of ethnic identity. The aspects in each annulus differ in terms of the development of the sense of stability and constancy and the feelings associated with loss of the aspects in question. Even the youngest participants considered the aspects in the core to be stable and constant as well as emotionally charged; and even the 11-year-olds did not consider the aspects contained in the outer, more fluid annulus as stable and constant aspects of their ethnic identity. The development of an aspect is determined by what the majority of adults in a society, at a particular time in history, consider to be most important.

  7. Contextual Identities: Ethnic and National Identities of International and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterton, Jessica; Horner, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    As the number of international students studying at American universities continues to grow (Institute of International Education, 2014), campuses are increasingly becoming social spaces where the local, national, and international meet. Even though students' identities may still be developing in college (Arnett, 2000) and their environment may…

  8. National Identity and Migration in an Emerging Gateway Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Byrne

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how conceptions of national and local identity influence reactions to migration in the Shenandoah Valley, a rural location in Southwest Virginia with unique demographic characteristics. While Shenandoah Valley residents have been predominantly non-Hispanic whites of European descent, a recent visible influx of Hispanic laborers, a higher than national average Muslim population, a history of refugee resettlement and the migration of urbanites from Northern Virginia have made the Valley one of the most diverse locations in the state of Virginia today. Using a qualitative methods approach with both apriori and emergent coding, I offer some insights as to how a traditional ethnic and civic framework of national identity and emergent themes of local identity, including family values and traditionalism, influence reactions to the changing demographics in this rural community.

  9. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.

  10. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (Pcultures with which they identify are recommended.

  11. Cultural identity and patient trust among older American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Goins, R Turner; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Garroutte, Eva Marie

    2014-03-01

    Patients' trust in healthcare providers and institutions has been identified as a likely contributor to racial-ethnic health disparities. The likely influence of patients' cultural characteristics on trust is widely acknowledged but inadequately explored. To compare levels of patients' trust in primary care provider (interpersonal trust) with trust in healthcare organizations (institutional trust) among older American Indians (AIs), and determine associations with cultural identity. Patient survey administered following primary care visits. Two-hundred and nineteen American Indian patients ≥ 50 years receiving care for a non-acute condition at two clinics operated by the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Self-reported sociodemographic and cultural characteristics. Trust was measured using three questions about interpersonal trust and one measure of institutional trust; responses ranged from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Finding substantial variation only in institutional trust, we used logistic generalized estimating equations to examine relationships of patient cultural identity with institutional trust. Ninety-five percent of patients reported trusting their individual provider, while only 46 % reported trusting their healthcare institution. Patients who strongly self-identified with an AI cultural identity had significantly lower institutional trust compared to those self-identifying less strongly (OR: 0.6, 95 % CI: 0.4, 0.9). Interpersonal and institutional trust represent distinct dimensions of patients' experience of care that may show important relationships to patients' cultural characteristics. Strategies for addressing low institutional trust may have special relevance for patients who identify strongly with AI culture.

  12. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process...

  13. Theory of Prejudice and American Identity Threat Transfer for Latino and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Remedios, Jessica D

    2018-03-01

    Latinos and Asian Americans confront similar stereotypes as they are often presumed to be foreigners and subjected to American identity denial. Across six studies (total N = 992), we demonstrate that Latinos and Asians anticipate ingroup prejudice and specific types of subordination (e.g., American identity threat) in the face of outgroup threats that target one another (i.e., stigma transfer). The studies explore whether stigma transfer occurred primarily when shared Latino and Asian stereotype content was a salient component of the prejudice remark (e.g., foreigner stereotypes; Study 3), or when outgroup prejudice targeted a social group with shared stereotype content (Study 4), though neither appeared to substantively moderate stigma transfer. Minority group members who conceptualize prejudiced people as holding multiple biases (i.e., a monolithic prejudice theory) were more susceptible to stigma transfer suggesting that stereotype content is not necessary for stigma transfer because people assume that prejudice is not singular.

  14. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  15. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R

    2015-08-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities.

  16. Social identity formation during the emergence of the Occupy movement

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Laura G. E.; Gavin, Jeffrey; Sharp, Elise

    2015-01-01

    The Occupy movement made a series of local ‘sit-ins’ in cities across the world in response to financial and political injustices. Prior to the movement’s emergence, the Internet provided a transnational forum for people across the world to discuss their opinions and coalesce about the financial and political context. Here, we analyze 5,343 posts on the ‘#OccupyWallStreet’ Facebook event page to identify linguistic markers of shared social identity formation.Results suggest that discussants f...

  17. Freedom to explore the self: How emerging adults use leisure to develop identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, Eric K; Hill, Brian J; Nelson, Larry J

    2018-01-01

    During a period of newly attained freedom preceding commitments expected in adulthood, emerging adults are faced with the major task of identity development. Leisure provides a context with relative freedom wherein emerging adults explore new experiences and access opportunities not always available in more constrained environments like work and school. In this case study of 40 emerging adults from 18 countries ( M age =23.14 years), qualitative interviews were used to investigate the role of leisure as a context for identity development. Results indicate five major themes for leisure-based identity development in emerging adulthood: discovering identity, forming identity, defining identity, positioning identity, and forgoing opportunities. These themes support leisure as an additional context wherein emerging adults may flourish on the pathway toward adulthood. Access to both novel and familiar leisure provide a context for emerging adults to actively direct their identity development through decisions made in leisure time.

  18. Freedom to explore the self: How emerging adults use leisure to develop identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layland, Eric K.; Hill, Brian J.; Nelson, Larry J.

    2017-01-01

    During a period of newly attained freedom preceding commitments expected in adulthood, emerging adults are faced with the major task of identity development. Leisure provides a context with relative freedom wherein emerging adults explore new experiences and access opportunities not always available in more constrained environments like work and school. In this case study of 40 emerging adults from 18 countries (Mage=23.14 years), qualitative interviews were used to investigate the role of leisure as a context for identity development. Results indicate five major themes for leisure-based identity development in emerging adulthood: discovering identity, forming identity, defining identity, positioning identity, and forgoing opportunities. These themes support leisure as an additional context wherein emerging adults may flourish on the pathway toward adulthood. Access to both novel and familiar leisure provide a context for emerging adults to actively direct their identity development through decisions made in leisure time. PMID:29276528

  19. Identity configurations across love and work in emerging adults in romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, Koen; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Schwartz, Seth J.; Crocetti, Elisabetta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371750946; Klimstra, Theo A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823007

    2014-01-01

    Love and work constitute two life-defining identity domains for emerging adults. The present study utilized a five-dimensional identity model and examined identity configurations across these two domains, capturing the degree to which identity statuses correspond across domains. A sample of German

  20. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  1. Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Pi Chapter: African American Male Identity and Fraternity Culture, 1923-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Edwin T.

    2009-01-01

    Pi Chapter of the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc. at Morgan State University made a significant contribution to the identity construction of college-educated African American men in the state of Maryland. The initiates of Pi Chapter constructed identities that allowed the members to see themselves as participants in mainstream American society as…

  2. Racial Identity, Media Use, and the Social Construction of Risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the influence of racial identity on the relationship between media and perception of risk among African Americans. A radio campaign was implemented to reduce domestic violence among African Americans. Telephone interviews before, during, and after the campaign indicated that the correlations between racial identity and risk…

  3. Making Meaning of Urban American Indian Identity: A Multistage Integrative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    The cultural identity and tribal connectedness of American Indians are commonly believed to have been negatively affected by the urbanization process in which American Indians have been involved during the past half century. This phenomenological study examined the processes through which cultural identity was formed and maintained by a group of…

  4. Higher Education and the Discursive Construction of American National Identity, 1946-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmadessa, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    American institutions of higher education have served as a beacon of American idealism and identity since the foundation of the earliest universities. As the nation developed, higher education matured and continued to maintain a position of importance in the future of the nation. While the university has perpetuated a national cultural identity,…

  5. "How Asian Am I?": Asian American Youth Cultures, Drug Use, and Ethnic Identity Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Evans, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of ethnic identity in the narratives of 100 young Asian Americans in a dance club/rave scene. Authors examine how illicit drug use and other consuming practices shape their understanding of Asian American identities, finding three distinct patterns. The first presents a disjuncture between Asian American…

  6. The Utility of "Race" and "Ethnicity" in the Multidimensional Identities of Asian American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Pizzolato, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In a qualitative study we examined the constructs "race" and "ethnicity" and their relative importance in the multidimensional identities of 52 Asian American undergraduates across 2 universities. Findings suggest these constructs are useful for Asian American students' identity claims and that multiple contextual influences…

  7. Black Americans, Africa and History: A Reassessment of the Pan-African and Identity Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Tunde

    1998-01-01

    Examines the paradigm of Pan-Africanism and the identity construct in the historic and cultural contexts of blacks outside of Africa, critiquing theories on the African identity construct. Suggests that black American identity is too complex for this simplification and must be considered within the context of world acculturation. Contains 34…

  8. "Being Asian American Is a Lot Different Here": Influences of Geography on Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Studies on college students' racial identities seldom focus on geographic context, despite existing research documenting its role in how racial groups construct and express racial identities. Drawing on theories of ecological systems and racial formation, I explored experiences of race and racial identity among 10 Asian American students who…

  9. Defining and Redefining American Indian Identity: an Examination of the Role of the Museum in Contemporary Ethnogenesis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn L. Bolhofner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a platform for the display of cultures and a structuring agent in their formation, museums play a unique role in the negotiation of social identities. A museum’s approach to the interpretation of identity is shaped by the socio-political climate in which it exists. In the United States, a nation-state atmosphere celebratory of diversity, but not quite post-colonial, acts as the lens through which museums engage with issues of identity. Here, notions of difference, immigration, an indigenous past, and emerging ethnic identities are all at play in the negotiation of social identities. In this context, the acceptance of the generalized designation ‘American Indian’ as an ethnic identity is seen not only in national museums, but also in private museum exhibits and in local museums constructed by source communities. Through the definition, display, and reinforcement of specific cultural traits, these museums are contributing to the ethnogenesis of an American Indian identity.

  10. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  11. A cultural contracts perspective: examining American Indian identity negotiations in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsam, Teresa Trumbly

    2014-01-01

    Education has played a central role in identity confusion, and to this day, it is used to assimilate American Indians. For those American Indians who persist through doctoral degrees and enter academe, resisting assimilation is especially risky and often tiresome. In this conceptual exploration of identity, Cultural Contracts theory serves to illuminate the path of the American Indian academic journey. Although never applied in an American Indian context, cultural contracts theory may provide a bridge between the seemingly disparate strains of identity research and leave us with a sense of scope and potential for the theory's application.

  12. The Emergence of Voices: Vietnamese American Literature 1975-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Monique Thuy-Dung

    1993-01-01

    The loose and porous body of work defined as Vietnamese American literature emerges from social and historical conflict. Vietnamese American literature speaks of death and irreconcilable loss and the longing for peace of mind. Texts by Vietnamese Americans can deliver the voices necessary to reexamine the Vietnam War. (SLD)

  13. Contemporary role of the kilt and tartan in the construction and expression of Scottish American identity

    OpenAIRE

    Maitland Hume, Ian M.

    2001-01-01

    This study explores how influential the kilt and tartan are in the way Americans perceive and express their identity in Scottish terms. Its principal focus is directed on individuals who wear the kilt in America today. The reasons which prompt people to consider qualifying their American identity are considered in the context of a number of different Scottish American organisations and community activities. These are prefaced by an appraisal of contemporary attitudes to ...

  14. The role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thessa M L; Branje, Susan J T; VanderValk, Inge E; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the role of siblings on identity formation in adolescence and emerging adulthood, using a three-wave longitudinal design. Measures of identity formation were filled out by 498 sibling dyads. Sibling effects differed as a function of age and gender configuration within the dyads. Controlled for age, earlier-born siblings reported the most advanced levels of identity formation, and later-born siblings the lowest. Positive relations between siblings' identity and changes in identity of respondents provided support for modeling processes between siblings. The identity of earlier-born same-sex siblings, in particular, tends to be important in influencing identity formation. Contrary to the expectations, differentiation processes between siblings did not appear to influence identity formation. It is apparent from this study that both the gender and birth order of siblings affect whether their own identity formation processes influence those of adolescents and emerging adults.

  15. Religion, Nationalism, and American Identity: Reflections on Mark Noll’s America’s God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ambrose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Historian Mark Noll’s magisterial America’s God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln was an immediate sensation when it appeared in 2002. Jon Butler, the Howard R. Lamar Professor of American Studies, History, and Religious Studies at Yale University, declared “America’s God delineates the Americanization of an Old World Protestantism with a breadth, learning, and sophistication unmatched by any other historian.” Noll describes this process of “Americanization” as consisting of a “shift away from European theological traditions, descended directly from the Protestant Reformation, toward a Protestant evangelical theology decisively shaped by its engagement with Revolutionary and post-Revolutionary America.” And Noll concludes that this American “Protestant evangelicalism differed from the religion of the Protestant Reformation as much as sixteenth-century Reformation Protestantism differed from the Roman Catholic theology from which it emerged.”This paper will argue that, notwithstanding Noll’s considerable achievement, his identification of an “American” synthesis minimizes (although it never denies the profound sectional variations of that synthesis. In doing so, Noll downplays the ways in which two competing social formations, grounded in fundamentally different systems of social relations, prevented the synthesis from fully uniting “Americans.” The different understandings of the synthesis, like the different understandings of its central texts – the Bible, the Declaration of Independence, and the Constitution – reflected the chasm that separated white Northerners and white Southerners and made both groups see themselves as the true defenders of “America’s God.” Noll’s work thus both enriches our understanding of the how most white Americans differed from their European contemporaries, and simultaneously demonstrates the fundamental divide within American national identity, a divide so

  16. Changing Women: The Cross-Currents of American Indian Feminine Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1988-01-01

    Examines the writings of contemporary American Indian women with regard to Euro-American stereotypes and their own concepts of femininity and Indian identity. Relates these writings to the social history of American Indians, traditional beliefs, and the autobiographical experiences of early twentieth century Indian women. Contains 32 references.…

  17. Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale among Asian American college students: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C; Vance, Kristen S; Helms, Janet E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  19. Self-Definition as Resistance: Understanding Identities among LGBTQ Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Scholars have questioned the relevance of existing identity categories and labels for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) youth and emerging adults. Little is understood, however, about the ways in which LGBTQ emerging adults perceive their own identities and self-define the aspects of themselves that are most relevant to who…

  20. Racial Identity and Racial Treatment of Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Vilma; Telles, Edward

    2012-04-01

    How racial barriers play in the experiences of Mexican Americans has been hotly debated. Some consider Mexican Americans similar to European Americans of a century ago that arrived in the United States with modest backgrounds but were eventually able to participate fully in society. In contrast, others argue that Mexican Americans have been racialized throughout U.S. history and this limits their participation in society. The evidence of persistent educational disadvantages across generations and frequent reports of discrimination and stereotyping support the racialization argument. In this paper, we explore the ways in which race plays a role in the lives of Mexican Americans by examining how education, racial characteristics, social interactions, relate to racial outcomes. We use the Mexican American Study Project, a unique data set based on a 1965 survey of Mexican Americans in Los Angeles and San Antonio combined with surveys of the same respondents and their adult children in 2000, thereby creating a longitudinal and intergenerational data set. First, we found that darker Mexican Americans, therefore appearing more stereotypically Mexican, report more experiences of discrimination. Second, darker men report much more discrimination than lighter men and than women overall. Third, more educated Mexican Americans experience more stereotyping and discrimination than their less-educated counterparts, which is partly due to their greater contact with Whites. Lastly, having greater contact with Whites leads to experiencing more stereotyping and discrimination. Our results are indicative of the ways in which Mexican Americans are racialized in the United States.

  1. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  2. Boundaries of American Identity: Relations between Ethnic Group Prototypicality and Policy Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Altman, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to document that the extent to which different ethnic groups are perceived as embodying the American identity is more strongly linked to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies among majority group members (European Americans) than among minority group members (Asian Americans or Latino/as). Participants rated 13 attributes of the American identity as they pertain to different ethnic groups, and reported their endorsement of policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. We found a relative consensus across ethnic groups regarding defining components of the American identity. However, European Americans were perceived as more prototypical of this American identity than ethnic minorities, especially by European American raters. Moreover, for European Americans but not for ethnic minorities, relative ingroup prototypicality was related to anti-minority policy attitudes and acculturation ideologies. These findings suggest that for European Americans, perceptions of ethnic group prototypicality fulfill an instrumental function linked to preserving their group interests and limiting the rights afforded to ethnic minorities. PMID:26347578

  3. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  4. Measurement invariance of the people of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale with Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Alvarez, Alvin N; Li, Robin; Chen, Grace A; Iwamoto, Derek K

    2016-01-01

    Racial identity has been linked to a number of important psychological outcomes, including perceptions of racism, self-esteem, and psychological well-being in Asian American populations. Although the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995) is the most widely used measure in Asian American racial identity research, numerous competing measurement models of the PRIAS have been identified in independent Asian American samples. Therefore, this study tested these competing PRIAS measurement models and also examined PRIAS measurement invariance across generational status, gender, and ethnicity using a combined sample of 1,946 Asian American college students and community adults. Study findings demonstrated the superiority of a 12-item 4-factor PRIAS measurement model that was consistent with Helms's original racial identity theory, suggesting that the PRIAS operates in an equivalent manner across generational status, gender, and ethnicity. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.

  6. Korean-American Student Perceptions on Literacy and Identity: Perspectives from an Ethnographic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeonghee; Godina, Heriberto; Ro, Yeon Sun

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines perceptions of literacy and identity for a Korean-American student in a third-grade classroom. The researchers examine how teachers can misinterpret Asian identity in the classroom due to perceptions related to the "Model Minority Myth" and other stereotypical representations of Asian culture. By…

  7. Discrimination History, Backlash Fear, and Ethnic Identity among Arab Americans: Post-9/11 Snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Lambert, Richard G.; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined discrimination history, backlash fear, and ethnic identity of Arab Americans nationally at 3 times, beginning shortly after September 11, 2001. Relations between variables were moderate, and discrimination history and backlash fear were statistically significant predictors of ethnic identity. Implications for acculturation and…

  8. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Acculturative Stress among African American Students in Counselor Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tiffany A.; Owens, Delila; Queener, John E.; Reynolds, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined racial identity and acculturative stress among 116 African American counselor education graduate students in Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited programs. Results indicated that racial identity and acculturative stress remain viable variables to take into…

  9. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  10. Influences on Adolescent African American Females' Global Self-Esteem: Body Image and Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnage, Barbara F.

    2004-01-01

    This study of 105 senior high school Southern African American adolescent females examined the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (body image), and ethnic identity. As predicted, the relationship between global self-esteem, appearance evaluation (r = 0.46, p less than 0.001), and ethnic identity (r = 40, p less than…

  11. African American Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Psychological Distress: The Role of Racial Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…

  12. Changes in racial identity among African American college students following the election of Barack Obama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Burrow, Anthony L; Ong, Anthony D

    2011-11-01

    The current study considered the influence of the 2008 presidential election on the racial identity of African American college students (M(age) = 19.3 years; 26.3% male). The design of the study consisted of 2 components: longitudinal and daily. The longitudinal component assessed 3 dimensions of racial identity (centrality, private regard, and public regard) 2 weeks before and 5 months after the election, and the daily diary component assessed racial identity and identity exploration on the days immediately before and after the election. Daily items measuring identity exploration focused on how much individuals thought about issues relating to their race. Analyses considered the immediate effects of the election on identity exploration and the extent to which changes in exploration were shaped by racial identity measured prior to the election. We also considered immediate and longer term changes in racial identity following the election and the extent to which longer term changes were conditioned by identity exploration. Findings suggest that the election served as an "encounter" experience (Cross, 1991, 1995, pp. 60-61), which led to increases in identity exploration. Moreover, analyses confirmed that changes in identity exploration were most pronounced among those with higher levels of racial centrality. Results also suggest that the election had both an immediate and a longer term influence on racial identity, which in some instances was conditioned by identity exploration.

  13. On the emergence of American analytic philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzav, J.; Vaesen, K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the reasons for the emergence and dominance of analytic philosophy in America. It closely examines the contents of, and changing editors at, The Philosophical Review, and provides a perspective on the contents of other leading philosophy journals. It suggests that

  14. Relations with parents and identity statuses in the relational domain in emerging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Michałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Emerging adulthood is a core developmental period in which individuals can develop a meaningful identity in the relational domain (with a romantic partner. The aim of the study was to examine relationships between relations with parents and identity statuses in the relational domain in emerging adults. Participants and procedure Participants were 266 (47.30% males emerging adults (M = 22.50, SD = 1.73. They completed self-report measures of relations with parents and identity. Results More than half of the participants were in the moratorium status or were not involved in a romantic relationship (35% and 29%, respectively. Relations with parents were linked to identity statuses in the relational domain. Particularly, the perception of low autonomy given by the father was related to less mature identity statuses. Conclusions This study highlighted that transition from singleness to stable partnerships seems to be challenging. Therefore, it is important to examine correlates of identity statuses in this domain.

  15. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  16. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  17. Asian American High School Students' Self-Concepts and Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore Asian American students' identities and their perceptions about who they are within the Midwestern American high school setting. Design/methodology/approach: A naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln and Guba, 1985) is employed in this qualitative study. Naturalistic inquiry assumes that reality is constructed by…

  18. Racial Identity and Reflected Appraisals as Influences on Asian Americans' Racial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Helms, Janet E.

    2001-01-01

    The racial adjustment of Asian American university students (N=188) was assessed to examine the importance of race in their lives. Both racial identity status and reflected appraisals were significantly related to collective self-esteem as one measure of Asian American racial adjustment. Discusses the importance of the counselor's awareness of…

  19. Identity and Mobility: Historical Fractionalization, Parochial Institutions, and Occupational Choice in the American Midwest

    OpenAIRE

    Kaivan Munshi; Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role played by identity, or a sense of belonging to a home community, in determining occupational choice and mobility. The analysis links competition between migrant networks in the Midwest when it was rst developing, and the in-group identity that emerged endogenously to support these networks, to institutional participation and occupational choice today. Individuals born in counties with greater ethnic fractionalization in 1860, where identity was more likely to have...

  20. Emergent Target Language Identities among Latino English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriza-Lope, Maria; Shappeck, Marco; Arxer, Steven

    2016-01-01

    During 2nd language acquisition, a learner's identity is consigned, juxtaposed, coconstructed, and reified through various affective positions and mitigating linguistic behaviors. Our study of adult Latino ESL students in Dallas, Texas, shows how language socialization experiences are shaped by the learners' affective stances toward the project of…

  1. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  2. Contested Identities: Nationalism, Regionalism, and Patriotism in Early American Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reexamines texts published during the period of the initial formation of the nation, from 1783 to 1815, or from the end of the American Revolution through the War of 1812. This examination of thirty-one textbooks (sixteen geographies and history texts, and fifteen readers and grammar books), most written by New Englanders but also…

  3. Identity Theft: Gentrification, Latinidad, and American Girl Marisol Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Jennifer Domino

    2009-01-01

    Released by Mattel in 2005, American Girl doll Marisol Luna quickly provoked controversy. The doll's accompanying narrative depicts her Chicago neighborhood of Pilsen as "dangerous" and recounts her family's move to the suburbs. Pilsen, located just south and west of downtown Chicago, has a long history as a Mexican (im)migrant port of…

  4. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...

  5. Targeting and tailoring message-framing: the moderating effect of racial identity on receptivity to colorectal cancer screening among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Manning, Mark; Hayman, Lenwood W; Blessman, James

    2018-06-07

    This study demonstrates the potential of racial identity to moderate how gain and loss-framed messaging, as well as culturally-targeted messaging, can affect receptivity to preventive health screening. African-Americans (N = 132) who were noncompliant with recommended colorectal cancer (CRC) screening completed a measure of racial identity centrality-encompassing the extent to which racial identity is a core component of self-concept-and then participated in an online education module about CRC screening, during which either gain or loss-framed messaging was introduced. Half of African-Americans were also exposed to a culturally-targeted self-help message about preventing CRC. Theory of Planned Behavior measures of attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to obtain a CRC screen served as outcomes. Results confirmed that effects of messaging on receptivity to CRC screening depended on racial identity. Among low racial identity African Americans, gain-framed messaging most effectively increased normative beliefs about obtaining CRC screening, whereas among high racial identity African Americans loss-framed messaging was most compelling. However, these effects most strongly emerged when culturally-targeted self-help messaging was included. We discuss implications for health disparities theory and research, including a potential to simultaneously deploy culturally-targeted and tailored messaging based on racial identity.

  6. Understanding the Role of Identity and the Retention of Mexican American Students in Higher Education: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Juan, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative ethnographic narrative inquiry explored the role of identity and the retention of Mexican American students in higher education. Leadership identity, a dimension of identity, was explored using narratives provided by 13 Mexican American students, attending a university in the northwest United States. Interview data was compiled,…

  7. Latin American Identity and The Contradictory Processes Involved in its Construction-Deconstruction-Reconfiguration in Global Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Ramos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficult and contradictory formation, consolidation and change processes of Latin American identity from an anthropological and holistic perspective and in the context of the emergence of the world-system from the conquest, colonization and independence struggles to its current reconfiguration in the midst of transnational globalization and the alternatives to it. This approach, which we could call dynamicsynthetic, sees identity as a constantly changing open process where contradictory dynamics interact in the construction-deconstruction-reconfiguration of Latin American identity in specific historical contexts. Our continental collective identity is analyzed as the result of complex strains among various civilizational dynamics and opposing geopolitical forces. Dialectical and dialogical processes work together to allow the “reconciliation” of converse and diverse elements in innovative syntheses and create a space for dialogue that fosters what is shared to have a positive interaction, without denying the specific. In other words, they facilitate the interaction between “we” and the “others”, the “national” and the “continental”, the “local” and the “global”, enabling a better understanding of our inclusive continental nominative process: “Hispano-American”, “Ibero-American”, “Latin American”

  8. Education Student Research Paradigms and Emerging Scholar Identities: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick D.; Croxton, Rebecca A.; Kirkman, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach, this study sought to understand a general sense of paradigm confidence and to see how this confidence relates to doctoral student identities as emerging scholars. Identity development was explored among 46 education doctoral students at a midsized public university in the Southeast. Researchers examined students'…

  9. Spanish American Women Writers: Simmering Identity Over a Low Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Bilbija

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After establishing the parallel between the kitchen and the alchemist's laboratory, this article shows that traditionally, the kitchen has come to symbolize the space associated with the marginalization of women. However, the recent explosion of the novels dedicated to the resemantization and reevaluation of the realm of the kitchen is the best evidence that it is also a space from which much creativity emanates. A close reading of two such cookbook/novels, Like Water for Chocolate by Laura Esquivel and Like Potatoes for Varenike by Sylvia Plager, points toward a quite parodic and critical gender perspective. Furthermore, it calls for a reinterpretation of stereotypical power relations and of male and female identity symbols.

  10. Unpacking Racial Identities: The Salience of Ethnicity in Southeast Asian-American Youth's Schooling Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Phitsamay Sychitkokhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reconceptualizes white teachers' notion of their Asian-American students' racial identity. Forty urban Southeast Asian-American (SEAA) students and seven of their white European-American teachers were examined to determine how the students responded to the white teachers' assumptions about their identity. This study provides an…

  11. Lebensraum in Luwu : Emergent identity, migration and access to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dik Roth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The downfall of the Soeharto regime has radically changed power relations between centre and region in Indonesia. Decentralization and administrative fragmentation (pemekaran, based on Government Regulation 129/2000, have created new opportunities for political actors at all levels. As a result, from the late 1990s, regional autonomy movements have mushroomed. These changes in administrative structures often entail a radical reshuffle of relationships, patterns of control over resources, identities, territories and boundaries. Therefore, such changes can only be understood against the background of their specific historical contexts, paying attention not only to the changes but also to the ‘changing continuities’ (Schulte-Nordholt 2003 behind such changes.

  12. Ethnic identity, racial discrimination and attenuated psychotic symptoms in an urban population of emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Deidre M; Lui, Florence; Espinosa, Adriana; Tikhonov, Aleksandr; Ellman, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Studies suggest strong ethnic identity generally protects against negative mental health outcomes associated with racial discrimination. In light of evidence suggesting racial discrimination may enhance psychosis risk in racial and ethnic minority (REM) populations, the present study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) and whether ethnic identity moderates the association between racial discrimination and these symptoms. A sample of 644 non-help-seeking REM emerging adults was administered self-report inventories for psychosis risk, experiences of discrimination and ethnic identity. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the nature and number of ethnic identity types in this population. The direct association between ethnic identity and APPS and the interaction between ethnic identity and racial discrimination on APPS were determined in linear regression analyses. Results indicated three ethnic identity classes (very low, moderate to high and very high). Ethnic identity was not directly related to APPS; however, it was related to APPS under racially discriminating conditions. Specifically, participants who experienced discrimination in the moderate to high or very high ethnic identity classes reported fewer symptoms than participants who experienced discrimination in the very low ethnic identity class. Strong ethnic group affiliation and connection may serve a protective function for psychosis risk in racially discriminating environments and contexts among REM young adults. The possible social benefits of strong ethnic identification among REM youth who face racial discrimination should be explored further in clinical high-risk studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    -specialized language in which it also serves a number of functions – some of which are quite fundamental to society as such. In other words, the lexeme identity is a polysemic word and has multiple, well, identities. Given that it appears to have a number of functions in a variety of registers, including terminologies...... in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine...

  14. Latin American Perceptions of Regional Identity and Leadership in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Onuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public opinion plays a growing role in foreign policy formation in democratic societies. In this study, we use survey data from The Americas and the World project to establish whether Latin Americans share a common regional identity, and regard Brazil as a regional leader. Our results indicate that the majority of Brazilians do not identify themselves as Latin Americans. Moreover, while they believe their country is the most suitable candidate for regional leadership, they are unwilling to bear the costs of assuming such a role. Our study also explores perceptions of regional identity and Brazilian leadership in other Latin American countries, based on their own respective power aspirations. It shows that less powerful Latin American nations recognise Brazil as a regional leader, but citizens in middle powers, like Argentina and Mexico, still believe their countries should play a prominent regional role.

  15. A longitudinal study of self-esteem, cultural identity, and academic success among American Indian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Mitchell, Christina M.; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Latent growth curve modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories of self-esteem and cultural identity among American Indian high school students and to explore the relationships of these trajectories to personal resources, problem behaviors, and academic performance at the end of high school. The sample included 1,611 participants from the Voices of Indian Teens project, a three-year longitudinal study of adolescents from three diverse American Indian cultural groups in the wester...

  16. Developmental and ethnic issues experienced by emerging adult African American women related to developing a mature love relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Sheryl Y

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored perspectives of emerging adult African American women on the development of mature love relationships. Inductive analysis of focus group interviews, conducted with a purposive sample of 31 African American women, yielded themes related to relationship goals and characteristics, and interpersonal and societal challenges to finding the right partner and developing a mature love relationship. Core categories that emerged from analysis of the discussions were (1) age and relationship goal differences within the emerging adult group, (2) mature love relationship goals and characteristics, (3) interpersonal obstacles to finding the right partner, and (4) societal obstacles to finding the right partner. Two approaches-black womanist/feminist thought (Collins, 2000 ; Walker, 1983 ) and relationship maturity theory (Paul & White, 1990 )-were then combined to explain the influence of historic and contemporary interpersonal and societal factors on developmental and ethnic issues that challenge positive gender identity formation, hasten intimacy maturity, and hinder the development of mature love relationships among emerging adult African American women. For these women, premature responsibility, especially early caregiver burden, was related to the early development of intimacy capacity and the desire for a mature love relationship, to be protected, and to have someone to help carry the load. Interracial dating, negative stereotypic images of African American women, and even positive images of enduring black love relationships posed difficult challenges to positive identity formation and intimacy maturity. A primary challenge was to counteract negative stereotypic images, so that they could develop their own self-identities as women and as relationship partners.

