WorldWideScience

Sample records for emergency response dispersion

  1. MESOI, an interactive atmospheric dispersion model for emergency response applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    MESOI is an interactive atmospheric dispersion model that has been developed for use by the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in responding to emergencies at nuclear facilities. MESOI uses both straight-line Gaussian plume and Lagrangian trajectory Gaussian puff models to estimate time-integrated ground-level air and surface concentrations. Puff trajectories are determined from temporally and spatially varying horizontal wind fields that are defined in 3 dimensions. Other processes treated in MESOI include dry deposition, wet deposition and radioactive decay

  2. Ensemble atmospheric dispersion modeling for emergency response consequence assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addis, R.P.; Buckley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    models. This provides a better understanding of the atmosphere and plume behavior than would a single model output. Atmospheric models often give the impression of greater accuracy than the science is capable of delivering. The ensemble approach is a powerful way to reassert the concept of having a family of equally valid solutions, while enabling outliers to be identified. The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has participated in RTMOD and ENSEMBLE. SRTC uses the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to provide plume forecasts in real-time for the European grid as described in the figure. The NOAA northern hemispheric model, Global Forecast System (a combination of the medium range forecast and aviation forecast models), is used to provide the initial and boundary conditions for RAMS. The model plume forecast data are sent to the ENSEMBLE WEB page in real-time where they may be compared with other model outputs. SRTC has participated in all the ENSEMBLE exercises in real-time. An example of the ensemble output is shown in the figure, which shows an overlay of the SRTC (crosshatched) initial 60-hour forecast for the plume overlaid on an ensemble of 5 other model outputs. The plume shadings show the level of consensus for a minimum threshold, enabling modelers to determine consensus between models and identify possible outliers. The traditional approach to provide atmospheric consequence assessment tools to aid decision-makers in response to a release from a nuclear facility is to provide a plume output from a particular model. However, the non-unique nature of solutions to the non-linear equations that govern the atmosphere, and the sensitivity of such equations to perturbations in the initial and boundary conditions, results in any single model output being simply one of many viable solutions. As such, the traditional approach does a disservice to decision-makers by inferring greater

  3. Numerical models and their role in emergency response: a perspective on dispersion modeling for emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, G.D.; Dickerson, M.H.

    1983-03-01

    Numerical models on several levels of complexity should be available to the emergency response planner. They are a basic tool but must be used in conjunction with both measurements and experience. When these tools are used in a complimentary fashion they greatly enhance the capability of the consequence manager to respond in an emergency situation. Because each accident or incident develops it's own characteristics and requirements the system must be capable of a flexible response. Interaction and feedback between model results from a suite of models and measurements (including airborne measurements) serve the emergency response planner's spectrum of needs, ranging from planning exercises and emergency precalculations to a real-time emergency response

  4. MESOI, an interactive atmospheric dispersion model for emergency response applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Glantz, C.S.

    1983-12-01

    MESOI is an interactive atmospheric despersion model that has been developed for use by the US Department of Energy, and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in responding to emergencies at nuclear facilities. MESOI uses both straight-line Gaussian plume and Lagrangian trajectory Gaussian puff models to estimate time-integrated ground-level air and surface concentrations. Puff trajectories are determined from temporally and spatially varying horizontal wind fields that are defined in 3 dimensions. Other processes treated in MESOI include dry deposition, wet deposition and radioactive decay. 9 references

  5. Advances in real-time technology assessment and emergency response: Close-in atmospheric dispersion modeling and exposure estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, J.; Lee, R.; McCallen, R.; Lawver, B.; Clark, J.; Rueppel, D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a stand-alone, real-time emergency response system to assess and predict the offsite dispersion of particulate releases. We have also developed advanced modeling tools that win expand the capability of the emergency response system to predict nearfield dispersion over complex terrain and around buildings

  6. The mesoscale dispersion modeling system a simulation tool for development of an emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uliasz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The mesoscale dispersion modeling system is under continuous development. The included numerical models require further improvements and evaluation against data from meteorological and tracer field experiments. The system can not be directly applied to real time predictions. However, it seems to be a useful simulation tool for solving several problems related to planning the monitoring network and development of the emergency response system for the nuclear power plant located in a coastal area. The modeling system can be also applied to another environmental problems connected with air pollution dispersion in complex terrain. The presented numerical models are designed for the use on personal computers and are relatively fast in comparison with the similar mesoscale models developed on mainframe computers

  7. Operational mesoscale atmospheric dispersion prediction using high performance parallel computing cluster for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Muralidharan, N.V.; Das, Someshwar; Dass, Hari; Eswara Kumar, P.

    2005-08-01

    An operational atmospheric dispersion prediction system is implemented on a cluster super computer for 'Online Emergency Response' for Kalpakkam nuclear site. The numerical system constitutes a parallel version of a nested grid meso-scale meteorological model MM5 coupled to a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The system provides 48 hour forecast of the local weather and radioactive plume dispersion due to hypothetical air borne releases in a range of 100 km around the site. The parallel code was implemented on different cluster configurations like distributed and shared memory systems. Results of MM5 run time performance for 1-day prediction are reported on all the machines available for testing. A reduction of 5 times in runtime is achieved using 9 dual Xeon nodes (18 physical/36 logical processors) compared to a single node sequential run. Based on the above run time results a cluster computer facility with 9-node Dual Xeon is commissioned at IGCAR for model operation. The run time of a triple nested domain MM5 is about 4 h for 24 h forecast. The system has been operated continuously for a few months and results were ported on the IMSc home page. Initial and periodic boundary condition data for MM5 are provided by NCMRWF, New Delhi. An alternative source is found to be NCEP, USA. These two sources provide the input data to the operational models at different spatial and temporal resolutions and using different assimilation methods. A comparative study on the results of forecast is presented using these two data sources for present operational use. Slight improvement is noticed in rainfall, winds, geopotential heights and the vertical atmospheric structure while using NCEP data probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution. (author)

  8. Distributed emergency response system to model dispersion and deposition of atmospheric releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.S.

    1985-04-01

    Aging hardware and software and increasing commitments by the Departments of Energy and Defense have led us to develop a new, expanded system to replace the existing Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system. This distributed, computer-based, emergency response system is used by state and federal agencies to assess the environmental health hazards resulting from an accidental release of radioactive material into the atmosphere. Like its predecessor, the expanded system uses local meteorology (e.g., wind speed and wind direction), as well as terrain information, to simulate the transport and dispersion of the airborne material. The system also calculates deposition and dose and displays them graphically over base maps of the local geography for use by on-site authorities. This paper discusses the limitations of the existing ARAC system. It also discusses the components and functionality of the new system, the technical difficulties encountered and resolved in its design and implementation, and the software methodologies and tools employed in its development

  9. Preliminary report on operational guidelines developed for use in emergency preparedness and response to a radiological dispersal device incident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J.; Kamboj, S.; Domotor, S.; Wallo, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents preliminary operational guidelines and supporting work products developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT). The report consolidates preliminary operational guidelines, all ancillary work products, and a companion software tool that facilitates their implementation into one reference source document. The report is intended for interim use and comment and provides the foundation for fostering future reviews of the operational guidelines and their implementation within emergency preparedness and response initiatives in the event of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident. The report principally focuses on the technical derivation and presentation of the operational guidelines. End-user guidance providing more details on how to apply these operational guidelines within planning and response settings is being considered and developed elsewhere. The preliminary operational guidelines are categorized into seven groups on the basis of their intended application within early, intermediate, and long-term recovery phases of emergency response. We anticipate that these operational guidelines will be updated and refined by interested government agencies in response to comments and lessons learned from their review, consideration, and trial application. This review, comment, and trial application process will facilitate the selection of a final set of operational guidelines that may be more or less inclusive of the preliminary operational guidelines presented in this report. These and updated versions of the operational guidelines will be made available through the OGT public Web site (http://ogcms.energy.gov) as they become finalized for public distribution and comment.

  10. Emergency response guidance for the first 48 hours after the outdoors detonation of an explosive radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Frederick Taylor; Musolino, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01

    Strategies and decisions to protect emergency responders, the public, and critical infrastructure against the effects of a radiological dispersal device detonated outdoors must be made in the planning stage, not in the early period just after an attack. This contrasts with planning for small-scale types of radiological or nuclear emergencies, or for a large-scale nuclear-power-type accident that evolves over many hours or days before radioactivity is released to the environment, such that its effects can be prospectively modeled and analyzed. By the time it is known an attack has occurred, most likely there will have been casualties, all the radioactive material will have been released, plume growth will be progressing, and there will be no time left for evaluating possible countermeasures. This paper offers guidance to planners, first responders, and senior decision makers to assist them in developing strategies for protective actions and operational procedures for the first 48 hours after an explosive radiological dispersal device has been detonated

  11. NARAC: an emergency response resource for predicting the atmospheric dispersion and assessing the consequences of airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Michael M.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) serves as a national resource for the United States, providing tools and services to quickly predict the environmental contamination and health effects caused by airborne radionuclides, and to provide scientifically based guidance to emergency managers for the protection of human life. NARAC's scientists have developed a diverse tool kit of numerical modeling capabilities to respond to different types of release events, distance scales (local, regional, continental, and global), and response times

  12. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  13. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  14. Emergency response workers workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapeev, S.A.; Glukhikh, E.N.; Tyurin, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A training workshop entitled Current issues and potential improvements in Rosatom Corporation emergency prevention and response system was held in May-June, 2012. The workshop combined theoretical training with full-scale practical exercise that demonstrated the existing innovative capabilities for radiation reconnaissance, diving equipment and robotics, aircraft, emergency response and rescue hardware and machinery. This paper describes the activities carried out during the workshop [ru

  15. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  16. Emergency response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrilo, D.; Dias de la Cruz, F.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study is estimated, on the basis of a release category (PWR4) and several accident scenarios previously set up, the emergency response efficacy obtained in the application of different response strategies on each of the above mentioned scenarios. The studied strategies contemplate the following protective measures: evacuation, shelter and relocation. The radiological response has been obtained by means of CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) code, and calculated in terms of absorbed dose equivalent (Whole body and thyroid), as well as early and latent biological effects. (author)

  17. The Dangers of Dispersal of Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Schiopoiu Burlea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that it is in the nature of the modern corporation that risks are distributed over several agents, we discuss in this paper the organisational behaviour as it results from such dispersal of responsibilities for both the principal and the agent. We explore the hypothesis that dispersal of responsibilities could be the result or a cause of a lack of consensus between the principal and the agent. Our findings suggest that a dispersal of responsibilities has a negative impact on the principal-agent relationship and that it represents a foundation for theoretical and empirical approaches to organisational behaviour. We find that agent perceptions of a dispersal of responsibilities are linked to his/her resistance to the principal’s interests, but this relationship is deeper than was suggested by previous research. However, if the sharing of responsibilities does not run parallel to that, we may have as a result what we call an agency problem.

  18. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  19. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  20. Wind emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.; Buckner, M.R.; Mueller, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The WIND system is an automated emergency response system for real-time predictions of the consequences of liquid and airborne releases from SRP. The system consists of a minicomputer and associated peripherals necessary for acquisition and handling of large amounts of meteorological data from a local tower network and the National Weather Service. The minicomputer uses these data and several predictive models to assess the impact of accidental releases. The system is fast and easy to use, and output is displayed both in tabular form and as trajectory map plots for quick interpretation. The rapid response capabilities of the WIND system have been demonstrated in support of SRP operations

  1. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1996-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, it became painfully obvious to the international community that there was an urgent need to establish a system for the coordination of international disaster assistance. It became the task of the United Nations Office for Disaster Relief (UNDRO) to develop such a system. The former UNDRO was subsumed into the Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA), established in January 1992 on the basis of UN General Assembly Resolution 46/182 adopted in December 1991, and the disaster relief system presently found in DHA is a further evolution of the system established by UNDRO. One particular importance in relation to nuclear accidents is the fact that UNDRO and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) signed a Memorandum of Understanding defining their respective responsibilities and the need for cooperation in case of accidents involving the unintentional release of nuclear radiation. In essence, the MOU makes it clear that the responsibilities of the IAEA, in connection with accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, related to the technical and radiological aspects, in particular to accident prevention, to the on-site preparedness, and to remedial measures within the 30-km zone outside the NPP. DHA's responsibilities, on the other hand, relate to the general preparedness and the rescue efforts outside the 30 km zone. In this respect, the preparedness and emergency response system is no different from the system employed in any other type of sudden-onset emergency

  2. Dangerous goods emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a general overview of the State of Western Australia including: the legal framework of the Dangerous Goods and Emergency response management scenarios (which consist mainly of fuel products such as LP gas); particular problems unique to the Western Australian environment; what has been done to overcome those problems. Western Australia has an area of about two and a half million square kilometers. The demography of the State is such that the population is concentrated in the south-west corner of the State with isolated pockets, mainly associated with mineral development but also associated with agriculture, scattered throughout the State

  3. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick

    2007-01-01

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  4. Transport accident emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallette-Fontaine, M.; Frantz, P.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with the IAEA recommendations for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan as described in Safety Series 87, Transnucleaire, a company deeply involved in the road and rail transports of the fuel cycle, masters means of Emergency Response in the event of a transport accident. This paper aims at analyzing the solutions adopted for the implementation of an Emergency Response Plan and the development of a technical support and adapted means for the recovery of heavy packagings. (authors)

  5. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  6. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  7. A prototype nuclear emergency response decision making expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Shih, C.; Hong, M.; Yu, W.; Su, M.; Wang, S.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype of emergency response expert system developed for nuclear power plants, has been fulfilled by Institute of Nuclear Energy Research. Key elements that have been implemented for emergency response include radioactive material dispersion assessment, dynamic transportation evacuation assessment, and meteorological parametric forecasting. A network system consists of five 80386 Personal Computers (PCs) has been installed to perform the system functions above. A further project is still continuing to achieve a more complicated and fanciful computer aid integral emergency response expert system

  8. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  9. Gold Nanospheres Dispersed Light Responsive Epoxy Vitrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitrimers represent a new class of smart materials. They are covalently crosslinked like thermosets, yet they can be reprocessed like thermoplastics. The underlying mechanism is the rapid exchange reactions which form new bonds while breaking the old ones. So far, heating is the most widely used stimulus to activate the exchange reaction. Compared to heating, light not only is much more convenient to achieve remote and regional control, but can also offer fast healing. Gold nanospheres are excellent photothermal agents, but they are difficult to disperse into vitrimers as they easily aggregate. In this paper, we use polydopamine to prepare gold nanospheres. The resultant polydopamine-coated gold nanospheres (GNS can be well dispersed into epoxy vitrimers, endowing epoxy vitrimers with light responsivity. The composites can be reshaped permanently and temporarily with light at different intensity. Efficient surface patterning and healing are also demonstrated.

  10. The TransPetro emergency response system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, A.T.F.; Cardoso, V.F.; Carbone, R.; Berardinelli, R.P. [Petrobras-TransPetro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, M.T.M.; Casanova, M.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica, TeCGraf

    2004-07-01

    Petrobras-TransPetro developed the TransPetro Emergency Response System in response to emergency situations at large oil pipelines or at terminal facilities located in sea or river harbour areas. The standard of excellence includes full compliance with environmental regulations set by the federal government. A distributed workflow management software called InfoPAE forms the basis of the system in which actions are defined, along with geographic and conventional data. The first prototype of InfoPAE was installed in 1999. Currently it is operational in nearly 80 installations. The basic concepts and functionality of the TransPetro Emergency Response System were outlined in this paper with reference to the mitigative actions that are based on an evaluation of the organization of the emergency teams; the communication procedures; characterization of the installations; definition of accidental scenarios; environmental sensitivity maps; simulation of oil spill trajectories and dispersion behaviour; geographical data of the area surrounding the installations; and, other conventional data related to the installations, including available equipment. The emergency response team can take action as soon as an accident is detected. The action plan involves characterizing several scenarios and delegating mitigative actions to specific sub-teams, each with access to geographic data on the region where the emergency occurred. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Being prepared for emergency situations involving radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardemann, F.; Vandecasteele, C.; Sohier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The events of 11 September 2001 and the evolution of the public perception of terrorism in the aftermath have given rise to concern that one day some terrorist group might make use of Radiological Dispersion Devices (RDD). Perhaps due to the attention that this issue has received from the media, a recent enquiry among the Belgian population has shown that the risk of a terrorist attack on nuclear facilities is believed to be high, and that terrorism in general is one of the major preoccupations, largely preceding environmental or technological risks. As such, it is worthwhile considering the response to this threat, focussing an expected characteristics of RDD scenarios, measurement strategies and advice for first interventions. Preventive measures are beyond the scope of this contribution. The purpose is not to present a dedicated solution to the problem nor to present an exhaustive list of problems and hypotheses, but to launch a framework for discussion with other participants, in order to generate some broadly accepted and sound principles for the response the day it would be necessary. The 'dirty bomb' scenario shows many differences as compared to 'traditional' emergency scenarios. A non exhaustive series of examples is given below: a) the source term is unpredictable, both the isotopic composition and the range of activities, although some information on 'candidate sources' is available in public literature. b) The location of the accident may be anywhere; it has a large probability within urban or strategic areas. The 'heart' of the crisis will presumably be in the public domain, not in a nuclear facility. An attack may arise in areas not having any presence of nuclear facilities in the vicinity or even in non-nuclear countries, which implies little expertise to respond. c) One may live the combination of important damage by the explosion combined with the a priori unknown existence of a radioactive, biological or chemical risk. d) There will be

  12. NOAA Emergency Response Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...

  13. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L.

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig

  14. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L. (UNESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig.

  15. First Response to Medical Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisah Saedon; Sarimah Mahat; Muhamad Nurfalah Karoji; Hasnul Nizam Osman

    2015-01-01

    Accident or medical emergencies, both minor and critical, occurs each day and can happen in any workplace. In any medical emergencies, time is a critical factor because the first person to arrive at the scene of an accident has a key role in the rescue of a victim. With the knowledge of some common medical procedures and emergency actions, this first responder can make a positive contribution to the welfare of the accident victim. In some cases, this contribution can make difference between life and death. Improper response to medical emergencies by an untrained person can result in worsen injuries or death. Therefore, first aids training are necessary to provide the information. (author)

  16. Mobile emergency response unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadi, W.J.; Trolan, R.T.; Becker, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The Hotspot quick-response unit was the solution to a requirement to find, identify, and control areas of radioactive contamination at the scene of a nuclear weapons accident. The unit consists of two trucks and two trailers, and is designed to be transported by one U.S. Air Force C-141. One truck (generator truck) carries a 40 kW generator-heater-air conditioner combination, spare tires, and accessories. The other (water truck) carries supplies and a 250-gal water tank. One trailer (counting trailer) contains detecting, counting, and recording equipment. The other (decontaminating trailer) contains a shower, sink, 30-gal hot water tank, and supplies

  17. Meteorology and dispersion forecast in nuclear emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Boutet, Luis I.; Jordan, Osvaldo D.; Hernandez, Daniel G.; Guichandut, M.E.; Chiappesoni, H.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) (ARN in Spanish)' and the 'National Meteorological Office (NMO) (SMN in Spanish)' of Argentine has been working together on the improvement of both meteorological forecasting and dispersion prediction. In the pre-release phase of a nuclear emergency, it is very important to know the wind direction and the forecast of it, to establish the area, around the installation, where the emergency state is declared and to foresee the modification of this area. Information is also needed about deterministic effects, to begin the evacuation. At this time, meteorological forecast of wind direction and speed, and the real time meteorological information is available in the nuclear power plant (NPP) and in the Nuclear Emergency Control Centre at the ARN headquarters, together with the short-range dose calculation provided by our dispersion code, SEDA. By means of the SEDA code, we can estimate the optimum place to measure the radioactive material concentration in air, needed do to reduce evaluation uncertainties due, among others, to poor knowledge of the source term. The SEDA code allows considering atmospheric condition, and the need to reduced doses of the measuring team in charge of the measurements. For the evaluation in the medium range, we participate in the project IXP, which provides four hours and about 50 kilometres forecast. In the long-range movement of air borne radioactivity, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose contact point in Argentina is the SMN, can assist us. We have developed together, with the SMN, a detailed procedure to request assistance from the WMO. In this work, we describe the combined tasks that were carried out with the SMN to define the procedures and the concepts for their application during a real emergency. The results of an application exercise carried out in 2006 are also described. (author)

  18. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Federal Training Center is a safety and emergency response training center that offers...