  17. Social Identity Integration, Parental Response, and Psychological Outcomes among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore, Saanjh Aakash

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to understand how social identities are integrated across domains of identity. Focusing on a population in which cultural norms dictate sexuality behaviors as a condition of ethnic membership, the study examines how South Asian LGBQ Americans integrate their ethnic and sexual orientation identities, and also examines the role of this dual social identity integration in the relationship between the distal stress of parental responses to LGBQ identity, the proximal str...

  18. Pragmatics of the Development of Personal Identity in Adolescents in the Latin American Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Javier; Rojas, Adrián; Picado, Karol

    2017-03-01

    The present work proposes a pragmatic perspective of the development of personal identity. Such perspective is based on a unifying vision that incorporates the contribution of communicative pragmatics and becomes aware of the contribution of semiotics to psychology, without leaving aside the eriksonian point of view and other significant contributions in the field. The article defines identity in adolescence from a development approach, and adopts a systemic perspective concerning the insertion of adolescents in their context of formation as individuals. It then proposes a way to understand identity from a pragmatic-communicative perspective. Finally, it introduces two communicative use contexts from which personal identity can emerge, showing the importance of communication and language in the formation and development of identity.

  19. An examination of the identity development of African American undergraduate engineering students attending an HBCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth J.

    This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.

  20. African American Men, Identity, and Participation in Adult Basic Education and Literacy Programs. Research Brief #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drayton, Brendaly; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Although the national graduation rate for African American males is only 47% (Schott Foundation for Public Education, 2010), few studies have explored their experiences in adult basic and literacy education (ABEL) programs. This study draws on prior research to explore the relationship between literacy and identity and its potential for…

  1. "Alla en Guatemala": Transnationalism, Language, and Identity of a Pentecostal Guatemalan-American Young Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Lucila D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the transnationalism of a Pentecostal Guatemalan-American young woman who is a second-generation immigrant. Amalia traveled to Guatemala from when she was six months old until her sophomore year in college. These visits to Guatemala have helped her maintain her Guatemalan language, culture, and identity in the larger Southern…

  2. Racial Identity and the MMPI in African American Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, P. Richard; Allen, James; Dana, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relation of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-Black, Short Form (RIAS-B) was examined among 50 African American male college students Results indicated RIAS-B scale scores functioned as predictors of MMPI scale scores. Implications of these findings for MMPI-2 research with…

  3. Introducing a Brief Measure of Cultural and Religious Identification in American Jewish Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Friedman, Michelle L.; Miller, Matthew J.; Ellis, Michael V.; Friedlander, Lee K.; Mikhaylov, Vadim G.

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted 3 studies to develop and investigate the psychometric properties of the American Jewish Identity Scales (AJIS), a brief self-report measure that assesses cultural identification and religious identification. Study 1 assessed the content validity of the item pool using an expert panel. In Study 2, 1,884 Jewish adults completed…

  4. The Stuff of Stereotypes: Toward Unpacking Identity Threats amid African American Students' Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnell, Gregory V.; Boston, Denise; Bragelman, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed light on scenarios in which threatening stereotypes unfold, specifically in an institutional context in which African Americans are overrepresented. Drawing on data and findings from a recent study examining mathematics learning and identity in non-credit-bearing remedial math courses, we present three…

  5. Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Detris Honora

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

  6. Drumming against the Quiet: The Sounds of Asian American Identity in an Amorphous Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Drawing largely from the realm of performance theory, critical race theory, and Asian American studies, the author examines the ways in which performance, performativity, and the cooptation of aesthetic forms constitute and disrupt racial identity categories. In this article, the author focuses on the growing contemporary artistic practice of…

  7. Stereotype Threat in U.S. Students Abroad: Negotiating American Identity in the Age of Trump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    An underinvestigated and significant source of stress for U.S. student sojourners across racial/ethnic groups is exposure to stereotypes that target their American identity. This study built on the extensive research literature on stereotype threat to investigate U.S. students' vulnerability and reactions to being the target of stereotypes.…

  8. Asian American as a Political-Racial Identity: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I consider the emergence of the term Asian American as a political and racial identifier in the United States in the 1960s and 1970s and survey the meanings that are associated with the term today. Through the analysis of in-depth interviews, I examine how Asian American prospective teachers, who were enrolled in a master's and…

  9. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  10. Gender, ethnic identity, and environmental concern in Asian Americans and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn M. Burn; Patricia L. Winter; Brittany Hori; N Clayton Silver

    2012-01-01

    There are relatively few articles in sociology and psychology on gender, ethnicity, and the environment, yet ethnic and gender neutral approaches to sustainability may be incomplete. We studied gender, ethnicity, and environmental concern with an internet sample of Asian American women (n=157) and men (n=69), and European American women (n=222) and men (n=99)....

  11. The Problem of Emergency in the American Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugilt, Rasmus; Hartz, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Sixty years before Carl Schmitt wrote his Political Theology, and more than a 100 years before President Bush announced a ‘war on terrorism’ the American Supreme Court grappled with the difficult issue of emergency powers in connection with issues arising out of the American Civil War (1861......–1865). The question confronting the Court in a set of cases named the Prize Cases was whether President Lincoln’s decision to respond to acts of aggression by the secessionist Southern states with measures of war was lawful. The legal problem was that Lincoln had made this decision unilaterally although the American...... Constitution specifically allocates the power to declare war to Congress. The Court solved the dilemma by arguing that in cases where no war has been declared, the decision whether the country is in a state of war is ultimately ‘a question to be decided by him [the President], and [the Supreme] Court must...

  12. Functions of autobiographical memory in Taiwanese and American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Wen; Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole; Cheng, Ching-Ling

    2016-01-01

    The study addresses cultural and person-level factors contributing to emerging adult's use of memory to serve adaptive functions. The focus is on three functions: self-continuity, social-bonding and directing-behaviour. Taiwanese (N = 85, 52 women) and American (N = 95, 51 women) emerging adults completed the Thinking about Life Experiences scale, and measures of trait personality, self-concept clarity and future time perspective. Findings show that individuals from both cultures use memory to serve these three functions, but Taiwanese individuals use memory more frequently than Americans to maintain self-continuity. Culture also interacted with person-level factors: in Taiwan, but not America, memory is more frequently used to create self-continuity in individuals high in conscientiousness. Across cultures, having lower self-concept clarity was related to greater use of memory to create self-continuity. Findings are discussed in terms of how memory serves functions in context and specific aspects of the Taiwanese and American cultural context that may predict the functional use of memory in emerging adulthood.

  13. Misogyny, Acculturation, and Ethnic Identity: Relation to Rape-Supportive Attitudes in Asian American College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kelly H.; Stephens, Kari A.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; George, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian Americans have been understudied with respect to sexuality and rape and its contributory factors. Some attitudinal research has shown that Asian American college males tend to hold more rape-supportive beliefs than their White counterparts. Generally, this research treats ethnicity as a proxy for culture rather than examining specific facets of culture per se. The current study incorporated measures of misogynistic beliefs, acculturation, and ethnic identity to investigate these ethnic differences in rape-supportive attitudes. White (n = 222) and Asian American (n = 155) college men read an acquaintance rape vignette and evaluated it on four judgments: how much they blamed the perpetrator and the victim, how credible they viewed the victim’s refusal, and to what degree they defined the event as rape. Consistent with previous research, Asian American men made more rape-supportive judgments than Whites. This relationship was partially mediated by misogynistic beliefs for all judgments except the extent to which they defined the vignette as rape. Among Asian Americans, acculturation was negatively associated with all four rape vignette judgments above and beyond generational status, and ethnic identity was positively associated with two of the four judgments above and beyond acculturation and generational status. These findings suggest that cultural constructs are relevant to understanding rape-supportive attitudes among Asian American men, and may be useful for promoting culturally enhanced theoretical models of rape and sexual assault prevention efforts, as well as a deeper understanding of cultural influences on sexuality. PMID:21290256

  14. American National Identity in a Globalized World as a Topic in the Advanced EFL-Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Freese

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make an issue as complex and controversial as that of ‘national identity’ teachable in the advanced EFL-classroom, it has to be reduced to exemplary aspects and illustrated with concrete examples. Therefore, I will suggest an appropriate ‘Course Opener,’ briefly survey the historical unfolding of the American identity concept in order to provide teachers with the necessary background knowledge, and then suggest two teaching units, the first of which traces some major developments by means of ‘classic’ texts, whereas the second deals with the crucial issue of whether a shared language is a prerequisite for a shared identity.

  15. Identity Styles and Interpersonal Behavior in Emerging Adulthood: The Intervening Role of Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Doumen, Sarah; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intervening role of empathy in the relations between identity styles (i.e., information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant styles), and inter-personal behaviors (i.e., prosocial behavior, self- and other-oriented helping, and physical and relational aggression). In a sample of 341 emerging adults, it was found that…

  16. Reproducing cultural identity in negotiating nuclear power: the Union of Concerned Scientists and emergency core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper advances the concept of 'cultural identity' to account for the nexus between structure and practice in technological negotiations. It describes how the formation of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), and that group's subsequent discourse and nonverbal actions, both reproduced the established identities of group members and contributed to negotiations that reconstituted those identities. In particular, UCS claims about emergency core-cooling systems in nuclear plants were congruent with the combination of a shared ideology, the social interests of Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty, and established principles of engineering design. The cultural analysis of identity reproduction shows the opposition between cognitive and social phenomena to be a significant distinction framing action in Western culture. The analysis also suggests that new attention be given to the relationship between the constitutive and reproductive functions of discourse and nonverbal action. (author)

  17. Reproducing cultural identity in negotiating nuclear power: the Union of Concerned Scientists and emergency core cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downey, G L

    1988-05-01

    This paper advances the concept of 'cultural identity' to account for the nexus between structure and practice in technological negotiations. It describes how the formation of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), and that group's subsequent discourse and nonverbal actions, both reproduced the established identities of group members and contributed to negotiations that reconstituted those identities. In particular, UCS claims about emergency core-cooling systems in nuclear plants were congruent with the combination of a shared ideology, the social interests of Massachusetts Institute of Technology faculty, and established principles of engineering design. The cultural analysis of identity reproduction shows the opposition between cognitive and social phenomena to be a significant distinction framing action in Western culture. The analysis also suggests that new attention be given to the relationship between the constitutive and reproductive functions of discourse and nonverbal action.

  18. Race Across Borders: Transnationalism and Racial Identity in African-American Fiction, 1929-1945

    OpenAIRE

    Agbodike, Kanayo Jason

    2012-01-01

    Race Across Borders: Transnationalism and Racial Identity in African-American Fiction, 1929-1945, examines four African-American literary texts that employ transnational themes and aesthetics as a means of resisting a logic of racial essentialism that governed the production and reception of black literature in the United States during the early 20th century. I examine the ways in which Dark Princess by W. E. B. Du Bois, Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston, Banjo: A Story Witho...

  19. Being in-between: A model of cultural identity negotiation for emerging adult immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julie A; Kassan, Anusha

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative study explored the cultural identity negotiation of young adult immigrants. Using a grounded theory research design, 10 semistructured interviews were conducted with emerging adult immigrants (EAI), ages 19-27. Results yielded a substantive model of cultural identity negotiation (MCIN) for EAI and posited that One's Motivation and Sense of Agency to Negotiate Cultural Identity is at the core of how participants navigate their cultural identities. This model included 6 major categories: (a) Family Cultural Rigidity ; (b) Connections Specific to Canada ; (c) Connection to a Same Cultured Community ; (d) Sense of Permanency ; (e) Desire to Preserve Culture of Origin ; (f) Desire to Fit in to Canadian Culture , as well as 2 overarching factors ( Dimension of Time and Dimension of Age ), which were found to be influential on participants' cultural identity negotiation. The model also included the identification of 4 approaches to cultural identity negotiation: (a) Blended; (b) Dual; (c) Disconnected; and (d) Intermediate. The MCIN for EAI is discussed in terms of the current literature on cultural identity formation as well as implications for counseling psychology training and practice. Recommendations for further research are also suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Social identity, social networks and recovery capital in emerging adulthood: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, E; Best, D; Beckwith, M; Dingle, G A; Lubman, D I

    2015-11-11

    It has been argued that recovery from substance dependence relies on a change in identity, with past research focused on 'personal identity'. This study assessed support for a social identity model of recovery in emerging adults through examining associations between social identity, social networks, recovery capital, and quality of life. Twenty participants aged 18-21 in residential treatment for substance misuse were recruited from four specialist youth drug treatment services - three detoxification facilities and one psychosocial rehabilitation facility in Victoria, Australia. Participants completed a detailed social network interview exploring the substance use of groups in their social networks and measures of quality of life, recovery capital, and social identity. Lower group substance use was associated with higher recovery capital, stronger identification with non-using groups, and greater importance of non-using groups in the social network. Additionally, greater identification with and importance of non-using groups were associated with better environmental quality of life, whereas greater importance conferred on using groups was associated with reduced environmental quality of life. Support was found for the role of social identity processes in reported recovery capital and quality of life. Future research in larger, longitudinal samples is required to improve understanding of social identity processes during treatment and early recovery and its relationship to recovery stability.

  1. Uncovering Black/African American and Latina/o students' motivation to learn science: Affordances to science identity development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfood, Denise Marcia

    The following dissertation reports on a qualitative exploration that serves two main goals: (1) to qualitatively define and highlight science motivation development of Black/African American and Latina/o students as they learn science in middle school, high school, and in college and (2) to reveal through personal narratives how successful entry and persistence in science by this particular group is linked to the development of their science identities. The targeted population for this study is undergraduate students of color in science fields at a college or university. The theoretical frameworks for this study are constructivist theory, motivation theory, critical theory, and identity theories. The methodological approach is narrative which includes students' science learning experiences throughout the course of their academic lives. I use The Science Motivation Questionnaire II to obtain baseline data to quantitatively assess for motivation to learn science. Data from semi-structured interviews from selected participants were collected, coded, and configured into a story, and emergent themes reveal the important role of science learning in both informal and formal settings, but especially in informal settings that contribute to better understandings of science and the development of science identities for these undergraduate students of color. The findings have implications for science teaching in schools and teacher professional development in science learning.

  2. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  3. Chao Fa Movies: The Transnational Production of Hmong American History and Identity by Ian G. Baird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Baird

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Films made by and for particular social and ethnic peoples can reveal a great deal about identity issues. Here, I examine the cultural production, the content, and the socio-cultural and political significance of three Chao Fa-inspired Hmong films produced at Khek Noi, Thailand by Hmong American producers working with largely Hmong Thai actors. The first two, Chao Fa 1 and 2, were directed in 2009 by Kou Thao. The third, Vaj Tuam Thawj – The Legend of Chao Fa, was put together by Jimmy Vang, in 2010. Even though these Chao Fa films are fictional, they attempt to depict events and circumstances that are familiar to many first generation Hmong Americans, and they can muster strong emotions from people who see them as depicting factual history. In addition, just like many other American youth, many 1.5 generation Hmong are tied together by shared media experiences, including Hmong movies. Thus, the Chao Fa movies are important for producing and reproducing, reinforcing and dispersing ideas related to Hmong American identity and culture. They tell stories of the Hmong being oppressed by many different groups, and this history suggests why many Hmong—not only the Chao Fa—have long desired the type of independence and freedom from prejudice and discrimination that they imagine would come if the Hmong only had their own nation state.

  4. Identity, Physical Space, and Stigma Among African American Men Living with HIV in Chicago and Seattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Judith L; Raunig, Manuela; Brunsteter, Halley; Desmond, Michelle; Rao, Deepa

    2015-12-01

    African American men have the highest rates of HIV in the USA, and research has shown that stigma, mistrust of health care, and other psychosocial factors interfere with optimal engagement in care with this population. In order to further understand reducing stigma and other psychosocial issues among African American men, we conducted qualitative interviews and focus groups with African American men in two metropolitan areas in the USA: Chicago and Seattle. We examined transcripts for relationships across variables of stigma, anonymity, self-identity, and space within the context of HIV. Our analysis pointed to similarities between experiences of stigma across the two cities and illustrated the relationships between space, isolation, and preferred anonymity related to living with HIV. The men in our study often preferred that their HIV-linked identities remain invisible and anonymous, associated with perceived and created isolation from physical community spaces. This article suggests that our health care and housing institutions may influence preferences for anonymity. We make recommendations in key areas to create safer spaces for African American men living with HIV and reduce feelings of stigma and isolation.

  5. Emerging Roles for Librarians in the Medical School Curriculum and the Impact on Professional Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the impact on professional identity for health sciences librarians participating in the curriculum revision and development process. A qualitative survey, designed to examine the current roles, values, and self-identification of health sciences librarians involved in curricular revision, was conducted. The respondents discussed how they had participated in the planning, implementation, and rollout phases of revised curricula. They identified skills and values essential to successful participation and described the impact of expanded professional relationships on new identities as educators, change agents, and problem solvers. The study may add to the knowledge base of skills and attitudes needed for successful practice in these newly emerging roles.

  6. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Melanie Carmen; Joubert, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66) children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity...

  7. Time and Quest of Identity of the African-American Character: George Schuyler's Black No More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Naji Shanbooj Alolaiwi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine the theme of “passing,” viewed as a metaphor of race that marks a step forward from the painful reality of the Middle Passage to “passing,” as both physical reality and metaphor, and to find out the underlying causes of the passing character in George Schyler's Black No More in the light of social and historical dimensions. The study investigates the aspects of “passing”  manifested by the African-American who is often viewed as an “appendage” to the rest of society, blacks have struggled to attain the success, equality, and overall collective consciousness of the American society, while simultaneously creating and maintaining and identity of their own. Blacks have been and continue to be socially, economically, educationally, and politically disenfranchised and therefore cannot completely find unity within an American system that continuously seeks to reaffirm their inferiority.

  8. Bolivar and Marti: emancipatory voices from a look comunicacionalpara a Latin American identity culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreína Antonia Bermúdez Di Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, mass media is one of the ways for getting the construction of the collective imaginary of wor ld’s countries, taking into account some negative consequences as the alienation and the acquisition of some anti values. In Latin America, particularly in Venezuela , an effort has been made to have some mass media for attending the social necessities of the communities. So, t his article has the following purpose: making a historic and social approximation of the Latin American identity for improving the communicational ethic and the sensibility of our history, taking as referent the Bolivar’s and Marti’s thoughts specifically from two newspapers: Correo del Orinoco (1818 and Patria (1892 . Therefore, the communication and the education are two of the essential categories for improving the Latin American culture identity which makes a new communicational e thic. Finally, in this arti cle, a pedagogical experience is presented which consists in a radio program en titled Voces de Nuestra América: Cultura Identitaria Latinoamericana , from the Cátedra Bolívar - Martí of the Venezuelan Bolivarian University. It was c reated for getting an audiovisual space that improves the identity values from the big land.

  9. Perfectionism in African American students: relationship to racial identity, GPA, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elion, Audrey A; Wang, Kenneth T; Slaney, Robert B; French, Bryana H

    2012-04-01

    This study examined 219 African American college students at predominantly White universities using the constructs of perfectionism, academic achievement, self-esteem, depression, and racial identity. Cluster analysis was performed using the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R), which yielded three clusters that represented adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists. These three groups were compared on their scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS), and Grade Point Average (GPA). Adaptive perfectionists reported higher self-esteem and lower depression scores than both the nonperfectionists and maladaptive perfectionists. Adaptive perfectionists had higher GPAs than nonperfectionists. On the racial identity scales, maladaptive perfectionists had higher scores on Pre-Encounter Self Hatred and Immersion-Emersion Anti-White subscales than adaptive perfectionists. The cultural and counseling implications of this study are discussed and integrated. Finally, recommendations are made for future studies of African American college students and perfectionism. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Listening to their voices: Exploring mathematics-science identity development of African American males in an urban school community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimi Leemar

    National data continues to show an underrepresentation of African American males pursuing science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) majors, careers and professions in the United States. Whites and Asian Americans are continuously positioned as the face of STEM education and participation. And while research has provided ways to support mathematics and science learning for African American males, there still remains a gap in understanding how their formed mathematics-science identities in K-12 public schooling influences STEM participation. The research undertaken in this study explores this gap, and uses an integrative identity framework to understand mathematics-science identity development which goes beyond personal identity, and explores the relational, collective and material components of identity. Specifically, this research seeks to answer the following research questions: What are the shared lived experiences that exist between a group of African American male students developing a mathematics-science identity, and how these shared lived experiences shape their mathematics-science identity development? Therefore, by analyzing African American males lived experiences employing an integrative identity framework fosters a greater understanding of how mathematics-science identity is formed in K-12 public schools, which impacts STEM education and participation. The high school aged youth featured in this study consist of four African American males, who live in a moderate size city in California. Data for this study consists of observations, phenomenological interviews, and policy document analysis that took place over six months. Data has been analyzed to describe and interpret the young men's mathematics and science experiences, as revealed in their K-12 public school education. This inquiry sought to make meaning of how African American males experience mathematics and science teaching and learning within K-12 public schooling and how these

  11. Postmodern discourse on identity of an archivist in ‘The American Archivist’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present one of the most leading discourses in archival literature of the last two decades, which is archivist’s identity and his place within the culture. In his research author focused mainly on articles published in academic journal published by the Society of American Archivists – ‘The American Archivist’. However to explain the phenomenon of this discourse in proper depth author extended his research to the writings of sociology, historiography and anthropology available in French and English literature. Crisis of archivist’s identity, presented in this article, corresponds with the prevailing trend of the time – postmodernism – also seen by American archivists as the main reason for the marginalization of the role of „servant of the altar of history”. Authors of quoted articles not only do not remain indifferent to this negative process, but they offer solutions which could lead to creation of new and improved image of an archivist in postmodern, democratic and information society. Discussed, in this article, are issues regarding public relations, openness and access to archives, their marketing, as well as education functions. Furthermore, article provides insight into the specific way of writing about archive studies on the other continent, that is with greater attention to lightness and wit of style, which keeps the maximum pragmatism. Article ends with a series of questions which author poses to the changing status of archive and archivist. These questions, although will remain unanswered, expose the seemingly dynamic change.

  12. "The Poison That Ruined the Nation": Native American Men-Alcohol, Identity, and Traditional Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamonasa-Bennett, Arieahn

    2017-07-01

    Alcoholism and destructive drinking patterns are serious social problems in many Native American reservation and urban communities. This qualitative study of men from a single Great Lakes reservation community examined the social, cultural, and psychological aspects of their alcohol problems through their life stories. The men were in various stages of recovery and sobriety, and data collection consisted of open-ended interviews and analysis utilizing principles and techniques from grounded theory and ethnographic content analysis. Alcoholism and other serious social problems facing Native American communities need to be understood in the sociocultural and historical contexts of colonization and historical grief and trauma. This study suggests that for Native American men, there are culturally specific perspectives on alcohol that have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. The participants' narratives provided insight into the ways reconnecting with traditional cultural values (retraditionalization) helped them achieve sobriety. For these men, alcohol was highly symbolic of colonization as well as a protest to it. Alcohol was a means for affirming "Indian" identity and sobriety a means for reaffirming traditional tribal identity. Their narratives suggested the ways in which elements of traditional cultural values and practices facilitate healing in syncretic models and Nativized treatment. Understanding the ways in which specific Native cultural groups perceive their problems with drinking and sobriety can create more culturally congruent, culturally sensitive, and effective treatment approaches and inform future research.

  13. Trump Veganism: A Political Survey of American Vegans in the Era of Identity Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Lee Wrenn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Often stereotyped as being apathetic to the human suffering, the American vegan movement has historically failed to build alliances with other social justice movements. As intersectional feminism gains a foothold in the movement and external political crises challenge the movement’s frame of reference, the role that identity plays in movement progress has become a serious concern. Using the 2016 election as a flashpoint, this article considers if the identity backlash characterized by the Trump campaign finds parallels in the American vegan movement. A survey of 287 American vegans finds limited evidence of Trump veganism, defined here as a single-issue focus on speciesism that rejects the relevance of human-experienced systems of oppression. However, respondents do find that movement diversity efforts are insufficient, especially when controlling for race and gender. Most respondents were ethically-motivated vegans, liberal voters, and intersectionally-oriented activists who reported multiple engagements with various leftist movements. Only four percent of respondents voted Trump, while 14% agreed with or were neutral about Trump’s campaign promise to put “America first”. Those who were vegan for reasons of self-interest and had been vegan for less than a year were significantly more likely to support Trump’s conservative agenda and were slightly less likely to participate in other social movements.

  14. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  15. Racial and Athletic Identity of African American Football Players at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint

    2010-01-01

    This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…

  16. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  17. The Effects of Changes in Racial Identity and Self-Esteem on Changes in African American Adolescents' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Richards, Maryse H.; Ragsdale, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the unique effects of racial identity and self-esteem on 259 African American adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms as they transitioned from the 7th to 8th grades (ages 12-14). Racial identity and self-esteem were strongly correlated with each other for males but not for females. For both males and females, an increase…

  18. Emergence of inter-identity alliances in struggles for transformation of the Kenyan constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mwathi Mati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Struggles for transformation of the Kenyan constitution brought into alliances disparate movements from below, sections of middleclass, and factions of political, economic and religious elites, in challenging the government. The emergence of these alliances presents useful cases for examining the dynamic relationship and politics between these movements, and also for probing social movement theory. Specifically, given the centrality of identity consciousness in movements, how were intrinsic class, religious, gender, generational and ethnic identity interests, contestations and cleavages overcome to enable inter-identity alliances in these struggles? More critically, how relevant are the dominant social movement theories in explaining this phenomenon? Is theoretical straightjacketing useful for analysing movements with such diversity? Drawing from in-depth interviews and existing literature on Kenyan constitutional reform struggles, this paper illustrates how alliances between the different identities and movements were forged to allow for a common struggle. The paper further illustrates that while political opportunity structures explain certain aspects of this phenomenon, framing, civic education and community organising strategies were critical enablers for collective identity formation

  19. Ethnic Identity and Regional Differences in Mental Health in a National Sample of African American Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Duque, Gerardo; Wetterneck, Chad T; Chapman, L Kevin; DeLapp, Ryan C T

    2018-04-01

    Prior research has found that a strong positive ethnic identity is a protective factor against anxiety and depression in African Americans. In this study, ethnic identity is examined in a geographically representative sample of African American young adults (n = 242), using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) (Phinney in J Adolescent Res 7:156-76, 15). The two-factor structure of the measure (Roberts et al. in J Early Adolescence 19:301-22, 1) was analyzed using a structural equation model and displayed an acceptable fit only when multiple error terms were correlated. A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis revealed measurement equivalence of the two-factor structure between African Americans from Southern and non-Southern regions of the USA. We found that significantly higher levels of ethnic identity were present among African American in the South compared to other regions, and region significantly predicted total ethnic identity scores in a linear regression, even when controlling for gender, age, urbanicity, and years of education. Furthermore, among African Americans, living in the South was significantly correlated with less help-seeking for diagnosed depression, anxiety, and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder, where help-seeking was defined as obtaining a diagnosis by a professional. The role of ethnic identity and social support are discussed in the context of African American mental health.

  20. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  1. Emergency Department utilization among Deaf American Sign Language users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael M; Winters, Paul C; Sen, Ananda; Zazove, Philip; Fiscella, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users comprise a linguistic minority population with poor health care access due to communication barriers and low health literacy. Potentially, these health care barriers could increase Emergency Department (ED) use. To compare ED use between deaf and non-deaf patients. A retrospective cohort from medical records. The sample was derived from 400 randomly selected charts (200 deaf ASL users and 200 hearing English speakers) from an outpatient primary care health center with a high volume of deaf patients. Abstracted data included patient demographics, insurance, health behavior, and ED use in the past 36 months. Deaf patients were more likely to be never smokers and be insured through Medicaid. In an adjusted analysis, deaf individuals were significantly more likely to use the ED (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.51) over the prior 36 months. Deaf American Sign Language users appear to be at greater odds for elevated ED utilization when compared to the general hearing population. Efforts to further understand the drivers for increased ED utilization among deaf ASL users are much needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  3. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  4. IDENTITY PROBLEMS IN THE JOY LUCK CLUB (Who Am I: A Chinese American or An American Chinese?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sriastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing human relationship is interesting, yet confusing. A family bound is not a guarantee that the relationships among the family members go well. Amy Tan in The Joy Luck Club serves readers the complexities of relationships between Chinese immigrant mothers and their American-raised daughters. The clashes between two generations and cultures are unavoidable. Having thick Chinese values, these immigrant mothers try to teach and even force their daughters their native culture, something that is difficult to be accepted by their daughters who are being raised in America with America mindset in their minds. Served in four story sections, The Joy Luck Club also allows readers to see how both mothers and daughters struggle to find their identities and life values in acculturation of Chinese and America cultures. Using the theory of socio cultural changes that refers to any significant alteration over time in behaviors patterns and cultural values and norms, this study would like to analyze the identity of the characters being in two different cultures.

  5. "I Am because We Are:" Collectivism as a Foundational Characteristic of African American College Student Identity and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Leslie R.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends current research on African American college student achievement by focusing on collectivism, a key characteristic of African American racial identity. Collectivism serves as the framework for analysis of students' beliefs about the purpose of higher education, conceptualization of their roles and responsibilities as students,…

  6. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  7. Ethnic identity and mental health in American Indian youth: examining mediation pathways through self-esteem, and future optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Webber, Kristina C

    2014-03-01

    Mental health functioning in American Indian youth is an understudied topic. Given the increased rates of depression and anxiety in this population, further research is needed. Using multiple group structural equation modeling, the current study illuminates the effect of ethnic identity on anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior in a group of Lumbee adolescents and a group of Caucasian, African American, and Latino/Hispanic adolescents. This study examined two possible pathways (i.e., future optimism and self-esteem) through which ethnic identity is associated with adolescent mental health. The sample (N = 4,714) is 28.53% American Indian (Lumbee) and 51.38% female. The study findings indicate that self-esteem significantly mediated the relationships between ethnic identity and anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups (i.e., the total sample). Future optimism significantly mediated the relationship between ethnic identity and externalizing behavior for all racial/ethnic groups and was a significant mediator between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms for American Indian youth only. Fostering ethnic identity in all youth serves to enhance mental health functioning, but is especially important for American Indian youth due to the collective nature of their culture.

  8. Identity as a moderator of gender differences in the emotional closeness of emerging adults' same- and cross-sex friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H Durell; Brady, Evelyn; McNair, Renae; Congdon, Darcy; Niznik, Jamie; Anderson, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    Closeness is an integral aspect of friendships, and males and females differ in their closeness experiences within these relationships. However, identity development and friendship type (e.g., same-sex versus cross-sex friendships) may moderate these gender differences. In an attempt to clarify the relationships among gender, identity, and friendship closeness, the current study examined gender and identity associations with reported emotional closeness in emerging adults' same- and cross-sex friendships. Responses from 181 college undergraduates (89 males and 92 females) indicated similar levels of emotional closeness reported for same- and cross-sex friendships. Results also indicated overall identity commitment and friendship identity commitment associations with same-sex friendship closeness. Examination of closeness reports for cross-sex friends revealed a significant association with overall identity commitment for emerging adult males. A significant association was not indicated for emerging adult females. The associations between identity and emotional closeness in same-sex friendships and male cross-sex friendships support previous studies that report differences in the role of these relationships for emerging adult males and females. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the gender and identity differences in emerging adults' reports of friendship closeness.

  9. How is Civic Engagement Related to Personal Identity and Social Identity in Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults? A Person-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Chevrier, Basilie; Perchec, Cyrille; Carrizales, Alexia

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in life when individuals both question and define their place in society and form their identity. Meanwhile, active youth civic engagement represents a challenge for each democracy. The purpose of this study was to analyze the different forms of civic engagement among late adolescents and emerging adults and how they are related to personal identity and social identity, while adopting an integrative perspective through the lens of a person-oriented approach. The participants were 1217 (62.3% female) 16-24 year-old French students (M age  = 19.17; SD age  = 1.83). First, derived from cluster analyses, the findings emphasized diversity in civic engagement, from strong civic participation (in different formal and informal ways) to various forms of passivity. Diversity was also highlighted for personal identity and social identity profiles. Second, a Configural Frequency Analysis revealed a typical pattern associating passivity in civic engagement, personal carefree diffusion and rejection of social identity. Overall, these findings highlight an absence of general youth disaffection and provide a meaningful specific pattern for the understanding of passivity in political and civic matters in late adolescence and emerging adulthood.