  19. Emergency response planning in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Release reporting and spill clean-up requirements by Saskatchewan Energy and Mines were reviewed. Wascana's experience in response planning was discussed. It was suggested that the key to prevention was up-front due diligence, including facility and oil well analysis. Details of Wascana's emergency plan, and details of Saskatchewan Energy and Mines release reporting procedures were also provided

  20. Emergency response planning in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the decade since the accident at Three Mile Island, emergency planning for response to these events has undergone a significant change in Pennsylvania, as elsewhere. Changes respond to federal guidance and to state agency initiatives. The most singular change is the practice of implementing a protective action throughout the entire emergency planning zone (EPZ). Due to Pennsylvania agency experiences during the accident, the decision was made soon after to develop a staff of nuclear engineers, each giving special day-to-day attention to a specific nuclear power station in the state. Changes in communications capabilities are significant, these being dedicated phone lines between the Commonwealth and each power station, and the reorientation of the Department of Environmental Resources radio network to accommodate direction of field monitoring teams from Harrisburg. Changes that are being or will be implemented in the near future include assessing the emergency response data system for electronic delivery of plant parameter data form facilities during accidents, increased participation in exercises, emergency medical planning, and training, the inclusion of all 67 counties in Pennsylvania in an ingestion EPZ, and the gradual severance of dependence on land-line emergency communication systems

  1. Towards accurate emergency response behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, T.O.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reactor operator emergency response behavior has persisted as a training problem through lack of information. The industry needs an accurate definition of operator behavior in adverse stress conditions, and training methods which will produce the desired behavior. Newly assembled information from fifty years of research into human behavior in both high and low stress provides a more accurate definition of appropriate operator response, and supports training methods which will produce the needed control room behavior. The research indicates that operator response in emergencies is divided into two modes, conditioned behavior and knowledge based behavior. Methods which assure accurate conditioned behavior, and provide for the recovery of knowledge based behavior, are described in detail

  2. Radiological emergencies the first response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    This national training course about radiological emergencies first answer include: Targets and preparation for emergency response in case of a nuclear or radiological accident. Operations center, action guide for fire fighting, medical coverage, forensic test, first aid, basic instrumentation for radiation, safety equipment, monitoring radiation, gamma rays, personnel exposed protection , radiation exposure rate, injury and illness for radiation, cancer risk, contamination, decontamination and treatment, markers, personnel dosimetry, training, medical and equipment transportation, shielded and tools. Psychological, physical (health and illness), economical (agriculture and industry) and environment impacts. Terrorist attacks, security belts. Support and international agreements (IAEA)

  3. Human Response to Emergency Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J.

    2009-12-01

    Almost every day people evacuate from their homes, businesses or other sites, even ships, in response to actual or predicted threats or hazards. Evacuation is the primary protective action utilized in large-scale emergencies such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, or wildfires. Although often precautionary, protecting human lives by temporally relocating populations before or during times of threat remains a major emergency management strategy. One of the most formidable challenges facing emergency officials is evacuating residents for a fast-moving and largely unpredictable event such as a wildfire or a local tsunami. How to issue effective warnings to those at risk in time for residents to take appropriate action is an on-going problem. To do so, some communities have instituted advanced communications systems that include reverse telephone call-down systems or other alerting systems to notify at-risk residents of imminent threats. This presentation examines the effectiveness of using reverse telephone call-down systems for warning San Diego residents of wildfires in the October of 2007. This is the first systematic study conducted on this topic and is based on interviews with 1200 households in the evacuation areas.

  4. A Tactical Emergency Response Management System (Terms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... information is a result of collaboration between accident response personnel. ... Tactical Emergency Response Management System (TERMS) which unifies all these different ... purpose of handling crisis and emergency.

  5. Federal Response Assets for a Radioactive Dispersal Device Incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.

    2009-06-30

    If a large scale RDD event where to occur in New York City, the magnitude of the problem would likely exceed the capabilities of City and State to effectively respond to the event. New York State could request Federal Assistance if the United States President has not already made the decision to provide it. The United States Federal Government has a well developed protocol to respond to emergencies. The National Response Framework (NRF) describes the process for responding to all types of emergencies including RDD incidents. Depending on the location and type of event, the NRF involves appropriate Federal Agencies, e.g., Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), United States Coast Guard (USCG), Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Justice (DOJ), Department of Agriculture (USDA), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Federal response to emergencies has been refined and improved over the last thirty years and has been tested on natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes and floods), man-made disasters (oil spills), and terrorist events (9/11). However, the system has never been tested under an actual RDD event. Drills have been conducted with Federal, State, and local agencies to examine the initial (early) phases of such an event (TopOff 2 and TopOff 4). The Planning Guidance for Protection and Recovery Following Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) and Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) incidents issued by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in August 2008 has never been fully tested in an interagency exercise. Recently, another exercise called Empire 09 that was situated in Albany, New York was conducted. Empire 09 consists of 3 different exercises be held in May and June, 2009. The first exercise, May 2009, involved a table top exercise for phase 1 (0-48 hours) of the response to an RDD incident. In early June, a full-scale 3- day exercise was conducted for the mid-phase response (48

  6. Coordinating International Response to Emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic disease, natural disasters and terrorism can affect thousands of people in a relatively short period of time anywhere in the world. Our recent international experience with hurricanes, earthquakes, tsunamis and infectious diseases (AIDS, TB and highly pathogenic avian influenza) show us that we must respond with a coordinated approach or we will fail the very people we intend to help. Nations from around the world are often eager to send assistance to the site of a disaster, but coordinating the incoming aid is more often flawed and imprecise than it must be in order to save lives and mitigate suffering. How can any one country, suffering from a horrendous calamity coordinate the incoming aid from around the world? Can any one agency hope to coordinate the myriad nation's response let alone that of the hundreds of non-governmental organizations? Currently, the answer is sadly, no. The purpose of this presentation is not to recommend one over the many international bodies which claim to oversee humanitarian assistance; the purpose of this presentation is to discuss the elements of only one aspect of the overall response effort: public health and medical response coordination. Public health response is of course different than a purely medical response. Traditionally, in a natural disaster, immediate public health concerns center around water, sewerage/waste disposal, potential for disease outbreaks, etc, whereas medical response concentrates on triage, saving those who can be saved, patching up the injured, and to a lesser extent, primary care to the survivors. In order to avoid political controversy, this presentation will use the example of Hurricane Iniki in Hawaii, September 1992, to illustrate key concepts. The State of Hawaii is no stranger to natural disasters. Their emergency response mechanisms are well honed, exercised and quite capable. However, the local community leaders on Kauai Island went thru each of the following phases before they

  7. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  8. Emergency planning and response preparedness in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martincic, R.; Frlin-Lubi, A.; Usenicnik, B.

    2000-01-01

    Disasters do occur and so do nuclear or radiological accidents. Experience has shown that advance emergency response preparedness is essential in order to mitigate the consequences of an accident. In Slovenia, the Civil Protection Organization is the responsible authority for emergency preparedness and response to any kind of disasters. The Krko Nuclear Power Plant is the only nuclear power plant in Slovenia. To date the plant has operated safely and no serious incidents have been recorded. Slovenia nevertheless, maintains a high level of emergency preparedness, which is reflected in the area of prevention and safety and in the area of emergency response preparedness. The emergency management system for nuclear emergencies is incorporated into an overall preparedness and response system. The paper presents an overview of nuclear or radiological emergency response preparedness in Slovenia and its harmonization with the international guidelines. (author)

  9. Emergency response technical centre of the IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallendre, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN), the technical support of the French nuclear safety authority, provides the technical support needed for protect the surrounding population from the consequences of radioactive releases. In the event of an accident arising at a nuclear facility, the IPSN would set up an Emergency Response Technical Centre (CTC) at Fontenay-aux-Roses. The IPSN's objectives are: (a) to diagnose the state of the nuclear facility and monitor its development, (b) to prepare prognosis for the evolution of the accident and to give an estimation of the associated consequences according to the situation evolution, (c) to estimate the risk of radioactive releases and the consequences on man and on the environment, mainly on the basis of weather forecasts and on the prognosis. This diagnosis-prognosis approach is build-up with the information on the state of the installation given by: the concerned site via audio-conference system and telescope, the security panels of the nuclear plant via networks. To perform its missions, the CTC, which has to be both safe and secure, uses multiple telecommunication resources to dialogue with partners and also mapping computer systems, data bases and software tools: (a) the SESAME system, which gives, during an accident of a PWR, a calculation method for the diagnosis-prognosis aforesaid, (b) the CONRAD system, which calculates the atmospheric dispersal of radioactive substances and consequences in the environment in the early phase of an accident, (c) the ASTRAL code, which allows to cope with long lasting situations. In order to be operational, the IPSN expert regularly undergo training in emergency situation management and participate in exercises organised by the government authorities. (author)

  10. Applications of complex terrain meteorological models to emergency response management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Leone, J.M. Jr.; Rao, K.S.; Dickerson, M.H.; Bader, D.C.; Williams, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), US Department of Energy (DOE), has supported the development of mesoscale transport and diffusion and meteorological models for several decades. The model development activities are closely tied to the OHER field measurement program which has generated a large amount of meteorological and tracer gas data that have been used extensively to test and improve both meteorological and dispersion models. This paper briefly discusses the history of the model development activities associated with the OHER atmospheric science program. The discussion will then focus on how results from this program have made their way into the emergency response community in the past, and what activities are presently being pursued to improve real-time emergency response capabilities. Finally, fruitful areas of research for improving real-time emergency response modeling capabilities are suggested. 35 refs., 5 figs

  11. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, M. A. W.; Ali, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. (authors)

  12. Adaptive workflow simulation of emergency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Guido Wybe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Recent incidents and major training exercises in and outside the Netherlands have persistently shown that not having or not sharing information during emergency response are major sources of emergency response inefficiency and error, and affect incident mitigation outcomes through workflow planning

  13. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  14. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  15. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  16. Basic data of emergency response centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenieek, O.

    1995-01-01

    Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of Czech Republic is a highly specialized institution belonging to Nuclear Safety State Administration (SONS), which assures its activities both organizationally and technically. Main function of the ERC in the case of nuclear emergency is to fulfil the needs of SONS, Governmental Committee for Nuclear Emergencies in ER (GCNE ER) and the regional organs of State Authorities concerning the emergency planning and preparedness, evaluation of nuclear emergency consequences, including the emergency management and response. In the case of major failure or accident on NPP, the ERC carries out the performance analysis and review of a given NPP. It also monitors the dosimetric situation and transfers the recommendation to GCNE ER, Regional Emergency Management Committees and to NPP

  17. The challenge of emergency response dispersion models on the meso-gamma urban scale: A case study of the July 26, 1993 oleum tank car spill in Richmond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskett, R.L.; Vogt, P.J.; Schalk, W.W. III; Pobanz, B.M.; Foster, C.S.; Ellis, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Atmospheric modeling of accidental toxic chemical releases requires accurate simulation of wind flows on the 1 to 25 km (meso-γ) scale. Complex meteorological fields have been a challenge to real-time emergency response models for decades especially when,wind observations are sparse. 'ne Gaussian model is a reasonable tool for the first few kilometers if the terrain is relatively flat, the wind flow is simple (no vertical structure), and meteorological data are available at the source. Most other situations demand three-dimensional models. Three-dimensional diagnostic wind field models depend on available meteorological observations which are subsequently adjusted by mass conservation to create a wind field over the terrain. Even in urban areas with multiple meteorological stations, 3-D diagnostic models may suffer from a lack of sufficient real-time observations. Deterministic models are stressed even more during variable low wind speed or stable atmospheric conditions, especially if the release is denser-than-air. Furthermore, typical wind direction measurement errors of 5 to 10 degrees extrapolated 10 or 20 km cause significant dislocations of downwind concentrations. This paper presents a recent case study that illustrates the difficulty of modeling accidental toxic releases in urban areas

  18. Impact of atmospheric release in stable night meteorological conditions; can emergency models predict dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connan, O.; Hebert, D.; Solier, L.; Voiseux, C.; Lamotte, M.; Laguionie, P.; Maro, D.; Thomas, L. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LRC (France)

    2014-07-01

    Atmospheric dispersion of pollutant or radionuclides in stratified meteorological condition, i.e. especially when weather conditions are very stable, mainly at night, is still poorly understood and not well apprehended by the operational atmospheric dispersion models. However, correctly predicting the dispersion of a radioactive plume, and estimating the radiological consequences for the population, following an unplanned atmospheric release of radionuclides are crucial steps in an emergency response. To better understand dispersion in these special weather conditions, IRSN performed a series of 22 air sampling campaigns between 2010 and 2013 in the vicinity of the La Hague nuclear reprocessing plant (AREVA - NC, France), at distances between 200 m and 3000 m from the facility. Krypton-85 ({sup 85}Kr), a b-and g-emitting radionuclide, released during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel was used as a non-reactive tracer of radioactive plumes. Experimental campaigns were realized in stability class stable or very stable (E or F according to Pasquill classification) 18 times, and in neutral conditions (D according to Pasquill classification) 4 times. During each campaign, Krypton-85 real time measurement were made to find the plume around the plant, and then integrated samples (30 min) were collected in bag perpendicularly to the assumed wind direction axis. After measurement by gamma spectrometry, we have, when it was possible, estimate the point of impact and the width of the plume. The objective was to estimate the horizontal dispersion (width) of the plume at ground level in function of the distance and be able to calculate atmospheric transfer coefficients. In a second step, objective was to conclude on the use of common model and on their uncertainties. The results will be presented in terms of impact on the near-field. They will be compared with data obtained in previous years in neutral atmospheric conditions, and finally the results will be confronted with

  19. Preparing a laboratory for radioanalytical emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.; Webb, C.J.; Isch, S.

    2011-01-01

    As the state of the nation's ability to respond to a radiological event is examined, it has become apparent that both capacity and capability are lacking. Department of Homeland Security National Planning Scenario 11 is designed to address the planning activities for the response to an attack using radiological dispersal devices. The scenario details show that the cleanup activity will take several years, and that there will be between 360 000 and 1 000 000 environmental samples in the first year. Based on existing capacity and capabilities it would take four to six years to analyze the samples generated at the lower end of the sample range. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been given responsibility for the remediation activities following a radiological event, and has awarded cooperative agreements to several laboratories to start the process of developing capacity and capabilities. The Connecticut Department of Public Health Laboratory (DPHL) was awarded one of the cooperative agreements. The DPHL has started activities to further those goals by investigating and implementing procedures to ensure that samples with activity higher than normal background can be processed safely, as well as implementing more rapid methods for radiochemical analysis. The DPHL already served as the primacy radiochemistry laboratory for several New England states and thus had a solid foundation to build upon. The DPHL has taken a process flow approach in preparing for radiological emergency response and recommends that radioanalytical laboratories that are reviewing their roles in such a response: - Ensure that their Nuclear Regulatory Commission licenses allow for appropriate radioisotope types and activities; - Develop procedures and processes to ensure that samples with higher activities can be processed safely, with due regard for sample screening and aliquanting samples; - Provide for enhanced radioanalytical contamination control, with careful consideration of sample

  20. Dispersion prognosis and consequences in the environment in emergency management context. A Nordic harmonization effort 1991-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1998-01-01

    Neighbour countries have often chosen different atmospheric dispersion prognosis models for use in emergency situations. In a Nordic project in the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme a worldwide survey of long-range atmospheric dispersion models was carried out. On the basis of this survey, each of the meteorological institutes of Denmark, Finland and Norway chose systems upon which future development would be based. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute had already developed a model. These and some other available models were subsequently utilised in Nordic 'functional' emergency exercises. The exercises also served as program intercomparison exercises, whereby some programming errors were actually discovered. The exercises also revealed that the currently used graphical presentations of the results may be difficult to understand properly in an emergency situation. The authorities responsible for emergency preparedness use the predictions from the atmospheric dispersion models to evaluate radiation doses to the population. In order to provide decision makers with more readily accessible information, a computerised 'handbook' containing all pertinent information has therefore been developed. (R.P.)

  1. Understanding Public Responses to Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Davies, S.R.; Kearnes, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies aimed at understanding public responses to emerging technologies have given limited attention to the social and cultural processes through which public concerns emerge. When probed, these have tended to be explained either in cognitive social psychological terms, typically in the

  2. Land Transport Emergency Response Technology Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOTSON, LORI J.; PIERCE, JIM D.

    2003-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to provide assistance in developing an emergency response plan for radioactive material transportation activities. Those tasks included compiling radioactive materials (RAM) transportation accident data FR-om the open literature and databases, investigating emergency response plans for radioactive materials transport in the United States, and developing specific recommendations for the JNC' nuclear material transport emergency response plan, based on information gathered during the first two tasks. These recommendations include developing a RAM database, a public transparency Internet website, an emergency response inFR-astructure designed specifically for transportation needs, and a clear set of directives to provide authority in the case of transportation accidents or incidents involving RAM

  3. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  4. Case Study of Airborne Pathogen Dispersion Patterns in Emergency Departments with Different Ventilation and Partition Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chang Heon; Lee, Seonhye

    2018-03-13

    The prevention of airborne infections in emergency departments is a very important issue. This study investigated the effects of architectural features on airborne pathogen dispersion in emergency departments by using a CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation tool. The study included three architectural features as the major variables: increased ventilation rate, inlet and outlet diffuser positions, and partitions between beds. The most effective method for preventing pathogen dispersion and reducing the pathogen concentration was found to be increasing the ventilation rate. Installing partitions between the beds and changing the ventilation system's inlet and outlet diffuser positions contributed only minimally to reducing the concentration of airborne pathogens.

  5. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P.