  10. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  11. Who’s Calling the Emergency? The Black Panthers, Securitisation and the Question of Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    2015-01-01

    This article intervenes in a debate in cultural disaster studies that interprets disasters as objects, whose study opens up an understanding of societies’ fears, anxieties and vulnerabilities. Widening the scope of disaster studies, it proposes to view disaster not as an object but as an optics, ...... on Black studies and on stigma theory, it suggests finally, that the Panthers’ abandonment of violence represented a shift from identity-politics to an engagement with structural positionality....... to mobilise politically by proclaiming an emergency. It traces a political trajectory that ranged from an early endorsement of revolutionary violence to the promotion of community services and casts this journey as a negotiation of the question of identity and ontological security in times of crisis. Drawing...

  12. Interracial and intraracial contact, school-level diversity, and change in racial identity status among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Seaton, Eleanor K; Sellers, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Among 224 African American adolescents (mean age=14), the associations between interracial and intraracial contact and school-level diversity on changes in racial identity over a 3-year period were examined. Youths were determined to be diffused, foreclosed, moratorium, or achieved, and change or stability in identity status was examined. Contact with Black students, Black friends, and White friends predicted change in identity status. Furthermore, in racially diverse schools, having more Black friends was associated with identity stability. Students reporting low contact with Black students in racially diverse schools were more likely to report identity change if they had few Black friends. In students reporting high contact with Blacks in predominantly White schools, their identity was less likely to change for students with fewer White friends. © 2010 The Authors. Child Development © 2010 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Contextual influences on ethnic identity formation: a case study of second-generation Korean Americans Baby Boomers in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This paper details a study on ethnic identity in midlife, illuminating identity formation as a complex life course phenomenon. The study addresses the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the experiences of racial and ethnic Baby Boomers as both recipients of care and as caregivers to their aging parents (first generation immigrants). Using a case study of second-generation Korean American Baby Boomers, the primary aims of this study are: (a) to explore how the relationship between age and race/ethnicity influences identity formation, and (b) how contexts influence ethnic identity formation. Findings reveal that cumulative experiences over earlier developmental years resulted in resolutions to appreciate their ethnic identity at midlife. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S., combined with the large number of aging Baby Boomers, necessitate recognition of the cultural and racial differences within the Baby Boomer generation.

  14. Positive Parenting in Adolescence and Its Relation to Low Point Narration and Identity Status in Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Tara M.; Lawford, Heather; Tieu, Thanh-Thanh; Pratt, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined identity development using the life story model (McAdams, 2001), in addition to a traditional identity status approach, in order to explore the association between perceived parenting in adolescence and the subsequent quality of life story narration in emerging adulthood. Participants (N = 100) were given a…

  15. Young African American children constructing identities in an urban integrated science-literacy classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity

  16. Uncovering young children's emerging identities related to their literacy experiences: Suggestions to strengthen language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored how young children’s identities emerged from their drawings and accounts of their favourite stories as we argue the importance of understanding children in the context of school and language education. Sixty-six (n=66 children of two urban schools in Pretoria, South Africa were asked to write about and draw their favourite story. The participants were between the ages of six and seven years. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory and Chen’s theory of the construction of identity in a social context were used as conceptual framework. This conceptual framework could be linked to the findings which suggested that the children related their drawings and versions of their favourite stories to their interpretations of their life worlds. The prominent themes from the data could be associated with the self, the family, familiar objects and known animals. Their literacy experiences and the socio-cultural influences on the children’s construction of their identities were apparent in their work. We argue that teachers need to better understand how children understand themselves in relation to the world around them when making decisions about effective language education.

  17. Implementing Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data Collection in Emergency Departments: Patient and Staff Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Kodadek, Lisa; Shields, Ryan; Peterson, Susan; Snyder, Claire; Schneider, Eric; Vail, Laura; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil

    2016-12-01

    To identify patient and provider perspectives concerning collection of sexual orientation and gender identity (SO&GI) information in emergency departments (EDs). Semistructured interviews were conducted during the period of 2014-2015 with a diverse purposive sample of patients across the spectrum of sexual orientation and gender identities (n = 53) and ED nurses, physician assistants, physicians, and registrars (n = 38) in a major metropolitan area. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Patients were willing to provide SO&GI information if collected safely and appropriately, and staff described willingness to collect SO&GI information to inform understanding of health disparities. Key themes across respondents were as follows: What will be done with the data? How will it be collected? Who will collect it? Is the environment conducive to safe disclosure? Confidentiality and potential sensitivity; standardized collection emphasizing population health; nurse intake and/or nonverbal data collection; and environmental cues and cultural competency promoting comfort for sexual and gender minorities emerged as critical considerations for effective implementation. Staff and patients are amenable to SO&GI data collection in EDs, but data quality and patient and provider comfort may be compromised without attention to specific implementation considerations.

  18. A Norwegian speaks Norwegian : An analysis of categorization and identity construction in narratives of Latin American migrants in Oslo

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaro, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to trace how Latin American migrants residing in Oslo use group categories for self- and other-identification for the negotiation and construction of identities in interaction. Identity construction is an essential process for migration and resettlement, as the relocation of the self in a new context requires a constant process of redefinition of the self in relation to the new environment and community. I consider group categorization labels such as "foreigner," "Norweg...

  19. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth.

  20. An Arab American Boy Fights for his Voice: Finding Identity within Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The literacy experiences of Arab American youths are often overlooked in the US, and this paper examines the reading responses of one Arab 5th grader as he struggles for agency in a classroom of majority culture fellow students. This study follows the book talk of a class dealing with a text about immigration. Though he often struggles to contribute his perspective, as an actual immigrant himself, he is sometimes ignored and frustrated. This paper looks at this issue through Fairclough (2001 and van Dijk’s (1985, 2001 critical discourse lens, examining the intersectionality of racial, gender, and power issues in the microcosm of the literature study group. His cultural identity, perhaps a hybrid between the dominant US culture and his heritage Egyptian home culture, may manifest in such interactions. In a book discussion of Jane Kurtz’ Faraway Home, perhaps themes of the text mirror the student’s own struggles for belonging and search for identity in US society.

  1. Urban Latina/o Undergraduate Students' Negotiations of Identities and Participation in an Emerging Scholars Calculus I Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppland-Cordell, Sarah B.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a qualitative multiple case study that explored how two urban Latina/o undergraduate students' emerging mathematical and racial identity constructions influenced their participation in a culturally diverse, Emerging Scholars Program, Calculus I workshop at a predominately White urban university. Drawing on…

  2. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.

  3. Relationship between bicultural identity and psychological well-being among American and Japanese older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.

  4. The Indirect Effect of Ethnic Identity on Marijuana Use Through School Engagement: An African American High School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Chelsea E; Fisher, Sycarah; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Barnes-Najor, Jessica

    2018-01-16

    African American marijuana use is associated with many negative social, emotional, and health-related consequences. Of significance, over recent years this population has shown an increase in use. In the literature, ethnic identity and school engagement are prominent protective factors against substance use. This study will examine how these protective factors are related, specifically whether ethnic identity mitigates risk through school engagement to reduce marijuana use. A path analysis was conducted with 437 African American high school students (41% male) from Midwestern schools to examine the role of school engagement in the relationship between ethnic identity and marijuana use. The results revealed that students high in ethnic identity have higher school engagement, which lessens their frequency of marijuana use. Therefore, ethnic identity reduces marijuana use by increasing student's school engagement. Conclusions/Importance: The results offer a clearer picture of how ethnic identity and school engagement protect against marijuana use. The results also present insight into how to protect students who are low in ethnic identity.

  5. Emerging identities: A proposed model for an interactive science curriculum for First Nations students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Trudy

    Mi'kmaw students face a complexity of personal, cultural, and social conditions within contemporary educational systems that affect their continued participation in the educational process offered within Atlantic Canada. Despite a variety of approaches developed by educators to address the high drop out rate and lack of interest in science, the statistics remain largely unchanged. Aboriginal educators are calling for a "new story" in education that better meets the needs of Aboriginal students. This study attempts to identify the conditions and contexts necessary to bridge the gap that currently exists for Aboriginal students in science studies. The research investigates the basic relationship between learning in general and the meaning-making processes engaged in by students of a Grade 7/8 class within a Mi'kmaw reserve school. It leads to a proposal for an alternative pedagogy, or a new narrative, for teaching science to Aboriginal students and the foundations for a culturally interactive science curriculum. For educators to understand the complexity of issues affecting Mi'kmaw student achievement in science requires a theoretical framework that allows the students' lived experience to emerge. Toward this end, the research includes both phenomenological and ethnographic approaches to understanding the lived experiences and cultural narratives based on interviews with the students, a field trip within the community, and a trial chemistry lesson. I examined how these students perceive themselves in different contexts and how their sense of identity establishes the meaningfulness of particular educational content. I also assessed how person, community/cultural and social contexts affect the students' learning. Part of creating this new narrative requires recognizing knowledge, including science, as a cultural product Taking this cultural view of scientific knowledge allows us to view learning as a process of identity formation and culture as a system of symbols

  6. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans report...

  7. Emerging Motivations of Women’s Identity Transformations in Higher Education Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri TayebiNia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent with modern transformations and modernity experiences, we are faced with various transitions in different aspects of life. Transitions that women with different gender roles experience within the society, which in turn leads to changes in their mental meanings and social roles. Changes in women’s motivations and desires which leads them to reflect on their identity and social and individual transitions in order to achieve their goals and look for new directions in line with their identity ideals. This article examines the function and motivational experience of women from their own perspective and individual mentality logic based on a grounded theory. Through conducting interviews with women who concurrently play the role of mother, wife, employee and student, the study presents an identity typology of women with an emphasis on their motivational processes for entering higher education. The results show that factors like experiencing modernity and changes in valuation systems surrounding women, women’s entrance into labor market, expansion of educational platforms and symbolic social capitals together with social and individual motivations in women’s everyday life has led to a new kind of motivation within them and through such process and in order to reduce tensions coming from their lack of achievements, women have chosen the employment and study strategy in order to reach their goals and in this study the emphasis is on the study strategy. The current analysis has reached four abstract categories in terms of the emerging motivations of women under study. It includes: 1. choosing study as a tool to compete and combat, 2. study as an ambiguous plan, 3. study and employment as self-achievements and 4. study and employment as a path toward improvement and financial independence.

  8. Environment and Urban Tourism: AN Emergent System in Rhetorical Place Identity Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Marina

    Within the systemic framework of Environmental Psychology (Bechtel and Churchman, 2002) and following Urry (2002) and Pearce's approaches (2005), the aim of this research is to investigate within the context of urban tourism which world views emerge from a Discourse Analysis (Edwards, Potter, 1993). of the speech of native and non-native Sardinian residents. It addresses the issue of how social-physical diversity might be preserved (the problem of tourism sustainability, Di Castri, Balaji, 2002). In this regard, forty in-depth narrative interviews of inhabitants with short- and long-term residential experience in Cagliari (Italy) were conducted and examined (Discourse Analysis). It was found that the native and non-native's rhetorical devices expressed similar representations of urban places, but in diverse relationship to social and place identity. Their environmental transitions were based on the tourist gaze, or the functional view and heritage pride. This displays some basic central dimensions of sustainable tourism.

  9. African American Adolescents' Future Education Orientation: Associations with Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Perceived Parental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Eryigit, Suna; Stephens, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    The current study, using data from 374 African American students (59.4% female) in grades 7-12 attending a rural, southern county public school, addressed associations of self-efficacy, ethnic identity and parental support with "future education orientation." Both gender and current level of achievement distinguished adolescents with…

  10. Constituting a Sense of "American" Identity and Place through Language and Literary Study: A Curriculum History, 1898-1912

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Jory

    2013-01-01

    This article examines constructions of "American" identity and place in the first influential guides for English teaching published in the United States at the cusp of the 20th Century. It recovers how English teaching was to weaken youths' ties to more immediate people and places and to reorient their sense of self, others and the…

  11. Perceived Support and Internalizing Symptoms in African American Adolescents: Self-Esteem and Ethnic Identity as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Ragsdale, Brian L.; Mandara, Jelani; Richards, Maryse H.; Petersen, Anne C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing research leaves a gap in explaining why African American adolescents do not exhibit more anxiety and depression than other youth, at the same time that they experience more contextual risk factors. The current study examined the roles of social support as well as possible mediators self-esteem and ethnic identity (sense of belonging to…

  12. Racial Discrimination and Racial Socialization as Predictors of African American Adolescents’ Racial Identity Development using Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sellers, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined perceptions of racial discrimination and racial socialization on racial identity development among 566 African American adolescents over three years. Latent class analyses were used to estimate identity statuses (Diffuse, Foreclosed, Moratorium and Achieved). The probabilities of transitioning from one stage to another were examined with latent transition analyses to determine the likelihood of youth progressing, regressing or remaining constant. Racial socialization and perceptions of racial discrimination were examined as covariates to assess the association with changes in racial identity status. The results indicated that perceptions of racial discrimination were not linked to any changes in racial identity. Youth who reported higher levels of racial socialization were less likely to be in Diffuse or Foreclosed compared to the Achieved group. PMID:21875184

  13. African-American women: considering diverse identities and societal barriers in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, B

    1996-06-18

    Effective psychotherapy with African-American women explicitly requires cultural literacy and competence of its practitioners. Cultural literacy includes understanding the collective social plight of African-American women and the individual client in the context of the prevailing reality of race, gender, and sexual orientation bias and the interpersonal and institutional barriers that result from that bias. Cultural literacy presumes a willingness on the part of the therapist to educate himself or herself about the clients cultural background and milieu and validate the client's accurate perceptions of discrimination and bias and their impact on the client's life. Cultural competence may be seen as the appropriate level of technical skill in applying those concepts to the understanding of the client and the conduct of the psychotherapeutic inquiry. The culturally literate practitioner will acknowledge and appreciate the wide range of diversity within African-American women as a group. The individual client's intrapsychic and familial endowments and personal relationship history as they are embedded in the aforementioned context should be carefully explored and understood as well as are all relevant social factors. Finally, therapists must be willing to scrutinize their own feelings and motivations for working with African-American women. What should follow is a careful analysis of the developmental interactions of these variables, how they promote an individual's view of the world, her perceptions of her options, her strategies for negotiating institutional barriers, her relationships with other persons, as well as any contributions she makes, consciously or unconsciously, to her own dilemma. A culturally literate and antiracist therapist must begin with an understanding of the role of multiple identities and oppressions in client's lives and must have or be willing to acquire a familiarity with the clients' cultural and ethnic heritage and the role of

  14. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  15. Report of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byne, William; Bradley, Susan J; Coleman, Eli; Eyler, A Evan; Green, Richard; Menvielle, Edgardo J; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Pleak, Richard R; Tompkins, D Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Both the diagnosis and treatment of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) are controversial. Although linked, they are separate issues and the DSM does not evaluate treatments. The Board of Trustees (BOT) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), therefore, formed a Task Force charged to perform a critical review of the literature on the treatment of GID at different ages, to assess the quality of evidence pertaining to treatment, and to prepare a report that included an opinion as to whether or not sufficient credible literature exists for development of treatment recommendations by the APA. The literature on treatment of gender dysphoria in individuals with disorders of sex development was also assessed. The completed report was accepted by the BOT on September 11, 2011. The quality of evidence pertaining to most aspects of treatment in all subgroups was determined to be low; however, areas of broad clinical consensus were identified and were deemed sufficient to support recommendations for treatment in all subgroups. With subjective improvement as the primary outcome measure, current evidence was judged sufficient to support recommendations for adults in the form of an evidence-based APA Practice Guideline with gaps in the empirical data supplemented by clinical consensus. The report recommends that the APA take steps beyond drafting treatment recommendations. These include issuing position statements to clarify the APA's position regarding the medical necessity of treatments for GID, the ethical bounds of treatments of gender variant minors, and the rights of persons of any age who are gender variant, transgender or transsexual.

  16. Glocal Nollywood: The Politics of Culture, Identity, and Migration in African Films Set on American Shores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Omega Arthur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1992, Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, has grown into a transnational cinema and the second largest film industry in the world thanks in large part to the popularity of the highly affective and dramatic narrative conventions the industry has perfected. In the last decade, Nollywood filmmakers have produced films that depict the African immigrant lived experience in American cities like New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Atlanta. These films are glocal in nature; while set in the United States and featuring African characters, the films combine both local and global settings, cultural attitudes, identity politics, and the protean nature of everyday life in America. By examining the films Anchor Baby and Baby Oku in America, this article analyses how Nollywood filmmakers employ the industry’s affective and melodramatic narrative practices to show African immigrant characters’ complex emotional, epistemological, and phenomenological responses to both the urban spaces they inhabit and the African spaces they left behind.

  17. The Self Lost, the Self Adjusted: Forming a New Identity in Bereavement Memoirs by American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most Western cultures place a great value on autonomy. American society in particular has always stressed the need to succeed via self-reliance, a characteristic which, in recent decades, has additionally manifested itself in an increasing inclination for self-examination reflected in the deluge of autobiographical writing, especially memoirs. This analysis focuses on memoirs of spousal loss, a specific subgenre of life writing in which, due to the loss of a loved one, the narrating self realizes how unstable a sense of autonomy is. In their bereavement narratives, Joan Didion, Anne Roiphe, and Joyce Carol Oates admit that after losing a life partner their world crumbled and so did their sense of self. The article examines the following aspects of the grieving self: 1. how grief tests one’s self-sufficiency; 2. how various grief reactions contribute to self-disintegration; 3. the widow as a new and undesirable identity; and 4. writing as a way of regaining one’s sense of self.

  18. Tuskegee as Sacred Rhetoric: Focal Point for the Emergent Field of African American Religion and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Terri

    2018-02-01

    Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.

  19. Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28-52% of ethnic identity's protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents' lives.

  20. Ethnic Identity Attachment and Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise among Rural, Overweight, African-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bryant Smalley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise. Multivariate analyses, controlling for age, education status, insurance status, and body mass index revealed that attachment to ethnic identity was predictive of motivation for exercise but not for weight loss. Our findings suggest that attachment to ethnic identity may be an important factor in motivation for change among African-American women, particularly with respect to exercise, with direct implications for the development of culturally and geographically tailored weight loss interventions.

  1. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A cultural take on the links between religiosity, identity, and meaning in life in religious emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negru-Subtirica, Oana; Tiganasu, Alexandra; Dezutter, Jessie; Luyckx, Koen

    2017-03-01

    Identity and meaning in life are core developmental assets in emerging adulthood. We analysed how religiosity is related to these intentional strivings in emerging adults enrolled in theological education, by depicting (1) identity strivings and meaning in life accounts in faith narratives (Study 1) and (2) links between personal identity and meaning in life profiles and religious beliefs, behaviours, and subjective experiences (Study 2). Both studies highlighted that a Foreclosed status, with high personal commitment and reduced exploration, was dominant in faith narratives and personal identity profiles. Also, in narratives meaning in life was reflected by a strong focus on presence of meaning through religious insights. Nonetheless, global meaning in life profiles indicated that many emerging adults were searching for a meaning in their lives, while reporting lower levels of presence of meaning. Identity Achievement and High Presence-High Search profiles were linked to the highest levels of subjective, behavioural, and cognitive religiosity. We highlighted the multidimensionality of identity and meaning in life strivings in emerging adults attending theological schools. We pointed out that even in a somewhat foreclosed cultural context (e.g., Romanian Christian Orthodox theological schools), religion represents a dynamic social and ideological context for self-development. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Religious beliefs increase in emerging adults, doubled by decreases in religious behaviours, linked to an adherence to a more personal approach to religion. Religious youth are more committed to their faith and also explore identity and life meaning in relation to their religious strivings. Youth religious exemplars report close links between their religious faith and strivings for meaningful life goals. What does this study add? We investigated Christian Orthodox theology students, for whom religion is a normative dimension of

  3. Personality development from adolescence to emerging adulthood: linking trajectories of ego development to the family context and identity formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study analyzed personality development using an individual approach by examining changes in ego development across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Specifically, the study mapped the heterogeniety in ego development growth trajectories and linked the different trajectories to the family context in adolescence and identity development in emerging adulthood. Participants were 98 families with a child who were followed from age 14 to age 24. Latent class growth analysis identified 4 distinct trajectories of growth in ego development of the children over the 10-year period. The results indicated that growth was more rapid during adolescence and tended to taper off in emerging adulthood. In addition, promotion of personal growth within the family and parents' ego development were particulary instrumental in children's ego developmental gains in adolescence. Finally, youth who demonstrated continued ego development into emerging adulthood also demonstrated heightened levels of identity exploration. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Exploring the Function of the Anti-communist Ideology and Identity in the Vietnamese American Diasporic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long S. Le

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-communist ideology in the Vietnamese American community is increasingly perceived as a destabilizing force. This article argues that when the anti-communist ideology is analyzed across time, persistence and change are part and parcel of the anti-communist identity. So that the anti-communist identity can be organized for other purposes or reproduced to reflect the concerns and needs of the growing and diverse members of the community. Moreover, it is argued that the concept of social capital may prove to be more analytical in delineating the effects of the anti-communist ideology.

  5. Religiosity, Discrimination, and Community Engagement: Gendered Pathways of Muslim American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal

    2011-01-01

    The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…

  6. Identity Statuses throughout Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Large-Scale Study into Gender, Age, and Contextual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux Verschueren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence and emerging adulthood. However, it remains unclear how identity formation may vary across age, gender, and context (education vs. employment in these developmental periods. The present study used a recently developed model to examine identity statuses or types in a sample of 7,906 Flemish individuals (14–30 years old; 64% female. As expected, achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, carefree diffusion, troubled diffusion, and an undifferentiated status emerged through cluster analysis. Women were overrepresented in the moratorium status (characterized by high exploration, whereas men were mainly situated in foreclosure and carefree diffusion statuses (both characterized by low exploration, but individuals in foreclosure having strong identity commitments as well. Individuals in the carefree and troubled diffusion statuses, which represent the least adaptive statuses, were youngest. High school students were overrepresented in the diffusion statuses and college students were mostly present in achievement (representing the most mature status and moratorium. Finally, employed individuals were overrepresented in foreclosure, whereas unemployed individuals were mainly situated in troubled diffusion. In sum, the present study systematically examined relationships between empirically-identified identity statuses and socio-demographic variables in a large-scale sample, generating important information on age, gender, and contextual differences in identity.

  7. Paramedic versus emergency physician emergency medical service: role of the anaesthesiologist and the European versus the Anglo-American concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, Arnd; Russo, Sebastian G.; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Much controversy exists about who can provide the best medical care for critically ill patients in the prehospital setting. The Anglo-American concept is on the whole to provide well trained paramedics to fulfil this task, whereas in some European countries emergency medical

  8. Assessing identity intersectionality in adolescents and emerging adults. A theoretical and methodological model

    OpenAIRE

    Picariello, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Current identity literature is extremely fragmented, where subfields of identity often "talk past" each other and pay little or no attention to one another (Schwartz, 2001; Schwartz, Luyckx, & Vignoles, 2011). As a result, the concept of "identity" has been assigned multiple meanings across literatures, and integrating these various meanings has rarely been attempted (Vignoles, Schwartz, & Luyckx, 2011). To a certain extent, the presence of different identity literatures focusing on disparate...

  9. Demystifying a Black Box: A Grounded Theory of How Travel Experiences Impact the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The positive impact on the Jewish Identity Development of Jewish Emerging Adults of both the 10 day trips to Israel popularly known as Birthright trips and the service learning trips commonly known as Alternative Spring Breaks has been well-documented. However, the mechanics of how this positive impact occurs has not been well-understood. This…

  10. National Mexican Tourism Policy and North American Second Homeowners In Mexico: Local Tourism Development and Mexican Identity (Chapter 6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev

    2018-01-01

    . Still the Mexican state does not seize the second home owners as a resource and ‘producers’ rather only as consumers of different Mexican objects, food etc. The chapter addresses this research gap and proposes rather than only perceive North American second home owners as part of tourism development...... participate in reshaping and reconfigure public policy and Mexican culture/identity construction. The purpose of the chapter is to explore the role of the North American second home owners and their impact on the planning and regulation of Mexican state policies, and how they might reconfigure practices and...

  11. Conflict and Reconciliation between Two Generations of Chinese Ameri⁃cans over Identity in The Joy Luck Club%Conflict and Reconciliation between Two Generations of Chinese Ameri?cans over Identity in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳胜

    2018-01-01

    Chinese American literature is generated by the history of Chinese American immigrants. In Chinese American litera?ture, issues over identity have been repeatedly mentioned as an eternal theme.Amy Tan, as a representative of a dual cultural iden?tity of the Chinese American writers, published her saga novel The Joy Luck Club as a maiden work in 1989. The novel describes the emotional stories between the four Chinese women with different characters and different fates that abandoned the national calamity and family hatred and moved to the United States and their daughters who were born and grew up in the United States.

  12. The American biodefense industry: from emergency to nonemergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentzos, Filippa

    2007-03-01

    Since 1998, and especially since the "Amerithrax" emergency of 2001, the United States has ambitiously funded biodefense projects, intending not only to enhance detection and management of any biological-weapons attack but also to establish a robust domestic biodefense industry. I asked if the United States had fulfilled this latter intention. Using the RAND Corporation's RaDiUS database, I examined federal biodefense grants and contracts awarded from 1995 through most of 2005, noting recipient type, awarding unit, funding level, and the disease focus of research-and-development support. Patterns in these data as well as other sources suggest that the biodefense industry as late as 2005 remained in a nascent stage, with most firms small, precariously financed, and more responsive to funders' announcements and solicitations than to opportunities for self-directed innovation. A biodefense industry with investor-capital funding and retained earnings, with its own leading companies, with its own stock analysts, and with its own legitimacy in commercial and financial markets did not emerge over the period studied, nor does its emergence appear imminent.

  13. The relationship between racial identity and self-esteem in African American college and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, S J; Sellers, R M; Chavous, T M; Smith, M A

    1998-03-01

    The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity was used to examine the relationship between racial identity and personal self-esteem (PSE) in a sample of African American college students (n = 173) and a sample of African American high school students (n = 72). Racial identity was assessed using the Centrality and Regard scales of the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, whereas the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was used to assess PSE. Four predictions were tested: (a) racial centrality is weakly but positively related to PSE; (b) private regard is moderately related to PSE; (c) public regard is unrelated to PSE; and (d) racial centrality moderates the relationship between private regard and PSE. Multiple regression analysis found that racial centrality and public racial regard were unrelated to PSE in both samples. Private regard was positively related to PSE in the college sample. Racial centrality moderated the relationship between private regard and PSE in both samples, such that the relationship was significant for those with high levels of centrality but nonsignificant for those with low levels.

  14. Institutional Identity and Self-Esteem among African American Males in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dominique L.; Smith, Chauncey D.; Marks, Bryant T.; Crosby, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Social identity theory maintains that one's self-concept is partially determined by the social groups to which the individual belongs. Using this as a theoretical framework, this study examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of institutional identity and self-esteem in 411 Black male college freshmen. It was hypothesized that…

  15. The Politics of Public Discourse: Discourse, Identity and African-Americans in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.

    2005-01-01

    This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…

  16. Relationships Between Identity and Well-Being in Italian, Polish, and Romanian Emerging Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaś, Dominika; Cieciuch, Jan; Negru, Oana; Crocetti, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of our research was to describe the comprehensive picture of relationships between identity and well-being with a cross-national perspective. We examined identity considering the interplay of three processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and

  17. The emergence of research on teachers' professional identity : a review of literature from 1988 to 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijaard, D.; Meijer, P.C.; Verloop, N.; Craig, C.J.; Meijer, P.C.; Broeckmans, J.

    2013-01-01

    The studies considered in this review of research on teachers’ professional identity until 2004 can be divided into three categories: (a) studies in which the focus was on teachers’ professional identity formation; (b) studies in which the focus was on the identification of characteristics of

  18. Negotiating Differences: The Role of Social Identity in the Emergence of Institutions for Local Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.R.; Aalvanger, A.

    2015-01-01

    Local governance gained wide attention over the last decades. These processes are embedded in existing institutional contexts, and as such create new actors, rules and identities or change existing ones. In this chapter we focus on the co-construction of institutions and identities in two cases:

  19. American ways and their meaning: Edith Wharton’s post-war fiction and American history, ideology, and national identity

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Lynn Glennon

    2011-01-01

    This thesis argues that Edith Wharton’s assessment of American ways and their meaning in her post-war fiction has been widely misread. Its title derives from French Ways and Their Meaning (1919), which she wrote to educate her countrymen about French culture and society. Making sense of America was as great a challenge to Wharton. Much of her later fiction was for a long time dismissed by critics on the grounds that she had failed to ‘make sense’ of America. Wharton was troubled by American m...

  20. A study of emergency American football helmet removal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Hernandez, Adam E

    2012-09-01

    The purpose was to compare head kinematics between the Eject Helmet Removal System and manual football helmet removal. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Thirty-two certified athletic trainers (sex, 19 male and 13 female; age, 33 ± 10 years; height, 175 ± 12 cm; mass, 86 ± 20 kg) removed a football helmet from a healthy model under 2 conditions: manual helmet removal and Eject system helmet removal. A 6-camera motion capture system recorded 3-dimensional head position. Our outcome measures consisted of the average angular velocity and acceleration of the head in each movement plane (sagittal, frontal, and transverse), the resultant angular velocity and acceleration, and total motion. Paired-samples t tests compared each variable across the 2 techniques. Manual helmet removal elicited greater average angular velocity in the sagittal and transverse planes and greater resultant angular velocity compared with the Eject system. No differences were observed in average angular acceleration in any single plane of movement; however, the resultant angular acceleration was greater during manual helmet removal. The Eject Helmet Removal System induced greater total head motion. Although the Eject system created more motion at the head, removing a helmet manually resulted in more sudden perturbations as identified by resultant velocity and acceleration of the head. The implications of these findings relate to the care of all cervical spine-injured patients in emergency medical settings, particularly in scenarios where helmet removal is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Construction, Negotiation, and Transformation of Racial Identity in American Football: A Study of Native and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Gerald R.

    1998-01-01

    Traces and compares the histories of Black and American-Indian participation in collegiate and professional football. Discusses athletic participation by minority groups as a challenge to segregation and notions of White superiority; as a challenge to the persistence of racist stereotypes in media coverage; and as a foundation for the…

  2. (Re) framing the nation : the Afro -Cuban challenge to Black and Latino struggles for American identity

    OpenAIRE

    Gosin, Monika

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation interrogates the complexity of late 20th and early 21st century racial projects, focusing on conflict and convergence among African Americans, Cuban exiles, and Afro-Cubans in the United States. A textual analysis of the African American Miami Times and the Spanish language El Herald/El Nuevo Herald during the 1980 Mariel exodus and 1994 Balsero crisis, reveals the concerns of Miami African Americans and Cubans related to issues of race, immigration, and national belonging. ...

  3. Use of standardized multidimensional evaluation tools and the emergence of the case manager's professional identity in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugue, Mathilde; De Stampa, Matthieu; Couturier, Yves; Somme, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    In France, the national public health plan proposes a group of innovations including the initiation of case management for older adults in complex situations, particularly those with cognitive disorders. In this context, public authorities asked case managers to use a standardized multidimensional evaluation tool. The results of a qualitative study on the pertinence of such a tool relative to the emergence of this new professional field are described. Early use of an evaluation tool seems to be linked to the emergence of a new professional identity for recently recruited case managers. Factors determining the strength of this link are training tool standardization, computerization, and local structure's involvement. Our results contribute to identifying one of the ways by which professional identity can be changed to become a case manager.