    1998-01-01

    The state of Louisiana's radiological emergency response programme is based on the federal guidance 'Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants' (NUREG-0654, FEMA-REP-1 Rev. 1). Over the past 14 years, the planning and implementation of response capabilities became more organized and efficient; the training programme has strengthened considerably; co-ordination with all participating agencies has assumed a more co-operative role, and as a result, a fairly well integrated response planning has evolved. Recently, a more 'functional' approach is being adopted to maximize the programme's efficiency not only for nuclear power plant emergency response, but radiological emergency response as a whole. First, several broad-based 'components' are identified; clusters of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is thus eliminated, the overlapping of functions is avoided, and a well structured and efficient organization is produced, that is essential for today's complex nature of emergency response. (author)

  6. Emergency Response Resources guide for nuclear power plant emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    On August 28 and September 18, 1990, the States of Louisiana and Mississippi, Gulf States Utilities, five local parishes, six Federal agencies, and the American Nuclear Insurers participated in a post-emergency TABLETOP exercise in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. One of the products developed from that experience was this guide for understanding the responsibilities and obtaining resources for specific needs from the various participants, particularly from those organizations within the Federal Government. This first revision of that guide broadens the focus of the original document. Also, new information defines the major Federal response facilities. This guide should assist State and local government organizations with identifying and obtaining those resources for the post-emergency response when their resources have been exhausted

  7. Off-site response for radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, J.S.; Oakes, T.W.; Hubbard, H.M.; Hibbitts, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Environmental radiological surveillance under emergency conditions at off-site locations is one of the advisory functions provided by DOE within the ORO jurisdiction. The Department of Environmental Management of ORNL has been requested to provide sampling and analytical assistance at such emergency response activities. We have assembled and identified specific individuals and equipment to provide a rapid response force to perform field measurements for environmental radioactivity releases as a consequence of nuclear accidents. Survey teams for sample collection and field measurements are provided along with analytical assistance to operate the radioactivity measuring equipment in the DOE emergency van

  8. Emergency Response to Radioactive Material Transport Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-shinawy, R.M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Although transport regulations issued by IAEA is providing a high degree of safety during transport opertions,transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will occur at any time. Whenever a transport accident involving radioactive material accurs, and many will pose no radiation safety problems, emergency respnose actioms are meeded to ensure that radiation safety is maintained. In case of transport accident that result in a significant relesae of radioactive material , loss of shielding or loss of criticality control , that consequences should be controlled or mitigated by proper emergency response actions safety guide, Emergency Response Plamming and Prepardness for transport accidents involving radioactive material, was published by IAEA. This guide reflected all requirememts of IAEA, regulations for safe transport of radioactive material this guide provide guidance to the publicauthorites and other interested organziation who are responsible for establishing such emergency arrangements

  9. Emergency Preparedness and Response: A Safety Net

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, H., E-mail: hannele.aaltonen@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: The objective of nuclear regulatory work is to prevent accidents. Nevertheless, possibility of a severe accident cannot be totally excluded, which makes a safety net, efficient emergency preparedness and response, necessary. Should the possibility of accidents be rejected, the result would be in the worst case inadequate protection of population, functions of society, and environment from harmful effects of radiation. Adequate resources for maintenance and development of emergency arrangement are crucial. However, they need to be balanced taking into account risks assessments, justified expectations of society, and international requirements. To successfully respond to an emergency, effective emergency preparedness, such as up-to-date plans and procedures, robust arrangements and knowledgeable and regularly trained staff are required. These, however, are not enough without willingness and proactive attitude to • communicate in a timely manner; • co-operate and coordinate actions; • provide and receive assistance; and • evaluate and improve emergency arrangements. In the establishment and development of emergency arrangements, redundant and diverse means or tools used are needed in, for example, communication and assessment of hazard. Any severe nuclear emergency would affect all countries either directly or indirectly. Thus, national emergency arrangements have to be compatible to the extent practicable with international emergency arrangements. It is important to all countries that the safety nets of emergency arrangements are reliable - and operate efficiently in a coordinated manner when needed - on national, regional and international level. (author)

  10. Using risk based tools in emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Ferns, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are used by the nuclear industry to model the potential response of a reactor subjected to unusual conditions. The knowledge contained in these models can aid in emergency response decision making. This paper presents requirements for a PRA based emergency response support system to date. A brief discussion of published work provides background for a detailed description of recent developments. A rapid deep assessment capability for specific portions of full plant models is presented. The program uses a screening rule base to control search space expansion in a combinational algorithm

  11. Radiological emergency response planning in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The most important aspect of emergency preparedness is to recognize and accept the fact that there exists a potential for a problem or a condition and that it requires some attention. Emergency plans should be sufficiently flexible so as to accommodate the emergency situation as it unfolds. Of the several emergency responses that may be taken following a nuclear power plant accident evacuation evokes the greatest attention and discussion as to whether it is truly a feasible option. Movements of people confined to mass care facilities or on life support systems involve special requirements. The Three Mile Island accident has been the most studied nuclear incident in the history of the nuclear power reactor industry. The findings of these reports will have a major influence on nuclear power issues as they are addressed in the future. The question remains as to whether the political leadership will be willing to provide the resources required by the emergency plan. Future safety and emergency response to nuclear accidents depend upon Government and industry acting responsibly and not merely responding to regulations. The Three Mile Island accident has had some beneficial side effects for the emergency management community. It has: increased the level of awareness and importance of emergency planning; served as a catalyst for the sharing of experiences and information; encouraged standardization of procedures; and emphasized the need for identifying and assigning responsibilities. The Emergency Management Organization in responding to a disaster situation does not enjoy the luxury of time. It needs to act decisively and correctly. It does not often get a second chance. Governments, at all levels, and the nuclear power industry have been put on notice as a result of Three Mile Island. The future of nuclear energy may well hang in the balance, based upon the public's perception of the adequacy of preparedness and safety measures being taken. (author)

  12. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  13. An emergency response plan for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, M.V.; Guerel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Transnucleaire is involved in road and rail transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials. To comply with IAEA recommendations, Transnucleaire has to master methods of emergency response in the event of a transport accident. Considering the utmost severe situations, Transnucleaire has studied several cases and focused especially on an accident involving a heavy cask. In France, the sub-prefect of each department is in charge of the organisation of the emergency teams. The sub-prefect may request Transnucleaire to supply experts, organisation, equipment and technical support. The Transnucleaire Emergency Response Plan covers all possible scenarios of land transport accidents and relies on: (i) an organisation ready for emergency situations, (ii) equipment dedicated to intervention, and (iii) training of its own experts and specialised companies. (author)

  14. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations. Supply vessels are also

  15. Post-emergency response resources guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    On August 28 and September 18, 1990, the States of Louisiana and Mississippi, Gulf States Utilities, five local parishes, six Federal agencies, and the American Nuclear Insurers participated in a post-emergency TABLETOP exercise in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. One of the products developed from that experience is this guide for understanding the responsibilities and obtaining resources for specific needs from the various participants, particularly those organizations within the federal government. This guide should assist state and local government organizations with identifying and obtaining those resources for the post-emergency response when theirs have been exhausted

  16. Radioactive materials transportation emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1987-05-01

    Ontario Hydro transports radioactive material between its nuclear facilities, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at Chalk River Laboratories and Radiochemical Company in Kanata, on a regular basis. Ontario Hydro also occasionally transports to Whiteshell Laboratories, Hydro-Quebec and New Brunswick Electric Power Commission. Although there are stringent packaging and procedural requirements for these shipments, Ontario Hydro has developed a Radioactive Materials Transportation Emergency Response Plan in the event that there is an accident. The Transportation Emergency Response plan is based on six concepts: 1) the Province id divided into three response areas with each station (Pickering, Darlington, Bruce) having identified response areas; 2) response is activated via a toll-free number. A shift supervisor at Pickering will answer the call, determine the hazards involved from the central shipment log and provide on-line advice to the emergency worker. At the same time he will notify the nearest Ontario Hydro area office to provide initial corporate response, and will request the nearest nuclear station to provide response assistance; 3) all stations have capability in terms of trained personnel and equipment to respond to an accident; 4) all Ontario Hydro shipments are logged with Pickering NGS. Present capability is based on computerized logging with the computer located in the shift office at Pickering to allow quick access to information on the shipment; 5) there is a three tier structure for emergency public information. The local Area Manager is the first Ontario Hydro person at the scene of the accident. The responding facility technical spokesperson is the second line of Corporate presence and the Ontario Hydro Corporate spokesperson is notified in case the accident is a media event; and 6) Ontario Hydro will respond to non-Hydro shipments of radioactive materials in terms of providing assistance, guidance and capability. However, the shipper is responsible

  17. Integrated simulation of emergency response in disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    An integrated simulation system of emergency response in disasters is under development that can consider various factors of disasters, such as disaster phenomena, activities of response organizations, resident behavior, and their environment. The aim of this system is to provide support for design and assessment of disaster management systems. This paper introduces the conceptual design of the entire system and presents simulators of organizational behavior in nuclear and earthquake disasters. (author)

  18. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability

  19. Collaborative situational mapping during emergency response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunawan, L.T.; Oomes, A.H.J.; Neerincx, M.; Brinkman, W.-P.; Alers, H.

    2009-01-01

    During emergency response, individuals observe only part of the picture, sharing of information is needed to get the required complete picture. The aim of our study is to get insight in the collaborative mapping process in order to derive requirements for a map-sharing tool. First, we analyzed the

  20. L-007: Objectives preparation and Emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This lecture explains the preparation and response in a nuclear and radiological emergency. Must be taken into consideration a program of preparedness, the public health and environment protection, propagation of contamination limit, first aid and treatment radiation damage, the stochastic, psychological and physical effects reduction

  1. Updating Dosimetry for Emergency Response Dose Projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCair, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an update to the 1992 Protective Action Guides (PAG) Manual. The PAG Manual provides guidance to state and local officials planning for radiological emergencies. EPA requested public comment on the proposed revisions, while making them available for interim use by officials faced with an emergency situation. Developed with interagency partners, EPA's proposal incorporates newer dosimetric methods, identifies tools and guidelines developed since the current document was issued, and extends the scope of the PAGs to all significant radiological incidents, including radiological dispersal devices or improvised nuclear devices. In order to best serve the emergency management community, scientific policy direction had to be set on how to use International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60 age groups in dose assessment when implementing emergency guidelines. Certain guidelines that lend themselves to different PAGs for different subpopulations are the PAGs for potassium iodide (KI), food, and water. These guidelines provide age-specific recommendations because of the radiosensitivity of the thyroid and young children with respect to ingestion and inhalation doses in particular. Taking protective actions like using KI, avoiding certain foods or using alternative sources of drinking water can be relatively simple to implement by the parents of young children. Clear public messages can convey which age groups should take which action, unlike how an evacuation or relocation order should apply to entire households or neighborhoods. New in the PAG Manual is planning guidance for the late phase of an incident, after the situation is stabilized and efforts turn toward recovery. Because the late phase can take years to complete, decision makers are faced with managing public exposures in areas not fully remediated. The proposal includes quick-reference operational guidelines to inform re-entry to

  2. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta [Louisiana Radiation Protection Div., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of `nodes` are generated for each component; these `nodes` may be divided into `sub-nodes` which will contain some `attributes`; `relational bonds` among the `attributes` will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the `nodes` assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the `attributes`. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization 1 ref., 6 figs.; e-mail: prosanta at deq.state.la.us

  3. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Prosanta

    1997-01-01

    The radiological emergency response program in the State of Louisiana is discussed. The improved approach intends to maximize the efficiency for both nuclear power plant and radiological emergency response as a whole. Several broad-based components are identified: cluster of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is eliminated; overlapping of functions is avoided, and is produced a well-structure and efficient organization

  4. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Theron, Michael; Thomas-Guyon, Helene

    2011-01-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: → This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. → Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. → Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. → Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. → This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  5. Exercising the federal radiological emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.; Wolff, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Multiagency exercises were an important part of the development of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This paper concentrates on two of these exercises, the Federal Field Exercise in March 1984 and the Relocation Tabletop Exercise in December 1985. The Federal Field Exercise demonstrated the viability and usefulness of the draft plan; lessons learned from the exercise were incorporated into the published plan. The Relocation Tabletop Exercise examined the federal response in the postemergency phase. This exercise highlighted the change over time in the roles of some agencies and suggested response procedures that should be developed or revised. 8 refs

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miska, H.

    2009-01-01

    Off-site nuclear emergency response in Germany is divided into disaster response under the responsibility of the Laender and measures for precautionary radiation protection pursuant to the Precautionary Radiation Protection Act under the lead of federal authorities. Early countermeasures at the regional level require a different management than long-term and comprehensive actions of precautionary radiation protection. As situations may arise in which measures of both approaches overlap with regard to place and time, it is essential to make thorough preparations in order to avoid problems with implementation. (orig.)

  7. Simulation analysis of the use of emergency resources during the emergency response to a major fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    During an emergency response to an accident or disaster, emergency response actions often need to use various emergency resources. The use of resources plays an important role in the successful implementation of emergency response, but there may be conflicts in the use of resources for emergency

  8. Medical response to radiation emergencies in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.; Dubner, Diana L.; Michelin, Severino C.; Vazquez, M.; Demayo, O.

    2006-01-01

    Although radiation accidents are not frequent, the increasing use of radioisotopes in medicine and industry increases the likelihood of such accidental situations. Additionally, risks posed by the malevolent use of radiation sources have been highlighted during the last few years. In this context, the enhancement of national capabilities for medical assistance of victims in radiation emergencies becomes relevant. This communication describes the organization of medical response to radiation emergencies existing in Argentina. A three-level system for medical response has been developed: pre-hospital response given on-site by local emergency services, assistance provided by emergency departments of local general hospitals and central reference hospitals for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, cutaneous radiation syndrome and internal contamination. An education and training program is regularly executed at the three levels, including theoretical background as well as practical training. Guidelines and protocols for medical handling of victims have been elaborated and implemented. Research and development of new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of radiation injuries are promoted by ARN in close collaboration with physicians belonging to reference hospitals. (author)

  9. Short radiological emergency response training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a radiological emergency response training program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the health physics and safety training staff. This course is given to groups from local, county, state, and federal agencies and industrial organizations. It is normally three days in length, although the structure is flexible to accommodate individual needs and prior training. An important feature of the course is an emergency exercise utilizing a short lived radionuclide to better simulate real accident conditions. Groups are encouraged to use their own instruments to gain better familiarity with their operating characteristics under field conditions. Immediately following the exercise, a critical review of the students' performance is conducted

  10. Emergency response in the Newfoundland offshore industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, J. [Cormorant Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This presentation reviewed current offshore oil activities with respect to safety issues regarding year-round marine operations in a harsh environment. Considerable logistics support is required for all offshore activities, including seismic and geotechnical surveys; exploration and production drilling; well testing; subsea construction; on-site production; and, delivery to market. Response to an offshore emergency must address the urgency of the incident along with stakeholder concerns. This presentation described the different types of emergencies and addressed issues regarding contingency planning; preventative measures; response philosophy; response scope; response at site; emergency management; communications links; and, oil spill response. The following current operations were highlighted: ExxonMobil's production drilling from the gravity-based concrete platform at Hibernia; Petro-Canada's production drilling at the Terra Nova FPSO; Husky Energy's production drilling at White Rose; and Chevron Canada's exploration drilling at the Orphan Basin. It was noted that in an emergency situation, the focus is on the welfare of offshore personnel. On an average day, the total offshore population is in the order of 1000 workers, all registered in the Personnel Logistics System which is updated with the departure of every helicopter from St. John's, Newfoundland or from the offshore platform. It is possible to prepare for foreseeable emergency incidents such as fire, explosion or gas leaks; spills to the marine environment; structural damage or collisions; persons lost at sea; helicopter or support vessel accidents; vessel sinking; sabotage; serious injuries or loss of life; severe ice events; and, loss of well control. The establishment of permanent safety zones at the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova production fields are among the preventative measures, along with standby vessels that provide a rescue service for offshore installations

  11. Generic procedures for medical response during a nuclear or radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical resource for planning the medical response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and available results of research relating to such emergencies. Effective medical response is a necessary component of the overall response to nuclear or radiological (radiation) emergencies. In general, the medical response may represent a difficult challenge for the authorities due to the complexity of the situation, often requiring specialized expertise, and special organizational arrangements and materials. To be effective, adequate planning and preparedness are needed. This manual, if implemented, should help to contribute to coherent international response. The manual provides the practical tools and generic procedures for use by emergency medical personnel during an emergency situation. It also provides guidance to be used at the stage of preparedness for development of medical response capabilities. The manual also addresses mass casualty emergencies resulting from malicious acts involving radioactive material. This part was supported by the Nuclear Security Fund. The manual was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, it must be reviewed and revised as part of the planning process to match the potential accidents, threats, local conditions and other unique characteristics of the facility where it may be used

  12. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. Key words: nuclear accident, emergency response, early warning system, air dispersion models, radioactive exposure dose. (Author)

  13. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Gayle [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nasstrom, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pobanz, Brenda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simpson, Matthew [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vogt, Phil [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  14. Emergency response packaging: A conceptual outline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Bennett, P.C.; Wheeler, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Packaging and Transportation Needs in the 1990's (PATN) component of the Transportation Assessment and Integration (TRAIN) program (DOE Nov. 1991) was designed to survey United States Department of Energy programs, both ongoing and planned, to identify needs for packaging and transportation services over the next decade. PATN also identified transportation elements that should be developed by the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE EM) Transportation Management Program (TMP). As a result of the predominant involvement of the TMP in radioactive material shipment issues and DOE EM's involvement with waste management issues, the primary focus of PATN was on waste packaging issues. Pending DOE regulations will formalize federal guidelines and regulations for transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials within the boundaries of DOE reservations and facilities and reflect a growing awareness of concern regarding safety environmental responsibility activities on DOE reservations. Future practices involving the transportation of radioactive material within DOE reservations will closely parallel those used for commercial and governmental transportation across the United States. This has added to the perceived need for emergency recovery packaging and emergency response features on primary packaging, for both on-site shipments and shipments between DOE facilities (off-site). Historically, emergency response and recovery functions of packaging have not been adequately considered in packaging design and construction concepts. This paper develops the rationale for emergency response packaging, including both overpack concepts for repackaging compromised packaging and primary packaging redesign to facilitate the recovery of packages via mobile remote handling equipment. The rationale will examine concepts for determination of likely use patterns to identify types of shipments where recovery packaging may have the most favorable payoff

  15. PHMC post-NPH emergency response training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes post-Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) emergency response training that was provided to two teams of Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) staff that will be used to assess potential structural damage that may occur as a result of a significant natural phenomena event. This training supports recent plans and procedures to use trained staff to inspect structures following an NPH event on the Hanford Site

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emergency response system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  17. Responsibility modelling for civil emergency planning

    OpenAIRE

    Sommerville, Ian; Storer, Timothy; Lock, Russell

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to analysing and understanding civil emergency planning based on the notion of responsibility modelling combined with HAZOPS-style analysis of information requirements. Our goal is to represent complex contingency plans so that they can be more readily understood, so that inconsistencies can be highlighted and vulnerabilities discovered. In this paper, we outline the framework for contingency planning in the United Kingdom and introduce the notion of respons...

  18. PHMC post-NPH emergency response training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-04-08

    This document describes post-Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) emergency response training that was provided to two teams of Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) staff that will be used to assess potential structural damage that may occur as a result of a significant natural phenomena event. This training supports recent plans and procedures to use trained staff to inspect structures following an NPH event on the Hanford Site.

  19. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishing a mobile automatic monitoring station for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A radiological/nuclear emergency event may cause environmental contamination. The emergency response works always need to plan an environmental survey programme incorporating the assessment results to see what is happening. The places where are assessed to have the highest radioactive contamination/radiation dose will catch more concern and need continuous monitoring. It will cause unnecessary dangers and dose to command that personnel conduct surveying in such places when the radiological/nuclear accident become more severe. A mobile automatic monitoring station has been established for emergency response by INER (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research) to solve the problem practically. The monitoring station involves a HPIC to monitor radiation dose, an anemometer to monitor wind speed and direction, a GPS to get position data, a GPRS/3G communication module to send monitoring and positioning data to the monitoring centre where can show the monitoring result directly on a map shown on the computer. These instruments are integrated in a trailer easy to be towed to the place need to be monitored. The electric power of the station is supplied by s a solar power energy system. It can supply the station working at least 10 days without extra electric power supply designed based on the expected time length of a nuclear power plant event. The HPIC is very sensitive and stable that can discriminate a 10 nSv/hr increasing of dose rate with the monitoring time period every ten seconds. Where the radiological dispersion device events happened is not predictable, it is difficult to get suitable wind monitoring data to assess the result of radiological dispersion device events. The anemometer added on the station can provide the real time wind monitoring data to help assessment works. (author)

  1. An emergency response centre (ERC) for the preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the requirement for a state of the art Emergency Response Centre (ERC) to be developed and kept in readiness for the quick response to any nuclear or radiological emergencies. For an effective response to any major nuclear emergency an ERC having the facilities of i) environmental dose rate monitoring network established using both mobile and fixed units ii) on-line meteorological data collection and information station iii) on-line computation and prediction of isodose curves in real time and iv) properly developed and tested monitoring methodologies are essential. Vehicles with on-line data transfer facility to the ERC and equipped with different type of monitoring systems can function as Mobile Monitoring Laboratories (MMLs) and can help in quick decision making even during a radiological emergency far away from the ERC. (author)

  2. Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, J.

    1990-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun implementation of the Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) to upgrade its ability to acquire data from nuclear power plants in the event of an emergency at the plant. ERDS provides a direct real-time transfer of data from licensee plant computers to the NRC Operations Center. The system has been designed to be activated by the licensee during an emergency which has been classified at an ALERT or higher level. The NRC portion of ERDS will receive the data stream, sort and file the data. The users will include the NRC Operations Center, the NRC Regional Office of the affected plant, and if requested the States which are within the ten mile EPZ of the site. The currently installed Emergency Notification System will be used to supplement ERDS data. This report provides the minimum guidance for implementation of ERDS at licensee sites. It is intended to be used for planning implementation under the current voluntary program as well as for providing the minimum standards for implementing the proposed ERDS rule

  3. Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, J.

    1991-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun implementation of the Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) to upgrade its ability to acquire data from nuclear power plants in the event of an emergency at the plant. ERDS provides a direct real-time transfer of data from licensee plant computers to the NRC Operations Center. The system has been designed to be activated by the licensee during an emergency which has been classified at an ALERT or higher level. The NRC portion of ERDS will receive the data stream, sort and file the data. The users will include the NRC Operations Center, the NRC Regional Office of the affected plant, and if requested the States which are within the ten mile EPZ of the site. The currently installed Emergency Notification System will be used to supplement ERDS data. This report provides the minimum guidance for implementation of ERDS at licensee sites. It is intended to be used for planning implementation under the current voluntary program as well as for providing the minimum standards for implementing the proposed ERDS rule. 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Chemical toxicity approach for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the event of an airborne release of chemical agent or toxic industrial chemical by accidental or intentional means, emergency responders must have a reasonable estimate of the location and size of the resulting hazard area. Emergency responders are responsible for warning persons downwind of the hazard to evacuate or shelter-in-place and must know where to look for casualties after the hazard has passed or dissipated. Given the same source characterization, modern hazard assessment models provide comparable concentration versus location and time estimates. Even urban hazard assessment models often provide similar predictions. There is a major shortcoming, though, in applying model output to estimating human toxicity effects. There exist a variety of toxicity values for non-lethal effects ranging from short-term to occupational to lifetime exposures. For health and safety purposes, these estimates are all safe-sided in converting animal data to human effects and in addressing the most sensitive subset of the population. In addition, these values are usually based on an assumed 1 hour exposure duration at constant concentration and do not reflect either a passing clouds concentration profile or duration. Emergency responders need expected value toxicity parameters rather than the existing safe-sided ones. This presentation will specify the types of toxicity values needed to provide appropriate chemical hazard estimates to emergency responders and will demonstrate how dramatically their use changes the hazard area.(author)

  5. Global approach of emergency response, reflection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco Garcia, E.; Garcia Ahumada, F.; Albaladejo Vidal, S.

    1998-01-01

    The emergency response management approach must be dealt with adequately within company strategy, since a badly managed emergency situation can adversely affect a company, not only in terms of asset, but also in terms of the negative impact on its credibility, profitability and image. Thereby, it can be said that there are three main supports to manage the response in an emergency situation. a) Diagnosis b) Prognosis. c) Communications. To reach these capabilities it is necessary a co-ordination of different actions at the following levels. i. Facility Operation implies Local level. ii. Facility Property implies National level iii. Local Authority implies Local level iv. National Authority implies National level Taking into account all the last, these following functions must be covered: a) Management: incorporating communication, diagnosis and prognosis areas. b) Decision: incorporating communication and information means. c) Services: in order to facilitate the decision, as well as the execution of this decision. d) Analysis: in order to facilitate the situations that make easier to decide. e) Documentation: to seek the information for the analysts and decision makers. (Author)

  6. IAEA emergency response network ERNET. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The Parties to the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency have undertaken to co-operate among themselves and with the IAEA in facilitating the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, and in minimizing the consequences and in protecting life, property and the environment from the effects of any radioactive releases. As part of the IAEA strategy for supporting such co-operation, the Secretariat of the IAEA is establishing a global Emergency Response Network (ERNET) of teams suitably qualified to respond rapidly, on a regional basis, to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies. This manual sets out the criteria and requirements to be met by ERNET teams. It is intended for use by institutions in Member States in developing, applying and maintaining their emergency response capabilities and in implementing quality assurance programmes within the context of ERNET. The manual is worded on the assumption that a State Competent Authority designated as the body responsible for reacting to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies which occur outside the jurisdiction of that State will be the State Contact Point for receiving requests for assistance from the IAEA under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

  7. IAEA emergency response network ERNET. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Parties to the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency have undertaken to co-operate among themselves and with the IAEA in facilitating the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, and in minimizing the consequences and in protecting life, property and the environment from the effects of any radioactive releases. As part of the IAEA strategy for supporting such co-operation, the Secretariat of the IAEA is establishing a global Emergency Response Network (ERNET) of teams suitably qualified to respond rapidly, on a regional basis, to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies. This manual sets out the criteria and requirements to be met by ERNET teams. It is intended for use by institutions in Member States in developing, applying and maintaining their emergency response capabilities and in implementing quality assurance programmes within the context of ERNET. The manual is worded on the assumption that a State Competent Authority designated as the body responsible for reacting to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies which occur outside the jurisdiction of that State will be the State Contact Point for receiving requests for assistance from the IAEA under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

  8. Distinguishing human responses to radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.; Ziegler, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inherent in the revised emergency planning regulations recently issued by the federal government is the assumption that people will follow official protective action advisories during a nuclear reactor accident. In this paper the authors argue that this is an unrealistic assumption and present empirical evidence which supports the proposition that a radiological emergency in likely to give rise to a high degree of extreme public behavior. Their analyses indicate that less than one-third of the households on Long Island are likely to follow instructions in the event of an accident at the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. Among the families who would not follow instructions, some would underreact but most would overreact. Perceived distance from the plant and age of household head appear to be the strongest discriminators among those who are most likely to follow orders, those most likely to underreact, and those most likely to overreact. Implications for radiological emergency preparedness and response planning are discussed. 71 references, 3 figures, 8 tables

  9. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. System of medical response to radiation emergency after a terror attack in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear or radiological accident is an unintended or unexpected event occurring with a radiation source or during a practice involving ionizing radiation, which may result in significant human exposure and/or material damage. Recent events involving terrorist activities have focused attention on the radiological threats. The full spectrum of radiological threats from terrorist spans the deliberate dispersal of radioactive material to the detonation of a nuclear weapon. While the most likely threat is the dispersal of radioactive materials, the use of a crude nuclear weapon against a major city cannot be dismissed. Radiological incident response requires functions similar to non-radiological incident response. Radiation emergency system in China has been established for radiological emergency preparedness and response. National coordination committee of radiation emergency has been setup in 1994, which consist of 17 ministries. The ministry is responsible for the medical assistance for radiation emergency. Chinese Center for Medical Response to Radiation Emergency (CCMRRE) was established in 1992, based on the National Institute for Radiological Protection, China CDC (NIRP, China CDC). The CCMRRE has been as one liaison institutes of WHO/REMPAN and functions as a national and professional institute for medical assistance in radiation accidents and terrorist events involving radioactive material. Under Provincial Committee of Radiation Emergency, there are local organizations of medical assistance in radiation emergency. The organizations carry out the first aid, regional clinic treatment, radiation protection and radiation monitory in nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. (author)

  11. Medical Response in Radiation Emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, M.A.; Tadic, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Nuclear Federal Law No. 24804, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. ARN has a system for intervention in radiological -and nuclear emergencies with a primary intervention group, which is on duty in weekly shifts all year round. This paper aims at describing the system as implemented at present. The Emergency Medical System has been developed into three levels: Level I: local emergency services. This level includes triage (conventional and radiological), first-aid care, and first management of contaminated victims Level II: emergency departments of local general hospitals that are in charge of performing a second triage by a biomedical approach, the treatment of conventional and/or radiocombined injuries and completing decontamination as necessary. In this way the initial triage is completed by a physical examination, timing and severity of prodromal signs and symptoms, sequential blood counts and serum enzymatic levels that allow a first-stage dosimetric approach at this level. Victims requiring higher complexity assistance shall be transferred to third-level hospitals. Level III: three central reference hospitals (Hospital Naval 'Pedro Mallo', Hospital de Quemados from Gobierno Autonomo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires and Hospital Britanico de Ciudad de Buenos Aires) capable of providing healthcare for diagnosis and treatment of acute radiation syndrome, cutaneous radiation syndrome and internal contamination constitute this level. An educational program for medical and paramedical responders is regularly carried out at the three levels, including theoretical background as well as practical training. Guidelines and protocols for medical handling of victims have been drawn up. Research and development of new strategies for first medical response, diagnosis and treatment of radiation

  12. Medical response in radiation emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Marina A.; Tadic, Maria M.

    2008-01-01

    According to the Nuclear Federal Law Nr. 24804, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control the nuclear activity with regard to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and nuclear non-proliferation issues. ARN has a system for intervention in radiological -and nuclear emergencies with a primary intervention group, which is on duty in weekly shifts all year round. This paper aims at describing the system as implemented at present. The Emergency Medical System has been developed into three levels: Level I: local emergency services. This level includes triage (conventional and radiological), first-aid care, and first management of contaminated victims. Level II: Emergency departments of local general hospitals that are in charge of performing a second triage by a biomedical approach, the treatment of conventional and/or radio-combined injuries and completing decontamination as necessary. In this way the initial triage is completed by a physical examination, timing and severity of prodromal signs and symptoms, sequential blood counts and serum enzymatic levels that allow a first-stage dosimetric approach at this level. Victims requiring higher complexity assistance shall be transferred to third-level hospitals. Level III: three central reference hospitals (Hospital Naval 'Pedro Mallo', Hospital de Quemados from Gobierno Autonomo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires and Hospital Britanico de Ciudad de Buenos Aires) capable of providing health care for diagnosis and treatment of acute radiation syndrome, cutaneous radiation syndrome and internal contamination constitute this level. An educational program for medical and paramedical responders is regularly carried out at the three levels, including theoretical background as well as practical training. Guidelines and protocols for medical handling of victims have been drawn up. Research and development of new strategies for first medical response, diagnosis and treatment of radiation

  13. Contraceptive availability during an emergency response in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Sascha R; Kourtis, Athena P; Curtis, Kathryn M; Tepper, Naomi; Gorman, Susan; Jamieson, Denise J; Zotti, Marianne; Barfield, Wanda

    2013-03-01

    This article provides the evidence for contraceptive need to prevent unintended pregnancy during an emergency response, discusses the most appropriate types of contraceptives for disaster situations, and details the current provisions in place to provide contraceptives during an emergency response.

  14. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  15. Radiation emergency response in Illinois, Alabama, and Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.K.; Chester, R.O.

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine state radiation emergency response and to locate any areas of emergency planning in need of improvement. This report briefly presents a summary of laws and defining documents governing radiation emergency response, describes the existing and projected need for such response, and presents the authors' analyses of the evolution of state response plans and their application to radiation incidents. Three states' programs are discussed in detail: Illinois, Alabama, and Texas. These states were selected because they have quite different emergency-response programs. Therefore, these state programs provide a wide variety of approaches to state radiation emergency response

  16. 48 CFR 452.236-77 - Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contracts: Emergency Response (NOV 1996) (a) Contractor's Responsibility for Fire Fighting. (1) The... emergency work (anticipated to be restricted to fire fighting). An equitable adjustment for the temporary... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Response. 452...

  17. Some Qualitative Requirements for Testing of Nuclear Emergency Response Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heungseop; Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Youngsoo; Jeong, Kyungmin

    2014-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is carrying out the project 'Development of Core Technology for Remote Response in Nuclear Emergency Situation', and as a part of the project, we are studying the reliability and performance requirements of nuclear emergency response robots. In this paper, we described some qualitative requirements for testing of nuclear emergency response robots which are different to general emergency response robots. We briefly introduced test requirements of general emergency response robots and described some qualitative aspects of test requirements for nuclear emergency response robots. When considering an immature field-robot technology and variety of nuclear emergency situations, it seems hard to establish quantitative test requirements of these robots at this time. However, based on studies of nuclear severe accidents and the experience of Fukushima NPP accident, we can expect some test requirements including quantitative ones for nuclear emergency response robots

  18. Experiences from exercises associated with nuclear emergency response in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Responsibilities Regarding Emergency Response in Germany - In the Federal Republic of Germany, the 16 federal state Ministries of the Interior are responsible for emergency response (threat through weapons, explosives, etc.). In the case of threats due to radioactive material experts of the competent federal state radiological protection authorities are consulted. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection assists in serious cases of defence against nuclear hazards (nuclear fuels, criticality, risk of dispersion). Currently, exercises are being performed in all 16 federal states to co-ordinate the ways of behaviour, action and thinking of the various necessary organisational units, like police, deactivators, prosecution officials, radiological protection experts and fire brigade. The joint exercises serve the purpose to practice the total chain of necessary measures like: notification chain, organisation at the place of action, co-ordination of appropriate search strategy, investigation of who was responsible, analysis (X-ray pictures, radiological analysis), activity determination, assessment of possible effects due to deactivation measures, determination of dispersion conditions, recommendation of measures for the protection of responders and the general population and measures to limit the consequences. Given Exercise Scenario - Via the emergency emergency call a situation is transmitted that urgently demands joint and co-ordinated action of prosecution authority, emergency response and radiation protection authority, to be able to master the situation successfully. As a rule this means that one deals with an IED (Improvised Explosive Device) secured by a booby trap with added radioactive substances. Organisation at the Place of Action - Experience shows that as a rule the patrol police and the local fire brigade will be the first to arrive at the place of action, already after a few minutes. Gradually, the other experts arrive. Depending on distance

  19. Automated data system for emergency meteorological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) releases small amounts of radioactive nuclides to the atmosphere as a consequence of the production of radioisotopes. The potential for larger accidental releases to the atmosphere also exists, although the probability for most accidents is low. To provide for emergency meteorological response to accidental releases and to conduct research on the transport and diffusion of radioactive nuclides in the routine releases, a series of high-quality meteorological sensors have been located on towers in and about SRP. These towers are equipped with instrumentation to detect and record temperature and wind turbulence. Signals from the meterological sensors are brought by land-line to the SRL Weather Center-Analysis Laboratory (WC-AL). At the WC-AL, a Weather Information and Display (WIND) system has been installed. The WIND system consists of a minicomputer with graphical displays in the WC-AL and also in the emergency operating center (EOC) of SRP. In addition, data are available to the system from standard weat []er teletype services, which provide both routine surface weather observations and routine upper air wind and temperature observations for the southeastern United States. Should there be an accidental release to the atmosphere, available recorded data and computer codes would allow the calculation and display of the location, time, and downwind concentration of the atmospheric release. These data are made available to decision makers in near real-time to permit rapid decisive action to limit the consequences of such accidental releases. (auth)

  20. Planning and implementing nuclear emergency response facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    After Three Mile Island, Arkansas Nuclear One produced a planning document called TMI-2 Response Program. Phase I of the program defined action plans in nine areas: safety assessment, training, organization, public information, communication, security, fiscal-governmental, technical and logistical support. Under safety assessment, the staff was made even better prepared to handle radioactive material. Under training, on site simulators for each unit at ANO were installed. The other seven topics interface closely with each other. An emergency control center is diagrammed. A habitable technical support system was created. A media center, with a large media area, and an auditorium, was built. Electric door strike systems increased security. Phone networks independently run via microwave were installed. Until Three Mile Island, logistical problems were guesswork. That incident afforded an opportunity to better identify and prepare for these problems

  1. Technical information management in an emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.A.; Greve, C.; Best, R.G.; Phillipson, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Through many experiences in responding to real radiation accidents and emergency response exercises, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a technical information management system that will be used in the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in the event of a major radiological accident. The core of the system is the Data Center in the FRMAC, utilizing a computerized database of all off-site environmental radiological data. The information contained and managed by the Data Center will be comprehensive, accountable, and traceable, providing information to the assessors for immediate health and safety needs as well as for long-term documentation requirements. A DOE task force has been formed to develop compatibility guidelines for video, automated data processing, and communication systems. An electronic mail, information status, and bulletin board system is also being developed to assist in the dissemination of information. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a giant step forward in displaying and analyzing information in a geographically referenced system

  2. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  3. Science-based response planning guidance for the first 100 minutes of the response to a radiological dispersal device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, S.V.; Harper, F.T.

    2016-01-01

    The first 100 minutes of a response to a radiological dispersal device are critical as this period will set the stage for how the overall response will be executed. First responders will be tasked with multiple activities such as confirming a radiological release, conducting lifesaving rescue operations, issuing protective actions, and beginning characterization of the scene. These activities need to take place as soon as the responders arrive on the scene (the first few minutes). The effectiveness of these early activities will define how well or how poorly the response will be in the emergency phase. The document which is under development provides guidance that can be used for planning an effective response to an RDD that will result in protection of the responders and the members of the public. The information is based on research and results of extensive experiments conducted by the Department of Energy National Laboratories. This guidance provides a realistic estimate of the possible consequences of an RDD detonation and delineates five missions and ten tactics that should be executed by the first responders and local response agencies in the first 100 minutes of a response. The guidance includes recommendations on how to execute the strategy, equipment requirements including personal protective equipment and public messaging

  4. Meteorological monitoring for dose assessment and emergency response modeling - how much is enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Individuals responsible for emergency response or environmental/dose assessment routinely ask if there are enough meteorological data to adequately support their objectives. The answer requires detailed consideration of the intended applications, capabilities of the atmospheric dispersion model data, pollutant release characteristics, terrain in the modeling region, and size and distribution of the human population in the modeling domain. The meteorologist's detailed knowledge of, and experience in, studying atmospheric transport and diffusion can assist in determining the appropriate level of meteorological monitoring

  5. Emergency response to mass casualty incidents in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen J

    2013-08-01

    The emergency response to mass casualty incidents in Lebanon lacks uniformity. Three recent large-scale incidents have challenged the existing emergency response process and have raised the need to improve and develop incident management for better resilience in times of crisis. We describe some simple emergency management principles that are currently applied in the United States. These principles can be easily adopted by Lebanon and other developing countries to standardize and improve their emergency response systems using existing infrastructure.