  4. An examination of the cross-cultural validity of the Identity Capital Model: American and Japanese students compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, James E; Mizokami, Shinichi; Roberts, Sharon E; Nakama, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    The Identity Capital Model proposes that forms of personal agency are associated with identity development as part of the transition to adulthood. This model was examined in two cultural contexts, taking into account age and gender, among college and university students aged 18 to 24 (N = 995). Confirmatory Factor Analyses verified cultural, age, and gender invariance of the two key operationalizations of the model. A Structural Equation Model path analysis confirmed that the model applies in both cultures with minor variations-types of personal agency are associated with the formation of adult- and societal-identities as part of the resolution of the identity stage. It was concluded that forms of personal agency providing the most effective ways of dealing with "individualization" (e.g., internal locus of control) are more important in the transition to adulthood among American students, whereas types of personal agency most effective in dealing with "individualistic collectivism" (e.g., ego strength) are more important among Japanese students. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mediators of the relationship between racial identity and life satisfaction in a community sample of African American women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Stevie C Y; Settles, Isis H; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S

    2011-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the mechanisms through which racial identity, the importance of racial group membership, affects well-being for racial/ethnic minorities. Using a community sample of 161 African American adults, the present study examined whether the association between racial identity (centrality, public regard, and private regard) and life satisfaction is mediated by two identity functions, belongingness and discrimination. Our results indicated that the relationships of centrality and private regard with life satisfaction were mediated by perceptions of belongingness. Furthermore, gender moderated the strength of each of these mediating effects, such that belongingness mediated these relationships for women but not for men. Our results also indicated that the relationship between public regard and life satisfaction was mediated by perceptions of discrimination. Furthermore, higher public regard was related to lower perceptions of discrimination for women but not men. However, a combined model for public regard and life satisfaction as mediated by discrimination failed to show moderated mediation. We discuss these results in relation to research and theory on racial identity and intersectionality.

  6. Drug-Intake Methods and Social Identity: The Use of Marijuana in Blunts among Southeast Asian Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, Brian; Lee, Juliet P.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines why Southeast Asian American adolescents and emerging adults in two urban settings prefer to use "blunts," or hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana, over other methods of drug intake. Rationales for preferring blunts were both instrumental and social. Blunts allowed users to more easily share marijuana, the preferred drug…

  7. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  8. Sexual Attraction, Sexual Identity, and Psychosocial Wellbeing in a National Sample of Young Women during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women’s sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities exclusively affect individuals who adopt a sexual minority identity or if it also may be present among heterosexually-identified youth who report same-sex attractions. We examined the relationship between sexual attraction, sexual identity, and psychosocial wellbeing in the female only subsample (weighted, n = 391) of a national sample of emerging adults (age 18–24). Women in this study rated on a scale from 1 (Not at all) to 5 (Extremely) their degree of sexual attraction to males and females, respectively. From these scores, women were divided into 4 groups (low female /low male attraction, low female /high male attraction, high female /low male attraction, or high female /high male attraction). We explored the relationship between experiences of attraction, reported sexual identity, and psychosocial outcomes using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicated sexual attraction to be predictive of women’s psychosocial wellbeing as much as or more than sexual identity measures. We discuss these findings in terms of the diversity found in young women’s sexuality, and how sexual minority status may be experienced by this group. PMID:22847750

  9. Affirming Identity: The Role of Language and Culture in American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhner, Jon

    2017-01-01

    With the passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the United States spent millions upon millions of dollars in a largely unsuccessful effort to close the academic achievement gap between American-Indian and some other ethnic minorities and mainstream Americans. NCLB's focus on teacher quality and evidence-based curriculum and…

  10. American College Students Studying Abroad in China: Language, Identity, and Self-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hang

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of qualitative analyses of data drawn from monthly informal individual interviews of 29 American college students who were spending one semester studying Mandarin Chinese abroad in a program in China. While some data confirm previous findings that some students' identification as Americans was strengthened during…

  11. Racial Identity, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem: A Pilot Study of a Mediation Model for African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kimberly Williams; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether a sense of generalized self-efficacy (GSE) would mediate the relationship between African American women's racial identity attitudes and self-esteem. Surveys of women from churches and a misdemeanor probation institution indicated that GSE mediated the relationship between pre-encounter racial identity attitude and…

  12. Figured Worlds and American Dreams: An Exploration of Agency and Identity among Latinx Undocumented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aurora; Torrez, Mark Anthony; Ferguson, Kelly N.; Sagar, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Undocumented students find themselves on continuously shifting ground, calibrating each decision they make in accordance with or as a strategic reaction to the existing political climate. Specifically, some undocumented students find themselves in an ongoing internal battle to fashion an identity that both counters the pervasive stereotypes of…

  13. American, Hispanic, Spanish-Speaking? Hispanic Immigrants and the Question of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores Hispanics' concepts of cultural and linguistic identity. It is based on the findings of a recent study conducted by the author in Iglesia hispana de Cristo, a Hispanic church community in Western New York. Data come from ethnographic interviews conducted with 48 participants aged 13 to 80 years and with church leaders and…

  14. Latino Doctoral Students in Counseling Programs: Navigating Professional Identity within a Predominantly White American Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna Flores

    2017-01-01

    Using a basic qualitative research design, this author interviewed eight Latino doctoral students in counseling programs about their professional identity development experiences. The author analyzed the data from a Latino Critical Race theoretical perspective to explore the ways in which power and privilege played a role in the participants'…

  15. Teaching American Culture in France: Language Assistants' Identity Construction and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargent-Wallace, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the identity and interculturality development of English-language teaching assistants through their perceptions of their experiences living and working in France. The study is framed using Bourdieu's (1979, 2000) notions of habitus and cultural capital, and draws from Byram's (2000) "intercultural mediator" and…

  16. Virtue Ethics and the Narrative Identity of American Librarianship 1876 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, John Timothy Freedom

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a means of reconciling the competing ideas of library and information science's identity, thereby strengthening professional autonomy. I make the case that developing a system of virtue ethics for librarianship would be an effective way to promote that reconciliation. The first step in developing virtue…

  17. A case study of the effects of social experiences on the science identity formation of Mexican American females in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Renee P.

    Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.

  18. THE HUMAN RIGHTS ENFORCEMENT AS AN IDENTITY OF THE AMERICAN QUAKERS IN THE ERAS BEFORE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriadi .

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses how and why the Quakers dealt with human rights issues in the United States before 20th century, ranging from the mid 17th century to the mid 19th century. It applies Nash Smith’s interdisciplinary theory as a theoretical approach. The Quakers, as a Christian religious group, had got several features or identities since George Fox declared its existence in England in the mid of 17th century. They lived in simplicity, adopted the principle of pacifism, rejected paying tith and tax, rejected taking off hat, used archaic words, and so forth. However, the Quakers in the United States had shown a new feature or identity; namely, the enforcement of human rights in the eras before the 20th century. The human rights enforcement was motivated by their piety and loyality to the Quakerism. In other words, it was an expression of their belief in Quakerism. This theology empowered their thoughts and actions in responding issues pertaining to human rights of the minorities i.e. the Indians or Native Americans, the African-Americans, and women along the span of time. Their goal was to let the minorities enjoy their unalienable rights as what most of white men had enjoyed.

  19. Student and/or Entrepreneur? Managing Multiple Identities among Emerging University Student Entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Suna; B. Gartner, William

    2006-01-01

    for combining the identities are proposed and discussed as a way to challenge the meaning attached to the practiced concepts of "student" and "entrepreneur" from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. The practices are organized into a conceptual framework containing the two continuums: "integration/disintegration...

  20. The Role of Identity and Embeddedness in the Emergence of a Knowledge Cluster in Lithuania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelbuda, Modestas; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2005-01-01

    available to the key actors as well as the absence of a powerful catalyst are the main barriers in building the knowledge cluster. Because collaborative capabilities and shared identities are not readily available, and because they can only be created through learning by doing, we predict that cluster...

  1. Longitudinal Associations between Gender and Ethnic-Racial Identity Felt Pressure from Family and Peers and Self-Esteem among African American and Latino/a Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Keiko; Santos, Carlos E; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Gender identity felt pressure is negatively associated with adjustment indices, including self-esteem, among children and early adolescents, and both gender and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure are negatively associated with self-esteem among young adults. This study explored the longitudinal associations between gender identity and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family and peers to behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, and self-esteem among a sample of 750 (49.2% female) African American (n = 194) and Latino/a youth (n = 556) (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years). For African Americans, the results revealed significant negative longitudinal associations between (a) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 and (b) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2, controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. These associations were not found among Latinos/as, nor were associations found between gender identity felt pressure from peers or family and self-esteem. The findings are discussed by drawing on the gender identity and ethnic-racial identity literatures.

  2. A developmental perspective of the relationship of racial-ethnic identity to self-construct, achievement, and behavior in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Levine, Douglas W; Smith, Emilie Phillips; Dumas, Jean; Prinz, Ron J

    2009-04-01

    This longitudinal study examines the development of racial-ethnic identity among African American children. Racial preferences were assessed in early elementary school with the Racial Attitudes, Beliefs, and Stereotypes Measure-II, a projective technique using paired comparisons of pictures of African American, Asian, Latino, and Caucasian children. Racial-ethnic identity in 3rd grade was assessed using the Multi-Ethnic Identity Measure Ethnic Belonging subscale. Multilevel models indicated that own-group racial preferences increased with age. Second-grade own-group preferences were positively related to 3rd-grade racial-ethnic identity scores. Third-grade racial-ethnic identity was associated positively with self-esteem variables (scholastic, social, physical appearance, and behavioral) and with academic performance. Identity correlated negatively with parent-rated aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The findings suggest that children's racial-ethnic identity develops differentially by gender, with girls showing faster growth but lower initial ethnic identity. Racial-ethnic identity was shown to be modestly but statistically significantly associated with various important child outcomes.

  3. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  4. American Indian Women: Problems of Communicating a Cultural/Sexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    In traditional American Indian cultures, sex roles were clearly defined and women were the keepers of the home, child bearers, and food gathers. Sometimes, however, stereotypes and preconceptions become barriers to cross-cultural communication. For instance, feminists who see themselves as victims of a male-dominated society cannot assume that…

  5. "In the End, Our Message Weighs": "Blood Run," NAGPRA, and American Indian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Penelope; Carpenter, Cari M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors juxtapose Allison Hedge Coke's poetry collection "Blood Run" (2006) with the larger context in which Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) operates in order to investigate how "Blood Run" exposes the limitations of repatriation legislation, most significantly, how NAGPRA's…

  6. Forging Appealing Identities in Complex Environments: A Case Study of American Law Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro Milian, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Competition has intensified substantially within the American law school sector in recent decades. Scholars note that this has augmented pressures to engage in institutional self-promotion, as law schools attempt to distinguish themselves within a severely over-crowded marketplace. To date, however, few have ventured to empirically examine the…

  7. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  8. African American Youth and the Artist's Identity: Cultural Models and Aspirational Foreclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, William

    2010-01-01

    The decision to participate in visual arts studies in college and visual arts professions in adult life is the product of multiple factors, including the influences of family, community, peer group, mass culture, and K-12 schooling. Recognizing African American underrepresentation in visual arts studies and professions, this article explores how…

  9. The Effect of Identity Development, Self-Esteem, Low Self-Control and Gender on Aggression in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Morsünbül, Ümit

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression seems to be an extensive and serious problem among adolescents and emerging adults, negatively affecting both the victims and the offenders. In adolescence and emerging adulthood, a lot of factors affect aggression. In this study, five factors were examined: gender, life periods, identity formation, low self-control and self-esteem.   Purpose of the Study: The aim of the study is to examine the relations between identity dimensions, low self-control, self-esteem,...

  10. Gender, Madness, Religion, and Iranian-American Identity: Observations on a 2006 Murder Trial in Williamsport, Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camron Michael Amin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using participant observation, oral history interviews, and a study of court transcripts, Internet chats, and press coverage of a 2006 murder trial of an Iranian-American man in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, we can better appreciate the dynamic intersection of ethnicity, religion, and gender in constructing the social identity of Iranian-Americans. Brian Hosayn Yasipour, who immigrated to the United States in 1969, was convicted of murder in the third degree for killing his four-year-old daughter in 2001 during a custody dispute with his estranged, Iranian-born wife. He managed to avoid the death penalty. Debates about his guilt in America hinged on assessments of his mental state at the time of the crime and this, in turn, hinged on debates about how normative his actions would have been in Iran. Until his arrest, Brian had led a highly mobile life—moving back and forth between America, where he lived as a Christian, and Iran, where he visited as a Muslim. Was he a calculating Iranian-Islamic patriarch, outraged at the defiance of his wife and the attitudes of American courts toward his paternal rights? Or was he, per the court transcripts, a “white Christian” and survivor of childhood rape back in Iran, who lapsed into madness under the strain of his second divorce? Brian actively blurred these issues in court appearances before and after the murder—often expressing his agency in terms of preserving his imaginary and physical mobility.

  11. What are we missing? Risk behaviors among Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Fava, Nicole M; Saftner, Melissa A; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S; Tate, Nutrena H; Stoddard, Sarah A; Martyn, Kristy K

    2016-09-01

    Research on Arab-Americans as a distinct ethnic group is limited, especially when considering the health of Arab-American youth. This study describes health risk (substance use, violence); health promotive behaviors (hope, spirituality); and sexual activity (oral, vaginal, anal sex) of Arab-American adolescents and emerging adults (aged 15-23) within their life context, as well as the association between these behaviors. A secondary analysis of data on a subset of Arab-American participants obtained from a randomized-control trial was utilized to conduct mixed methods analyses. Qualitative analyses completed on the open-ended questions used the constant comparative method for a subsample (n = 24) of participants. Descriptive quantitative analyses of survey data utilized bivariate analyses and stepwise logistic regression to explore the relation between risk behaviors and sexual activity among the full sample (n = 57). Qualitative analyses revealed two groups of participants: (a) multiple risk behaviors and negative life-events, and (b) minimal risk behaviors and positive life-events. Quantitative analyses indicated older youth, smokers, and those with higher hope pathways were more likely to report vaginal sex. The unique cultural and social contexts of Arab-American youth provide a framework for recommendations for the prevention of risk behaviors. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. The role of goal representations, cultural identity, and dispositional optimism in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a Northern Plains tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Jason; Scott, Walter D; Readdy, Tucker; McCrea, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    American Indian researchers and scholars have emphasized the importance of identifying variables that promote resilience and protect against the development of psychopathology in American Indian youth. The present study examined the role of self-regulation, specifically goal characteristics (i.e., goal self-efficacy, goal specificity, intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation, and goal conflict) and dispositional optimism, as well as cultural identity and self-reported academic grades in the depressive experiences of American Indian youth from a North American plains tribe. One hundred and sixty-four participants (53% female) completed measures of goal representations, cultural identity, dispositional optimism, academic performance, and depressive symptoms. Results supported a model in which higher goal self-efficacy, American Indian cultural identity, grade point average, and dispositional optimism each significantly predicted fewer depressive symptoms. Moreover, grade point average and goal self-efficacy had both direct and indirect (through dispositional optimism) relationships with depressive symptoms. Our findings underscore the importance of cognitive self-regulatory processes and cultural identity in the depressive experiences for these American Indian youth and may have implications for youth interventions attempting to increase resiliency and decrease risk for depressive symptoms.

  13. The relationship between domestic space and gender identity: Some signs of emergence of alternative domestic femininity and masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this article is that, by introducing domestic space in the analysis of gender identity, one might gain a more nuanced understanding of how gender and power are co-constitutive. The research question is what one could learn from the conclusions of recent studies about the relationship between gender identity and domestic space, by analyzing it as a way of “doing and undoing gender” through spatial practices. We conducted an interpretive synthesis, focusing on 20 articles published in the last ten years on the topics of domestic space, masculinity, and femininity. We show the traditional normative model of gender identity is still strong, but there are some signs, of the emergence of alternative domestic masculinity and femininity, based on the tendency to reconsider the value of domesticity, and to transgress traditional gender oppositions (mind and body, rational and emotional, public and private, work and domesticity. We discuss the implications of the findings for understanding and refining the concepts of doing and doing gender, and gendered space.

  14. Rethinking the memorial in a Black Belt landscape: Planning, memory and identity of African-Americans in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giliberti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many old sites are well preserved, many sites of historical and cultural value in the United States are disappearing due to their abandonment. In some cases, the condition of these sites makes restorers’ work very difficult. In other cases, in order to recover blighted local economies, administrations and cultural institutions are adopting strategic spatial plans to attract tourists or accommodate historical theme parks. However, recent scholarly interest in the interaction of history and collective memory has highlighted these sites. Even if the memory of some historical sites is fading quickly, this memory is receiving greater attention than in the past in order to enhance local identity and strengthen the sense of community. This article examines a number of plans and strategies adopted to give shape to the memorial landscape in Alabama, thereby documenting and exploring some key relations between city planning and the commemoration of African-American history.

  15. Diabetes prevention among American Indians: the role of self-efficacy, risk perception, numeracy and cultural identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Omidpanah, Adam; Buchwald, Dedra

    2017-10-02

    According to the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) framework, classifying people according to their perceptions of disease risk and their self-efficacy beliefs allows us to predict their likelihood for engaging in preventive behaviors. Health interventions can then be targeted according to RPA group. We applied the framework to type 2 diabetes prevention behaviors among American Indians and expanded it to include culture and numeracy. Using a cross-sectional study design, we surveyed a sample of Northern Plains American Indians in a reservation community setting on self-reported perceptions of diabetes risk, objective diabetes risk, self-efficacy, engagement in healthy behaviors, knowledge of diabetes risk factors, and covariates including demographics, numeracy, and cultural identity. We used the RPA framework to classify participants into four groups based on their perceptions of risk and self-efficacy. Analyses of variance and covariance estimated inter-group differences in behaviors associated with type 2 diabetes prevention. Among 128 participants, our only finding consistent with the RPA framework was that self-efficacy and risk perception predicted knowledge about diabetes risk factors. We found limited evidence for the influence of cultural identity within the RPA framework. Overall, participants had lower numeracy skills which tended to be associated with inaccurate perceptions of higher levels of risk. The theoretical framework may benefit from inclusion of further contextual factors that influence these behaviors. Attention to numeracy skills stands out in our study as an important influence on the RPA framework, highlighting the importance of attending to numeracy when targeting and tailoring risk information to participants segmented by the RPA framework.

  16. Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores and profiles in African American adolescents involved with the juvenile justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Frank C; Andretta, James R; Woodland, Malcolm H

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we examined the internal consistency and structural validity of Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores in a sample of 477 African American adolescents who had been arrested in a city in the mid-Atlantic. Using cluster analysis, we also identified profiles of CRIS scores and compared adolescents with different profiles on Major Depressive Episode, Manic Episode, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scores. Results indicated that CRIS subscale scores were reliable, and the 6-factor structure of the CRIS was supported. Five nigrescence profiles were identified: Miseducation-Pro-Black, Conflicted-Self-Hatred, Multiculturalist, Low Race Salience, and Conflicted-Anti-White. Individuals with Conflicted-Self-Hatred profiles reported significantly and meaningfully higher scores on the 4 syndromes than did their peers, and individuals with the Multiculturalist and Low Race Salience profiles reported the lowest scores. A greater percentage of individuals with Conflicted racial identity profiles had syndrome scores in the clinically significant range. The results of this study demonstrate that some of the nigrescence profiles found in college-age students generalize to adolescents. The implications of the findings for theory, research, and practice are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Latin American vector in Russia’s Foreign Policy: Identities and interests in the Russian‑Venezuelan Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitenko Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Ukraine, that broke out in 2013 and escalated in 2014, has led to sanction policy and the emergence of significant political divergences between Russian Federation and the West. This has resulted in an intensification of Russia’s foreign and economic policy alliances with its neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the BRICS members. In his interview with Cuba’s Prensa Latina, Vladimir Putin further classified cooperation with Latin American states as one of the key and very promising lines of Russia’s foreign policy.

  18. Sounds of Silence: Race and Emergent Counter-Narratives of Art Teacher Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehe, Amelia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two Black preservice art teachers and their racialized experiences in art teacher education. Drawing from a critical race theory perspective, their stories are conceptualized as emergent counternarratives of becoming an art teacher. The case studies are based on interviews from an ethnographic investigation of…

  19. The Effect of Identity Development, Self-Esteem, Low Self-Control and Gender on Aggression in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsunbul, Ümit

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Aggression seems to be an extensive and serious problem among adolescents and emerging adults, negatively affecting both the victims and the offenders. In adolescence and emerging adulthood, a lot of factors affect aggression. In this study, five factors were examined: gender, life periods, identity formation, low self-control…

  20. Ethnic Identity and Major Depression in Asian American Subgroups Nationwide: Differential Findings in Relation to Subcultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Nicdao, Ethel G; Appel, Hoa B; Lee, Daniel Hyung Jik

    2015-12-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are the fastest growing minority population in the United States. Leading AA scholars have highlighted the unmet service needs and the necessity to investigate subgroup variations in the mental health of AAs. This study addressed a research gap of whether racial and ethnic identity (REI) in three AA subgroups (Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese) consistently protects against major depressive disorder (MDD), counteracting the deleterious role of discrimination. Using the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we explored the varying and incremental predictive values of REI, above and beyond the effects of known demographic and acculturation predictors, alongside other potentially protective factors. In three sets of two-step logistic regressions, REI had an inverse relationship with MDD in the Filipino subgroup only but a positive association in the Chinese subgroup. The damaging role of negative REI moderated the effect of discrimination. The longest stay in the United States and discrimination predicted a higher likelihood of a MDD diagnosis in the Filipino subgroup. Social support contributed to the lower odds of MDD in Chinese and Vietnamese subgroups, had lower odds of having MDD, and religious attendance may act as a protective factor in the Vietnamese subgroup. Our findings do not reinforce uniform protection of REI but lend partial support for two underlying rationales. Based on cultural psychologists' framework, inconsistent findings are interpreted within the sociocultural contexts of the 3 subgroups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evidence of Early Emergence of the Primary Dentition in a Northern Plains American Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D V; Blanchette, D R; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N; Kramer, K W O; Warren, J J; Phipps, K R; Starr, D E; Marshall, T A; Mabry, T R; Pagan-Rivera, K; Banas, J A; Drake, D R

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe primary tooth emergence in an American Indian (AI) population during the first 36 mo of life to compare 1) patterns of emergence between male and female children and 2) tooth emergence between these AI children and other U.S. ethnic groups. Data were derived from a birth cohort of 239 AI children from a Northern Plains tribe participating in a longitudinal study of early childhood caries, with examination data at target ages of 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 mo of age (±1 mo). Patterns of emergence in AI children were characterized and sex comparisons accomplished with interval-censored survival methodology. Numbers of erupted teeth in AI children at each age were compared via Kruskal-Wallis tests against those in children of the same age, as drawn from a cross-sectional study of dental caries patterns in Arizona; these comparisons were based on the dental examinations of 547 White non-Hispanic and 677 Hispanic children. Characterization of time to achievement of various milestones-including emergence of the anterior teeth, the first molars, and the complete primary dentition-provided no evidence of sex differences among AI children. AI children had significantly more teeth present at 8 mo (median, 3) than either White non-Hispanic ( P 0.05). These results provide evidence of earlier tooth emergence in AI children than in the other 2 ethnicities. Although the underlying etiology of the severity of early childhood caries in AI children is likely to be multifactorial, earlier tooth emergence may be a contributing factor. Knowledge Transfer Statement: The findings of this study have practical implications for practitioners providing childhood oral health care to ethnic groups with early tooth emergence. It may be important to provide parents with information on toothbrushing, dentist visits, and other practices supportive of good oral health as early as possible to protect their children's primary dentition.

  2. The American Board of Emergency Medicine ConCert Examination: Emergency Physicians' Perceptions of Learning and Career Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Wahl, Robert P; Counselman, Francis L; Heller, Barry N; Harvey, Anne L; Joldersma, Kevin B; Kowalenko, Terry; Coombs, Andrea B; Reisdorff, Earl J

    2016-09-01

    As part of the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program, ABEM-certified physicians are required to pass the Continuous Certification (ConCert) examination at least every 10 years. With the 2015 ConCert examination, ABEM sought to better understand emergency physicians' perceptions of the benefits of preparing for and taking the examination and the career benefits of staying ABEM-certified. This was a prospective survey study. A voluntary postexamination survey was administered at the end of the 2015 ABEM ConCert examination (September 21-26, 2015). Physicians were asked about the benefits of preparing for the examination and maintaining ABEM certification. Examination performance was compared to perceptions of learning and career benefits. Of the 2,601 on-time test takers, 2,511 respondents participated (96.5% participation rate). The majority of participants (92.0%) identified a benefit to preparing for the ConCert examination, which included reinforced medical knowledge (73.9%), increased knowledge (66.8%), and making them a better clinician (39.4%). The majority of respondents (90.8%) identified a career benefit of maintaining ABEM certification, which included more employment options (73.8%), more positively viewed by other physicians (56.8%), and better financial outcomes (29.8%). There was a statistically significant association between the perception of knowledge reinforcement and examination performance (p Medicine.

  3. The Impact of Everyday Discrimination and Racial Identity Centrality on African American Medical Student Well-Being: a Report from the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sylvia P; Hardeman, Rachel; Burke, Sara E; Cunningham, Brooke; Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    Positive psychological well-being is an important predictor of and contributor to medical student success. Previous work showed that first-year African American medical students whose self-concept was highly linked to their race (high racial identity centrality) were at greater risk for poor well-being. The current study extends this work by examining (a) whether the psychological impact of racial discrimination on well-being depends on African American medical students' racial identity centrality and (b) whether this process is explained by how accepted students feel in medical school. This study used baseline data from the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation (CHANGE) Study, a large national longitudinal cohort study of 4732 medical students at 49 medical schools in the USA (n = 243). Regression analyses were conducted to test whether medical student acceptance mediated an interactive effect of discrimination and racial identity centrality on self-esteem and well-being. Both racial identity centrality and everyday discrimination were associated with negative outcomes for first-year African American medical students. Among participants who experienced higher, but not lower, levels of everyday discrimination, racial identity centrality was associated with negative outcomes. When everyday discrimination was high, but not low, racial identity was negatively related to perceived acceptance in medical school, and this in turn was related to increased negative outcomes. Our results suggest that discrimination may be particularly harmful for African American students who perceive their race to be central to their personal identity. Additionally, our findings speak to the need for institutional change that includes commitment and action towards inclusivity and the elimination of structural racism.

  4. Beyond traditional gender roles and identity: does reconceptualisation better predict condom-related outcomes for African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Hood, Kristina B; Corneille, Maya A; Fitzgerald, Angela Y; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2010-08-01

    African-American women continue to be at high risk for HIV and better prevention efforts are needed. The current paper sought to investigate the relationship between gender roles and condom-related outcomes among African American women. The sample consisted of 398 African-American women, who were administered a survey that contained measures of condom-related outcomes and gender role beliefs. We factor analysed their responses and three domains emerged: caretaking/mindful, interpersonal sensitivity and persistent/active coping. Results indicated that the interpersonal sensitivity domain was a significant predictor of condom use and intention with higher interpersonal sensitivity scores associated with less condom use and intentions. The persistent/active coping domain was a significant predictor of condom negotiation efficacy and condom use with higher scores in this domain associated with more condom negotiation efficacy and use. Results suggest that re-conceptualisations offer a better understanding of underlying traits that may influence condom-related outcomes for this population.

  5. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Anderson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United States, the number of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED for a mental health concern is significant and expected to grow. The breadth of the medical evaluation of these patients is controversial. Attempts have been made to establish a standard evaluation for these patients, but to date no nationally accepted standards exist. A task force of the American Association of Emergency Psychiatry, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine and psychiatry, and a psychologist was convened to form consensus recommendations on the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to EDs. Methods: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED (Part I and then combined this with expert consensus (Part II. Results: In Part I, we discuss terminological issues and existing evidence on medical exams and laboratory studies of psychiatric patients in the ED. Conclusion: Emergency physicians should work cooperatively with psychiatric receiving facilities to decrease unnecessary testing while increasing the quality of medical screening exams for psychiatric patients who present to EDs. [West J Emerg Med. 2017;18(2235-242.

  6. Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in US emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Arvind; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Asher, Shellie L; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged US emergency departments to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to US acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how US emergency departments, emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to US emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to US emergency departments in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Applying new thinking from the linked and emerging fields of digital identity and privacy to information governance in health informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Harrison

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in the emerging field of network or digital identity suggests a new approach to the design of informatics systems, in which the individual becomes the guardian of their own personal data, and is assisted in controlling access to it by an infrastructure that is aware of roles, such as 'doctor', and relationships, such as 'doctor_patient'. For these purposes, an 'identity' is defined as the history of a relationship between two entities, and thus encompasses not only name and address but also data that would usually be regarded as part of an electronic patient or health record. This paper presents a description of how such a true person-centric architecture might work, and shows how it can be seen as an evolution of current plans in the NHS for a national patient data spine. One application, the electronic transmission of prescriptions, is described in detail. Other applications, both within and without the healthcare field, are described in outline. The implementation of such a person-centric system requires a modest degree of technical innovation, but significant change in organisational and business models. It is suggested that there is a need for one or more not-for-profit trusts, each with a remit to act as host for an individual's digital identity, and as the individual's true agent. Service providers - such as healthcare organisations - will pay the trust for provision of authentication, and for the storage and transmission of a patient's data; the trust in turn will pay implementation partners, such as smart card issuers and providers of communication channels, acting on behalf of the individual.

  8. Applying new thinking from the linked and emerging fields of digital identity and privacy to information governance in health informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John; Booth, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Recent work in the emerging field of network or digital identity suggests a new approach to the design of informatics systems, in which the individual becomes the guardian of their own personal data, and is assisted in controlling access to it by an infrastructure that is aware of roles, such as 'doctor', and relationships, such as 'doctor-patient'.For these purposes, an 'identity' is defined as the history of a relationship between two entities, and thus encompasses not only name and address but also data that would usually be regarded as part of an electronic patient or health record. This paper presents a description of how such a true person-centric architecture might work, and shows how it can be seen as an evolution of current plans in the NHS for a national patient data spine. One application, the electronic transmission of prescriptions, is described in detail. Other applications, both within and without the healthcare field, are described in outline. The implementation of such a person-centric system requires a modest degree of technical innovation, but significant change in organisational and business models. It is suggested that there is a need for one or more not-for-profit trusts, each with a remit to act as host for an individual's digital identity, and as the individual's true agent. Service providers - such as healthcare organisations - will pay the trust for provision of authentication, and for the storage and transmission of a patient's data; the trust in turn will pay implementation partners, such as smart card issuers and providers of communication channels, acting on behalf of the individual.

  9. Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Tofazzal; Croll, Daniel; Gladieux, Pierre; Soanes, Darren M; Persoons, Antoine; Bhattacharjee, Pallab; Hossain, Md Shaid; Gupta, Dipali Rani; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Mahboob, M Golam; Cook, Nicola; Salam, Moin U; Surovy, Musrat Zahan; Sancho, Vanessa Bueno; Maciel, João Leodato Nunes; NhaniJúnior, Antonio; Castroagudín, Vanina Lilián; Reges, Juliana T de Assis; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar; Ravel, Sebastien; Kellner, Ronny; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; McDonald, Bruce A; Stitt, Timothy; Swan, Daniel; Talbot, Nicholas J; Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-10-03

    In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Bangladesh, with yield losses reaching up to 100 %. Within weeks of the onset of the epidemic, we performed transcriptome sequencing of symptomatic leaf samples collected directly from Bangladeshi fields. Reinoculation of seedlings with strains isolated from infected wheat grains showed wheat blast symptoms on leaves of wheat but not rice. Our phylogenomic and population genomic analyses revealed that the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh was most likely caused by a wheat-infecting South American lineage of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Our findings suggest that genomic surveillance can be rapidly applied to monitor plant disease outbreaks and provide valuable information regarding the identity and origin of the infectious agent.