  6. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  7. Status and developing of nuclear emergency response techniques in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangang, Zhang; Bing, Zhao; Rongyao, Tang; Xiaoxiao, Xu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Emergency preparedness and response in China is consistent with international basic principle of nuclear safety and emergency response. Nuclear emergency response techniques in China developed with nuclear power from 1980s. The status of nuclear emergency techniques in China are: 1) China have plentiful experiences and abilities in the fields of nuclear facility emergency planning and preparedness, nuclear accident consequence assessment, emergency monitoring, and emergency advisory; 2) Emergency assistance ability in China has a foundation, however it cannot satisfy national requirement; 3) Emergency planning and preparedness is not based on hazard assessment; 4) Remote monitoring and robot techniques in not adaptable to the requirements of nuclear emergency response; 5) A consistent emergency assessment system is lack in China. In this paper, it is analyzed what is the developing focal points of nuclear emergency response techniques in China, and it is proposed that the main points are: a) To develop the research of emergency preparedness on the base of hazard analysis; b) To improve remote monitoring and robot ability during nuclear emergency; c) To develop the response technique research with anti-terrorism. (author)

  8. Building a year 2000 emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riopel, P.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation emphasized the importance of developing an emergency plan to minimize any impacts in the event that something may go wrong when the clock changes over at midnight on December 31, 1999. It is usually impossible to anticipate what kinds of emergencies will happen. Planning for emergencies does not have to be an intimidating task. Hazard analysis is a subjective way to investigate what can go wrong, the likelihood of it happening relative to some other potential emergency, and the seriousness of the event. In general, emergency planning for Y2K should not be significantly different from planning for any other type of emergency. Y2K is not the emergency. The events that occur as a consequence of Y2K are. It is these events that should be the focus of a Year 2000 emergency plan

  9. Oil supply security: the emergency response potential of IEA countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the oil supply security and more particularly with the emergency response potential of International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. The first part describes the changing pattern of IEA emergency response requirements. It begins with the experience from the past, then gives the energy outlook to 2010 and ends with the emergency response policy issues for the future. The second part is an overview on the IEA emergency response potential which includes the organisation, the emergency reserves, the demand restraint and the other response mechanisms. The third part gives the response potential of individual IEA countries. The last part deals with IEA emergency response in practice and more particularly with the gulf crisis of 1990-1991. It includes the initial problems raised by the gulf crisis, the adjustment and preparation and the onset of military action with the IEA response.(O.L.). 7 figs., 85 tabs

  10. Using principles from emergency management to improve emergency response plans for research animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelweid, Catherine M

    2013-10-01

    Animal research regulatory agencies have issued updated requirements for emergency response planning by regulated research institutions. A thorough emergency response plan is an essential component of an institution's animal care and use program, but developing an effective plan can be a daunting task. The author provides basic information drawn from the field of emergency management about best practices for developing emergency response plans. Planners should use the basic principles of emergency management to develop a common-sense approach to managing emergencies in their facilities.

  11. Development of regional atmospheric dynamic and air pollution models for nuclear emergency response system WSPEEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuno, Akiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Lee, Soon-Hwan; Tsujita, Yuichi; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Chino, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    WSPEEDI (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) is a computer-based emergency response system to predict long-range atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into the atmosphere due to a nuclear accident. WSPEEDI has been applied to several international exercises and real events. Through such experiences, the new version of WSPEEDI aims to employ a combination of an atmospheric dynamic model and a particle random walk model for more accurate predictions. This paper describes these models, improvement of prediction and computational techniques for quick responses. (author)

  12. Radiation response of vitamin A in aqueous dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, B.; Kumta, U.S.

    1977-01-01

    The radiation destruction of vitamin A acetate was monitored in isooctane, coconut oil, and aqueous dispersions. The G(-vit. A), i.e., the number of vitamin A molecules destroyed per 100 eV of energy absorbed in lipid solvents and aqueous preparations, increased with the concentrations of vitamin A used. In the freely dissolved state, as in isooctane or coconut oil, the extent of destruction of vitamin A was more or less identical. However, a marked reduction in the radiation destruction of vitamin A was observed in aqueous dispersions at all concentrations except at 1 x 10 -4 M. Incorporation of sugars, starch, and egg albumin in aqueous preparations offered considerable protection to vitamin A from radiation damage which could be discerned even at the lowest concentration (1 x 10 -4 M). The protective influence of aqueous dispersion as noted for vitamin A was also observed for β-carotene, vitamin A alcohol, and ubiquinone-30. The significance of the above findings in radiation processing of foods has been discussed

  13. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms

  14. A model national emergency response plan for radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The IAEA has supported several projects for the development of a national response plan for radiological emergencies. As a results, the IAEA has developed a model National Emergency Response Plan for Radiological Accidents (RAD PLAN), particularly for countries that have no nuclear power plants. This plan can be adapted for use by countries interested in developing their own national radiological emergency response plan, and the IAEA will supply the latest version of the RAD PLAN on computer diskette upon request. 2 tabs

  15. Aquatic emergency response model at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant emergency response plans include a stream/river emergency response model to predict travel times, maximum concentrations, and concentration distributions as a function of time at selected downstream/river locations from each of the major SRP installations. The menu driven model can be operated from any of the terminals that are linked to the real-time computer monitoring system for emergency response

  16. Emergency response facility technical data system of Taiwan Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.; Liang, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) has developed its emergency response facility program since 1981. This program is integrated with the following activities to enhance the emergency response capability of nuclear power plants: (1) survey of the plant instrumentation based on the requirements of R.G. 1.97; (2) improvement of plant specific emergency operating procedures based on the emergency response guidelines developed by the Owners group; (3) implementation of the detailed control room design review with the consideration of human engineering and task analysis; and (4) organization, staff and communication of emergency planning of nuclear power plant. The emergency response facility programs of Taipower are implemented in Chinshan (GE BWR4/MARK I), Kuosheng (GE BWR6/MARK III) and Maanshan (W PWR). The major items included in each program are: (1) to establish new buildings for On-Site Technical Support Center, Near-Site Emergency Operation Facility; (2) to establish an Emergency Executive Center at Taipower headquarters; (3) to establish the communication network between control room and emergency response facilities; and (4) to install a dedicated Emergency Response Facility Technical Data System (ERFTDS) for each plant. The ERFTDS provides the functions of data acquisition, data processing, data storage and display in meeting with the requirements of NUREG 0696. The ERFTDS is designed with plant specific requirements. These specific requirements are expected to be useful not only for the emergency condition but also for normal operation conditions

  17. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper will look at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, and the development of the initial recovery strategy. It will then discuss the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Since the events of September 11 th 2001, attention is becoming increasingly focussed on the response to the deliberate dispersal of radioactive material, eg so called 'dirty bombs' or deliberate contamination of the food supply. Whilst some aspects of the response to a dirty bomb will be similar to those for a nuclear accident, in other respects such deliberate dispersal will pose additional challenges (e.g. identification of the radionuclide(s) involved, likely dispersion from within an urban area for dirty bombs, identification of the geographical spread of foods contaminated). This papers also considers the extent to which existing arrangements and assessments underpinning nuclear accident response would need modification/upgrading for response to deliberate dispersal. In the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, decision makers will be under pressure to make rapid decisions concerning the lifting of countermeasures implemented during the emergency phase and the need for further measures. A failure to respond promptly will leave an information void in which other, self-styled, experts will advertise their solutions, thereby adding to the pressure. This may then lead to a loss of confidence by the public, and make it more difficult to develop a practicable recovery strategy that is also acceptable to those affected. However, if decisions are made without a full understanding of the contamination pattern and its likely future impact, then it is possible that promises or actions taken early on will need to be reversed as a fuller understanding of the

  18. AECB emergency response plan - in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The AECB's mission is to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment. The mission applies before, during and after emergencies

  19. More efficient response to nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    Three documents related to the first volume of this report are presented here. These are a description of the emergency provisions organisation, an analysis of the weaknesses in the present organisation and proposed improvements (with appendices on the information problem in excercises with the emergency provisions at Ringhals and attitudes to tasks connected with evacuation following a power reactor accident) and agreements with Denmark, Finland, Norway and the IAEA for mutual assistance. (JIW)

  20. The appropriateness of emergency medical service responses in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The appropriateness of emergency medical service responses in the eThekwini district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PR Newton, R Naidoo, P Brysiewicz. Abstract. Introduction. Emergency medical services (EMS) are sometimes required to respond to cases that are later found not to be emergencies, resulting in high ...

  1. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All water services systems, irrespective of size, location etc., should have emergency response plans (ERPs) to guide officials, stakeholders and consumers through emergencies, as part of managing risks in the water supply system. Emergencies in the water supply system may result from, among other causes, natural ...

  2. [Response surface method optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis preparation genistein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Zhu, Jing; Sun, E; Yu, Dan-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Qi-Yuan; Ning, Qing; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2012-04-01

    This article reports that nano-silica solid dispersion technology was used to raise genistein efficiency through increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis rate. Firstly, genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was prepared by solvent method. And differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to verify the formation of solid dispersion, then enzymatic hydrolysis of solid dispersion was done by snailase to get genistein. With the conversion of genistein as criteria, single factor experiments were used to study the different factors affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin and its solid dispersion. And then, response surface method was used to optimize of nano-silica solid dispersion technology assistant enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimum condition to get genistein through enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion was pH 7.1, temperature 52.2 degrees C, enzyme concentration 5.0 mg x mL(-1) and reaction time 7 h. Under this condition, the conversion of genistein was (93.47 +/- 2.40)%. Comparing with that without forming the genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion, the conversion increased 2.62 fold. At the same time, the product of hydrolysis was purified to get pure genistein. The method of enzymatic hydrolysis of genistin-nano-silica solid dispersion by snailase to obtain genistein is simple, efficiency and suitable for the modern scale production.

  3. Evaluation criteria for emergency response plans in radiological transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper identifies a set of general criteria which can be used as guides for evaluating emergency response plans prepared in connection with the transportation of radiological materials. The development of criteria takes the form of examining the meaning and role of emergency plans in general, reviewing the process as it is used in connection with natural disasters and other nonnuclear disasters, and explicitly considering unique aspects of the radiological transportation setting. Eight areas of critical importance for such response plans are isolated: notification procedures; accident assessment; public information; protection of the public at risk; other protective responses; radiological exposure control; responsibility for planning and operations; and emergency response training and exercises. (Auth.)

  4. Functional criteria for emergency response facilities. Technical report (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This report describes the facilities and systems to be used by nuclear power plant licensees to improve responses to emergency situations. The facilities include the Technical Support Center (TSC), Onsite Operational Support Center (OSC), and Nearsite Emergency Operations Facility (EOF), as well as a brief discussion of the emergency response function of the control room. The data systems described are the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and Nuclear Data Link (NDL). Together, these facilities and systems make up the total Emergency Response Facilities (ERFs). Licensees should follow the guidance provided both in this report and in NUREG-0654 (FEMA-REP-1), Revision 1, for design and implementation of the ERFs

  5. Emergency response training with the BNL plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Guppy, J.G.; Mallen, A.N.; Wulff, W.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is the experience in the use of the BNL Plant Analyzer for NRC emergency response training to simulated accidents in a BWR. The unique features of the BNL Plant Analyzer that are important for the emergency response training are summarized. A closed-loop simulation of all the key systems of a power plant in question was found essential to the realism of the emergency drills conducted at NRC. The faster than real-time simulation speeds afforded by the BNL Plant Analyzer have demonstrated its usefulness for the timely conduct of the emergency response training

  6. Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W James Davies

    2015-01-01

    implications for conservation, since plastic dispersal behaviour in response to imperfect emergence timing in core (source populations could help to maintain sink populations in heterogeneous landscapes which would otherwise be driven to extinction by low mate encounter-rates (Allee effects.

  7. Scaling-up Support for Emergency Response Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, A.H.J.; Neef, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the design of an information system that supports the process of scaling-up of emergency response organizations. This process is vital for effective emergency response but tends to go awry in practice. Our proposed system consists of multiple distributed agents that are capable of

  8. IEA Response System for Oil Supply Emergencies (2012 update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    Emergency response to oil supply disruptions has remained a core mission of the International Energy Agency since its founding in 1974. This information pamphlet explains the decisionmaking process leading to an IEA collective action, the measures available -- focusing on stockdraw -- and finally, the historical background of major oil supply disruptions and the IEA response to them. It also demonstrates the continuing need for emergency preparedness, including the growing importance of engaging key transition and emerging economies in dialogue about energy security.

  9. Field-dependent dynamic responses from dilute magnetic nanoparticle dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Balceris, Christoph; Costo, Rocio

    2018-01-01

    The response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to an oscillating magnetic field outside the linear response region is important for several applications including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and biodetection. The size and magnetic moment are two critical parameters for the pe...

  10. Development of effective emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    It has been discussed that there were many differences to international standards and the delay for prior planning implementation of unclear emergency preparedness. Therefore, it was necessary to promote the study to take the concept of the international standard to the Guide 'Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities', and to apply the Precautionary Action Zone (PAZ) etc. as the protective actions procedure. This study was started since the fiscal year 2010 to enhance the effectiveness of the protective actions, which are corresponding to these requirements based on international aspects in the nuclear disaster occurrence. And the study was conducted to introduce the emergency action level (EAL) as decision criteria and to apply urgent protective action considering PAZ, and the results from this study will be used as the basic data necessary to modify and improve the Guide. In order to fulfill the purposes described above, in fiscal year 2011, followings are executed, (1) analysis and verification for basic evacuation area such as the PAZ, (2) analysis with regard to the EAL and prototype of protective actions for public, and (3) analysis with regard to prototype of protective actions for public including evacuation plan. However, taking account of the significance of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, Japanese emergency preparedness strategy should be studied and reconstructed in logically, systematically, and with international standard, but also being based on the reflection of individual lessons from this accident. (author)

  11. Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident: description, performance and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrakov, D.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.

    2004-01-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System (ERS) is developed and works in National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology with Bulgarian Academy of Science. The creation and the development of ERS was highly stimulated by the CEC/IAEA/WMO project ETEX (European Tracer EXperiment). ERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental ones, realized for both regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically. It consists of the following modules: selection of proper meteorological data (analyses and forecast) received via the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of WMO; preparation of input meteorological files used by both trajectory and dispersion models (so called operational data base); completion of the respective meteorological archives, trajectory calculations for selected NPP in Europe and Northern Hemisphere; visualization of the results and putting the pictures in a specialized Web-site. The operational part runs every 12 hours, after new meteorological information is received. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases in occurred or during emergency exercises. Two Bulgarian dispersion models - LED and EMAP are a core of the accidental part, LED (Lagrangean-Eulerian Diffusion) being a typical puff-model, wile EMAP (Eulerian Model for Air Pollution) is a 3-D dispersion model. The source input is specified by the user - Bulgarian emergency authorities, and the visualized output (pollution distribution maps) is sent back via fax and FTP. In the paper, the ERS overall structure and its modules are described and an ERS application in emergency management is shown. (authors)

  12. Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) in case of nuclear accident with exposure doses’estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrakov, M.; Prodanova, M.; Slavov, K.; Veleva, B.

    2015-07-01

    A PC-oriented Emergency Response System in case of nuclear accident (BERS) is developed and works operationally in the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (NIMH). The creation and development of BERS was highly stimulated by the ETEX (European Tracer Experiment) project. BERS comprises two main parts - the operational and the accidental ones. The operational part, run automatically every 12 hours, prepares the input meteorological file used by both trajectory and dispersion models, runs the trajectory models, visualizes the results and uploads the maps of trajectories to a dedicated web-site. The accidental part is activated manually when a real radioactive releases occur or during emergency exercises. Its core is the Bulgarian dispersion models EMAP. Outputs are concentration, accumulated deposition and selected doses fields. In the paper, the BERS overall structure is described and examples of its products are presented. (Author)

  13. Value Chain Responsibility in Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and value chain responsibility (VCR) have gained increasing importance for firms. The literature on these topics reports on CSR practices for established firms with existing technologies and stable value chains. This raises questions about the viability of CSR

  14. Generic procedures for assessment and response during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    One of the most important aspects of managing a radiological emergency is the ability to promptly and adequately determine and take actions to protect members of the public and emergency workers. Radiological accident assessment must take account of all critical information available at any time and must be an iterative and dynamic process aimed at reviewing the response as more detailed and complete information becomes available. This manual provides the tools, generic procedures and data needed for an initial response to a non-reactor radiological accident. This manual is one out of a set of IAEA publications on emergency preparedness and response, including Method for the Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents (IAEA-TECDOC-953), Generic Assessment Procedures for Determining Protective Actions During a Reactor Accident (IAEA-TECDOC-955) and Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency (Safety Series No. 109)

  15. Emergency response and radiation monitoring systems in Russian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunyan, R.; Osipiyants, I.; Kiselev, V.; Ogar, K; Gavrilov, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Preparedness of the emergency response system to elimination of radiation incidents and accidents is one of the most important elements of ensuring safe operation of nuclear power facilities. Routine activities on prevention of emergency situations along with adequate, efficient and opportune response actions are the key factors reducing the risks of adverse effects on population and environment. Both high engineering level and multiformity of the nuclear branch facilities make special demands on establishment of response system activities to eventual emergency situations. First and foremost, while resolving sophisticated engineering and scientific problems emerging during the emergency response process, one needs a powerful scientific and technical support system.The emergency response system established in the past decade in Russian nuclear branch provides a high efficiency of response activities due to the use of scientific and engineering potential and experience of the involved institutions. In Russia the responsibility for population protection is imposed on regional authority. So regional emergence response system should include up-to-date tools of radiation monitoring and infrastructure. That's why new activities on development of radiation monitoring and emergency response system were started in the regions of Russia. The main directions of these activities are: 1) Modernization of the existing and setting-up new facility and territorial automatic radiation monitoring systems, including mobile radiation surveillance kits; 2) Establishment of the Regional Crisis Centres and Crisis Centres of nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities; 3) Setting up communication systems for transfer, acquisition, processing, storage and presentation of data for participants of emergency response at the facility, regional and federal levels; 4) Development of software and hardware systems for expert support of decision-making on protection of personnel, population

  16. Science in Emergency Response at CDC: Structure and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Rose, Dale A; Ghiya, Neelam D

    2017-09-01

    Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research.

  17. Institutionalizing Emerging Technology Assessment Process into National Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    mechanical methods, devices, and products, including oil sensors, booms, skimmers, decontamination , and waste minimization technologies...handling). • Alternative Oil Spill Response Technologies (in situ burning , dispersants, etc.). • Oil Spill Damage Assessment and Restoration. The TETs...deaths of eleven crewmembers and a subsequent uncontrolled oil spill that tested the government’s ability to respond to a spill of this magnitude as

  18. Unmanned Mobile Monitoring for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, YoungSoo; Park, JongWon; Kim, TaeWon; Jeong, KyungMin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Severe accidents at nuclear power plant have led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility. Therefore, the appropriate response is required for the mitigation of the accidents. In the past, most of responses were performed by human beings, but it was dangerous and risky. In this paper, we proposed unmanned mobile system for the monitoring of nuclear accident in order to response effectively. For the integrity of reactor cooling and containment building, reactor cooling pipe and hydrogen distribution monitoring with unmanned ground vehicle was designed. And, for the safety of workers, radiation distribution monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicle was designed. Unmanned mobile monitoring system was proposed to respond nuclear accidents effectively. Concept of reinforcing the integrity of RCS and containment building, and radiation distribution monitoring were described. RCS flow measuring, hydrogen distribution measuring and radiation monitoring deployed at unmanned vehicle were proposed. These systems could be a method for the preparedness of effective response of nuclear accidents.