  10. The Contribution of Africentric Values and Racial Identity to the Prediction of Drug Knowledge, Attitudes, and Use among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Brome, Deborah Ridley; Hampton, Carl

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the contribution of cultural variables, particularly Africentric values and racial identity, to the prediction of drug use, knowledge, and attitudes among African American youths, highlighting individual, peer, and family variables. Data from upper elementary students who participated in a prevention program indicated that Africentric…

  11. The Relationship of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Vocational Identity, and Career Exploration Behavior in African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushue, George V.; Scanlan, Kolone R. L.; Pantzer, Karen M.; Clarke, Christine P.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the social cognitive construct of career decision-making self-efficacy and the outcome variables of vocational identity and career exploration behaviors in a sample of 72 urban African American high school students. The results indicate that higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy are…

  12. Complicating Culture and Difference: Situating Asian American Youth Identities in Lisa Yee's "Millicent Min," "Girl Genius" and "Stanford Wong Flunks Big-Time"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This review situates how culture, difference, and identity are discursively constructed in "Millicent Min, Girl Genius" and "Stanford Wong Flunks Big-Time," two award-winning books written by critically acclaimed Asian American author Lisa Yee. Using contextual literacy approaches, the characters, cultural motifs, and physical settings in these…

  13. The potential influence of masculine identity on health-improving behavior in midlife and older African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E; Courtenay, Will

    2012-06-01

    To gain a greater understanding of masculinity and its potential influence on health-improving behavior in midlife and older African American (AA) men. Forty-nine AA men aged 45-88 years completed in-depth interviews to ascertain their perspectives on masculinity, how masculine identity in this population might be influenced by age and physical activity level, or how it might impact health. Taped interviews were transcribed and organized for analysis with common themes identified by multiple researchers. Most often cited attributes of someone considered "manly" included a leader of a family/household, provider, strong work ethic, and masculine physique. Terms such as responsible, principled, and man of character also described the typical man. Potential negative and positive influences of manhood on health included avoiding health care appointments and being a good example to children/others, respectively. Themes associated with age-related changes in manhood were acceptance and being more health conscious. Elements associated with how manhood was influenced by AA race included stress and perseverance. Midlife and older AA men in this study primarily expressed views of masculinity that fit the traditional perception of manhood. However, the attributes revealed, such as family provider, responsibility, self-reliance, and perseverance, were viewed as having potential for both negative and positive impacts on health and health-improving behaviors. It will be essential to integrate these prevalent attributes of masculine identity into health promotion interventions such that they facilitate positive behavior change while not competing with gender role norms among this vulnerable group of men.

  14. Gender matters, too: the influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-05-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination experiences on academic outcomes. Racial centrality related positively to school performance and school importance attitudes for boys. Also, centrality moderated the relationship between discrimination and academic outcomes in ways that differed across gender. For boys, higher racial centrality related to diminished risk for lower school importance attitudes and grades from experiencing classroom discrimination relative to boys lower in centrality, and girls with higher centrality were protected against the negative impact of peer discrimination on school importance and academic self-concept. However, among lower race-central girls, peer discrimination related positively to academic self-concept. Finally, socioeconomic background moderated the relationship of discrimination with academic outcomes differently for girls and boys. The authors discuss the need to consider interactions of individual- and contextual-level factors in better understanding African American youths' academic and social development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee report on electronic brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C; Yom, Sue S; Podgorsak, Matthew B; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A; Wallner, Paul E

    2010-03-15

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Leptospirosis in American Samoa 2010: epidemiology, environmental drivers, and the management of emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Dobson, Annette J; Smythe, Lee D; Fearnley, Emily J; Skelly, Chris; Clements, Archie C A; Craig, Scott B; Fuimaono, Saipale D; Weinstein, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Leptospirosis has recently been reported as an emerging disease worldwide, and a seroprevalence study was undertaken in American Samoa to better understand the drivers of transmission. Antibodies indicative of previous exposure to leptospirosis were found in 15.5% of 807 participants, predominantly against three serovars that were not previously known to occur in American Samoa. Questionnaires and geographic information systems data were used to assess behavioral factors and environmental determinants of disease transmission, and logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with infection. Many statistically significant factors were consistent with previous studies, but we also showed a significant association with living at lower altitudes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-2.28), and having higher numbers of piggeries around the home (OR = 2.63, 95% CI: 1.52-4.40). Our findings support a multifaceted approach to combating the emergence of leptospirosis, including modification of individual behavior, but importantly also managing the evolving environmental drivers of risk.

  17. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee Report on Electronic Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Yom, Sue S.; Podgorsak, Matthew B.; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A.; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A.; Wallner, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site.

  18. Emergence of the North American center of excellence for transportation equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gottschall

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the closure of Plattsburgh Air Force Base in 1995, the northeastern region of New York State faced a unique economic development challenge. In addition to the loss of the air base, the rural area suffers from urbanization and automation in manufacturing trends. While the quality of life is highly rated, population and job growth stagnate. Isolated geographically by Lake Champlain to the East, the Adirondack Mountains to the South and West, and long distances to southern economic centers in the state, the region has looked north of the Canadian border and positioned itself as "Montreal's US suburb". Economic developers have crafted bi-national agreements between regional organizations, improved cross-border infrastructure, and enhanced educational institutions for the purpose of attracting Canadian and international manufacturers to the region. In 2015, the North American Center of Excellence in Transportation Equipment was launched and six new companies joined the cluster, doubling its size and perhaps providing a base for further growth. Manufacturing jobs are likely to grow for the first time in more than 20-years. We use cluster theory to argue that this formation of companies may still be insufficient to catalyze cluster emergence and the desired goal of regional competitiveness. Moving forward in the crafting of regional economic development policy, we emphasize the importance of viewing the North American Center of Excellence for Transportation Equipment as a pre-emergent cluster in need of further support to reach its potential.

  19. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  20. Heirs of Ambivalence: The Study of the Identity Crisis of the Second-Generation Indian Americans in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aliakbari Harehdasht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies is a collection of short stories which, for the most part, deals with the identity crisis of the Indian Americans who are trapped in-between their Indian heritage and the American culture. The crisis is manifest in their unremitting struggle to preserve, to integrate, and to adjust. The collection, due to its dealing with the in-between-ness, ambivalence, hybridity, and marginality of the displaced Indian Americans, is receptive to the postcolonial studies. This essay draws on the relevant ideas and concepts in the field of the diaspora identity to examine Lahiri's “A Temporary Matter,” “When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine,” “Sexy,” and “This Blessed House” which portray identity crisis of the second-generation Bengali migrants. The ultimate objective is to investigate into the nature of the internal ambivalence of Lahiri's second-generation characters caused by the reciprocal influence of Host/Guest relationships. The significance of the present study is twofold; on the one hand, it accentuates the intellectual attention to the crisis of identity felt by the exponentially increasing second-generation diaspora; on the other hand, it attempts to attract concentrated scholarly interest in diaspora ambivalence which is one of Lahiri scholars’ less addressed concerns.

  1. Dynamic Personal Identity and the Dynamic Identity Grid: How Theory and Concept Can Transform Information into Knowledge and Secure the American Homeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    80 Figure 12. Dynamic Identity Grid Strategy Canvas ..........................................................81 Figure 13. Hurdles to...GIG Global Information Grid HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive IAFIS Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System IP...recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic. Biometric features that can be measured include: facial, fingerprint , hand

  2. Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in United States emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Arvind; Asher, Shellie L; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged U.S. emergency departments (EDs) to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to U.S. acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how U.S. EDs, emergency physicians (EPs), emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to U.S. EPs, emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to U.S. EDs in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Exploring College Students' Identification with an Organizational Identity for Serving Latinx Students at a Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) and an Emerging HSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Dwyer, Brighid

    2018-01-01

    Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs; postsecondary institutions that enroll 25% or more Latinx students) are increasing in significance. But to what extent do students attending an HSI, or an emerging HSI (enrolls 15-24% Latinx students), identify with an organizational identity for serving Latinx students? There is a need to understand how…

  4. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  5. Fraternally Americans: the New Solidarity Movement and the Emergence of a Counterculture in the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Manzano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs the emergence of a counterculture in the early 1960s. In particular, it focuses on the New Solidarity Movement, which was created by a group of poets and writers, and anchored on a network of little magazines, correspondence, and meetings, such as the one held in Mexico City in 1964. These writers aimed at constructing an inter-American fraternity and, from a neo-humanist perspective, called to the “awaken consciousness” of the Americas in order to discuss the meanings of a revolution that they envisioned as ongoing and conceived of as dual, collective and subjective. The analysis of this singular experience contributes to a better understanding of the plurality of meanings that the language of revolution acquired throughout the 1960s.

  6. Emergent Access to the Airway and Chest in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Decoster, Laura C; Al-Darraji, Sossan; Bric, Justin

    2015-07-01

    American football has the highest rate of fatalities and catastrophic injuries of any US sport. The equipment designed to protect athletes from these catastrophic events challenges the ability of medical personnel to obtain neutral spine alignment and immobilization during airway and chest access for emergency life-support delivery. To compare motion, time, and difficulty during removal of American football helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads. Quasi-experimental, crossover study. Controlled laboratory. We recruited 40 athletic trainers (21 men, 19 women; age = 33.7 ± 11.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 80.7 ± 17.1 kg, experience = 10.6 ± 10.4 years). Paired participants conducted 16 trials in random order for each of 4 helmet, face-mask, and shoulder-pad combinations. An 8-camera, 3-dimensional motion-capture system was used to record head motion in live models wearing properly fitted helmets and shoulder pads. Time and perceived difficulty (modified Borg CR-10). Helmet removal resulted in greater motion than face-mask removal, respectively, in the sagittal (14.88°, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.72°, 16.04° versus 7.04°, 95% CI = 6.20°, 7.88°; F(1,19) = 187.27, P football players must eventually be removed for imaging and medical treatment. Our results fill a gap in the evidence to support current recommendations for prehospital emergent management in patients wearing protective football equipment. Helmet face masks and shoulder pads with quick-release designs allow for clinically acceptable removal times without inducing additional motion or difficulty.

  7. A Universal Anaphylaxis Emergency Care Plan: Introducing the New Allergy and Anaphylaxis Care Plan From the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistiner, Michael; Mattey, Beth

    2017-09-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening emergency. In the school setting, school nurses prepare plans to prevent an emergency, educating staff and students on life-threatening allergies. A critical component of any emergency plan is a plan of care in the event of accidental ingestion or exposure to an antigen to prevent the sequelae of untreated anaphylaxis. A universal anaphylaxis emergency care plan developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics and reviewed by NASN offers an opportunity for schools, family, and health care providers to use one standard plan and avoid confusion. The plan and benefits of use are described in this article.

  8. Gender Differences in Longitudinal Links between Neighborhood Fear, Parental Support, and Depression among African American Emerging Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition to adulthood is a developmental period marked by increased stress, especially among African Americans. In addition to stress related to emerging adulthood, neighborhood fear may contribute to depressive symptoms for African Americans. We examined gender differences in longitudinal associations between changes in perceived neighborhood fear, parental support, and depressive symptoms among African American youth who were in transition to adulthood. Five hundred and thirteen African American youths (235 males and 278 females were included in the study. An increase in perceived neighborhood fear was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms, and change in perceived maternal support was predictive of depressive symptoms among males, but not females. The findings suggest that policies and programs should help parents provide support to young adult children who live in violent neighborhoods as a strategy to prevent depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood.

  9. Internalized Racism and Past-Year Major Depressive Disorder Among African-Americans: the Role of Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Drexler

    2017-08-01

    Although a large body of research focuses on discrimination as a risk for depression among African-Americans, only a dearth of research focuses on internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one's racial group) as a risk factor. In addition, no studies have yet to examine mediators and/or moderators of the relationship between internalized racism and depression. To this end, the present study examined the mediating and moderating roles of (a) self-esteem and (b) ethnic identity on the relationship between internalized racism and past-year major depressive disorder (MDD), in a nationally representative sample of African-American adults (N = 3570) from the National Survey of American Life. Results from this study revealed an indirect association between internalized racism and past-year MDD via self-esteem, but no indirect relationship via ethnic identity. Further, results show that both self-esteem and ethnic identity individually moderate the relationship between internalized racism and past-year MDD. Collectively, these findings suggest a need to further investigate mechanisms through which internalized racism impacts mental health and factors that strengthen and/or weaken the association between internalized racism and depression.

  10. [Identity theft

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinksy, H

    2003-01-01

    "A new survey by the Federal Trade Commission indicates that over the last five years one in four American households has been hit by identity theft, which can result in thieves tapping their victims' credit cards or bank accounts" (1 page).

  11. The Impact of Ethnic Identity Stage Development on the Intercultural Sensitivity of African-American Students during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinani, Thandiwe T.

    2016-01-01

    African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…

  12. Emergency Department Query for Patient-Centered Approaches to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity : The EQUALITY Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H; Schneider, Eric B; Kodadek, Lisa M; Adler, Rachel R; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Shields, Ryan Y; Snyder, Claire; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Vail, Laura; German, Danielle; Peterson, Susan; Lau, Brandyn D

    2017-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission recommend routine documentation of patients' sexual orientation in health care settings. Currently, very few health care systems collect these data since patient preferences and health care professionals' support regarding collection of data about patient sexual orientation are unknown. To identify the optimal patient-centered approach to collect sexual orientation data in the emergency department (ED) in the Emergency Department Query for Patient-Centered Approaches to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity study. An exploratory, sequential, mixed-methods design was used first to evaluate qualitative interviews conducted in the Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, DC, areas. Fifty-three patients and 26 health care professionals participated in the qualitative interviews. Interviews were followed by a national online survey, in which 1516 (potential) patients (244 lesbian, 289 gay, 179 bisexual, and 804 straight) and 429 ED health care professionals (209 physicians and 220 nurses) participated. Survey participants were recruited using random digit dialing and address-based sampling techniques. Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the perspectives of patients and health care professionals on sexual orientation data collection, and a quantitative survey was used to gauge patients' and health care professionals' willingness to provide or obtain sexual orientation information. Mean (SD) age of patient and clinician participants was 49 (16.4) and 51 (9.4) years, respectively. Qualitative interviews suggested that patients were less likely to refuse to provide sexual orientation than providers expected. Nationally, 154 patients (10.3%) reported that they would refuse to provide sexual orientation; however, 333 (77.8%) of all clinicians thought patients would refuse to provide sexual orientation. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, only bisexual patients had increased odds of refusing to provide sexual

  13. Patient satisfaction, preventive services, and emergency room use among African-Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Tiffany L; Maiese, Eric M; Batts-Turner, Marian; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Fredrick L

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between patient satisfaction and diabetes- related preventive health care and emergency room (ER) use. We studied 542 urban African-Americans with type 2 diabetes aged > or =25 years who were enrolled in a primary carebased intervention trial to improve diabetes control and reduce adverse health events; 73% female, mean age 58 years, 35% had yearly household incomes of Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey (CAHPS) and use of diabetes-related preventive health care and ER were assessed by self-report. We then followed participants for 12 months to determine ER use prospectively. In general, participants gave favorable ratings of their care; over 70% reported that they had no problem getting care, over 60% reported the highest ratings on the communication and courtesy domains, and mean ratings (0-10 scale) for personal doctor and overall health care were high (8.8 and 8.4, respectively). Using poisson regression models adjusted for age, education, and self-reported rating of health, several aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with subsequent ER use. Participants who reported that medical staff were usually helpful or that doctors and nurses usually spent enough time were 0.49 and 0.37 times, respectively, less likely to use the ER (all p < 0.05). However, few aspects of patient satisfaction were associated with better preventive services. These data suggest that greater patient satisfaction was associated with lower ER use in urban African-Americans. Whether measures to improve patient satisfaction would reduce ER use requires further prospective study.

  14. How Can I Trust You if You Don’t Know Who You Are? The Consequences of a Fluid Identity on Cross-Racial Organizing between African American Women and Latinas in Atlanta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa González

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.

  15. Emergent Gender Roles within Tween Popular Culture: Perspectives from Mexican American Students in a Fifth-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina, Heriberto; Soto-Ramirez, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    This study examines fifth-grade Mexican American students' beliefs about emergent gender roles. We used participant-observation methodology to conduct research on six focal-student participants selected from the general fifth-grade population at an elementary school located in the Southwestern United States. Collected data included focal-student…

  16. "Doing Difference" and Fast Food Consumption: Patterns Among a Sample of White and African American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jeannette M

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that frequent consumption of fast food is linked to obesity and that trends in both are disparate across race and sex categories. Contextualizing race- and sex-related factors that structure fast food consumption in emerging adulthood is a much-needed contribution to social research. Specifically, this study uses the "doing difference" framework, to examine the frequency of fast food consumption in a sample of White and African American (18-25 years old). According to the framework, social inequalities are reproduced through dramaturgical performances of race, class, and gender. Results of this suggest that feminine gender orientation and education serve as protective factors, while African American race and male sex serve as risk factors. African American women emerged as especially high risk given their higher prevalence of traditionally masculine traits.

  17. Emerging Themes in the Ecology and Management of North American Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharik, T.L.; Adair, W.; Baker, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several needs emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1) consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2) long-term monitoring, (3) development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4) combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5) standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6) guarding against oversimplification or over generalization from limited site-specific results, (7) greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8) better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  18. Emerging Themes in the Ecology and Management of North American Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Sharik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several “needs” emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1 consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2 long-term monitoring, (3 development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4 combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5 standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6 guarding against oversimplification or overgeneralization from limited site-specific results, (7 greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8 better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  19. Emerging themes in the ecology and management of North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharik, Terry L.; Adair, William; Baker, Fred A.; Battaglia, Michael; Comfort, Emily J.; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Delong, Craig; DeRose, R. Justin; Ducey, Mark J.; Harmon, Mark; Levy, Louise; Logan, Jesse A.; O'Brien, Joseph; Palik, Brian J.; Roberts, Scott D.; Rogers, Paul C.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Spies, Thomas; Taylor, Sarah L.; Woodall, Christopher; Youngblood, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, consisting of 149 presentations in 16 oral sessions and a poster session, reflected a broad range of topical areas currently under investigation in forest ecology and management. There was an overarching emphasis on the role of disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic, in the dynamics of forest ecosystems, and the recognition that legacies from past disturbances strongly influence future trajectories. Climate was invoked as a major driver of ecosystem change. An emphasis was placed on application of research findings for predicting system responses to changing forest management initiatives. Several “needs” emerged from the discussions regarding approaches to the study of forest ecosystems, including (1) consideration of variable spatial and temporal scales, (2) long-term monitoring, (3) development of universal databases more encompassing of time and space to facilitate meta-analyses, (4) combining field studies and modeling approaches, (5) standardizing methods of measurement and assessment, (6) guarding against oversimplification or overgeneralization from limited site-specific results, (7) greater emphasis on plant-animal interactions, and (8) better alignment of needs and communication of results between researchers and managers.

  20. Constructions of Taiwanese/Chinese Asian American Women Teacher Identities: A Complicated and Complicating Auto/Biographical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tan-ching

    2009-01-01

    Conducted as an auto/biographical and narrative qualitative research study, this dissertation traces the researcher's winding journey in search of her teacher identities, whose cultural and discursive meanings are always changing. There are two subjects in this study--the researcher's colleague as her research participant and the researcher…

  1. Perceived and Actual Competence and Ethnic Identity in Heritage Language Learning: A Case of Korean-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Kim, In-sop

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature has explored issues surrounding the maintenance and development of a minority heritage language among immigrants and their children in relation to their ethnic identities in multi-ethnic societies. However, most of the studies either have alluded to heritage learners' language competence by way of their attitudes and…

  2. Decolonizing "Othello" in Search of Black Feminist North American Identities: Djanet Sears' "Harlem Duet" and Toni Morrison's "Desdemona"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucarella-Ramon, Vicent

    2017-01-01

    The plays "Harlem Duet" (1997) by African Canadian playwright Djanet Sears and "Desdemona" (2012) by Toni Morrison signify upon European texts aiming to carve out a new definition of what it means to be black in North America. Therefore, both texts make for interesting reading in the study of (black) identity construction…

  3. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  4. Gender Matters, Too: The Influences of School Racial Discrimination and Racial Identity on Academic Engagement Outcomes among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavous, Tabbye M.; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Smalls, Ciara; Griffin, Tiffany; Cogburn, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among racial identity, school-based racial discrimination experiences, and academic engagement outcomes for adolescent boys and girls in Grades 8 and 11 (n = 204 boys and n = 206 girls). The authors found gender differences in peer and classroom discrimination and in the impact of earlier and later discrimination…

  5. Intraindividual covariation between e-cigarette and combustible cigarette use in Korean American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-03-01

    Critical gaps exist in understanding the patterns and correlates of dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and combustible cigarettes (CCs), particularly in ethnic minority populations. In this study, we assessed CC and EC use in the naturalistic environment using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). We hypothesized that within-subject variation in EC use (yes/no each day) would be inversely associated with within-subject variation in number of CCs consumed and craving during that same day. We also examined gender and nicotine dependence as moderators of the EC-CC and EC-craving covariations. Korean American emerging adult (KAEA; 18-25 years old) smokers (N = 78) completed 7 days of EMA. Participants completed EMA surveys throughout the day, which assessed CC craving, and end-of-day surveys, which assessed EC use and the number of CCs smoked that day. Generalized linear mixed models were used to predict day-level EC use, with number of CCs smoked and craving during that same day, gender, and nicotine dependence as predictors (n = 501). We found that within-subject variation in CC use was not associated with same-day EC use; neither was within-subject variation in craving (ps > .27). Gender moderated the relationship between craving and EC use on a given day (p = .03); only for females, on the days with higher craving, the likelihood of their EC use that day was significantly heightened. This study does not suggest that EC use is linked with lower CC smoking quantity, at least at the day level and among KAEA smokers. CC craving may play a role in dual EC-CC use for KAEA female smokers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Disparities in emergency department visits in American children with asthma: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Lamichhane, Rajan; Diggs, Leigh Ann

    2017-09-01

    This article was to examine the trends in emergency department (ED) visits for asthma among American children in 2006-2010 across sociodemographic factors, parental smoking status, and children's body weight status. We analyzed 5,535 children aged 2-17 years with current asthma in the Asthma Call-Back Survey in 2006-2010. Multivariate log binomial regression was used to examine the disparities of ED visits by demographics, socioeconomic status, parental smoking status, children's body weight status, and the level of asthma control. We controlled for average state-level air pollutants. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Minority children with current asthma had higher risks of ED visits compared with white children in 2009 and 2010, e.g., the PR (95% CI) for black children in 2009 was 3.64 (1.79, 7.41). Children who had current asthma and more highly educated parents experienced a higher risk of ED visits in 2007 (PRs [95% CI] = 2.15 [1.02, 4.53] and 2.97 [1.29, 6.83] for children with some college or college-graduated parents), but not significant in other years. Children with uncontrolled asthma were significantly more likely to visit the ED in 2008 (PRs [95% CI] = 2.79 [1.44, 5.41] and 6.96 [3.55, 13.64] for not-well-controlled and very poorly controlled children with asthma). Minority children with current asthma or children with uncontrolled asthma were more likely to visit EDs for asthma treatment. However, the disparities in ED visits across sociodemographics, health status, or asthma control vary in scale and significance across time. More research is needed to explain these differences.

  7. An Anaylsis of Pretest and Post Test Scores of Head Start African American, Hispanic American and European American Students Engaged in an Intensive Emergent Literacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas L.; Minix, Quinella

    The Texas Education Agency awarded twenty competitive grants to Head Start programs in the state. The focus of the grants was on emergent literacy and pre-reading skills. Teachers, mentors, and administrators underwent intensive training. To investigate whether children emerged from the grant programs ready to enter school reading, an outside…

  8. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women’s Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G.; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of “disempowering parenting styles” that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescr...

  9. Poststroke Fatigue: Emerging Evidence and Approaches to Management: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Janice L; Becker, Kyra J; Kim, Jong S; Choi-Kwon, Smi; Saban, Karen L; McNair, Norma; Mead, Gillian E

    2017-07-01

    At least half of all stroke survivors experience fatigue; thus, it is a common cause of concern for patients, caregivers, and clinicians after stroke. This scientific statement provides an international perspective on the emerging evidence surrounding the incidence, prevalence, quality of life, and complex pathogenesis of poststroke fatigue. Evidence for pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for management are reviewed, as well as the effects of poststroke fatigue on both stroke survivors and caregivers. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Sexual Attraction, Sexual Identity, and Psychosocial Wellbeing in a National Sample of Young Women during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women's sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities…

  11. “An atheistic American is a contradiction in terms”: Religion, Civic Belonging and Collective Identity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Barb

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the status and perception of atheists in American history, from the colonial times to the beginning of the 21st century, this article explores the importance of religion in the structuring of Americans’ national and civic imaginaries. Starting from the assumption that atheists have always tended to be a distrusted minority in the United States, this essay seeks more precisely to explain how and why not to believe in God came to be regarded through the centuries not only as a moral and social deviance, but also as essentially “un-American” behavior. It further demonstrates that the historical “otherness” of the atheist tends to indicate that religion has functioned as one of the “moral boundaries” of a certain American “imagined community”, perceived as an essential warranty of both individual virtue and “good citizenship” and as a basic attribute of the American “self”.I. Introduction

  12. Restart of the Armenia-2 Nuclear Power Station: Radiological emergency preparedness considerations for the nearby American community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, G.J.; Sherwood, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Armenia Nuclear Power Station is located at Metsamor, approximately 30 km NW of the capital, Yerevan. The station, a two-unit, first-generation Soviet-designed VVER-440/270 pressurized water reactor plant was closed following the 1988 earthquake near Spitak. Because of a severe energy shortage the Government of Armenia has undertaken a program to recommission Unit 2. The plant design and circumstances surrounding its closure caused members of the U.S. Embassy staff and the American community in Armenia to express concerns for their safety in the event of a radiological emergency. In response, two representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy's International Nuclear Safety Program traveled to Armenia to review the Status of radiological emergency preparedness, meet with the American community, and make protective action recommendations. In this presentation we examine the major issues associated with recommissioning of Armenia-2, the challenges involved with developing a radiological emergency preparedness program for the American community, and our recommendations for protective actions in the absence of a strong communications and radiological monitoring infrastructure

  13. Development through Business: What Do American Business Students Know about Emerging Markets and Opportunities in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelli N.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how Africa is taught in business and examines African and American student perspectives on business in Africa. Conclusions find that African students, business students or not, had more knowledge about business and economic structures than American business students; however, learning about successful case studies on…

  14. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  15. Constructing Scandinavian-American Identity through a Chaos of Darkness: Maj Lindman's "Snipp, Snapp, Snurr and the Gingerbread"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Popular among young American readers since the early 1930s, Maj Lindman's two series of children's books--"Snipp, Snapp, Snurr and Flicka, Ricka, Dicka"--continue their long publishing histories in the U.S. These nostalgia-filled adventures about the Swedish triplet boys and girls construct positive values of childhood independence and…

  16. Definition, Identification, Identity, and Culture: A Unique Alchemy Impacting the Success of Gifted African American Millennial Males in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Fred A., II; Lewis, Chance W.; Bowman-Perrott, Lisa; Hill-Jackson, Valerie; James, Marlon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the underrepresentation of African American males in gifted and talented programs, and offers a number of key recommendations to practitioners and researchers who seek viable strategies to circumvent this problem. Beyond the focus on underrepresentation, several additional topics for discussion are excogitated to provide a…

  17. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  18. Activism, Identity and Service: The Influence of the Asian American Movement on the Educational Experiences of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Gasman, Marybeth

    2015-01-01

    This article emphasises two major themes that address the influence of the Asian American Movement: (1) encouraging students to broaden the discourse on race and ethnic relations by redefining categories and challenging prevalent assumptions; (2) an increased tolerance and frequency in course offerings that examine and centralise the histories,…

  19. Problematizing Diversity Initiatives: Japanese American Youth Identities and the Politics of Representation with/in School Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that investigated how six Japanese American youth interpreted the effectiveness and relevance of extra-curricular diversity initiatives at their Midwestern middle and secondary public schools. These initiatives were intended to raise cultural awareness, but ultimately promoted cultural fetishism and racially…

  20. American National Standard: for radiological emergency-preparedness exercises for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The development of emergency plans and procedures should provide for testing and evaluating the emergency response organization and decision making processes. To test and evaluate emergency plans and procedures, realistic scenarios should be used for drills or exercises. Emergency exercises are training activities that require a substantial effort to plan and coordinate effectively. The exercise trains personnel who would be expected to participate in the emergency response. Emergency exercises should be conducted as realistically as possible. Insofar as possible, the participants should not be notified in advance except where necessary to assure that the exercise will not cause injuries or property damage. A real emergency will naturally impart stress on emergency response personnel and their organizations. Exercises should be designed to duplicate this sense of stress insofar as practical. An important element of testing the emergency response is to ensure that provisions have been made for observation, evaluation, and critiquing each exercise. These evaluations and critiques should be used to improve and revise emergency plans and procedures where required

  1. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  2. Emerging from the Shadows: The Visual Arts and Asian American History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H Chang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970, the book from which this foreword is excerpted, is the first comprehensive study of the lives and artistic production of artists of Asian ancestry active in the United States before 1970. The publication features original essays by ten leading scholars, biographies of more than 150 artists, and over 400 reproductions of artwork, ephemera, and images of the artists. Aside from a few artists such as Dong Kingman, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Isamu Noguchi, and Yun Gee, artists of Asian ancestry have received inadequate historical attention, even though many of them received wide critical acclaim during their productive years. This pioneering work recovers the extraordinarily impressive artistic production of numerous Asian Americans, and offers richly informed interpretations of a long-neglected art history. To unravel the complexity of Asian American art expression and its vital place in American art, the texts consider aesthetics, the social structures of art production and criticism, and national and international historical contexts. Without a doubt, Asian American Art will profoundly influence our understanding of the history of art in America and the Asian American experience for years to come. Chang, Gordon H., Mark Johnson, and Paul Karlstrom, eds. Asian American Art: A History, 1850-1970. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2008. Reprinted with the permission of Stanford University Press. http://www.sup.org

  3. Considering the significance of ancestry through the prism of mixed-race identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Cathy J

    2002-12-01

    People of mixed ancestry promise to be a significant percentage of the population of the United States in the 21st century. This article describes a qualitative study of 20 older mixed-race adults of African-American-white and Asian-American-white ancestries and focuses on how the participants construct identity. Using grounded theory methodology, racial identity did not emerge as a singular, distinct entity in this study, and five dimensions of racial identity were observed. Significant differences in patterns of identity dimensions were noted for the two mixed groups. Implications for nursing practice are discussed.

  4. Identical, Fraternal, or Separated at Birth: A Case Study of Educator Teams within American-Israeli School Twinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, Fern; Mittelberg, David; Laron, Dinah; Koren, Annette

    2013-01-01

    School-to-school collaboration has emerged as a key paradigm for fostering personal and institutional connections between Israeli and Diaspora youth, educators, and schools. Using the findings of a multi-year case study of a high school level twinning initiative, this article describes the challenges to this form of transnational collaboration and…

  5. Neck injuries presenting to emergency departments in the United States from 1990 to 1999 for ice hockey, soccer, and American football

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, J; Al-Kashmiri, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the number and rate of neck injuries in the community as a whole for ice hockey, soccer, and American football by analysing data from patients presenting to emergency departments in the United States from 1990 to 1999.

  6. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  7. Emerging adolescent sexuality: a comparison of American and Dutch college women’s experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, M.; Caron, S.L.; Rademakers, J.

    2010-01-01

    The United States has the highest rates of teen pregnancy, births, and abortions of all industrialized countries. On the contrary, The Netherlands has the lowest rates. Using qualitative and quantitative methods, this retrospective study investigated American and Dutch college women’s sexual

  8. Claude McKay between United States and Soviet Union: African-American Identity and Socialist Utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Iuliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Claude McKay’s essays on politics and society, especially those dealing with the racial question in the 1920s US. It reviews these texts, alongside other works (poems and autobiographical writings that McKay produced on the same topics. The article aims at tracing a trajectory in McKay’s political thought: after criticizing the social and economic structures of capitalist and colonial societies, McKay envisages in post-revolutionary USSR a utopian society for oppressed people worldwide. However, his writings, rather than depicting the actual USSR society he knew in the early 1920s, evokes the multicultural myth of the ‘melting pot’ traditionally used to celebrate the US. McKay, maybe unwillingly, enthusiastically praises the myth of American exceptionalism, referring it to the USSR.

  9. Experiencing with Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2012-01-01

    This article studies how a political organization begins to experiment with its identity. By use of an empirical case of the Danish Ministry of Education, I examine how a political organization supplements its identity of a legislating power with identities of a supervisor, beacon and facilitator...... of evaluation in public schools. Out of a paralysis emerge new innovative strategies of governing, aimed at the schools’ self-governing capacity. The identity of the political system thus emerges as oscillations between different roles of a legislating power and a supervising coach. The case study suggests...... that a society of experimentalism is emerging. Thus, the relevant object of study is no longer organizational identity, but the experiments with different identities that modern organizations are performing....

  10. Addams, Day, and Dewey: The Emergence of Community Service in American Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Keith; Saltmarsh, John

    1997-01-01

    Chronicles the emergence of community service in the United States, beginning with the turn-of-the-century collision of capitalism and democracy which generated a crisis of community and profound rethinking of the meaning and practice of charity. Three service "paths" are identified: nonprofit human services organizations; active…

  11. Changing the Ties That Bind? The Emerging Roles and Identities of General Practitioners and Managers in the New Clinical Commissioning Groups in the English NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Segar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The English National Health Service (NHS is undergoing significant reorganization following the 2012 Health and Social Care Act. Key to these changes is the shift of responsibility for commissioning services from Primary Care Trusts (PCTs to general practitioners (GPs working together in Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs. This article is based on an empirical study that examined the development of emerging CCGs in eight case studies across England between September 2011 and June 2012. The findings are based on interviews with GPs and managers, observations of meetings, and reading of related documents. Scott’s notion that institutions are constituted by three pillars—the regulative, normative, and cognitive–cultural—is explored here. This approach helps to understand the changing roles and identities of doctors and managers implicated by the present reforms. This article notes the far reaching changes in the regulative pillar and questions how these changes will affect the normative and cultural–cognitive pillars.

  12. Mediating Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette; Ravasi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal field study on the effects of positive media coverage on the reconstruction of organizational identity. The study highlights how intense positive coverage – to the point of turning an organization into a ‘celebrity’– influences both the way members understand...... their organization (sensemaking effect) and the gratification they derive from its positive representation (self-enhancement effect). Our findings suggest that positive media representations foster members' alignment around an emergent new understanding of what their organization is. Over time, however, celebrity...

  13. Part 11: adult stroke: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Cucchiara, Brett; Adeoye, Opeolu; Meurer, William; Brice, Jane; Chan, Yvonne Yu-Feng; Gentile, Nina; Hazinski, Mary Fran

    2010-11-02

    Advances in stroke care will have the greatest effect on stroke outcome if care is delivered within a regional stroke system designed to improve both efficiency and effectiveness. The ultimate goal of stroke care is to minimize ongoing injury, emergently recanalize acute vascular occlusions, and begin secondary measures to maximize functional recovery. These efforts will provide stroke patients with the greatest opportunity for a return to previous quality of life and decrease the overall societal burden of stroke.

  14. Crisis of the social and emergence of sociality in the new scenarios of identity. The San Francisco district of Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cavia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The San Francisco district in Bilbao (Spain is undergoing a deep process of urban transformation in which there is a convergence of different dynamics —economic (property speculation, social (appearance of associations and social movements and political (rehabilitation plans. In order to explain this transformation, we test two hypotheses in the article: gentrification and the crisis of the social institutions (politics, religion and work that traditionally articulated society. To counterbalance the shortcomings of the two hypotheses we redefine them as mere “conditions of possibility” of the emergence of new forms of sociality, the depoliticisation of signifieds and the production of new spaces. San Francisco constitutes a variable cronotope that provokes a blurring in sociological configurations and in social norms and sanctions.

  15. ANS [American Nuclear Society] topical meeting on radiological accidents: Perspectives and emergency planning: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The increasing use of radioactive materials and the increasing public concern about possible accidents involving these materials has led to greater emphasis on preparing for such emergencies. The ANS Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning provided a review of experiences with radiological accidents. The meeting covered some of the most important aspects of radiological accidents. Papers were presented which dealt with radiological accident experience. Technical response to accidents is of primary interest to many in the nuclear community; most of the papers submitted fell into this area. So many of these papers dealt with the use of computers in response that a session on that topic was arranged. A very significant impact of most radiological accidents is the cost, especially the cost of cleanup. There were papers on what is known about costs and associated current topics, such as modification and extension of the Price-Anderson Act. At least as important as the technical response to accidents is how society attempts to deal with them. A session on institutional issues was included to discuss how governments and other organizations respond to and deal with accidents. Medical effects of accidents are of great concern to the public. Invited papers to review the effects of high doses of radiation as well as very low doses were included in that session. Although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, this fact often does not agree with the public perception of the industry. The final session explored the public response to and perception of radiological emergencies and accidents. This subject will ultimately determine the future use of radioactive materials in this country

  16. European surveillance for enterovirus D68 during the emerging North-American outbreak in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poelman, Randy; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Van Leer-Buter, Coretta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In August and September 2014, unexpected clusters of enterovirus-D68 (EV-D68) infections associated with severe respiratory disease emerged from North-America. In September, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) asked European countries to strengthen respiratory...... sample screening for enterovirus detection and typing in cases with severe respiratory presentations. OBJECTIVES: To provide a detailed picture of EV-D68 epidemiology in Europe by conducting a retrospective and prospective laboratory analysis of clinical specimens. STUDY DESIGN: An initiative supported...

  17. Transmission of Cultural Values among Mexican American Parents and their Adolescent and Emerging Adult Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of the U.S. and Mexican culture is an important process associated with Mexican-origin youths’ adjustment and family dynamics. The current study examined the reciprocal associations in parents’ and two offspring’s cultural values (i.e., familism and respect) in 246 Mexican-origin families. Overall, mothers’ values were associated with increases in youths’ values five years later. In contrast, youths’ familism values were associated with increases in fathers’ familism values five years later. In addition, developmental differences emerged where parent-to-offspring effects were more consistent for youth transitioning from early to late adolescence than for youth transitioning from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Finally, moderation by immigrant-status revealed a youth-to-parent effect for mother-youth immigrant dyads, but not for dyads where youth were U.S.-raised. Our findings highlight the reciprocal nature of parent-youth value socialization and provide a nuanced understanding of these processes through the consideration of familism and respect values. As Mexican-origin youth represent a large and rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, research that advances our understanding of how these youth develop values that foster family cohesion and support are crucial. PMID:25470657

  18. The Detroit Young Adult Asthma Project: Proposal for a Multicomponent Technology Intervention for African American Emerging Adults With Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Karen; Naar, Sylvie; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Wang, Bo; Brody, Aaron

    2018-05-07

    Racial and ethnic minority youth have poorer asthma status than white youth, even after controlling for socioeconomic variables. Proper use of asthma controller medications is critical in reducing asthma mortality and morbidity. The clinical consequences of poor asthma management include increased illness complications, excessive functional morbidity, and fatal asthma attacks. There are significant limitations in research on interventions to improve asthma management in racial minority populations, particularly minority adolescents and young adults, although illness management tends to deteriorate after adolescence during emerging adulthood, the unique developmental period beyond adolescence but before adulthood. The objective of the pilot study was to test the feasibility, acceptability, and signals of efficacy of an intervention targeting adherence to controller medication in African American youth (ages 18-29) with asthma. All elements of the protocol were piloted in a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-funded pilot study (1R34HL107664 MacDonell). Results suggested feasibility and acceptability of the protocol as well as proof of concept. We are now ready to test the intervention in a larger randomized clinical trial. The proposed study will include 192 African American emerging adults with moderate to severe persistent asthma and low controller medication adherence recruited from clinic, emergency department, and community settings. Half of the sample will be randomized to receive a multicomponent technology-based intervention targeting adherence to daily controller medication. The multicomponent technology-based intervention consists of 2 components: (1) 2 sessions of computer-delivered motivational interviewing targeting medication adherence and (2) individualized text messaging focused on medication adherence between the sessions. Text messages will be individualized based on ecological momentary assessment. The remaining participants will

  19. Corporate Brand Identity in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäläskä, Minna; Jones, Richard Ian

    Purpose: To study the emergence of corporate brand identity in SMEs and to develop a typology of brand identity drivers that reflects a co-creative approach to the emergence of brand identity. Design / Methodology / Approach : Existing approaches to brand identity are summarised. A narrative...... studies. The research is important since it suggests an iterative and co-creative approach to brand identity. A typology of brand identity formation for SMEs is presented: entrepreneur driven, market driven, stakeholder driven. Practical implications: The three paths to creating a strong brand identity...... challenge existing notions that brand identity is based solely on the values of the entrepreneur. This typology suggests that SMEs should be open to creating an identity that draws from their stakeholder eco-system. Originality / value: this research challenges the existing assumption that brand identity...

  20. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  1. American Dreaming: Critical Perspectives on a Media Training Program for Emerging Democracies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miglena Mantcheva Sternadori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, the International Media Training Center has brought dozens of Eastern European journalists to study in non-degree programs at U.S. universities. This study is a cultural critique of one such program. The analysis is based on in-depth interviews, participant observation, and articles from university newsletters. The trainees reveal that support from mentors is often insufficient, and some participants face significant hostility after returning to their native countries. The fast-paced media environments in those countries have not forgiven their yearlong absence: organizational power has been redistributed, connections have been weakened, and new colleagues have aggressively taken over one's old turf. The findings suggest that training a few journalists from disparate media outlets is unlikely to have much effect on media professionalism in emerging democracies, unless the trainees are guaranteed an opportunity to become trainers. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100376

  2. Mapping New York Irish-American Identities: Duality of Spirituality in Elizabeth Cullinan’s Short Story “Life After Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Stanca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Cullinan’s short story “Life After Death” depicts a day in the life of a young New Yorker, Constance, walking along Lexington Avenue, attending the evening Mass at a Dominican church and visiting the Catholic college where she worked part time to pick up her paycheck. Though the woman is involved with the married Francis Hughes and confronted with the burden of the past and of intricate family dynamics, her voice, which is “the Cullinan narrative voice has become that of one of those sceptical granddaughters grown into a reasonably assured and independent adulthood [...] balanced between then and now, the ethnic and the worldly, and better able to judge self and others because of the doubleness” (Fanning qtd. in Bayor and Meagher 528. Thus, the paper will discuss the manner in which Elizabeth Cullinan maps, in her story, the oscillation of Irish Americans between the ethnic drive and a cosmopolitan individuality gained in New York, with a focus on the value of the duality of consciousness and spirituality, which facilitates enriching and clarifying answers to identity dilemmas.

  3. Stressful life events, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and participation in cultural activities: Associations with smoking behaviors among American Indian adolescents in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-11-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. California AI youth (N = 969, ages 13-19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Utilizing community-based participatory research to adapt a mental health intervention for African American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mance, Gishawn A; Mendelson, Tamar; Byrd, Benjamin; Jones, Jahon; Tandon, Darius

    2010-01-01

    Adapting mental health interventions to heighten their cultural and contextual appropriateness may be critical for engaging ethnic/racial groups that have been traditionally excluded or marginalized. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative research approach that highlights unique strengths and expertise of those involved. Although intervention adaptations have garnered much attention there is little previous work specifically describing the adaptation process of mental health interventions using CBPR. This article summarizes the use of a CBPR approach to adapt a mental health intervention for urban adolescents and young adults disconnected from school and work, a population at elevated risk for poor mental health owing to the presence of numerous chronic stressors. We describe the process undertaken to modify the content and delivery format of an evidence-based intervention. Unique challenges of working with urban African American adolescents and young adults in a job training program are highlighted. By incorporating principles of co-learning and shared responsibility, this partnership was able to achieve positive outcomes. Our experience suggests that a CBPR approach can be used effectively to adapt a mental health intervention in collaboration with African American adolescents and emerging adults in a job training program.

  5. Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C

    2014-06-01

    In cases of possible cervical spine injury, medical professionals must be prepared to achieve rapid airway access while concurrently restricting cervical spine motion. Face mask removal (FMR), rather than helmet removal (HR), is recommended to achieve this. However, no studies have been reported that compare FMR directly with HR. The purpose of this study was to compare motion, time, and perceived difficulty in two commonly used American football helmets between FMR and HR techniques, and when helmet air bladders were deflated before HR compared with inflated scenarios. The study incorporated a repeated measures design and was performed in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants included 22 certified athletic trainers (15 men and seven women; mean age, 33.9±10.5 years; mean experience, 11.4±10.0 years; mean height, 172±9.4 cm; mean mass, 76.7±14.9 kg). All participants were free from upper extremity or central nervous system pathology for 6 months and provided informed consent. Dependent variables included head excursion in degrees (computed by subtracting the minimum position from the maximum position) in each of the three planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse), time to complete the required task, and ratings of perceived exertion. To address our study purposes, we used two-by-two repeated-measures analysis of variance (removal technique×helmet type, helmet type×deflation status) for each dependent variable. Independent variables consisted of removal technique (FMR and HR), helmet type (Riddell Revolution IQ [RIQ] and VSR4), and helmet deflation status (deflated [D], inflated, [I]). After familiarization, participants conducted two successful trials for each of six conditions in random order (RIQ-FMR, VSR4-FMR, RIQ-HR-D, VSR4-HR-D, RIQ-HR-I, and VSR4-HR-I). Face masks, helmets, and shoulder pads were removed from a live model wearing a properly fitted helmet and shoulder pads. The participant and an investigator stabilized the model's head. A six

  6. Emergent properties of climate-vegetation feedbacks in the North American Monsoon Macrosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, A.; Niu, G.; Zeng, X.

    2012-12-01

    The ability of ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change and associated disturbances (e.g. wildfires, spread of invasive species) is greatly affected by the stability of feedback interactions between climate and vegetation. In order to study climate-vegetation interactions, such as CO2 and H2O exchange in the North American Monsoon System (NAMS), we plan to couple a community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) used in regional climate models (WRF) with an individual based, spatially explicit vegetation model (ECOTONE). Individual based modeling makes it possible to link individual plant traits with properties of plant communities. Community properties, such as species composition and species distribution arise from dynamic interactions of individual plants with each other, and with their environment. Plants interact with each other through intra- and interspecific competition for resources (H2O, nitrogen), and the outcome of these interactions depends on the properties of the plant community and the environment itself. In turn, the environment is affected by the resulting change in community structure, which may have an impact on the drivers of climate change. First, we performed sensitivity tests of ECOTONE to assess its ability to reproduce vegetation distribution in the NAMS. We compared the land surface model and ECOTONE with regard to their capability to accurately simulate soil moisture, CO2 flux and above ground biomass. For evaluating the models we used the eddy-correlation sensible and latent heat fluxes, CO2 flux and observations of other climate and environmental variables (e.g. soil temperature and moisture) from the Santa Rita experimental range. The model intercomparison helped us understand the advantages and disadvantages of each model, providing us guidance for coupling the community land surface model (NoahMP or CLM) with ECOTONE.

  7. Identity theft and your practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a growing problem in America. The federal government has passed laws to help "prevent" identity theft. However, several powerful medical associations are fighting the legislation. Americans need to know what is happening with these laws and why these laws are important to protect providers from lawsuits and consumers of healthcare from medical identity theft.

  8. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  9. Diplomatic strategies around FOCALAE: emerging platform for Latin American policy of China Popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ren-rang Chyou

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The People's Republic of China has always followed a policy of no alignment, even with its neighbors of the Southeast Asian region. But since every rule has an exception, the People's Republic of China changed its position in 1990, by joining the core of the Asian Region, in an action interpreted as remuneration for the support received in favor of its legal status, and for the political support to the principle of the "One China" In time, the financial Asian crisis has created a bi-polar development, with the Southern countries still under the influence of the financial sequels of the crisis, and the Northern ones, as the People's Republic of China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong attaining evident economic achievements. With the financial crisis, Beijing was invited to participate in the Asian Forum of BOAO, under the political clout of the "ASEAN+3" group. The People's Republic of China also actively cooperates in the Forum for East Asia-Latin America Cooperation (FEALAC, in order to project a "southern political sphere", able to act as a fence around the Capitalist World Axis, under the leadership of USA. The People's Republic of China, after gaining the desired success in the BOAO by projecting the image of "a China in peaceful emergence", has been able to come out as the leader of the Southeast Asian region, and also has managed to focus the international attention in the FEALAC. Nowadays, everybody tries to understand the real intentions of China in this forum. Does China look at it as a mere negotiation forum for South to South relations or it wants to turn it into a replica of the BOAO, to use it as a tool to influence Latin America?

  10. Emerging ecological datasets with application for modeling North American dust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, S.; Stauffer, N. G.; Garman, S.; Webb, N.

    2017-12-01

    In 2011 the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) established the Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) program to monitor the condition of BLM land and to provide data to support evidence-based management of multi-use public lands. The monitoring program shares core data collection methods with the Natural Resources Conservation Service's (NRCS) National Resources Inventory (NRI), implemented on private lands nationally. Combined, the two programs have sampled >30,000 locations since 2003 to provide vegetation composition, vegetation canopy height, the size distribution of inter-canopy gaps, soil texture and crusting information on rangelands and pasture lands across North America. The BLM implements AIM on more than 247.3 million acres of land across the western US, encompassing major dust source regions of the Chihuahuan, Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin deserts, the Colorado Plateau, and potential high-latitude dust sources in Alaska. The AIM data are publicly available and can be used to support modeling of land surface and boundary-layer processes, including dust emission. While understanding US dust source regions and emission processes has been of national interest since the 1930s Dust Bowl, most attention has been directed to the croplands of the Great Plains and emission hot spots like Owens Lake, California. The magnitude, spatial extent and temporal dynamics of dust emissions from western dust source areas remain highly uncertain. Here, we use ensemble modeling with empirical and physically-based dust emission schemes applied to AIM monitoring data to assess regional-scale patterns of aeolian sediment mass fluxes and dust emissions. The analysis enables connections to be made between dust emission rates at source and other indicators of ecosystem function at the landscape scale. Emerging ecological datasets like AIM provide new opportunities to evaluate aeolian sediment transport responses to land surface conditions, potential interactions with

  11. El discurso literario caribeño, baluarte identitario de la cultura latinoamericana The Caribbean literary discourse, identity bholds of Latin American culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Goenaga Conde

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La literatura caribeña, por filiación histórico - cultural, pertenece a y es fiel exponente de la cultura latinoamericana. Su literariedad se ha construido sobre la base de un discurso identitario de defensa de su cultura única y, a la vez plural, que la distingue de los referentes occidentales preestablecidos por los centros de poder socioeconómico. El siguiente trabajo muestra los momentos y fases fundamentales de la evolución y desarrollo de la expresión identitaria caribeña a través de una selección cuidadosa de ejemplos de su discurso literario, con vistas a promover una cabal comprensión de los valores extra literarios de esta literatura. Puesto que este discurso literario se alza sobre un supuesto ideoestético de profunda raigambre ontológica, aproximarse a él presupone penetrar en la esencia de la historia y del patrimonio cultural de esta área. Por ello, dado el valor de este tema, se recomienda su estudio por la importancia que tiene para la formación sociocultural de los docentes cubanos, especialmente aquellos que laboran en entornos multiculturales.Due to historical and cultural filiations, the Caribbean literature is part and a true example of the Latin American culture. Its literary particularities are based on an identity discourse, which defends a unique and, at the same time, plural culture that distinguishes it from western referents pre-established by socioeconomic power centers. This paper presents the fundamental evolution and development phases of the Caribbean identity expression. Some examples of this literary discourse were carefully selected to further an accurate understanding of its extra literary values. Since this literary discourse is based on an aesthetic ideal of deeply ontological roots, an approach to it means penetrating the essence of the region’s history and cultural patrimony. The study of the topic is important to form Cuban professors socioculturally, particularly those who work in

  12. El SIDA en la literatura latinoamericana: prácticas discursivas e imaginarios identitarios AIDS in Latin-American Literature: Discursive Practices and Imaginaries of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kottow

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo propone una revisión del imaginario del SIDA -entendiendo la enfermedad como una práctica discursiva-en tres obras literarias latinoamericanas: Salón de belleza de Mario Bellatín, Loco afán, de Pedro Lemebel y El desbarrancadero, de Fernando Vallejo, con el fin de rastrear las implicancias de trabajar discursivamente con el tópico de una enfermedad de alta sensibilidad social. El poner en circulación el imaginario del SIDA implica impulsar una reflexión acerca de límites, normatividades y poderes, vinculando estas problemáticas con la sexualidad y el deseo. En el espacio de las obras literarias confluyen diversas y complejas líneas discursivas, haciendo del SIDA una plataforma móvil que permite el desplazamiento entre el pensamiento teórico, autobiográfico y estético, funcionando la enfermedad como sustento de un proyecto estético e identitario subversivo.The present article proposes a revisión of AIDS imaginary -understanding the disease as a discursive practice- in three Latin-American works of literature: Salón de belleza, by Mario Bellatín, Loco afán, by Pedro Lemebel, and Fernando Vallejo's El desbarrancadero, looking into the implications of working discursively with the topic of a disease of high social sensibility. Bringing the imaginary of aids to the public sphere leads to a reflection about boundaries, norms and power, linking these issues with sexuality and desire. Diverse and complex lines of discourses converge in the place created by literary works, turning AIDS into a mobile platform that allows for a transfer between theoretical, autobiographical and aesthetic thinking, stating the disease as a foundation of an aesthetic and subversive identity project.

  13. The role of coparents in African American single-mother families: the indirect effect of coparent identity on youth psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K

    2013-04-01

    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in child rearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this nonmarital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it relates to coparenting quality, maternal parenting, and youth psychosocial outcomes (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). This question, which is critical to the advancement of family focused programming for youth in these families, is addressed in this study. The participants examined in the current study were 159 African American single-mother child dyads. Adolescents' maternal grandmothers constituted the largest proportion of coparents in the sample (37.2%), followed by the mothers' female family friends (22.5%), adolescents' maternal aunts (12.7%), and adolescents' fathers/social fathers (11%). Differences emerged among groups of coparents in support and conflict with the mother. Specifically, grandmothers, aunts, and female family friends provided significantly more instrumental support than fathers. Furthermore, grandmothers and fathers had more conflict with the mother, both generally and specifically in front of the child, than aunts or female family friends. In turn, these differences were associated directly and indirectly through maternal parenting with internalizing and externalizing problems. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Development of a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Dzubur, Eldin; Blackman, Kacie C A; Mays, Vickie; Shoptaw, Steven; Huh, Jimi

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor that contributes to unnecessary lung cancer burden among Korean Americans and there is limited research on effective smoking cessation strategies for this population. Smartphone-based smoking cessation apps that leverage just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) hold promise for smokers attempting to quit. However, little is known about how to develop and tailor a smoking cessation JITAI for Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers. This paper documents the development process of MyQuit USC according to design guidelines for JITAI. Our development process builds on findings from a prior ecological momentary assessment study by using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to inform which intervention options to offer and the decision rules that dictate their delivery. Qualitative findings highlighted that (1) smoking episodes are highly context-driven and that (2) KAEA smokers believe they need personalized cessation strategies tailored to different contexts. Thus, MyQuit USC operates via decision rules that guide the delivery of personalized implementation intentions, which are contingent on dynamic factors, to be delivered "just in time" at user-scheduled, high-risk smoking situations. Through an iterative design process, informed by quantitative and qualitative formative research, we developed a smoking cessation JITAI tailored specifically for KAEA smokers. Further testing is under way to optimize future versions of the app with the most effective intervention strategies and decision rules. MyQuit USC has the potential to provide cessation support in real-world settings, when KAEAs need them the most.

  15. Emerging Identities - East! / Siiri Vallner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vallner, Siiri, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Ida-Euroopa noore arhitektuuri näitus Saksa Arhitektuurikeskuses Berliinis 24. 11. 2005-20. 02. 2006. Näitus esitles ligi 70 arhitektuuribüroo arhitektide töid kaheksalt maalt ja Berliinist. Kuraator Kristien Ring. Avamisega kaasnes konverents, ilmus kataloog. 15. II Baltikumi päev "Networks - young archirects in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania". Sloveenia, Ungari ja Berliini väljapanekust

  16. Emerging Identities - EAST! / Triin Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Triin, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    21. 11. 2007-17. 02. 2008 on Soome Arhitektuurimuuseumis avatud näitus Ida-Euroopa (Berliin, Bratislava, Budapest, Ljubljana, Praha, Riia, Tallinn, Vilnius, Varssavi) noorest arhitektuurist. Näituse esmaesitlus koos kataloogiga (Eesti eessõna Siiri Vallnerilt ja Indrek Peililt) oli 2005. a. Berliinis. Näituse koostaja Kristien Ring

  17. Selecting Communication Channels for Substance Misuse Prevention with At-Risk African-American Emerging Adults Living in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural health information sources used by African-American emerging adults were investigated to identify sources associated with high and low substance-related risk. Participants (110 males, 234 females; M age = 18.9 years) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, and structured interviews assessed substance use, sources of health…

  18. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  19. The Dissolution of the Mexican-American Border and Redefinition of Chicano/a /Mexican Identity in Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David

    2006-01-01

    In Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead, notions of Mexican identity are deconstructed. This article analyzes how Silko, through a variety of characters and sub-plotlines, brings to the surface hidden tensions in the contsruction of Mexican identity through the melding of the sangre limpia...

  20. U.S. Racial Ideology and Immigrant/Refugee Policy: Effects on Asian-American Identity, Community Formation and Refugee Education Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Mary T.

    Two papers explore racial ideology and policy toward immigrants and refugees in the United States. The first paper, "Race Theory Paradigms and Immigrant/Refugee Identity and Incorporation," asserts that the United States is a race-based society in which newcomers to the country have a racial identity imposed upon them. A review of the…

  1. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  2. Watch out, here I grow! : A dynamic systems perspective on the contribution of daily conflicts and emotions to the emergence of identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtwark-Aschoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    This project deals with the underlying processes and mechanisms of identity and autonomy development in adolescent girls. The basic question of the project is: how do day-to-day experiences, such as conflicts, shape and form the process of identity development? How do emotions, thoughts and

  3. Dynamics of Identity Development and Separation-Individuation in Parent-Child Relationships during Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood--A Conceptual Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sabrina; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Identity development and separation-individuation in parent-child relationships are widely perceived as related tasks of psychosocial maturation. However, a dynamic, developmental perspective that explains how intra-personal change in identity evolves from transactions between parents and children is not sufficiently represented in the literature.…

  4. A Peculiar Sensation: Double Consciousness and the Lived Experiences of African American Art Historians at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaidan, Christina Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Double consciousness is the identity conflict of being Black and being an American (Du Bois, 1903). Double consciousness leads to "identity confusion and inherent contradictions in the collective psyche of people of African descent" (Benjamin, 2005, p. 21.). This study employed grounded theory to collect and analyze the data that emerged from the…

  5. Complicating the "Soccer Mom:" The Cultural Politics of Forming Class-Based Identity, Distinction, and Necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Using Pierre Bourdieu's theories of social class differentiation and class reproduction, this paper provides an analysis of class-based identity politics in contemporary suburban America. Through a critical ethnography of the emergent, American, upper-middle-class "soccer mom" phenomenon, this study contributes to a growing body of…

  6. Leadership identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Questioning the assumption that identities can be controlled through a shared organisational culture, the article explores the inculcation of a discourse of diversity into leadership identities in a Danish bank and building society. Thus, it intends to demonstrate that, on the one hand, discourse...... plays a significant role in identity construction and, on the other, that leaders’ constructions may have many sources of inspiration within and outside the organisation, emphasising that identity construction is a complex process in which organisational efforts to promote a common leadership identity...... to construct their leadership identities. While the respondents present comparable identities to the interviewer, the analysis reveals that the they draw on different discourses and employ a number of different discursive means to present this identity. This, the article argues, may be the result of a number...

  7. Parametric Ward-Takahashi identity in disordered systems and the integral identity associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, N.

    1997-01-01

    By utilizing the symmetric property known as the Ward-Takahashi identity in disordered systems, we explore the novel symmetry relations which hold in one-dimensional systems with inverse square interaction (the Calogero-Sutherland model). The identities emerge totally from the algebraic structure of the model. They show that the dynamical correlators are connected with one another, involving the higher-order integrals of motion. We obtain the result for the coupling strengths λ=1/2, 1, and 2, and conjecture that a similar relation may hold for arbitrary rational λ. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  9. Ternutator identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Fairlie, David; Nuyts, Jean; Weingart, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The ternary commutator or ternutator, defined as the alternating sum of the product of three operators, has recently drawn much attention as an interesting structure generalizing the commutator. The ternutator satisfies cubic identities analogous to the quadratic Jacobi identity for the commutator. We present various forms of these identities and discuss the possibility of using them to define ternary algebras.

  10. The Role of Shame as a Mediator between Anti-Black Racial Identity Attitudes and Negative Affect in a Sample of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 168 African American undergraduates was surveyed to clarify past findings demonstrating a consistent relationship between endorsing negative attitudes about being African American and experiencing negative affect. Specifically, shame was tested as a mediator between participants' endorsement of preencounter attitudes (i.e., anti-Black…

  11. The Politics of Identity: Re-Examining the Appetite for Affirmative Action Policies in Higher Education among African-Americans in a Post-Racial Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tarsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Broad inferences have been made that the election of a Black American President indicates that America now functions in a post-racist society. This optimism has fueled a major discussion for changes in American policies which directly affect minorities; in particular, those related to affirmative action in higher education are under attack. Due to…

  12. An Exploration of Identity and Career Development of African American Women in Higher Education Leadership: Does Hair Style Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Yasmine Osir

    2016-01-01

    African American women, a group that endures the intersectionality of being both a woman and an African American, have many obstacles in their path as they advance in their career. Despite the strides that have been made in America to improve things for women and people of color, the interwoven societal standards of beauty do not include African…

  13. Living the Past in the Present: An Ethnographic Study of Norwegian Americans’ Expression of Identity in Minneapolis

    OpenAIRE

    Bakken, Hege

    2016-01-01

    The study of American identity has generally been concerned with the concept of hyphenated identity, a dual identity of sorts. The Norwegian-American identity is a clear example of a hyphenated identity. This thesis will offer some perspectives on the American identity construction in general and the Norwegian-American in particular. A focal point is how the Norwegian-American identity is maintained in contemporary USA. This thesis is based on five and a half months ethnographic fieldwork con...

  14. The use of material culture to establish the ethnic identity of victims in genocide investigations: a validation study from the American Southwest*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Debra A; Lathrop, Sarah

    2008-09-01

    Successful prosecution of genocide requires that the victims constitute one of four protected groups: national, religious, ethnic, or racial. Establishing victim identity in prior trials has relied on positive identification of decedents, been largely presumptive, or was based on untested methodology. This report details a validation study of one untested method: the use of material culture in establishing ethnic identity. Classes of clothing and personal effects were scored on 3,430 individuals of known Hispanic or White ancestry from autopsy records in New Mexico. Significant differences were seen in evidence of language, nationality, and religious affiliation between the two groups, as well as clothing types and currency. Predictive models used to estimate ethnic identity in random, blind subsets produced an overall accuracy of 81.5% and estimates of 61-98% in specific subsets. Results suggest material culture, when present, can provide reliable evidence of ethnic affinity in genocide investigations.