  19. More efficient response to nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    A working group was appointed in 1978 to consider the problems which would face the local authorities in the unlikely event of a reactor accident considerably more severe than that foreseen as the basis of the emergency provisions as defined in the parliamentary bill of 1960. The group's report is here presented, together with appendices containing population and meteorological data. This report has been used by the Radiation protection Institute in its evaluations, which are presented in vol. 2 of this report. The views expressed in this report are those of the working group. (JIW)

  20. The development of nuclear power and emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear power is a safe, clean energy, which has been evidenced by the history of nuclear power development. Nuclear power is associated with very low risk but not equal to zero. Accident emergency response and preparedness is a final barrier necessary to reduce potential risks that may arise from nuclear power plants, which must be enhanced. In the course of accident emergency response and preparedness, it is highly necessary to draw domestic and foreign experiences and lessons. Lastly, the paper presents the discussions of some issues which merit attention with respect to emergency response and preparedness in China. (authors)

  1. An advanced system for environmental emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, James S.; Sullivan, Thomas J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, better known as ARAC, is a hybrid system of models, computers, databases, communications and highly skilled staff dedicated to emergency consequence analysis and prediction of atmospheric hazardous material releases. The ARAC system is located at and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (in Livermore, California, USA). It's development and operational support for the U.S. government have been funded by the U.S. Departments of Energy and Defense for the purpose of providing real-time, down-wind consequence assessments for emergency responders and managers for radiological and other hazardous releases. This service is available for both fixed facilities and any location in the world whenever and wherever the U.S. government has interest or concern. Over the past 26 years ARAC has provided consequence assessments for more than 160 potential and actual hazardous releases. This capability has been applied to diverse real-world releases such as the 1978 reentry of the COSMOS 954 nuclear powered satellite over Canada, the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear powerplant accidents, the Tomsk nuclear facility accident in Russia, two radiological accidents at Tokai (Japan) the Algeciras (Spain) melt of a radiotherapy source, and several non-radiological events such as chemical releases, toxic fires including the Kuwait oil fires, and even volcanic ash emissions. (author)

  2. Exploring mHealth Participation for Emergency Response Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Schwartz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We explore the challenges of participation by members of emergency response communities who share a similar condition and treatment, and are called upon to participate in emergency events experienced by fellow members. Smartphones and location-based social networking technologies present an opportunity to re-engineer certain aspects of emergency medical response. Life-saving prescription medication extended in an emergency by one individual to another occurs on a micro level, anecdotally documented. We illustrate the issues and our approach through the example of an app to support patients prone to anaphylaxis and prescribed to carry epinephrine auto-injectors. We address unique participation challenges in an mHealth environment in which interventions are primarily short-term interactions which require clear and precise decision-making and constant tracking of potential participants in responding to an emergency medical event. The conflicting effects of diffused responsibility and shared identity are identified as key factors in modeling participation.

  3. First response to transportation emergencies involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This FEMA/DOE/DOT videocourse describes the basis for procedures to be used by emergency first responders for transportation accidents which involve radioactive materials. Various commercial and government sector radioactive materials shipment programs will be described and will include information about hazards and the elements of safety, proper first response actions, notification procedures, and state or federal assistance during emergencies. Primary audience: fire service and emergency management personnel

  4. Emergency response planning for transport accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The document presents a basic discussion of the various aspects and philosophies of emergency planning and preparedness along with a consideration of the problems which might be encountered in a transportation accident involving a release of radioactive materials. Readers who are responsible for preparing emergency plans and procedures will have to decide on how best to apply this guidance to their own organizational structures and will also have to decide on an emergency planning and preparedness philosophy suitable to their own situations

  5. Nuclear accident/radiological emergency assistance plan. NAREAP - edition 2000. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Nuclear Accident/Radiological Emergency Assistance Plan (NAREAP) is to describe the framework for systematic, integrated, co-ordinated, and effective preparedness and response for a nuclear accident or radiological emergency involving facilities or practices that may give rise to a threat to health, the environment or property. The purpose of the NAREAP is: to define the emergency response objectives of the Agency's staff in a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency; to assign responsibilities for performing the tasks and authorities for making the decisions that comprise the Agency staff's response to a nuclear accident or radiological emergency; to guide the Agency managers who must ensure that all necessary tasks are given the necessary support in discharging the Agency staff responsibilities and fulfilling its obligations in response to an emergency; to ensure that the development and maintenance of detailed and coherent response procedures are well founded; to act as a point of reference for individual Agency staff members on their responsibilities (as an individual or a team member) throughout a response; to identify interrelationships with other international intergovernmental Organizations; and to serve as a training aid to maintain readiness of personnel. The NAREAP refers to the arrangements of the International Atomic Energy Agency and of the United Nations Security and Safety Section at the Vienna International Centre (UNSSS-VIC) that may be necessary for the IAEA to respond to a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, as defined in the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions. It covers response arrangements for any situation that may have actual, potential or perceived radiological consequences and that could require a response from the IAEA, as well as the arrangements for developing, maintaining and exercising preparedness. The implementing procedures themselves are not included in the NAREAP, but they are required

  6. 77 FR 23161 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Operating Procedures B. Severe Accident Management Guidelines C. Extensive Damage Mitigation Guidelines D... the EOPs. B. Severe Accident Management Guidelines During the 1990s, the nuclear industry developed Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) as a voluntary industry initiative in response to Generic...

  7. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ensure that: (a) The vessel owner's or operator's shipboard oil pollution emergency plan, prepared and... Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), has provisions for prompt and effective response action to such emergencies as might arise in the performance of...

  8. Report of the emergency preparedness and response task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynes, R.R.; Purcell, A.H.; Wenger, D.E.; Stern, P.S.; Stallings, R.A.; Johnson, Q.T.

    1979-10-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) marked the first time in the US when traditional planning for emergencies was applied to a possible radiological emergency. This report examines the planning that existed in the counties surrounding the plant and at the state and federal levels. It also examines the responses of the various governmental units following the initial accident

  9. Report of the Emergency Preparedness and Response Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynes, R.R.; Purcell, A.H.; Wenger, D.E.; Stern, P.S.; Stallings, R.A.; Johnson, Q.T.

    1979-10-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) marked the first time in the US when traditional planning for emergencies was applied to a possible radiological emergency. This report examines the planning that existed in the counties surrounding the plant and at the state and federal levels. It also examines the responses of the various governmental units following the initial accident

  10. Caire - A real-time feedback system for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Brenk, H.D.; de Witt, H.

    1991-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Whatever the specific reason for the contingency may be, a quick and most accurate estimate of the radiation exposure in consequence of the emergency must be made. This is a necessary prerequisite for decisions on protective measures and off-site emergency management. With respect to this fact ant the recent experience of the Chernobyl accident, remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. this tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. The development phase of CAIRE has already been finished. CAIRE is now in an operational status and available for applications in emergency planning and response

  11. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2016-10-04

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head James Colson. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only addresses emergency response.

  12. General RMP Guidance - Chapter 8: Emergency Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have a Program 2 or 3 process at your facility, 40 CFR Part 68 (risk management program) requires an emergency response program in place if employees respond to some releases involving regulated toxic or flammable substances.

  13. A real-time monitoring/emergency response workstation using a 3-D numerical model initialized with SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawver, B.S.; Sullivan, T.J.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many workstation based emergency response dispersion modeling systems provide simple Gaussian models driven by single meteorological tower inputs to estimate the downwind consequences from accidental spills or stack releases. Complex meteorological or terrain settings demand more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion. Mountain valleys and sea breeze flows are two common examples of such settings. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional-diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on a workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability project

  14. Chinese experience on medical response to radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Qin, Bin; Lei, Cuiping; Chen, Huifang; Han, Yuhong

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Chinese Center for Medical Response to Radiation Emergency (CCMRRE) was established in 1992, based on the National Institute for Radiological Protection, China CDC (NIRP, China CDC). CCMRRE is a liaison of WHO/REMPAN and functions as a national and professional institute for medical preparedness and response to emergencies involving radioactive material. CCMRRE participates in drafting National Medical Assistant Program for Radiation Emergency and relevant technical documents, develops preventive measures and technique means of medical preparedness and response to radiation emergency. CCMRRE is responsible for medical response to radiological or nuclear accident on national level. CCMRRE holds training courses, organizes drills and provides technical support to local medical organizations in practicing medical preparedness and response to radiation emergency. CCMRRE collects, analyzes and exchanges information on medical response to radiological and nuclear emergency and establishes relevant database. CCMRRE also guides and participates in radiation pollution monitoring on accident sites. In the past ten years, we accumulate much knowledge and experience on medical response to radiation emergencies. In this context, we will discuss Xinzhou Accident, which took place in 1992 and involved in three deaths, and Ha'erbin Accident that took place in 2005 and involved one death. A father and two brothers in Xinzhou Accident died of over-exposed to 60 Co source and misdiagnosis and improper treatment, which indicates that most general practitioners are uncertain about the health consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation and the medical management of exposed patients. When Ha'erbin Accident happened in 2005, the local hospital gave the right diagnosis and treatment based on the clinic symptoms and signs, which prevent more people suffering from over-expose to 192 Ir source. The distinct changes comes from the education and training to primary doctors related

  15. Simulation of operators' response in emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1986-09-01

    For the simulation of the accidential course of events in industrial process plants, a model is needed of operators' response to the cues presented by the system. A model is proposed, based on the simplifications which can be made when restricting attention to the operator functions having significants for a probabilistic risk analysis, and to anly skill and rule based performance, i.e., to responses in the early phase of an accident. The model is based on Brunswik's lens model, a model of the normal task repertoire, and on a taxonomy of human errors. To bring the model in perspective, a review of the state of the art of cognitive models of human behaviour is included. (author)

  16. Simulation of Operators' Response in Emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    significants for a probabilistic risk analysis, and to only skill and rule based performance, i.e., to responses in the early phase of an accident. The model is based on Brunswik's lens model, a model of the normal task repertoire, and on a taxonomy of human errors. To bring the model in perspective, a review...... of the state of the art of cognitive models of human behaviour is included....

  17. An expert system for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebo, D.

    1989-01-01

    An expert system, the Reactor Safety Assessment System (RSAS), is being developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the NRC Operations Center. The RSAS is intended to aid the reactor safety team (RST) at the operations center in monitoring and projecting core and containment status during an emergency at a licensed nuclear power plant. The RSAS system development has two major aspects. The first is the compilation and storage of knowledge required for RST assessment tasks. The knowledge structure used by RSAS is a goal tree-success tree (GTST) model. The upper level structure of the GTST model is generic in nature. This allows development of models for generic plant-specific GTST models. The second aspect of the RSAS is the development of inferencing techniques for the access, display, and manipulation of the knowledge to meet RST requirements in a real-time manner during the activation of the operations center. This objective is achieved by critical safety function and success path monitoring. This basic strategy is used to determine the current status and estimate future challenges to the status of the reactor, identify procedures and equipment required to maintain or regain the critical safety functions, identify critical equipment, determine information requirements, and display pertinent information concerning current reactor status

  18. ANS-8.23: Criticality accident emergency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    A study group has been formed under the auspices of ANS-8 to examine the need for a standard on nuclear criticality accident emergency planning and response. This standard would be ANS-8.23. ANSI/ANS-8.19-1984, Administrative Practices for Nuclear Criticality Safety, provides some guidance on the subject in Section 10 titled -- Planned Response to Nuclear Criticality Accidents. However, the study group has formed a consensus that Section 10 is inadequate in that technical guidance in addition to administrative guidance is needed. The group believes that a new standard which specifically addresses emergency planning and response to a perceived criticality accident is needed. Plans for underway to request the study group be designated a writing group to create a draft of such a new standard. The proposed standard will divide responsibility between management and technical staff. Generally, management will be charged with providing the necessary elements of emergency planning such as a criticality detection and alarm system, training, safe evacuation routes and assembly areas, a system for timely accountability of personnel, and an effective emergency response organization. The technical staff, on the other hand, will be made responsible for establishing specific items such as safe and clearly posted evacuation evacuation routes and dose criteria for personnel assembly areas. The key to the question of responsibilities is that management must provide the resources for the technical staff to establish the elements of an emergency response effort

  19. Emergency response preparedness analysis for radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parentela, E.M.; Burli, S.S.; Sathisan, S.K.; Vodrazka, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper evaluates the emergency response capabilities of first responders, specifically fire services, within the state of Nevada. It addresses issues relating to the available emergency responders such as general capabilities, jurisdictions, and response times. Graphical displays of the response units and attribute tables were created using GIS ARC/INFO. These coverages, plus the existing Census Bureau TIGER Files and highway network for the state of Nevada, were utilized to determine approximate service areas of each response unit, population density served by each response unit, population density served by each response unit and the areas that can be served by a response unit for 3, 5, 10, and 30 minutes response times. Results of the analysis enabled identification of the critical areas along the proposed highway route corridor

  20. Real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation, which computes a three-dimensional numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 yr within the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project. Faster workstations and real-time instruments allow utilization of more complex three-dimensional models, which provides a foundation for building a real-time monitoring and emergency response workstation for a tritium facility. The stack monitors are two ion chambers per stack

  1. Challenges in designing interactive systems for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Nielsen, Esben Toftdahl

    2007-01-01

    and visions as ways to bridge between fieldwork and literature studies on the one hand and the emerging computer based prototypes on the other. Our case concerns design of innovative interactive systems for support in emergency response, including patient identification and monitoring as well as construction......This paper presents research on participatory design of interactive systems for emergency response. We present the work by going through the design method with a focus on the new elements that we developed for the participatory design toolkit, in particular we emphasize the use of challenges...

  2. Emergency preparedness and response plan for nuclear facilities in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Rahmah Hidayati; Pande Made Udiyani

    2009-01-01

    All nuclear facilities in Indonesia are owned and operated by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). The programs and activities of emergency planning and preparedness in Indonesia are based on the existing nuclear facilities, i.e. research reactors, research reactor fuel fabrication plant, radioactive waste treatment installation and radioisotopes production installation. The assessment is conducted to learn of status of emergency preparedness and response plan for nuclear facilities in Indonesia and to support the preparation of future Nuclear Power Plant. The assessment is conducted by comparing the emergency preparedness and response system in Indonesia to the system in other countries such as Japan and Republic of Korea, since the countries have many Nuclear Power Plants and other nuclear facilities. As a result, emergency preparedness response plan for existing nuclear facility in Indonesia has been implemented in many activities such as environmental monitoring program, facility monitoring equipment, and the continuous exercise of emergency preparedness and response. However, the implementation need law enforcement for imposing the responsibility of the coordinators in National Emergency Preparedness Plan. It also needs some additional technical support systems which refer to the system in Japan or Republic of Korea. The systems must be completed with some real time monitors which will support the emergency preparedness and response organization. The system should be built in NPP site before the first NPP will be operated. The system should be connected to an Off Site Emergency Center under coordination of BAPETEN as the regulatory body which has responsibility to control of nuclear energy in Indonesia. (Author)

  3. Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Services in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Han, X.; Zhou, Y.; Yue, P.; Wang, X.; Lu, J.; Jiang, W.; Li, J.; Tang, H.; Wang, F.; Li, X.; Fan, J.

    2018-04-01

    The Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service(DIMERS) project was kicked off in 2017 in China, with the purpose to improve timely responsive service of the institutions involved in the management of natural disasters and man-made emergency situations with the timely and high-quality products derived from Space-based, Air-based and the in-situ Earth observation. The project team brought together a group of top universities and research institutions in the field of Earth observations as well as the operational institute in typical disaster services at national level. The project will bridge the scientific research and the response services of massive catastrophe in order to improve the emergency response capability of China and provide scientific and technological support for the implementation of the national emergency response strategy. In response to the call for proposal of "Earth Observation and Navigation" of 2017 National Key R&D Program of China, Professor Wu Jianjun, the deputy chairman of Faculty of Geographical Science of Beijing Normal University, submitted the Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service (DIMERS) project, jointly with the experts and scholars from Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, China Institute of Earthquake Forecasting of China Earthquake Administration and China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Science. After two round evaluations, the proposal was funded by Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  4. Evaluating nuclear power plant crew performance during emergency response drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) is responsible for the regulation of the health, safety and environmental consequences of nuclear activities in Canada. Recently, the Human Factors Specialists of the AECB have become involved in the assessment of emergency preparedness and emergency response at nuclear facilities. One key contribution to existing AECB methodology is the introduction of Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) to measure crew interaction skills during emergency response drills. This report presents results of an on-going pilot study to determine if the BARS provide a reliable and valid means of rating the key dimensions of communications, openness, task coordination and adaptability under simulated emergency circumstances. To date, the objectivity of the BARS is supported by good inter-rater reliability while the validity of the BARS is supported by the agreement between ratings of crew interaction and qualitative and quantitative observations of crew performance. (author)

  5. Dispersal timing and drought history influence the response of bacterioplankton to drying-rewetting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Anna J; Langenheder, Silke

    2017-08-01

    The extent and frequency of drought episodes is expected to increase in the following decades making it a crucial stress factor for smaller water bodies. However, very little is known about how bacterioplankton is affected by increased evaporation and how these communities reassemble after rewetting. Here, we present results from a microcosm experiment that assessed the effect of drying-rewetting stress on bacterioplankton in the light of the stress history and the rate and timing of dispersal after the rewetting. We found that the drying phase resulted mainly in a change of function, whereas the complete desiccation and rewetting processes strongly affected both composition and function, which were, however, influenced by the initial conditions and stress history of the communities. Effects of dispersal were generally stronger when it occurred at an early stage after the rewetting. At this stage, selective establishment of dispersed bacteria coupled with enhanced compositional and functional recovery was found, whereas effects of dispersal were neutral, that is, predictable by dispersal rates, at later stages. Our studies therefore show that both the stress history and the timing of dispersal are important factors that influence the response of bacterial communities to environmental change and stress events.

  6. Training programs for emergency response personnel at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oscarson, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Three Mile Island reactor accident has focused attention on emergency planning and preparedness including selection and training of personnel. At Hanford, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is in the unique position of providing emergency response personnel, planning, training and equipment not only for its own organization and facilities but also for the Hanford Site in general, as well as the Interagency Radiological Assistance Plan (IRAP) Region 8 Team. Team members are chosen for one or more of the emergency teams based upon professional education and/or experience as well as interest, aptitude and specialized knowledge. Consequently, the initial training orientation of each new team member is not directed toward general professional ability, but rather toward specialized knowledge required to carry out their assigned emergency tasks. Continual training and practice is necessary to maintain the interest and skills for effectively coping with major emergencies. The types of training which are conducted include: tests of emergency systems and/or procedures; drills involving plant employees and/or emergency team members (e.g., activation of emergency notification systems); short training sessions on special topics; and realistic emergency exercises involving the simulation of major accidents wherein the emergency team must solve specific problems on a real time basis

  7. Spatial data requirements for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time assessments of the consequences resulting from an atmospheric radioactive material. In support of this operation, a system has been created which integrates numerical models, data acquisition systems, data analysis techniques, and professional staff. Components of this system rely to large degree on spatial data of various kinds. Of particular importance is the rapid generation of digital terrain models for any area in the continental U.S. The digital terrain models are used as input to atmospheric models and serve to familiarize assessors to new areas by presenting the terrain surface as a graphical image. In addition, base map data (roads, rivers, political boundaries) must also be supplied as an overlay to ARAC graphical products. A terrain data base and an associated acquisition system have been developed that provide the required terrain data within ten minutes. This terrain data base was derived from the Defense Mapping Ageny's planar data. A digital base map data base is currently being developed from the U.S. Geographical Survey's 1:2,000,000 Digital Line Graph data as well as their Geographic Names Information System. This base map data base improves ARAC's response to its mapping needs anywhere in the continental U.S

  8. Emergency preparedness and response to 'Not-in-a-Facility' radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of lessons learned from the past radiological accidents, which have not occurred in an operating facility, i.e. 'not-in-a-facility' radiological emergencies. A method to analyze status of prevention of accidents is proposed taking into account the experiences and findings from the past events. The main emergency planning items are discussed, which would render effective response in case of such emergencies. Although the IAEA has published many documents about establishing an adequate emergency response capability, it is not an easy task to bring these recommendations into life. This paper gives some hints how to overcome the most obvious difficulties while users of these documents trying to adapt the guidance to their own needs. The special cases of alpha emitters and radiological dispersal devices were considered separately. The balanced approach to emergency response is promoted throughout the text, which means that a level of preparedness should be commensurate to the threat and the existing resources should be used to the extent possible. (author)

  9. Emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae in reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, K.; Ciborowski, J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Concerns over the environmental impacts of oil sands extraction in northeastern Alberta has increased as the industry continues to expand. This study examined if the emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae differ in reclaimed wetlands constructed with oil sands process materials (OSPM) when compared with growth in reference wetlands. Five floating 30 cm diameter halo traps were deployed in various wetlands for a 24 hour period. Exuviae trapped in the surface water film were then collected, identified, and counted. Chironomids grown in laboratories from egg masses collected from 2 OSPM-affected wetlands and 2 reference wetlands were paired according to geographic proximity under controlled conditions for 1 generation. Chironomid larval growth was quantified in situ in the wetlands by reciprocally transferring second instar, second generation culture larva. The dispersal of the larvae was quantified by tabulating the number of adults caught in sticky insect traps located along 3 radially-arranged transects in each wetland. A preliminary analysis has suggested that fewer chironomids emerged from the OSPM-affected wetlands. No differences in dispersal distance between the OSPM-affected and reference wetlands were observed.