  15. Ward identities at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOlivo, J.C.; Torres, M.; Tututi, E.

    1996-01-01

    The Ward identities for QED at finite temperature are derived using the functional real-time formalism. They are verified by an explicit one-loop calculation. An effective causal vertex is constructed which satisfy the Ward identity with the associated retarded self-energy. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Over-the-counter access to emergency contraception without age restriction: an opinion of the Women's Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Sally; McIntosh, Jennifer; Gardner, Debra K; Gawronski, Kristen M; Karaoui, Lamis R; Koepf, Erin R; Lehman, Katherine Joy; McBane, Sarah; Patel-Shori, Nima M

    2013-05-01

    Family planning remains a high priority area for the United States, with goals to increase the proportion of pregnancies that are intended, reduce pregnancy rates among adolescents, and increase contraceptive use prioritized in the Healthy People 2020 objectives. Contraception intended for use after unprotected intercourse, known as emergency contraception, remains underutilized. Levonorgestrel is one method of oral emergency contraception, which prevents fertilization and does not disrupt an already established pregnancy; thus, timing of administration is critical. Despite data demonstrating safety and efficacy, evidence-based decision making has been overshadowed by politically charged actions involving levonorgestrel emergency contraception for over a decade. The Women's Health Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy supports expanded access to levonorgestrel emergency contraception and removal of barriers such as age restrictions on the nonprescription drug product. Pharmacists remain a key provider of emergency contraceptive services and can help ensure timely access. In states where direct pharmacy access to emergency contraception is available, pharmacists are encouraged to participate. Education, research, and advocacy are other important responsibilities for pharmacists in this arena. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  18. The identity of three South American “smiliine” treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and related taxonomic changes, including description of a new genus in Thuridini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on examination of holotype or interpretation of original descriptions, four taxonomic changes are proposed for South American species erroneously placed in the tribe Smiliini: Flynnia, n. gen. (Thuridini) and F. fascipennis (Funkhouser), n. comb. from Bolivia; Antianthe atromarginata (Goding),...

  19. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  20. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    The study aims at exploring how identity is enacted within the context of a two-year programme in Service, Hospitality, and Tourism Management (SHTM). This research thus investigates how students and educators go about their daily lives in different educational contexts both on and off campus...... as a contribution to the body of literature of ANT-based studies. Second, it contributes to existing identity theories by exemplifying a socio-material approach to identity issues. Third, the study enables reflections upon how educational institutions as fundamentally identity-producing organisations acknowledge...

  1. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  2. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes' Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.

  3. The Adapted Italian Version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale to Evaluate the Student-Athletes’ Identity in Relation to Gender, Age, Type of Sport, and Competition Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale’s internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes’ identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects. PMID:28056046

  4. Researcher Identities in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Wisker, Gina; Kobayashi, Sofie

    as other emergent ‘signals’, the latent or clear indications from institutions and academic communities regarding career directions and necessary professional skills and attitudes should be identified and interpreted for researchers to adequately develop their new identities. The aim of this paper......Researchers are now embarked upon what we define as a ‘risk career’, rather than, as previously, a relatively more predictable academic career. In this changing context, traditional milestones that enabled early career researchers to build their identities are disappearing. Instead, what we define...... is twofold: a) to present a comprehensive framework of the notion of researcher identity by means of analysing those spheres of activity related to researcher and career development; and b) to relate researcher identities to the experiences of early career researchers with issues concerning signals...

  5. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  6. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  7. Ritual Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Rituals are often used as opportunities for self-reflection and identity construction. The Camino to Santiago de Compostela, which has become a singularly popular pilgrimage since the late 1980s, is an example of a ritual that is explicitly used to gain a deeper understanding of one’s identity

  8. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  9. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...

  10. The Adults in the Making program: long-term protective stabilizing effects on alcohol use and substance use problems for rural African American emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Smith, Karen

    2012-02-01

    This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. African American youths (M age, pretest = 17.7 years) were assigned randomly to the AIM (n = 174) or control (n = 173) group. Past 3-month alcohol use, past 6-month substance use problems, risk taking, and susceptibility cognitions were assessed at pretest and at 6.4, 16.6, and 27.5 months after pretest. Pretest assessments of parent-child conflict, affiliations with substance-using companions, and perceived racial discrimination were used to construct a contextual risk factor index. A protective stabilizing hypothesis was supported; the long-term efficacy of AIM in preventing escalation of alcohol use and substance use problems was greater for youths with higher pretest contextual risk scores. Consistent with a mediation-moderation hypothesis, AIM-induced reductions over time in risk taking and susceptibility cognitions were responsible for the AIM × contextual risk prevention effects on alcohol use and substance use problems. Training in developmentally appropriate protective parenting processes and self-regulatory skills during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood for rural African Americans may contribute to a self-sustaining decreased interest in alcohol use and a lower likelihood of developing substance use problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Fashioning Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    We dress to communicate who we are, or who we would like others to think we are, telling seductive fashion narratives through our adornment. Yet, today, fashion has been democratized through high-low collaborations, social media and real-time fashion mediation, complicating the basic dynamic...... of identity displays, and creating tension between personal statements and social performances. Fashioning Identity explores how this tension is performed through fashion production and consumption,by examining a diverse series of case studies - from ninety-year old fashion icons to the paradoxical rebellion...... by readdressing Fred Davis' seminal concept of 'identity ambivalence' in Fashion, Culture and Identity (1992), Mackinney-Valentin argues that we are in an epoch of 'status ambivalence', in which fashioning one's own identity has become increasingly complicated....

  12. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED, usually termed “medical clearance,” often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP, consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. Methods: The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Results: Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term “medical clearance,” and the need for better science in this area. Conclusion: The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  13. American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Task Force on Medical Clearance of Adult Psychiatric Patients. Part II: Controversies over Medical Assessment, and Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P; Nordstrom, Kimberly; Anderson, Eric L; Ng, Anthony T; Zun, Leslie S; Peltzer-Jones, Jennifer M; Allen, Michael H

    2017-06-01

    The emergency medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to United States emergency departments (ED), usually termed "medical clearance," often varies between EDs. A task force of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry (AAEP), consisting of physicians from emergency medicine, physicians from psychiatry and a psychologist, was convened to form consensus recommendations for the medical evaluation of psychiatric patients presenting to U.S.EDs. The task force reviewed existing literature on the topic of medical evaluation of psychiatric patients in the ED and then combined this with expert consensus. Consensus was achieved by group discussion as well as iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the AAEP Board of Directors. Eight recommendations were formulated. These recommendations cover various topics in emergency medical examination of psychiatric patients, including goals of medical screening in the ED, the identification of patients at low risk for co-existing medical disease, key elements in the ED evaluation of psychiatric patients including those with cognitive disorders, specific language replacing the term "medical clearance," and the need for better science in this area. The evidence indicates that a thorough history and physical examination, including vital signs and mental status examination, are the minimum necessary elements in the evaluation of psychiatric patients. With respect to laboratory testing, the picture is less clear and much more controversial.

  14. Feminist identity among women and men from four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robnett, Rachael D; Anderson, Kristin J

    2017-01-01

    Multiracial feminist theory proposes that the meaning of feminism and the pathways to feminist identity may differ on the basis of cross-cutting social categories such as ethnicity and gender. However, there is currently little research that has included systematic examination of feminist identity among women and men from diverse ethnic backgrounds. We examined feminist orientations among 1,140 undergraduates (70% women) at a Hispanic-Serving Institution who identified as African American, Asian American, European American, or Latina/o. Three related research aims were assessed through a combination of closed- and open-ended questions. First, we examined whether the meaning of the term feminism differed depending on participants' ethnicity or gender. We then tested for ethnic and gender variation in rates of feminist identity. Lastly, we examined participants' reasons for either identifying or not identifying as feminists. Ethnic and gender differences were obtained across each of the 3 research aims. For example, there were significant ethnic differences in rates of feminist identity among women, but not among men. Relative to past research, through the current study, we have provided an especially comprehensive examination of how ethnicity and gender interact to shape feminist attitudes. Consistent with multiracial feminist theory, findings demonstrated that attitudes about feminism vary as a function of both gender and ethnicity, yet key ethnic and gender similarities also emerged. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Letter from Brian Croft and Andrew Johnson, Tetra Tech EM, Inc., to Steve Spurlin, USEPA. Subject: Emergency Response Report, American Drum and Pallet Site, TN. EPA Contract Ep-W-05-054, TDD No. TTEMI-05-001-0040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains April l4, 2008 letter submitting the emergency response report for the American Drum and Pallet Site in Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee. This report summarizes field activities conducted at the site from June 11, 2007 through January 18, 2008.

  16. Psychiatric Evaluation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychiatric Evaluation Workgroup

    OpenAIRE

    Stowell, Keith R; Florence, Peter; Harman, Herbert J; Glick, Rachel L

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency setting. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a 2-step process. First, a brief evaluati...

  17. Human rights and literature: an emerging meeting space between law and literature in the North American tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jimena Sáenz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the particular characteristics of the interdisciplinary law and literature movement, which sets it apart from the large number of law and literature movements that proliferated during the sixties and seventies in the American academy that saw it born, is the migration of concern in examining the intersections and limitations between the two, from a legal starting point to the field of literary studies called Literature and Human Rights. This paper proposes to examine such migration in the context of the North American tradition, and to analyze the the forms that it assumes and its critical potentialities.

  18. The relation of protective factors to deliberate self-harm among African-American adults: moderating roles of gender and sexual orientation identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lindsey T; Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Few studies have examined correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among African-Americans. Moreover, most research on the correlates of DSH in general has focused on risk factors rather than protective factors. This study examined differences in perceived social support, religiosity (both spirituality and church attendance) and overall life satisfaction between African-Americans with and without a history of DSH, as well as the moderating roles of gender and sexual orientation in these relations. Participants were 244 African-American university students who completed questionnaires. Participants with (vs. without) DSH reported significantly lower levels of social support. Additionally, rates of DSH were significantly higher among participants who attended church irregularly versus regularly or rarely/never. However, the association between DSH and church attendance was significant only for women (vs. men) and LGBQ (vs. heterosexual) women. Further, gender moderated the relation between DSH and social support from both significant others and friends, with self-harming women (but not men) reporting less support than their non-DSH counterparts. Findings add to the literature on DSH among African-Americans, highlighting both social support and church attendance (depending on regularity) as potential protective factors within this population.

  19. Examining the Relationship between Career Decision Self-Efficacy, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Self-Concept and Achievement of African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Patrice Sheri Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of African American adolescents' career development has gained increasing attention in light of literature describing various barriers impacting their educational and career development and goals. Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) was used as a theoretical framework to help shed light on the contextual factors that influence…

  20. "Words of Wisdom": An Expectancy-Value Examination of Relationships among Hip-Hop Racial Socialization and Racial Identity of African-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff-Bailey, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    The influence of hip hop culture and music on African-American youth is profound and can be used as a tool to shape positive outcomes in education. Hip hop has been used effectively in the classroom to engage students and enhance their critical thinking (Gangloff-Bailey & Freeman, 2014). In addition, hip hop has been described as a socializer…

  1. Identity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with its implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user’s privacy when completed traceability is enforced and some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  2. Identity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, A [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN.

  3. Identity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  4. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  5. Teacher educators: their identities, sub-identities and implications for professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, J.M.H.; Jones, K.; Volman, M.L.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we address the question: 'What sub-identities of teacher educators emerge from the research literature about teacher educators and what are the implications of the sub-identities for the professional development of teacher educators?' Like other professional identities, the identity

  6. Between Native American and Continental Philosophy: A Comparative Approach to Narrative and the Emergence of Responsible Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy

    2012-01-01

    This essay explores some of the affinities between current theories of North American Indigenous trickster narratives and continental philosophy where they are both concerned with the question of responsibility in subject formations. Taking up the work of Judith Butler, Franz Kafka and Gerald Vizenor, the author works to show how both continental…

  7. The Internet as an emerging patient education tool among African American men with prostate cancer: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Sherrie Flynt

    2008-06-01

    The lives of African American men with prostate cancer are greatly influenced by the information available to them, some of which is accessed on the Internet. Research indicates that the Internet can enhance consumer health knowledge but has not reached socioeconomic groups at highest risk for health disparities, such as African American men with prostate cancer. In this study, focus groups were used to explore the perceptions and uses of the Internet as a patient education tool among 39 African American men aged 39 years and older with diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Nineteen (49%) participants reported using the Internet, 15 (38%) reported no use but indicated it was used on their behalf, and 5 (13%) reported no use and no use on their behalf. The findings revealed varying degrees of Internet use for information and social support. Prostate cancer diagnosis, poor patient-doctor communications, and accessibility influenced Internet use. Accessibility related more to lack of ease and familiarity with Internet use than lack of computer access. With training and awareness, the Internet has potential as a patient education tool among African American men with prostate cancer.

  8. Stressors in Multiple Life-Domains and the Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors among African Americans during Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martanez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral and mental health outcomes have been associated with experiencing high levels of stress. Yet, little is known about the link between the nature of stressors, their accumulation over time, and the risk for externalizing and internalizing outcomes. Compared to the general population, African Americans are exposed to a disproportionate…

  9. The 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care: an overview of the changes to pediatric basic and advanced life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Chacko, Jisha; Sallee, Donna

    2011-06-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) has a strong commitment to implementing scientific research-based interventions for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. This article presents the 2010 AHA major guideline changes to pediatric basic life support (BLS) and pediatric advanced life support (PALS) and the rationale for the changes. The following topics are covered in this article: (1) current understanding of cardiac arrest in the pediatric population, (2) major changes in pediatric BLS, and (3) major changes in PALS. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Psychiatric Evaluation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychiatric Evaluation Workgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith R. Stowell

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency service. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a two-step process. First a brief evaluation must be aimed at determining the most likely cause of agitation, so as to guide preliminary interventions to calm the patient. Once the patient is calmed, more extensive psychiatric assessment can be completed. The goal of the emergency assessment of the psychiatric patient is not necessarily to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Rather, ascertaining a differential diagnosis, determining safety, and developing an appropriate treatment and disposition plan are the goals of the assessment. This article will summarize what components of the psychiatric assessment can and should be done at the time the agitated patient presents. The complete psychiatric evaluation of the patient whose agitation has been treated successfully is beyond the scope of this paper and Project BETA, but will be outlined briefly to give the reader an understanding of what a full psychiatric assessment would entail. Other issues related to the assessment of the agitated patient in the emergency setting will also be discussed. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:11–16.

  11. Psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient: consensus statement of the american association for emergency psychiatry project Beta psychiatric evaluation workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Keith R; Florence, Peter; Harman, Herbert J; Glick, Rachel L

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult to fully assess an agitated patient, and the complete psychiatric evaluation usually cannot be completed until the patient is calm enough to participate in a psychiatric interview. Nonetheless, emergency clinicians must perform an initial mental status screening to begin this process as soon as the agitated patient presents to an emergency setting. For this reason, the psychiatric evaluation of the agitated patient can be thought of as a 2-step process. First, a brief evaluation must be aimed at determining the most likely cause of agitation, so as to guide preliminary interventions to calm the patient. Once the patient is calmed, more extensive psychiatric assessment can be completed. The goal of the emergency assessment of the psychiatric patient is not necessarily to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Rather, ascertaining a differential diagnosis, determining safety, and developing an appropriate treatment and disposition plan are the goals of the assessment. This article will summarize what components of the psychiatric assessment can and should be done at the time the agitated patient presents to the emergency setting. The complete psychiatric evaluation of the patient whose agitation has been treated successfully is beyond the scope of this article and Project BETA (Best practices in Evaluation and Treatment of Agitation), but will be outlined briefly to give the reader an understanding of what a full psychiatric assessment would entail. Other issues related to the assessment of the agitated patient in the emergency setting will also be discussed.

  12. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  13. Ego identity formation in middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J C

    1976-12-01

    Assumed determinants of ego identity were investigated in this study using sophomore, junior, and senior high school males and females. Subjects were administered the Marcia Ego Identity Status Scale and measures of sex-role identification, personality development, psychological functioning, self-concept, and parental socialization practices. Data analyses, using a median split on identity score, showed that high-identity adolescents obtained more positive scores on sex-role identification, personality development, psychological adjustment, and self-concept than low-identity adolescents. Socialization practices also differed for the two groups. The sex differences which emerged were congruent with the identity literature. Overall, the data supported Erikson's theory of ego identity development.

  14. The Psychopharmacology of Agitation: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA Psychopharmacology Workgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Wilson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Agitation is common in the medical and psychiatric emergency department, and appropriate management of agitation is a core competency for emergency clinicians. In this article, the authors review the use of a variety of first-generation antipsychotic drugs, second-generation antipsychotic agents, and benzodiazepines for treatment of acute agitation, and propose specific guidelines for treatment of agitation associated with a variety of conditions, including acute intoxication, psychiatric illness, delirium, and multifocal or idiopathic causes. Pharmacologic treatment of agitation should be based on an assessment of the most likely cause for the agitation. If agitation results from a medical condition or delirium, clinicians should first attempt to treat this underlying cause instead of simply medicating with antipsychotics or benzodiazepines. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1:26–34.

  15. Constructing leadership identities through stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Hersted, Lone

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of leadership identities through stories found in four narrative interviews from a qualitative study and leadership development project based on social constructionism and action learning. We argue that leadership development and the construction of leadership...... that the concept of coauthoring is useful in developing leadership and leadership identities through reflexive dialogs and emerging stories....... identities in a postmodern paradigm are based on the negotiation and co-construction of meanings, relationships, and stories. The following questions are investigated: What happens when a group of leaders from different organizations construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct their identity as leaders through...

  16. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  17. The Emergence of Regional Organizations in Latin America and Implications for the Future of the Organization of American States (OAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    constitutes an “indispensable historic demand” and added that Cuba is a icon of the cause of Latin America. 6 CELAC also supported Argentina in the Malvinas...Southern Market (MERCOSUR) was created. In 1993, the US, Canada, and Mexico signed the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 106 In 1996, an...countries. 108 In 2004, The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) was established as an economic and political block constituted

  18. Low-pathogenic influenza A viruses in North American diving ducks contribute to the emergence of a novel highly pathogenic influenza A(H7N8) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifei; Ramey, Andrew M.; Bowman, Andrew S; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Killian, Mary Lea; Krauss, Scott; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Torchetti, Mia Kim; Reeves, Andrew B.; Webby, Richard J.; Stallknecht, David E.; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Introductions of low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses of subtypes H5 and H7 into poultry from wild birds have the potential to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, but such viruses' origins are often unclear. In January 2016, a novel H7N8 HPAI virus caused an outbreak in turkeys in Indiana, USA. To determine the virus's origin, we sequenced the genomes of 441 wild-bird origin influenza A viruses (IAVs) from North America and subjected them to evolutionary analyses. The results showed that the H7N8 LPAI virus most likely circulated among diving ducks in the Mississippi flyway during autumn 2015 and was subsequently introduced to Indiana turkeys, in which it evolved high pathogenicity. Preceding the outbreak, an isolate with six gene segments (PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NA, and NS) sharing >99% sequence identity with those of H7N8 turkey isolates was recovered from a diving duck sampled in Kentucky, USA. H4N8 IAVs from other diving ducks possessed five H7N8-like gene segments (PB2, PB1, NA, MP, and NS; >98% sequence identity). Our findings suggest that viral gene constellations circulating among diving ducks can contribute to the emergence of IAVs that affect poultry. Therefore, diving ducks may serve an important and understudied role in the maintenance, diversification, and transmission of IAVs in the wild-bird reservoir.

  19. Neck injuries presenting to emergency departments in the United States from 1990 to 1999 for ice hockey, soccer, and American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J S; Al-Kashmiri, A

    2005-04-01

    To examine the number and rate of neck injuries in the community as a whole for ice hockey, soccer, and American football by analysing data from patients presenting to emergency departments in the United States from 1990 to 1999. Data compiled for the US Consumer Product Safety Commission were used to generate estimates for the total number of neck injuries and the more specific diagnoses of neck fractures, dislocations, contusions, sprains, strains, and lacerations occurring nationally from 1990 to 1999. These data were combined with yearly participation figures to generate rates of injury presenting to emergency departments for each sport. There were an estimated 5038 neck injuries from ice hockey, 19,341 from soccer, and 114 706 from American football. These could be broken down as follows: 4964 contusions, sprains, or strains from ice hockey, 17,927 from soccer, and 104 483 from football; 105 neck fractures or dislocations from ice hockey, 214 from soccer, and 1588 from football; 199 neck lacerations for ice hockey, 0 for soccer, and 621 for football. The rates for total neck injuries and combined neck contusions, sprains, or strains were higher for football than for ice hockey or soccer in all years for which data were available. The rate of neck injury in the United States was higher in football than in ice hockey or soccer in the time period studied.

  20. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  1. Future-oriented or present-focused? The role of social support and identity styles on ‘futuring’ in Italian late adolescents and emerging adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sica, Luigia Simona; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Ragozini, Giancarlo; Aleni Sestito, Laura; Serafini, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Late adolescence and emerging adulthood are periods in the life cycle when individuals are involved in anticipating and planning for the future (futuring). However, in the last five or six years, as the effects of the recession have made themselves felt in Southern Europe, the situation that young

  2. American National Standard: for facilities and medical care for on-site nuclear-power-plant radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This standard provides guidance for first aid during an emergency and for initial medical care of those persons on-site who are overexposed to penetrating radiation (irradiated). It also provides guidance for medical care of persons contaminated with radioactive material or radionuclides who may also be irradiated or injured as a result of an accident at a nuclear power plant. It provides recommendations for facilities, supplies, equipment, and the extent of care both on-site where first aid and initial care may be provided and off-site at a local hospital where further medical and surgical care may be provided. This initial care continues until either the patient is released or admitted, or referred to another, possibly distant, medical center for definitive care. Recommendations are also provided for the transportation of patients and the training of personnel. Recommendations for specialized care are considered to be beyond the scope of this standard on emergency medical care; however, since emergency and specialized care are related, a brief discussion of specialized care is provided in the Appendix

  3. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new genotype and its phylogenetic relationship with those of bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; de la Fourniere, Sofía; Orozco, Marcela; Peña Martinez, Jorge; Correa, Elena; Fernandez, Javier; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Paoletta, Martina; Corona, Belkis; Pinarello, Valérie; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2016-05-26

    Anaplasma marginale is a well-known cattle pathogen of tropical and subtropical world regions. Even though, this obligate intracellular bacterium has been reported in other host species different than bovine, it has never been documented in Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater) or Hippocamelus antisense (taruca), which are two native endangered species. Samples from two sick wild animals: a Myrmecophaga tridactyla (blood) and a Hippocamelus antisense (blood and serum) were studied for the presence of A. marginale DNA through msp5 gene fragment amplification. Further characterization was done through MSP1a tandem repeats analysis and MLST scheme and the genetic relationship among previously characterized A. marginale sequences were studied by applying, eBURST algorithm and AMOVA analysis. Anaplasma marginale DNA was identified in the Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Hippocamelus antisense samples. Through molecular markers, we identified an identical genotype in both animals that was not previously reported in bovine host. The analysis through eBURST and AMOVA revealed no differentiation between the taruca/anteater isolate and the bovine group. In the present publication we report the identification of A. marginale DNA in a novel ruminant (Hippocamelus antisense) and non-ruminant (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) host species. Genotyping analysis of isolates demonstrated the close relatedness of the new isolate with the circulation population of A. marginale in livestock. Further analysis is needed to understand whether these two hosts contribute to the anaplasmosis epidemiology.

  4. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  5. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  6. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  7. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-comparative effectiveness research infrastructure investments: emerging data resources, tools and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Courtney; Holve, Erin

    2014-11-01

    The Recovery Act provided a substantial, one-time investment in data infrastructure for comparative effectiveness research (CER). A review of the publications, data, and tools developed as a result of this support has informed understanding of the level of effort undertaken by these projects. Structured search queries, as well as outreach efforts, were conducted to identify and review resources from American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 CER projects building electronic clinical data infrastructure. The findings from this study provide a spectrum of productivity across a range of topics and settings. A total of 451 manuscripts published in 192 journals, and 141 data resources and tools were identified and address gaps in evidence on priority populations, conditions, and the infrastructure needed to support CER.

  8. Do Ask, Do Tell: High Levels of Acceptability by Patients of Routine Collection of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Data in Four Diverse American Community Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful

  9. The Identity of Czech Deaf Roma

    OpenAIRE

    Kalousová, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    With the definition of Deaf people as a cultural and linguistic minority the research of Deaf identity became possible. Following this, questions of identity of minority deaf persons emerged. Do these persons affiliate to the Deaf community or to their ethnic minority? This bachelor thesis focuses on the topic of Czech deaf Roma identity. The underlying assumption of the paper is that identity is a continuing process dependent on the interaction of an individual and society and that it consti...

  10. The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D

    2013-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.

  11. The Uses of Text Messaging in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations with risky sexual behavior among at-risk African American emerging adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication. PMID:27710089

  12. The Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships Scale: Associations With Risky Sexual Behavior Among At-Risk African American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.

  13. A cross-over in Mexican and Mexican-American fertility rates: Evidence and explanations for an emerging paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Heuveline

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of two new developments in the fertility behavior of the Mexican- Origin population in the U.S., the present discussion will update contemporary Mexican-Origin fertility patterns and address several theoretical weaknesses in the current approach to minority group fertility. Data come from six national surveys (three from Mexico and three from the U.S. that cover a twenty-five year period (1975-2000. The findings demonstrate dramatic decreases in the fertility rates in Mexico at the same time that continuous increases have been documented in the fertility rates of third-or-later generation Mexican-Americans in the U.S., particularly at younger ages. These changes necessitate a reexamination of the ubiquitous theory that Mexican pronatalist values are responsible for the high fertility rates found within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Instead, they point to the increasing relevance of framing the fertility behavior of the Mexican-Origin population within a racial stratification perspective that stresses the influence of U.S. social context on fertility behavior. As a step in this direction, the analysis examines fertility patterns within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Special attention is given to the role of nativity/generational status in contributing to within group differences.

  14. Is the University Universal? Mobile (Re)Constitutions of American Academia in the Gulf Arab States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Through ethnographic examples of students' engagement with American universities in the United Arab Emirates and Qatar, I argue that branch campuses have a particularly important relationship with emerging forms of racial consciousness, identity, and politicization among students, both citizen and foreign resident. This entry point is one that…

  15. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  16. Screening Out Controversy: Human Genetics, Emerging Techniques of Diagnosis, and the Origins of the Social Issues Committee of the American Society of Human Genetics, 1964-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M X

    2017-05-01

    In the years following World War II, and increasingly during the 1960s and 1970s, professional scientific societies developed internal sub-committees to address the social implications of their scientific expertise (Moore, Disrupting Science: Social Movements, American Scientists, and the Politics of the Military, 1945-1975. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008). This article explores the early years of one such committee, the American Society of Human Genetics' "Social Issues Committee," founded in 1967. Although the committee's name might suggest it was founded to increase the ASHG's public and policy engagement, exploration of the committee's early years reveals a more complicated reality. Affronted by legislators' recent unwillingness to seek the expert advice of human geneticists before adopting widespread neonatal screening programs for phenylketonuria (PKU), and feeling pressed to establish their relevance in an increasingly resource-scarce funding environment, committee members sought to increase the discipline's expert authority. Painfully aware of controversy over abortion rights and haunted by the taint of the discipline's eugenic past, however, the committee proceeded with great caution. Seeking to harness interest in and assert professional control over emerging techniques of genetic diagnosis, the committee strove to protect the society's image by relegating ethical and policy questions about their use to the individual consciences of member scientists. It was not until 1973, after the committee's modest success in organizing support for a retrospective public health study of PKU screening and following the legalization of abortion on demand, that the committee decided to take a more publicly engaged stance.

  17. The Detroit Young Adult Asthma Project: Pilot of a Technology-Based Medication Adherence Intervention for African-American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmodin MacDonell, Karen; Naar, Sylvie; Gibson-Scipio, Wanda; Lam, Phebe; Secord, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    To conduct a randomized controlled pilot of a multicomponent, technology-based intervention promoting adherence to controller medication in African-American emerging adults with asthma. The intervention consisted of two computer-delivered sessions based on motivational interviewing combined with text messaged reminders between sessions. Participants (N = 49) were 18-29 years old, African-American, with persistent asthma requiring controller medication. Participants had to report poor medication adherence and asthma control. Youth were randomized to receive the intervention or an attention control. Data were collected through computer-delivered self-report questionnaires at baseline, 1, and 3 months. Ecological Momentary Assessment via two-way text messaging was also used to collect "real-time" data on medication use and asthma control. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to the target population, as evidenced by high retention rates and satisfaction scores. Changes in study outcomes from pre- to postintervention favored the intervention, particularly for decrease in asthma symptoms, t (42) = 2.22, p < .05 (Cohen's d = .071). Results suggest that the intervention is feasible and effective. However, findings are preliminary and should be replicated with a larger sample and more sophisticated data analyses. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report: Obesity and Metabolism. An Emerging Frontier in Lung Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratt, Benjamin T; Ubags, Niki D J; Rastogi, Deepa; Tantisira, Kelan G; Marsland, Benjamin J; Petrache, Irina; Allen, Janice B; Bates, Jason H T; Holguin, Fernando; McCormack, Meredith C; Michelakis, Evangelos D; Black, Stephen M; Jain, Manu; Mora, Ana L; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Miller, Yury I; Fessler, Michael B; Birukov, Konstantin G; Summer, Ross S; Shore, Stephanie A; Dixon, Anne E

    2017-06-01

    The world is in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has changed the presentation and etiology of common diseases. For example, steatohepatitis, directly attributable to obesity, is now the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Pulmonary researchers and clinicians are just beginning to appreciate the impact of obesity and altered metabolism on common pulmonary diseases. Obesity has recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma and for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Obesity is associated with profound changes in pulmonary physiology, the development of pulmonary hypertension, sleep-disordered breathing, and altered susceptibility to pulmonary infection. In short, obesity is leading to dramatic changes in lung health and disease. Simultaneously, the rapidly developing field of metabolism, including mitochondrial function, is shifting the paradigms by which the pathophysiology of many pulmonary diseases is understood. Altered metabolism can lead to profound changes in both innate and adaptive immunity, as well as the function of structural cells. To address this emerging field, a 3-day meeting on obesity, metabolism, and lung disease was convened in October 2015 to discuss recent findings, foster research initiatives, and ultimately guide clinical care. The major findings arising from this meeting are reported in this document.

  19. The ABCs of diabetes: diabetes self-management education program for African Americans affects A1C, lipid-lowering agent prescriptions, and emergency department visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Bowling, Andrea; Copeland, James; Fokar, Ali; Pasquale, Patricia; Youssef, Gretchen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a concise community-based program on diabetes self-management education (DSME), according to frequency of emergency department visits and knowledge of, prescriptions for, and control of A1C, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A free community-based DSME program was placed in a public library. Adults with diabetes (N, 360) consented to participate in this prospective nonrandomized cohort study with preintervention-postintervention design. The small-group interactive DSME (two 2.5-hour classes) focused on improving cardiovascular disease risk factors and facilitating communication with the primary care physician. An increase in knowledge of American Diabetes Association-recommended targets for A1C, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol from baseline to postintervention was seen among participants. Significant clinical outcomes included reduction in self-reported emergency department visits and reduction in mean A1C. However, despite an increase in prescriptions written for lipid-lowering drugs, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol did not change. Participants who started on insulin were more likely to achieve or maintain A1C location for offering DSME programs.

  20. Emergence of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tarin M; Batts, William N; Faisal, Mohamed; Bowser, Paul; Casey, James W; Phillips, Kenneth; Garver, Kyle A; Winton, James; Kurath, Gael

    2011-08-29

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North America. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with previously naive host populations.

  1. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  2. South-East Asia: Emerging Regional Identity. Interview with prof. Dmitry Mosyakov (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н С Куклин

    2017-12-01

    associations of the South-East Asia region. Describing the processes in the Southeast Asia, Dmitry Mosyakov emphasizes the scientific and practical relevance of the region's research for Russian science, he also draws attention to the possibility of the formation of the new civilizational identities and unique sociocultural processes in the countries of this part of the world.

  3. Hidden Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunder Hawk, Anne

    In 1978, federal legislation was passed to protect tribally enrolled or potentially enrollable American Indian children and prevent the breakup of Indian families. Prior to the passage of the Indian Child Welfare Act, it was estimated that one-quarter to one-third of all Indian children were being removed from their families. In this paper, an…

  4. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-01-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently…

  5. Emerging trends in invasive and noninvasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a Latin American hospital: a 17-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Ortiz, Maria del Pilar; Castañeda-Ramirez, Claudia Rocio; Recalde-Bolaños, Monica; Vélez-Londoño, Juan Diego

    2014-08-03

    were seen over time. We also found an increase in S. agalactiae resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin during the study period, and the emergence of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates. Our findings are consistent with the global trends described elsewhere, reinforcing the need for S. agalactiae control measures in our region.

  6. Unravelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The decision to go to war by the government of the day is assumed to be a decision taken on behalf of all citizens of the nation, conceived as a collective united by a harmony of interests. Yet in the case of the Iraq War, there is clearly no unified voice of support from the British people. There is division between the state and its citizens, and the latter also reflect the multilayered identities of an increasingly multicultural society. How do individuals displaying mu...

  7. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts......This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  8. Cuando Hollywood encontró a Harlem: caminos para la creación de un nuevo modelo de representación de la identidad afroamericana en el cine de los estudios (1970-1971 / When Hollywood Met Harlem. How the Industry Created a New Model of Representation of the Afro-American Identity in American Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jara Fernández Meneses

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva histórica, este artículo analiza las estrategias empleadas por el cine norteamericano a comienzos de la década de 1970 para elaborar un nuevo modelo de representación de la comunidad afroamericana. A través del análisis del contexto socio-político y económico de ese periodo, el texto examina los dos principales elementos que explican dicho fenómeno: la crisis que sufrió la industria cinematográfica a finales de la década de 1960 y el nacimiento de una nueva conciencia racial dentro del movimiento de los derechos civiles a comienzos de la década de 1970. Tres películas se utilizan para ilustrar cómo se construyó este nuevo modelo y cuáles son sus principales atributos: Algodón en Harlem (Cotton Comes to Harlem, Ossie Davies, 1970, Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song (Melvin Van Peebles, 1971 y Las noches rojas de Harlem (Shaft, Gordon Parks, 1971. A través de la comparación entre cómo la industria representó a los afroamericanos en décadas previas y cómo lo hizo en el periodo estudiado, el artículo pretende demostrar cómo y por qué Hollywood cambió su actitud hacia el retrato de la comunidad afroamericana.Palabras clave: Identidad afroamericana, directores afroamericanos, blaxploitation, Cotton Comes to Harlem, Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song, Shaft, Ossie Davies, Melvin Van Peebles, Gordon Parks.AbstractAssuming a historical approach, this text focuses on the strategies used by American cinema to elaborate a new model of representation of the Afro-American identity in the early seventies. Through the analysis of the socio-political and economic context of the period, this text examines the two main issues we should take into consideration to explain this fact: the crisis in the cinema industry in the late sixties and the rising of a new conscience within the afroamerican civil rights movement at the beginning of the seventies. Three films are used to illustrate the construction of this new

  9. The Effects of Mothers' Protective Parenting and Alcohol Use on Emerging Adults' Alcohol Use: Testing Indirect Effects Through Prototype Favorability Among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Michael J; Turrisi, Rob; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Marzell, Miesha

    2018-06-07

    We examined how mothers' protective parenting and alcohol use influenced changes in offspring's heavy drinking among a sample of African American youth. The conceptual model also tested indirect effects of mothers' behaviors, through changes in the youths' social images (i.e., prototypes) of heavy drinkers, derived from the prototype willingness (PW) model. Participants were 686 emerging adults (55% female) from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS), an ongoing prospective study of African American families. Three waves of FACHS data were used as follows: T3 during 10th grade (M age = 16.3 years), T4 shortly after high school (M age = 19.4 years), and T5 3 years later (M age = 22.1 years). Mothers' self-reports of protective parenting and alcohol use were assessed at T4. Two separate path models tested the study hypotheses. The first model specified direct and indirect effects of mothers' protective parenting and alcohol use. The second model added interaction terms between the protective parenting behaviors and mothers' alcohol use. The analyses were first conducted using the full sample and then repeated separately for female and male participants. Maternal alcohol use had a positive and direct effect on offspring's alcohol use. Mothers' endorsement of alcohol-related rules inhibited normative increases in the favorability of the offspring's social image of heavy drinkers (prototype) while her warmth was positively related to these increases. Maternal alcohol use amplified the positive association between mothers' warmth and the daughters' increased drinking. For sons, maternal alcohol use increased the positive association between alcohol-related rules and increased prototype favorability. Results indicated clear gender differences in how mothers' behaviors influence her offspring's alcohol use during the transition to emerging adulthood. Interventions that target culturally specific risk and protective factors within the family environment are

  10. Federated Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses the topic of federated identity management. It discusses in detail the following topics: what is digital identity, what is identity management, what is federated identity management, Kim Camerons 7 Laws of Identity, how can we protect the users privacy in a federated environment, levels of assurance, some past and present federated identity management systems, and some current research in FIM.

  11. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  12. On Identities in Modern Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Polcak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Communicating parties inside computer networks use different kind of identifiers. Some of these identifiers are stable, e.g., logins used to access a specific service, some are only temporary, e.g., dynamically assigned IP addresses. This paper tackles several challenges of lawful interception that emerged in modern networks. The main contribution is the graph model that links identities learnt from various sources distributed in a network. The inferred identities result into an interception of more detailed data in conformance with the issued court order. The approach deals with network address translation, short-lived identifiers and simultaneous usage of different identities. The approach was evaluated to be viable during real network testing based on various means to learn identities of users connected to a network.

  13. Retaining and Reclaiming Ourselves: Reflections on a Peer Mentoring Group Experience for New African American Women Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer-Williams, Catherine L.; Evans, Kathy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a qualitative study of new African American female professors' participation in a peer mentoring group. Three key themes that emerged from the data included peer mentoring as a vehicle to process and cope effectively with microaggressions, increase positive self-identity and self-efficacy as a scholar, and…

  14. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  15. Corporate Brand Identity Development in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    2016-01-01

    We study the interactive narratives that underpin the emergence of corporate brand identity in new venture SMEs. We apply a process perspective that considers the complex interactions between layers of identities and sense-making in and around the organisation in the stakeholder eco-system. We...

  16. Co-creating Stakeholder and Brand Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Voyer, Benjamin; Kastanakis, Minas

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces the special section on reciprocal co-creation of stakeholder and brand identities. Branding research and practice traditionally focus on the managerial creation and implementation of brand identity. Based on recent paradigmatic shifts from managerial to co-creative branding...... and from consumer to multi-stakeholder approaches in marketing, this special section develops a dynamic, process-oriented perspective on brand identity. Brand identity continuously emerges as a dynamic outcome of social processes of stakeholder interaction. Reciprocally, brand identity plays a potentially...... important role in ongoing interactive identity development processes of stakeholders. The special section contributes to deepening the understanding of this reciprocal co-creation of stakeholder and brand identities, through a series of conceptual and empirical articles. The Introduction reviews four...

  17. Intergenerational associations linking identity styles and processes in adolescents and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Schwartz, S.J.; Rassart, J.; Klimstra, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Identity formation is a lifelong task, yet much research focuses on adolescence and emerging adulthood. Little is known about whether parents' identities are related to their adolescent children's identities. The present studies were designed to examine intergenerational associations. Specifically,

  18. Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)

  19. Survivorship and discourses of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Paul, Kim; Jordens, Christopher F C; Sayers, Emma-Jane

    2002-01-01

    Personal identity is self-evidently important to us all. Identity is a philosophically complex subject, but there is some agreement that memory, embodiment and continuity are essential components. The sense of memory includes 'future memory', the kind of memory we would like to construct for ourselves as our lives proceed. While the sense of personal identity is internal to the individual, a sense of that person's identity exists in the minds of others. Extreme experiences threaten the element of continuity, because they may bring bodily changes as well as cognitive changes that challenge central values. Restoring or preserving continuity is a major task for survivors. The ways in which people experience discontinuity because of cancer illness, and the ways in which they manage this experience emerges from the narratives of the survivors of cancer and in the narratives of health care workers who look after them. People manage discontinuity by reference to stable 'anchor points' in their beliefs and values; by re-constructing versions of their pre-experience identities, drawing on past memory and finding ways to preserve a continuity between past memory, present experience and constructions of the future; by using the experience to develop established facets of identity; and by imbuing the experience with meaning and recognising the enlarged identity made possible by survival. Those who cannot achieve a sense of continuity may feel alienated from themselves, their friends and family. All these methods of management may be used by one person to negotiate the post-experience identity in its different social interactions. The experience of the survivor can be further understood by recognising the challenge posed by extreme experience to the sense of continuity of both embodied self and memory. A satisfactory discourse of survival has yet to enter the public domain. This lack adds to the burdens of survivors, including those who have survived cancer. Copyright 2002 John

  20. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination given in July to intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training examination scores, a predictor of performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM administers the in-training examination (ITE. In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE, an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods: This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EMACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results: Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4. The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]. For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores, only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (p<0.05. We observed significant colinearity

  1. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; Franzen, Doug; Heitz, Corey; Emery, Matthew; Poznanski, Stacy

    2015-11-01

    There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents' knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EM-ACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson's correlation and linear regression were performed. Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4). The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]). For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores), only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (pcorrelation with ITE. Clinical EM experience prior to the in-training exam did not affect the

  2. A Theoretical Framework for the Associations between Identity and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identity research largely emerged from clinical observations. Decades of empirical work advanced the field in refining existing approaches and adding new approaches. Furthermore, the existence of linkages of identity with psychopathology is now well established. Unfortunately, both the directionality of effects between identity aspects and…

  3. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Monica E; Goldberger, Zachary D; Rea, Thomas; Swor, Robert A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Brennan, Erin E; Terry, Mark; Hemphill, Robin; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Travers, Andrew H

    2018-01-02

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Despite advances in resuscitation science, basic life support remains a critical factor in determining outcomes. The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  5. Purpose and Meaning, Ethnic Identity, and

    OpenAIRE

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose and meaning are primary facets of eudaimonic well-being, yet are understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in purpose and meaning, links with psychological and academic adjustment, links with ethnic identity, and the mediating role of purpose and meaning in associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences in purpos...

  6. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....

  7. Three Generations, Three Wars: African American Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2016-02-01

    This article emerged from pilot research exploring experiences of war and suffering among African American veterans who served in World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War. Men's experiences as soldiers reflected both racism and the social change that occurred in the Unites States while they served. We used techniques of narrative elicitation, conducting qualitative, ethnographic interviews with each of five veterans in his home. Interviews focused on unique and shared experiences as an African American man and a soldier. Three important themes emerged: (a) Expectations related to War--Although men viewed service to country as an expected part of life, they also expected equal treatment in war, which did not occur; (b) Suffering as an African American--Informants interpreted experiences of suffering in war as related to the lower status of African American servicemen; and (c) Perception of present identity--Each man was honed by the sum of his experiences, including those of combat, racism, and postwar opportunities and obstacles. From 40 to 70 years after the wars were fought, there are few scholarly narrative studies on African American veterans, despite the fact that Korean War Veterans are entering old-old age and few World War II Veterans are alive. The value of pilot research that offers narratives of unheard voices is significant; larger studies can interview more African American veterans to advance knowledge that might soon be lost. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Connecting the dots within: creative performance and identity integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Ying; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey; Lee, Fiona

    2008-11-01

    In two studies drawing from social identity theory and the creative-cognition approach, we found that higher levels of identity integration--perceived compatibility between two social identities--predict higher levels of creative performance in tasks that draw on both identity-relevant knowledge domains. Study 1 showed that Asian Americans with higher identity integration were more creative in developing new dishes using a given set of ingredients, but only when both Asian and American ingredients were available. Study 2 showed that female engineers with higher identity integration were more creative in designing a product, but only when the product was targeted to female users. These findings suggest that the psychological management of multiple social identities may be related to accessibility of multiple knowledge domains, which in turn influences creativity.

  9. Illness Identity: A Novel Predictor for Healthcare Use in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bulck, Liesbet; Goossens, Eva; Luyckx, Koen; Oris, Leen; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip

    2018-05-22

    To optimize healthcare use of adults with congenital heart disease, all important predictors of healthcare utilization should be identified. Clinical and psychological characteristics (eg, age and depression) have been found to be associated with healthcare use. However, the concept of illness identity, which assesses the degree to which congenital heart disease is integrated into one's identity, has not yet been investigated in association with healthcare use. Hence, the purpose of the study is to examine the predictive value of illness identity for healthcare use. In this ambispective analytical observational cohort study, 216 adults with congenital heart disease were included. The self-reported Illness Identity Questionnaire was used to assess illness identity states: engulfment, rejection, acceptance, and enrichment. After 1 year, self-reported healthcare use for congenital heart disease or other reasons over the past 6 months was assessed including hospitalizations; visits to general practitioner; visits to medical specialists; and emergency room visits. Binary logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for age, sex, disease complexity, and depressive and anxious symptoms. The more profoundly the heart defect dominated one's identity (ie, engulfment), the more likely this person was to be hospitalized (odds ratio=3.76; 95% confidence interval=1.43-9.86), to visit a medical specialist (odds ratio=2.32; 95% confidence interval=1.35-4.00) or a general practitioner (odds ratio=1.78; 95% confidence interval=1.01-3.17), because of their heart defect. Illness identity, more specifically engulfment, has a unique predictive value for the occurrence of healthcare encounters. This association deserves further investigation, in which the directionality of effects and the contribution of illness identity in terms of preventing inappropriate healthcare use should be determined. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American

  10. Identity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAs individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success and failure.

  11. The Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale: Factor Analytic Evidence and Associations with Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Burks, Alixandra C.; Golom, Frank D.; Stroud, Caroline H.; Graham, James L.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the psychometric properties of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale. Findings included (1) a three-factor structure (i.e., Negative Identity, Identity Uncertainty, Identity Superiority); (2) less positive identities among HIV-positive persons, African Americans, males, and bisexuals; and (3) convergent patterns with subjective…

  12. Grey('s) Identity: Complications of Learning and Becoming in a Popular Television Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines an analysis of the American show "Grey's Anatomy" as an example of how popular culture represents identity and the process of professional identity construction in a medical workplace, particularly the surgical service of a large urban hospital. In discussing identity, she connects professional identity to…

  13. On Fay identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michev, Iordan P.

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we consider the transformation of the cubic identities for general Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) tau functions from [Mishev, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2419-2428 (1999)] to the specific identities for trigonometric KdV tau functions. Afterwards, we consider the Fay identity as a functional equation and provide a wide set of solutions of this equation. The main result of this paper is Theorem 3.4, where we generalize the identities from Mishev. An open problem is the transformation of the cubic identities from Mishev to the specific identities for elliptic KdV tau functions

  14. Identities as organizational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Asmuß, Birte

    Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity......) reveal the intersubjective, multimodal and embodied nature of identity work; 2) demonstrate identity work as organizational practices, used in order to accomplish specific actions; and 3) pose a question on the view on identity as a layered/leveled phenomenon....

  15. Person-first and identity-first language: Developing psychologists' cultural competence using disability language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S; Andrews, Erin E

    2015-04-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) advocates the use of person-first language (e.g., people with disabilities) to refer to individuals with disabilities in daily discourse and to reduce bias in psychological writing. Disability culture advocates and disability studies scholars have challenged the rationale for and implications of exclusive person-first language use, promoting use of identity-first language (e.g., disabled people). We argue that psychologists should adopt identity-first language alongside person-first constructions to address the concerns of disability groups while promoting human dignity and maintaining scientific and professional rigor. We review the evolution of disability language and then discuss the major models used to characterize disability and people with disabilities. The rationale for person-first language and the emergence of identity-first language, respectively, are linked to particular models. We then discuss some language challenges posed by identity-first language and the current intent of person-first language, suggesting that psychologists make judicious use of the former when it is possible to do so. We conclude by offering five observations of ways that use of both person-first and identity-first language could enhance psychologists' cultural competence regarding disability issues in personal and scientific communications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Creolising Political Identity and Social Scientific Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-16

    Jun 16, 2014 ... When accepting the 2013 Latin American and Caribbean Regional ..... of theory emerging from Native or Latin America, the Caribbean, and .... Turner, Victor, 1969, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure, Hawthorne,.

  17. Social identity and cooperation in cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2017-12-06

    I discuss the function of social identity signaling in facilitating cooperative group formation, and how the nature of that function changes with the structure of social organization. I propose that signals of social identity facilitate assortment for successful coordination in large-scale societies, and that the multidimensional, context-dependent nature of social identity is crucial for successful coordination when individuals have to cooperate in different contexts. Furthermore, the structure of social identity is tied to the structure of society, so that as societies grow larger and more interconnected, the landscape of social identities grows more heterogeneous. This discussion bears directly on the need to articulate the dynamics of emergent, ephemeral groups as a major factor in human cultural evolution. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New Regionalisms and Radical Identity Formation in Latin America: Towards an “Alter-global” Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Can Gürcan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-Cold War period has witnessed the simultaneous emergence of a new trend of regionalism and a radicalized form of identity politics in Latin America, in parallel with the rise of numerous new left governments and alter-globalist social movements confronting neo-liberalism. In fact, the globalization of this continental struggle through a new trend of regionalism is a process which illustrates the fact that in today’s world, national, regional and global identities are complexly entwined beyond “wellestablished” dichotomies such as nationalism-cosmopolitanism. This paper suggests that regionalism could be an efficient tool to promote the formation of new collective identities at the global level by linking social struggles at the national level to the global resistance movement against neo-liberalism, as observed in the current Latin American experience of new regionalism. The first part of the paper would attempt to explain the actual significance of regionalism and the challenge of “identity formations” under globalization, and would develop an alternative theoretical approach based on Mittelman’s underrated concept of “transformative regionalism” (2004, besides elaborating the basic premises of the New Regionalism School. In turn, the second part would discuss the transformative potential of the new Latin American regionalisms through the involvement of social movements, mostly based on the experience of ALBA, but not without mentioning also the experience of TELESUR, UNASUR and Bank of the South. Finally, the concluding parts would deal with alternative policy recommendations and the emerging research agenda of new regionalism in Latin America, with a special focus on the case of the rising food sovereignty (globalization of peasant identities and counter-hegemonic mass education movements (the “HEFA regime” within the context of “radical identity formation”. Thereby, the paper attempts to explain how local

  19. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    on consumers' self-identities. The second part explored the role of food and beverage products in the construction of self-identities. The final part focused on the construction of brand identity for Supermalt. Findings - The article provides information on the self-identities constructed by Afro......-Caribbean informants. The food and beverage consumption of informants reflects their mixed cultural identity. The brand identity Supermalt appears to be malleable, with ample room for consumer co-construction. Perceptions of brand identity differ markedly among informants, who are all able to construct Supermalt......Purpose - The objective of this article is to conduct a case study of the Supermalt brand of malt beer, which has become the preferred beverage of Afro-Caribbean consumers in Brixton on a very limited marketing budget. Design/methodology/approach - The article uses the concepts of personal identity...

  20. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  1. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  2. A Netnographic Analysis of Prospective International Students' Decision-Making Process: Implications for Institutional Branding of American Universities in the Emerging Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Lili; Xu, Chunhao; Pelton, Lou E.

    2016-01-01

    The enrollment of international students (e.g. students admitted using a F-1 visa into the U.S.) has been increasing continually for the past six academic years in American higher educational institutions. This article explores how Chinese applicants make decisions during their application journey for Master's degree programs in business schools.…

  3. Additional Resources on Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa; Lee, Sunny; Liang, Christopher T. H.; Alvarez, Alvin N.; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2002-01-01

    The authors identify Asian American associations and organizations, academic journals, periodicals, and media resources. Selected annotated resources on Asian American activism and politics, counseling and psychology, educational issues, gender and sexual orientation, history, policy reports, and racial and ethnic identity are also included.…

  4. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  5. Mobile Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity management consists of the processes and all underlying technologies for the creation, management, and usage of digital identities. Business rely on identity management systems to simplify the management of access rights to their systems and services for both their employees and their

  6. Being Tolerant about Identity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, R.; Gutzmann, D.; Köpping, J.; Meier, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identity and identification are very important concepts in philosophy and logic. They are crucial for the analysis of quantification and for counting. According to some philosophers, many examples that are supposed to show that identity is contingent, in fact show that the notion of identity is

  7. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  8. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  9. Composing Identities: Films, Families and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Stuart C.; Jokisch, Brad D.; Boone, Christopher G.

    2003-01-01

    With this paper, I elaborate the use of the movies "American History X" and "Mi Familia" in classroom settings to highlight issues of ethnicity and the social construction of identity through families and communities. Taken together, these movies draw attention to racial geographies of Los Angeles but in very different ways. I…

  10. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  11. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  12. Context-Aware Identity Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2009-01-01

    In emerging ubiquitous computing, related nomadic users often perform similar tasks and share the same computing infrastructure.This means that security of the shared resources is of prime importance.Frequent delegation of tasks among users must be anticipated as most nomadic environments...... are hectic and very dynamic. A delegation mechanism with a slightly complicated user interface will not only reduce the productivity but also provide nomadic users with a strong motivation to circumvent the mechanism itself. Delegation in access control domain is not practical for the most of nomadic users...... due to its complicated and complex structure. Identity delegation at authentication level provides improved usability, which reduces the risk of circumventing the delegation mechanism; at the same time, however, identity delegation violates the principle of least privileges. We use contextual...

  13. International cooperation for disaster management -- Romanian-American experience in the achievement of a joint exercise using decision support tools for radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, J.R.; Botirca, R.; Gabor, A.; Miron, A.

    1995-01-01

    International coordination and cooperation is rewarding but at the same time very challenging. This paper will discuss the Romanian perspective on technology transfer, its problems and its advantages. Further, the discussion will take place in the context of preparing for an international conference while at the same time exchanging civil defense expertise. The American perspective on the same subject will also be presented with healthy doses of mutual explanations. The final portion of the paper will present the joint lessons learned from the newly created interfaces and what it holds for the future. The paper aims to present the Romanian and American experts' opinion about the demonstration of using computer technology for helping the international cooperation in the field of disaster management

  14. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  15. Social identities as pathways into and out of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Anita Dingle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There exists a predominant identity loss and redemption narrative in the addiction literature describing how individuals move from a substance user identity to a recovery identity. However, other identity related pathways influencing onset, treatment seeking and recovery may exist, and the process through which social identities unrelated to substance use change over time is not well understood. This study was designed to provide a richer understanding of such social identities processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults residing in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community (TC and thematic analysis revealed two distinct identity-related pathways leading into and out of addiction. Some individuals experienced a loss of valued identities during addiction onset that were later renewed during recovery (consistent with the existing redemption narrative. However, a distinct identity gain pathway emerged for socially isolated individuals, who described the onset of their addiction in terms of a new valued social identity. Almost all participants described their TC experience in terms of belonging to a recovery community. Participants on the identity loss pathway aimed to renew their pre-addiction identities after treatment while those on the identity gain pathway aimed to build aspirational new identities involving study, work, or family roles. These findings help to explain how social factors are implicated in the course of addiction, and may act as either motivations for or barriers to recovery. The qualitative analysis yielded a testable model for future research in other samples and settings.

  16. Social Identities as Pathways into and out of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Genevieve A.; Cruwys, Tegan; Frings, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There exists a predominant identity loss and “redemption” narrative in the addiction literature describing how individuals move from a “substance user” identity to a “recovery” identity. However, other identity related pathways influencing onset, treatment seeking and recovery may exist, and the process through which social identities unrelated to substance use change over time is not well understood. This study was designed to provide a richer understanding of such social identities processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults residing in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community (TC) and thematic analysis revealed two distinct identity-related pathways leading into and out of addiction. Some individuals experienced a loss of valued identities during addiction onset that were later renewed during recovery (consistent with the existing redemption narrative). However, a distinct identity gain pathway emerged for socially isolated individuals, who described the onset of their addiction in terms of a new valued social identity. Almost all participants described their TC experience in terms of belonging to a recovery community. Participants on the identity loss pathway aimed to renew their pre-addiction identities after treatment while those on the identity gain pathway aimed to build aspirational new identities involving study, work, or family roles. These findings help to explain how social factors are implicated in the course of addiction, and may act as either motivations for or barriers to recovery. The qualitative analysis yielded a testable model for future research in other samples and settings. PMID:26648882

  17. Identity-specific motivation: How distinct identities direct self-regulation across distinct situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browman, Alexander S; Destin, Mesmin; Molden, Daniel C

    2017-12-01

    Research on self-regulation has traditionally emphasized that people's thoughts and actions are guided by either (a) domain-general motivations that emerge from a cumulative history of life experiences, or (b) situation-specific motivations that emerge in immediate response to the incentives present in a particular context. However, more recent studies have illustrated the importance of understanding the interplay between such domain-general and situation-specific motivations across the types of contexts people regularly encounter. The present research, therefore, expands existing perspectives on self-regulation by investigating how people's identities -the internalized roles, relationships, and social group memberships that define who they are-systemically guide when and how different domain-general motivations are activated within specific types of situations. Using the motivational framework described by regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997), Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that people indeed have distinct, identity-specific motivations that uniquely influence their current self-regulation when such identities are active. Studies 3-5 then begin to explore how identity-specific motivations are situated within people's larger self-concept. Studies 3a and 3b demonstrate that the less compatible people's specific identities, the more distinct are the motivations connected to those identities. Studies 4-5 then provide some initial, suggestive evidence that identity-specific motivations are not a separate, superordinate feature of people's identities that then alter how they pursue any subordinate, identity-relevant traits, but instead that such motivations emerge from the cumulative motivational significance of the subordinate traits to which the identities themselves become attached. Implications for understanding the role of the self-concept in self-regulation are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Reaffirmation of Cultural Identity in Cross-cultural Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmitzki, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cultural contact and cultural identity as conceptualized in two research approaches: social identity theory and acculturation. The groups studied were German and Americans who either lived in their nonnative culture or had no direct contact. Comparisons between bicultural and monocultural groups revealed a…

  19. The dialectics of homeland and identity: Reconstructing Africa in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article investigates the dialectics between homeland and identity in the poetry of the Sudanese poet, Mohamed Al-Fayturi and his literary master, Langston Hughes in order to underline their attitudes toward crucial issues integral to the African and African- American experience such as identity, racism, enslavement and ...

  20. From the American Civil War to the War on Terror: Three Models of Emergency Law in the United States Supreme Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartz, Emily

    This book offers a systematic and comprehensive account of the key cases that have come to shape the jurisprudence on emergency law in the United States from the Civil War to the War on Terror. The legal questions raised in these cases concern fundamental constitutional issues such as the status...... of fundamental rights, the role of the court in times of war, and the question of how to interpret constitutional limitations to executive power. At stake in these difficult legal questions is the issue of how to conceive of the very status of law in liberal democratic states. The questions with which...... the Supreme Court justices have to grapple in these cases are therefore as philosophical as they are legal. In this book the Court's arguments are systematized according to categories informed by constitutional law as well as classic philosophical discussions of the problem of emergency. On this basis...

  1. Ludwig Edelstein (1902-1965): a German historian of medicine in North American exile and the emergence of the modern Hippocratic Oath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pow, Stephen; Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-11-01

    Already emerging as an original thinker in the field of classical philology and history of medicine, German scholar Ludwig Edelstein became one of many scholars who lost his academic position when the National Socialists came to power in early 1933. This paper details his life before and after his difficult transition from Europe to North America, while reviewing the lasting significance of his translation and commentary on the Hippocratic Oath. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Exploring medical identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-09-16

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification.

  3. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  4. Known and Unknown Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze-Pedersen, Sofie

    This qualitative study investigates the relationship between openness and identity among 18 adoptees. Many studies have argued that a high degree of openness is important for the identity formation of adoptees. However, few studies have explored this relationship. Two types of openness...... (biographical knowledge and communicative openness) are used to categorise the empirical material, making it possible to illuminate how different types of openness influence identity. The findings suggest that there is no direct link between a high degree of openness and positive identity formation. Instead...

  5. Identity/Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Knauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the unspoken fourth dimension of intersectionality—time. Using the construction of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT identities as an example, it establishes that identity, as it is lived and experienced, is not only multivalent, but also historically contingent. It then raises a number of points regarding the temporal locality of identity—the influence of time on issues of identity and understanding, its implications for legal interventions, social movement building, and paradigms of progressive change. As the title suggests, the paper asks us to consider the frame of identity over time.

  6. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  7. Globalization and Identity Development: A Chinese Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min; Berman, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter begins with a discussion of the unique experience of adolescents and emerging adults who grew up with globalization in China and how it has affected their sense of self. We then discuss the effects of globalization on identity development in general, with a special focus on the sociohistorical context of China. We also review and…

  8. Collective Identity Formation in Hybrid Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw...... on the literature on knowledge sharing across organizational boundaries, particularly the notions of transfer, translation and transformation, to examine in real time how knowledge sharing in a hybrid setting contributes (or not) to the emergence of a new collective identity at the interface of two heterogeneous...... organizations. Our findings point to two factors that limit knowledge sharing and hence to new collective identity formation in a hybrid space: 1) ambiguous or multiple organizational roles and 2) strong identities of the collaborating organizations. These findings contribute to illuminating the initial...

  9. La partera profesional: articulating identity and cultural space for a new kind of midwife in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Floyd, R

    2001-01-01

    This article documents the emergence of a new kind of midwife in Mexico, the thoroughly postmodern partera profesional. It traces the transnational conjunctures that facilitated her creation, illustrates aspects of her philosophy and praxis, and probes her ongoing articulations of identity. These women, who are of diverse sociocultural backgrounds, initially sought training from American direct-entry midwives in the independent out-of-hospital midwifery model; now, they are adapting that model to the situation in Mexico. Through their own practices, through intensive liaison work with traditional midwives, and through organizing national midwifery conferences and meetings, they are creating midwifery as both incipient profession and nascent social movement. Some of them operate outside the medical system while others are carving a niche within it. The mere existence of these self-consciously activist midwives constitutes a critique of monological Mexican medicine and its high cesarean rates; however, these women face a long struggle to define their identities, legalize their practices, and generate a sustainable space within the emergent Mexican technocracy. To their intense dismay, this struggle must take place within the context of the escalating disappearance of the traditional midwives whom they seek to support. The tension they feel between their desire to preserve traditional midwifery and their desire to create professional midwifery is a recurrent theme. These goals alternately complement and conflict with one another, yet both are central to the partera profesional's ongoing efforts at identity articulation.

  10. Elective Identities, (Culture, Identization and Integration)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of contemporary individual and social identities (constructed with societal, cultural and technological resources) are radically autonomous, nomadic and virtual - i.e. they are de-traditionalized, open to negotiation and not based on a single interpretation of a tradition.

  11. How Can I Trust You if You Don’t Know Who You Are? The Consequences of a Fluid Identity on Cross-Racial Organizing between African American Women and Latinas in Atlanta

    OpenAIRE

    Belisa González

    2016-01-01

    Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Ameri...

  12. Language Immersion and Cultural Identity: Conflicting Influences and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines developing cultural and linguistic identities of three French/English bilingual children reared in two linguistic cultures: American and Quebecois. Results indicate the adolescent boy, who speaks more English than French, identifies with his American peers, from whom he conceals his bilingualism. The twin girls, in a French-immersion…

  13. (Re)scaling identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    of Pakistani origin, the study employs theoretical ideas of estrangement, identification and recognition in order to obtain a thorough understanding of the complexity and the contradictory character of their spatial identities and affiliations. A turning point in the double processes of estrangement...... of identity....

  14. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  15. Self and social identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N; Spears, R; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    In this chapter, we examine the self and identity by considering the different conditions under which these are affected by the groups to which people belong. From a social identity perspective we argue that group commitment, on the one hand, and features of the social context, on the other hand,

  16. Children's Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  17. Corporate identity. Brand designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2004-02-19

    The past two years have seen a steadily more consistent brand identity for the NHS. Branding will become more important as foundation status and PCT commissioning makes acute hospitals more competitive. This has put pressure on some trusts that have their own strong identities.

  18. Identities-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana; Valero, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The notion of identity is often used in mathematics education research in an attempt to link individual and social understandings of mathematical learning. In this paper we review existing research making use of the notion of identity, and we point to some of the strengths and weaknesses in the w...

  19. Identity without Membership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    the formation of organizational identity in more fluid organizational settings. Drawing on an empirical study of the hacker collective Anonymous, we show that organizational identity is formed through public communicative events that are subject to meaning negotiation whether or not actions can be attributed...

  20. Personal Identity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…