  10. Emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae in reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, K.; Ciborowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns over the environmental impacts of oil sands extraction in northeastern Alberta has increased as the industry continues to expand. This study examined if the emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae differ in reclaimed wetlands constructed with oil sands process materials (OSPM) when compared with growth in reference wetlands. Five floating 30 cm diameter halo traps were deployed in various wetlands for a 24 hour period. Exuviae trapped in the surface water film were then collected, identified, and counted. Chironomids grown in laboratories from egg masses collected from 2 OSPM-affected wetlands and 2 reference wetlands were paired according to geographic proximity under controlled conditions for 1 generation. Chironomid larval growth was quantified in situ in the wetlands by reciprocally transferring second instar, second generation culture larva. The dispersal of the larvae was quantified by tabulating the number of adults caught in sticky insect traps located along 3 radially-arranged transects in each wetland. A preliminary analysis has suggested that fewer chironomids emerged from the OSPM-affected wetlands. No differences in dispersal distance between the OSPM-affected and reference wetlands were observed.

  11. Emergency response planning in hospitals, United States: 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niska, Richard W; Burt, Catharine W

    2007-08-20

    This study presents baseline data to determine which hospital characteristics are associated with preparedness for terrorism and natural disaster in the areas of emergency response planning and availability of equipment and specialized care units. Information from the Bioterrorism and Mass Casualty Preparedness Supplements to the 2003 and 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys was used to provide national estimates of variations in hospital emergency response plans and resources by residency and medical school affiliation, hospital size, ownership, metropolitan statistical area status, and Joint Commission accreditation. Of 874 sampled hospitals with emergency or outpatient departments, 739 responded for an 84.6 percent response rate. Estimates are presented with 95 percent confidence intervals. About 92 percent of hospitals had revised their emergency response plans since September 11, 2001, but only about 63 percent had addressed natural disasters and biological, chemical, radiological, and explosive terrorism in those plans. Only about 9 percent of hospitals had provided for all 10 of the response plan components studied. Hospitals had a mean of about 14 personal protective suits, 21 critical care beds, 12 mechanical ventilators, 7 negative pressure isolation rooms, and 2 decontamination showers each. Hospital bed capacity was the factor most consistently associated with emergency response planning and availability of resources.

  12. Analysis of emergency response procedures and air traffic accidents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incessant air transport accidents have been a source of concern to stakeholders and aviation experts in Nigeria, yet the response and process has not been adequately appraised. This study attempts an evaluation of the emergency response procedures in the aviation industry with particular focus on Murtala Muhammed ...

  13. An expert system for improving nuclear emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame-Alfie, A.; Goldbogen, G.C.; Ryan, R.M.; Wallace, W.A.; Yeater, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The accidents at TMI-2 and Chernobyl have produced initiatives aimed at improving nuclear plant emergency response capabilities. Among them are the development of emergency response facilities with capabilities for the acquisition, processing, and diagnosis of data which are needed to help coordinate plant operations, engineering support and management under emergency conditions. An effort in this direction prompted the development of an expert system. EP (EMERGENCY PLANNER) is a prototype expert system that is intended to help coordinate the overall management during emergency conditions. The EP system was built using the GEN-X expert system shell. GEN-X has a variety of knowledge representation mechanisms including AND/OR trees, Decision trees, and IF/THEN tables, and runs on an IBM PC-XT or AT computer or compatible. Among the main features, EP is portable, modular, user friendly, can interact with external programs and interrogate data bases. The knowledge base is made of New York State (NYS) Procedures for Emergency Classification, NYS Radiological Emergency Preparedness Plan (REPP) and knowledge from experts of the NYS Radiological Emergency Preparedness Group and the Office of Radiological Health and Chemistry of the New York Power Authority (NYPA)

  14. Emergency Preparedness and Response at Nuclear Power Plants in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, L. A.; Qamar, M. A.; Liaquat, M.R., E-mail: samasl@yahoo.com [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    Emergency preparedness and response arrangements at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Pakistan have been reevaluated in the light of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Appropriate measures have been taken to strengthen and effectively implement the on-site and off-site emergency plans. Verification of these plans is conducted through regulatory review and by witnessing periodic emergency drills and exercises conducted by the NPPs in the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements. Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) have been revised at NPPs. A multi discipline reserve force has been formed for assistance during severe accidents. Nuclear Emergency Management System (NEMS) has been established at the national level in order to make necessary arrangements for responding to nuclear and radiological emergencies. Training programs for first responders and medical professionals have been launched. Emergencies coordination centres have been established at national and corporate levels. Public awareness program has been initiated to ensure that the surrounding population is provided with appropriate information on emergency planning and response. To share national and international operational experience, Pakistan has arranged various workshops and developed a strong link with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  15. Ontario Power Generation Fukushima emergency response drill strengthens and lessons learned - Ontario Power Generation Fukushima Emergency Response Drill Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Japan's Fukushima Daiichi severe nuclear accident in March 2011 has resulted in a reassessment of nuclear emergency response and preparedness in Canada. On May 26, 27 and 28, 2014 Ontario Power Generation (OPG) conducted the first North American full scale nuclear emergency response exercise designed to include regional, provincial and federal bodies as well as the utility. This paper describes the radiological aspects of the OPG Exercise Unified Response (ExUR) with emphasis on deployment of new Fukushima equipment on the Darlington site, management of emergency workers deplored in the vicinity of Darlington to collect environmental samples and radiation measurements, performance of dose calculations, communication of dose projections and protective actions to local, provincial and federal agencies and conduct of vehicle, truck and personnel monitoring and decontamination facilities. The ExUR involved more than 1000 personnel from local, provincial and federal bodies. Also, 200 OPG employees participated in the off-site emergency response duties. The objective of the ExUR was to test and enhance the preparedness of the utility (OPG), government and non-government agencies and communities to respond to a nuclear emergency. The types of radiological instrumentation and mobile facilities employed are highlighted in the presentation. The establishment of temporary emergency rooms with 8 beds and treatment facilities to manage potentially contaminated injuries from the nuclear emergency is also described. (author)

  16. Employer Requirements to Work during Emergency Responses: Key Ethics Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Taylor, Holly A; Powell, Tia

    2017-03-01

    Local health departments and their employees are at the forefront of emergency preparedness and response. Yet, recent studies have found that some local public health workers are unwilling to report to work in a variety of disaster scenarios. This can greatly compromise a response, as many local health departments need "all hands on deck" to effectively meet increased demands. To address these concerns, local health departments have employed varied policy strategies to ensure that employees do report to work. After describing different approaches taken by local health departments throughout the United States, we briefly identify and explore key ethics considerations that arise for local health departments when employees are required to report to work for emergency responses. We then discuss how these ethics considerations may inform local health department practices intended to promote a robust emergency response.

  17. Introducing PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Shih, Chunkuan; Chiang, Show-Chyuan; Weng, Tung-Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PCTRAN is integrated with an atmospheric dispersion algorithm. ► The improved PCTRAN acts as an accident/incident simulator and a data exchange system. ► The software helps the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. ► The evaluation results show the nuclear power plant accident and its off-site dose consequences. ► The software can be used for nuclear power plant emergency responses. - Abstract: Protecting the public from radiation exposure is important if a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident occurs. Deciding appropriate protective actions in a timely and effective manner can be fulfilled by using an effective accident evaluation tool. In our earlier work, we have integrated PCTRAN (Personal Computer Transient Analyzer) with the off-site dose calculation model. In this study, we introduce PCTRAN as an evaluation tool for nuclear power plant emergency responses. If abnormal conditions in the plant are monitored or observed, the plant staffs can distinguish accident/incident initiation events. Thus, the responsible personnel can immediately operate PCTRAN and set up those accident/incident initiation events to simulate the nuclear power plant transient or accident in conjunction with off-site dose distributions. The evaluation results consequently help the responsible organizations decide the rescue and protective actions. In this study, we explain and demonstrate the capabilities of PCTRAN for nuclear emergency responses, through applying it to simulate the postulated nuclear power plant accident scenarios.

  18. Modelling the atmospheric dispersion of foot-and-mouth disease virus for emergency preparedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.H.; Jensen, C.O.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2001-01-01

    A model system for simulating airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is described. The system includes a virus production model and the local- and mesoscale atmospheric dispersion model RIMPUFF linked to the LINCOM local-scale Row model. LINCOM is used to calculate the sub-grid scale Row...

  19. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1999-07-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  20. Development of scheme for predicting atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides during nuclear emergency by using atmospheric dynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The meteorological forecast models are critically important for the accuracy of predicting the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides discharged into atmosphere during nuclear emergencies. Thus, this paper describes a new scheme for predicting environmental impacts due to accidental release of radionuclides by using an atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. The advantages of introducing PHYSIC are, (1) three-dimensional local meteorological forecasts can be conducted, (2) synoptic meteorological changes can be considered by inputting grid data of synoptic forecasts from Japan Meteorological Agency to PHYSIC as initial and boundary conditions, (3) forecasts can be improved by nudging method using local meteorological observations, and (4) atmospheric dispersion model can consider the variation of the mixed layer. (author)

  1. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  2. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  3. Mesoscale atmospheric modeling of accidental toxic and radioactive releases for emergency response at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Steen, B.L.; Fast, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    In August of 1991, the Environmental Transport Group (ETG) began the development of an advanced Emergency Response (ER) system based upon the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System 1 (RAMS). This model simulates the three-dimensional, time-dependent, flow field and thermodynamic structure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). A companion Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model 2 (LPDM) simulates contaminant transport based on the flow and turbulence fields generated by RAMS. The current report describes progress to date on this project in the areas of data development, data assimilation, and operational (real-time) procedures. In particular, a diagnostic capability for simulating contaminant transport is demonstrated

  4. Response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, R.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Marques, J.; Vaz, P.; Balbuena, J.; Disch, C.; Fleta, C.; Jumilla, C.; Lozano, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years an increased international concern has emerged about the radiological and nuclear (RN) threats associated with the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials that could be potentially used for terrorist attacks. The objective of the REWARD (Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System) project, co-funded by the European Union 7. Framework Programme Security, consisted in building a mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance, using a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit includes a GPS system and a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station, where it will be analyzed in real time and correlated with historical data from the tag location, in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. Due to its portability and accuracy, the system will be extremely useful in many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. This paper shortly introduces the REWARD detection system, depicts some terrorist threat scenarios involving radioactive sources and special nuclear materials and summarizes the simulation work undertaken during the past three years in the framework of the REWARD project. The main objective consisted in making predictions regarding the behavior of the REWARD system in the presence of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), one of the reference scenarios foreseen for REWARD, using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP6. The reference scenario is characterized in detail, from the i) radiological protection, ii) radiation detection requirements and iii) communications points of view. Experimental tests were performed at the Fire Brigades Facilities in Rome and at the Naples Fire Brigades, and the results, which validate the simulation work, are presented and analyzed. The response of the REWARD

  5. Response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, R.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Marques, J.; Vaz, P. [IST - Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066, Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Balbuena, J.; Disch, C. [Physical Institut, University of Freiburg Hermann-Herder-Str. 3 D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Fleta, C.; Jumilla, C.; Lozano, M. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona - IMB-CNM, CSIC, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years an increased international concern has emerged about the radiological and nuclear (RN) threats associated with the illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials that could be potentially used for terrorist attacks. The objective of the REWARD (Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System) project, co-funded by the European Union 7. Framework Programme Security, consisted in building a mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance, using a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit includes a GPS system and a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station, where it will be analyzed in real time and correlated with historical data from the tag location, in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. Due to its portability and accuracy, the system will be extremely useful in many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. This paper shortly introduces the REWARD detection system, depicts some terrorist threat scenarios involving radioactive sources and special nuclear materials and summarizes the simulation work undertaken during the past three years in the framework of the REWARD project. The main objective consisted in making predictions regarding the behavior of the REWARD system in the presence of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), one of the reference scenarios foreseen for REWARD, using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP6. The reference scenario is characterized in detail, from the i) radiological protection, ii) radiation detection requirements and iii) communications points of view. Experimental tests were performed at the Fire Brigades Facilities in Rome and at the Naples Fire Brigades, and the results, which validate the simulation work, are presented and analyzed. The response of the REWARD

  6. Responses to emergencies in Mexico and Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation emergencies have two main aspects: radiation safety, which concerns control of the radiation source, and, more importantly, health effects, which entail diagnoses, treatment, and rehabilitation. The physician participates directly in a radiation emergency because he or she is the professional who knows best the human body and the methodology to re-establish health. However, because these types of incidents are infrequent, many physicians are poorly prepared to deal with such emergencies. Two main aspects of emergency response plans are: (1) prevention, including public education for behavior and planning for appropriate response; and (2) application, including prophylactic measures, assessing the extent of exposure and contamination, controlling public anxiety, and managing and treating the victims

  7. Real-time information support for managing plant emergency responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.; Lord, R.J.; Wilkinson, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident highlighted the need to develop a systematic approach to managing plant emergency responses, to identify a better decision-making process, and to implement real-time information support for decision-making. The overall process management function is described and general information requirements for management of plant emergencies are identified. Basic information systems are being incorporated and future extensions and problem areas are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-01-01

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release

  9. Assessing Emergency Preparedness and Response Capacity Using Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response Methodology: Portsmouth, Virginia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkjian, Katie M; Winz, Michelle; Yang, Jun; Corvese, Kate; Colón, Ana; Levine, Seth J; Mullen, Jessica; Ruth, Donna; Anson-Dwamena, Rexford; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Chang, David S

    2016-04-01

    For the past decade, emergency preparedness campaigns have encouraged households to meet preparedness metrics, such as having a household evacuation plan and emergency supplies of food, water, and medication. To estimate current household preparedness levels and to enhance disaster response planning, the Virginia Department of Health with remote technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a community health assessment in 2013 in Portsmouth, Virginia. Using the Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) methodology with 2-stage cluster sampling, we randomly selected 210 households for in-person interviews. Households were questioned about emergency planning and supplies, information sources during emergencies, and chronic health conditions. Interview teams completed 180 interviews (86%). Interviews revealed that 70% of households had an emergency evacuation plan, 67% had a 3-day supply of water for each member, and 77% had a first aid kit. Most households (65%) reported that the television was the primary source of information during an emergency. Heart disease (54%) and obesity (40%) were the most frequently reported chronic conditions. The Virginia Department of Health identified important gaps in local household preparedness. Data from the assessment have been used to inform community health partners, enhance disaster response planning, set community health priorities, and influence Portsmouth's Community Health Improvement Plan.

  10. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  11. Emergency preparedness and response in transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takani, Michio

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power has been providing clean, affordable electricity in many parts of the world for nearly half a century. The national and international transport of nuclear fuel cycle materials is essential to support this activity. To sustain the nuclear power industry, fuel cycle materials have to be transported safely and efficiently. The nature of the industry is such that most countries with large-scale nuclear power industries cannot provide all the necessary fuel services themselves and consequently nuclear fuel cycle transport activities are international. The radioactive material transport industry has an outstanding safety record spanning over 45 years; however the transport of radioactive materials cannot and most not be taken for granted. Efficient emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material is an important element to ensure the maximum safety in accident conditions. The World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), founded by International Nuclear Services (INS) of the United Kingdom, AREVA of France an the Federation of Electric Power Companies (FEPC) of Japan, represents the collective interest of the radioactive material transport sector, and those who rely on safe, effective and reliable transport. As part of its activities, WNTI has conducted two surveys through its members on emergency preparedness and response in the transport of radioactive material and emergency exercises. After recalling the International Atomic Energy Agency approach on emergency response, this paper will be discussing the main conclusion of surveys, in particular the national variations in emergency response and preparedness on the national and local levels of regulations, the emergency preparedness in place, the emergency response organisation (who and how), communication and exercises. (author)

  12. Emergency response preparedness: the French experience of large scale exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanson, D.; Desnoyers, B.; Chabane, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In compliance with the IAEA regulations for the transport of radioactive material in the event of accidents during transport of radioactive material, emergency provisions to protect persons, property and environment have to be established and developed by the relevant national organisations. In France, the prefect of the department where the accident occurs is responsible for decisions and measures required to ensure the protection of both population and property at risk owing to the accident. During an accident, the ministers concerned provide the prefect with recommendations and information, in order to help him take the requisite decisions. On their side, the nuclear industry and transport companies also have to be prepared to intervene and to support the authorities at their request, depending on their capacities and their specialities. To prepare the emergency teams properly and acquire effective emergency plans, training exercises have to be conducted regularly with every ministerial department involved, the nuclear industry and transport companies, members of the public and the media. Then, the feedback from such exercises shall be taken into account to improve the emergency procedures. This paper will introduce: - emergency response preparedness: what is required by the relevant regulations? - emergency response preparedness: how is France organised? - the French experience of conducting large training exercises simulating accidents involving the transport of radioactive material; - the main difficulties and lessons learned; - the perspectives

  13. Integrating Social Media Monitoring Into Public Health Emergency Response Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tamer A; Fleshler, Keren

    2016-10-01

    Social media monitoring for public health emergency response and recovery is an essential response capability for any health department. The value of social media for emergency response lies not only in the capacity to rapidly communicate official and critical incident information, but as a rich source of incoming data that can be gathered to inform leadership decision-making. Social media monitoring is a function that can be formally integrated into the Incident Command System of any response agency. The approach to planning and required resources, such as staffing, logistics, and technology, is flexible and adaptable based on the needs of the agency and size and scope of the emergency. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has successfully used its Social Media Monitoring Team during public health emergency responses and planned events including major Ebola and Legionnaires' disease responses. The concepts and implementations described can be applied by any agency, large or small, interested in building a social media monitoring capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  14. Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiadou, Paraskevi S.; Papazoglou, Ioannis A.; Kiranoudis, Chris T.; Markatos, Nikolaos C.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as, evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings; and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria are taken into consideration (e.g. health consequences, social disruption, economic cost). This paper presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm has been used as the optimization tool. Case studies demonstrating the methodology and its application in emergency response decision-making in case of accidents related to hazardous materials installations are presented. However, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency response procedures in other cases (nuclear accidents, transportation of hazardous materials) or for land-use planning issues.

  15. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: June 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  16. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  17. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  18. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  19. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  20. Manual for first responders to a radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. As stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, 'first responders shall take all practicable and appropriate actions to minimize the consequences of a nuclear or radiological emergency'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(49)/RES/9, continues to encourage Member States 'to adopt the relevant Agency standards, procedures and practical tools' and underlines 'the need for first responders to have appropriate training for dealing with ionizing radiation during nuclear and radiological emergencies'. This publication is intended to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. Its aim is to provide practical guidance for those who will respond during the first few hours to a radiological emergency (referred to here as 'first responders') and for national officials who would support this early response. It provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This report, published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series, replaces and builds on IAEA-TECDOC-1162 in the area of early response and first responders' actions. It takes account of the

  1. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  2. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  3. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  4. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  5. Dispersion coefficients for coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacRae, B.L.; Kaleel, R.J.; Shearer, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken an extensive atmospheric dispersion research and measurement program from which it is intended will emerge improved predictive techniques for employment in licensing decisions and for emergency planning and response. Through this program the NRC has conducted field measurement programs over a wide range of geographic and topographic locations, and are using the acquired tracer and meteorological measurements to evaluate existing dispersion models and prediction techniques, and to develop new techniques when necessary

  6. Emergency planning and response - role nad responsibilities of the regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a emergency plan and organisation of adequate emergency preparedness in case of radiological accident in NPP cannot be effective without the appropriate preparatory work. In most countries, also in Republic of Bulgaria, several organisations are identified to have a potential role to play in a radiological emergency. For these reason is very important to have a national organisation, with a mandate to organise, inspect and co-ordinate the possibility of ministries and institution to react in case of radiological emergency, i.e. to quarantine the possibility for implementation of adequate counter measure for protection of the population and environment in case of radiological emergency in NPP. For the purposes of the emergency planning and response the NPP operator, ministries and the institutions developed an Emergency plan - NPP Emergency Plan and National Emergency Plan. The development of the emergency plans will be impossible without the good co-operation of the organisations which have a responsibilities in a radiological emergency. Once emergency plans are adopted, each individual organisation, also the NPP operator, must ensure that in can carry out its role effectively in accordance with the emergency plan and can develop the appropriate organisation for action and implementation of protection counter measures. For testing the emergency plans a regular exercise must be organised. Periodic reviews of the plan and modifications, based on actual events and exercise experience must be performed. The main aim of these report is to present the Bulgarian emergency planning organisation and response by explaining the national emergency panning and response legislation, implementation of IAEA recommendations and exercise experience

  7. Factors responsible for the emergence of arboviruses; strategies, challenges and limitations for their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guodong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Gould, Ernest A

    2015-03-01

    Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment.

  8. Nuclear emergency planning and response in the Netherlands after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, L.J.W.M.; Kerkhoven, I.P.

    1989-01-01

    After Chernobyl an extensive project on nuclear emergency planning and response was started in the Netherlands. The objective of this project was to develop a (governmental) structure to cope with accidents with radioactive materials, that can threaten the Dutch community and neighbouring countries. The project has resulted in a new organizational structure for nuclear emergency response, that differs on major points from the existing plans and procedures. In this paper an outline of the new structure is given. Emphasis is placed on accidents with nuclear power plants

  9. Emergency response information within the National LLW Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.G.; Fuchs, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, with operational assistance from EG and G Idaho, Inc., maintains the National Low-Level Waste Information Management System, a relational data base management system with extensive information collection and reporting capabilities. The system operates on an IBM 4341 main-frame computer in Idaho Falls, Idaho and is accessible through terminals in 46 states. One of the many programs available on the system is an emergency response data network, which was developed jointly by EG and G Idaho, Inc. and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. As a prototype, the program comprises emergency response team contacts, policies, activities and decisions; federal, state and local government contacts; facility and support center locations; and news releases for nine reactor sites in the southeast. The emergency response program provides a method for consolidating currently fragmented information into a central and user-friendly system. When the program is implemented, immediate answers to response questions will be available through a remote terminal or telephone on a 24-hour basis. In view of current hazardous and low-level waste shipment rates and future movements of high-level waste, the program can offer needed and timely information for transportation as well as site incident response

  10. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  11. Oil supply security -- Emergency response of IEA countries 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-29

    When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico in 2005, the region's oil production and refining infrastructure was devastated and world energy markets were disrupted. The International Energy Agency decided in a matter of days to bring 60 million barrels of additional oil to the market. The emergency response system worked - the collective action helped to stabilise global markets. Since its founding in 1974, oil supply security has been a core mission of the IEA and the Agency has improved its mechanisms to respond to short-term oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, numerous factors will continue to test the delicate balance of supply and demand. Oil demand growth will continue to accelerate in Asia; oil will be increasingly produced by a shrinking number of countries; and capacities in the supply chain will need to expand. These are just a few of the challenges facing an already tight market. What are the emergency response systems of IEA countries? How are their emergency structures organised? How prepared is the IEA to deal with an oil supply disruption? This publication addresses these questions. It presents another cycle of rigorous reviews of the emergency response mechanisms of IEA member countries. The goal of these reviews is to ensure that the IEA stays ready to respond effectively to oil supply disruptions. This publication also includes overviews of how China, India and countries of Southeast Asia are progressing with domestic policies to improve oil supply security, based on emergency stocks.

  12. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment - Compliance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, John A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and Division Leader for Fire Protection and was reviewed by LLNL Emergency Management Department Head, James Colson. This document is the second of a two-part analysis on Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2016 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2016 BNA, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures. The 2013 BNA was approved by NNSA’s Livermore Field Office on January 22, 2014.

  13. Emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Watts, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Stream-river models have been developed which provide an accurate prediction of normal and accidental pollutant releases to streams and rivers. Stream parameters are being developed for the Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River to allow quick response in case of an accidental release of radioactive material. These data are stored on permanent disk storage for quick access via the JOSHUA operating system. This system provides an efficient and flexible emergency response capability for pollutant releases to streams and rivers

  14. AEROS: a real-time emergency response system for atmospheric releases of toxic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasstrom, J.S.; Greenly, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a sophisticated computer-based real-time emergency response system for radiotoxic releases into the atmosphere. The ARAC Emergency Response Operating System (AEROS) has a centralized computer facility linked to remote site computers, meteorological towers, and meteorological data sources. The system supports certain fixed sites, but has the ability to respond to accidents at arbitrary locations. Product quality and response time are optimized by using complex three-dimensional dispersion models; extensive on-line data bases; automated data processing; and an efficient user interface, employing graphical computer displays and computer-displayed forms. Upon notification, the system automatically initiates a response to an emergency and proceeds through preliminary calculations, automatically processing accident information, meteorological data, and model parameters. The model calculations incorporate mass-consistent three-dimensional wind fields, terrain effects, and particle-in-cell diffusion. Model products are color images of dose or deposition contours overlaid on a base map

  15. Application of geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.; Mueller, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    Comprehensive and timely radiological, cultural, and environmental data are required in order to make informed decisions during a radiological emergency. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. The most recent addition to this essential function has been the development of the Field Analysis System for Emergency Response (FASER). It is an integrated system with compatible digital image processing and Geographic Information System (GIS) capabilities. FASER is configured with commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software components. To demonstrate the potential of the FASER system for radiological emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. (R.P.)

  16. Gamification for data gathering in emergency response exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Kenny; Ruhe, Aaron; Soetanto, Marvin; Munkvold, R.; Kolås, L.

    2015-01-01

    Our paper describes how gamification can be implemented in an emergency response exercise. In particular, we focus on the potential of gamification to support self-evaluation processes through the automated gathering of data about the participants' performance. Disaster-exercises are typically

  17. Correlates of emergency response interval and mortality from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study to determine the influence of blood transfusion emergency response interval on Mortality from childhood severe anemia was carried out. An admission record of all children with severe anemia over a 5-year period was reviewed. Those who either died before transfusion or got discharged against ...

  18. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Chapter 8: Emergency Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementing an emergency response program along with your risk management plan may be required if you have at least one Program 2 or 3 process in place, and if your employees will respond to some releases involving regulated toxic or flammable substances.

  19. MMS: An electronic message management system for emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.B.; Garde, H.; Andersen, V.

    1998-01-01

    among messages can be viewed in a graphic tree-like display. By employing the extensive filtration facilities offered by the MMS. users are able to monitor the current status of messages. And, in general, filtration provides users with means of surveying a possibly large number of responses to messages...... contingency plan and procedures to be applied during predefined stages of an emergency....

  20. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency Response Interoperability Center. 0.192 Section 0.192 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION..., industry representatives, and service providers. [75 FR 28207, May 20, 2010] ...

  1. Application of Robotic System for Emergency Response in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Jae Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Increasing energy demand and concerns over climate change make increasing use of nuclear power plant in worldwide. Even though the probability of accident is greatly reduced, safety is the highest priority issue in the nuclear energy industry. Applying highly reliable and conservative 'defense in depth' concepts with the design and construction of NPP, there are very little possibilities with which accidents are occur and radioactive materials are released to environments in NPP. But NPP have prepared with the emergency response procedures and conduct exercises for post-accident circumstance according to the procedures. The application of robots for emergency response task for post-accident in nuclear facilities is not a new concept. Robots have been sent to recover the damaged reactor at Chernobyl where human workers could receive a lifetime dose of radiation in minutes. Based on NRC's TMI-2 Cleanup Program, several robots were built in the 1980s to help gather information and remove debris from a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that partially melted down in 1979. The first robot was lowered into the basement through a hatch and human operators monitoring in a control room drove it through mud, water and debris, capturing the initial post-accident images of the reactor's basement. It was used for several years equipped with various tools allowing it to scour surfaces, scoop samples and vacuum sludge. A second version carried a core sampler to determine the intensity and depth of the radiation that had permeated into the walls. To perform cleanup tasks, they built Workhorse that featured system redundancy and had a boom extendable to reach high places, but it was never used because it had too many complexities and to clean and fix. While remote robotics technology has proven to remove the human from the radioactive environment, it is also difficult to make it useful because it may requires skill about remote control and obtaining remote

  2. Application of Robotic System for Emergency Response in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Min; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Sung Uk; Cho, Jae Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Kim, Seung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Increasing energy demand and concerns over climate change make increasing use of nuclear power plant in worldwide. Even though the probability of accident is greatly reduced, safety is the highest priority issue in the nuclear energy industry. Applying highly reliable and conservative 'defense in depth' concepts with the design and construction of NPP, there are very little possibilities with which accidents are occur and radioactive materials are released to environments in NPP. But NPP have prepared with the emergency response procedures and conduct exercises for post-accident circumstance according to the procedures. The application of robots for emergency response task for post-accident in nuclear facilities is not a new concept. Robots have been sent to recover the damaged reactor at Chernobyl where human workers could receive a lifetime dose of radiation in minutes. Based on NRC's TMI-2 Cleanup Program, several robots were built in the 1980s to help gather information and remove debris from a reactor at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant that partially melted down in 1979. The first robot was lowered into the basement through a hatch and human operators monitoring in a control room drove it through mud, water and debris, capturing the initial post-accident images of the reactor's basement. It was used for several years equipped with various tools allowing it to scour surfaces, scoop samples and vacuum sludge. A second version carried a core sampler to determine the intensity and depth of the radiation that had permeated into the walls. To perform cleanup tasks, they built Workhorse that featured system redundancy and had a boom extendable to reach high places, but it was never used because it had too many complexities and to clean and fix. While remote robotics technology has proven to remove the human from the radioactive environment, it is also difficult to make it useful because it may requires skill about remote control and

  3. Development of a Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) for Kalpakkam site - the design aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja Shekhar, S. S.; Bhatawadekar, Shantanu; Krishna Murthy, Y. V.N., [Regional Remote Sensing Service Centre, Department of Space, Nagpur (India); Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, [Radiological Safety Division, Radiological Safety and Environmental Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalapakkam (India)

    2012-07-01

    An Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) is developed for the nuclear power plant site at Kalpakkam as part of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) initiative. ONERS is a GIS based spatial analysis system designed indigenously to provide decision support in the event of a radioactive leak or accident from any of the nuclear facilities by assessing the dispersion and deposition patterns of the atmospheric releases, integrate with spatial geographical database for impact assessment and guidance for mitigation. The system is designed with open software tools (UMN Map server, MYSQL, PHP, Java scripts) and its main features include assessment of dose, short and long term forecast, counter measure support, impact assessment to minimize potential threat to man and environment during radiological emergencies. The system is implemented in live mode with integration of numerical models and spatial data base for the site region and is presently operational for the Kalpakkam site. (author)

  4. Development of a Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) for Kalpakkam site - the design aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Shekhar, S.S.; Bhatawadekar, Shantanu; Krishna Murthy, Y.V.N.; Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan

    2012-01-01

    An Online Nuclear Emergency Response System (ONERS) is developed for the nuclear power plant site at Kalpakkam as part of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) initiative. ONERS is a GIS based spatial analysis system designed indigenously to provide decision support in the event of a radioactive leak or accident from any of the nuclear facilities by assessing the dispersion and deposition patterns of the atmospheric releases, integrate with spatial geographical database for impact assessment and guidance for mitigation. The system is designed with open software tools (UMN Map server, MYSQL, PHP, Java scripts) and its main features include assessment of dose, short and long term forecast, counter measure support, impact assessment to minimize potential threat to man and environment during radiological emergencies. The system is implemented in live mode with integration of numerical models and spatial data base for the site region and is presently operational for the Kalpakkam site. (author)

  5. A computerized assessment and response system for radiological emergency at Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.C.; Thuillier, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that nuclear power plants provide for rapid assessment and response in the event of a radiological emergency. At the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Pacific Gas and Electric Company uses a system of linked central minicomputer, satellite desktop computers and microprocessors to provide decision makers with timely and pertinent information in emergency situations. The system provides for data acquisition and microprocessing at meteorological and radiological monitoring sites. Current estimates or projections of offsite dose commitment are made in real-time by a dispersion/dose calculation model. Computerized dissemination of data and calculational results to decision makers at the government and utility levels is also available. The basic system in use is a commercially available Emergency Assessment and Response System (EARS). This generic system has been modified in-house to meet requirements specific to emergency situations at the plant. Distinctive features of the modification program includes: a highly professional man-machine interaction; consideration of site-specific factors; simulation of environmental radiology for development of drill scenarios; and concise, pertinent reports as input to decision making

  6. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Warren, E.

    2004-01-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability

  7. Moments of disaster response in the emergency department (ED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Karen S; Arbon, Paul; Gebbie, Kristine; Hutton, Alison

    2017-11-01

    We experience our lives as a series of memorable moments, some good and some bad. Undoubtedly, the experience of participating in disaster response, is likely to stand out as a memorable moment in a nurses' career. This presentation will describe five distinct moments of nursing in the emergency department (ED) during a disaster response. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological approach informed by van Manen underpins the research process. Thirteen nurses from different countries around the world participated in interviews about their experience of working in the ED during a disaster. Thematic analysis resulted in five moments of disaster response which are common to the collective participant experience. The 5 themes emerge as Notification (as a nurse finds out that the ED will be receiving casualties), Waiting (waiting for the patients to arrive to the ED), Patient Arrival (the arrival of the first patients to the ED), Caring for patients (caring for people affected by the disaster) and Reflection (the moment the disaster response comes to an end). This paper provides an in-depth insight into the experience of nursing in the ED during a disaster response which can help generate awareness and inform future disaster preparedness of emergency nurses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  9. Recent developments in the applications of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) for emergency response planning and operational forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.A.; Tremback, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    The authors will summarize ten years of developing and applying the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to emergency response and operational dispersion forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). RAMS forms the core of two workstation-based operational systems, ERDAS (the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System) and PROWESS (Parallelized RAMS Operational Weather Simulation System) which are undergoing extensive operational testing prior to potential deployment as part of the range forecasting system at KSC. RAMS has been interfaced with HYPACT (the Hybrid Particle and Concentration Transport Model) to produce detailed 3-D dispersion forecasts from a variety of sources including cold spills, routine launch operations, and explosive conflagrations of launch vehicles

  10. Application and evaluation of training for response to emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    At Washington Gas Light Co., a magnetic situation-simulation board has become an effective tool for training field personnel in emergency procedures and decisionmaking. Class participants use magnetic disks - symbolizing physical features and components of the distribution system and service equipment - to visually describe the step-by-step procedures applied to specific emergency scenarios. A manually operated clock keeps a running account of the time estimated for each step, emphasizing the need for quick response. Situation-board programs of typical problems, complete with script and drawings, are available to all training foremen to ensure uniform training throughout the department.

  11. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center

  12. Joint research and development on toxic-material emergency response between ENEA and LLNL. 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.; Lange, R.; Dickerson, M.; Sullivan, T.; Rosen, L.; Walker, H.; Boeri, G.B.; Caracciolo, R.; Fiorenza, R.

    1982-11-01

    A summary is presented of current and future cooperative studies between ENEA and LLNL researchers designed to develop improved real-time emergency response capabilities for assessing the environmental consequences resulting from an accidental release of toxic materials into the atmosphere. These studies include development and evaluation of atmospheric transport and dispersion models, interfacing of data processing and communications systems, supporting meteorological field experiments, and integration of radiological measurements and model results into real-time assessments

  13. METALert - an emergency response system for China for heavy metals in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Dams, Jef; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Raymaekers, Jens; Decorte, Lieve; Raben, Ingrid; Thijssen, Chris; Zhang, Hongzhen; Dong, Jingqi; Zhang, Qianwen

    2016-04-01

    The rapid industrialisation and economic growth of China has resulted in a mirrored increase of environmental issues and threats, which make the updating of the current environmental emergency response protocols very important. Heavy metal pollution accidents with high environmental risks are happening more frequently than ever in recent years. Despite efforts made by the authorites in respect to the formulation of sound policy, efficient technical methods and regulations for dealing with appropriate responses to emergency environmental incidents related to heavy metal pollution are still lacking. METALert is a generic Emergency Response System (ERS) for accidental pollution incidents caused by key heavy metal related industries in China and developed to support China in achieving its environmental targets. The METALert tool is based on environmental models for forecasting, simulation and visualisation of dispersion of heavy metal pollution in water, air and soil. The tool contains a generic database with scenarios for accidental release of metals in typical accidents related to the five key heavy metal industries in China. The tool can calculate the impact of an accident in water, air and soil and is evaluated and demonstrated for a river basin in the Chenzhou area, an important heavy metal mining area in China. The setup of the tool, the background models and the application in Chenzhou will be presented.

  14. Low Frequency Dispersion Mechanism of Dielectric Response for Oil-paper Insulation Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lijun; LI Xianlang; WU Guangning

    2013-01-01

    Both the real part and imaginary part of complex permittivity approximately have a log-linear frequency dependency at low frequencies,especially at ultra-low frequencies under conditions of different moisture concentrations and temperatures,which is recognized as the low frequency dispersion (LFD).In order to explain this dispersion,a new mechanism of dielectric response of LFD of oil-paper insulation is proposed.A simplified one-dimensional mathematical model of concentration polarization carrier caused by slow migration is developed and solved,which indicates that ion mobility is closely related to the size of gap and the adsorption capacity of cellulose molecular chains to ions.A stochastic statistical model of the carrier mobility induced LFD is also developed.Moreover,actual tests under 50 ℃and 2% moisture content were put forward,as well as simulations with according current waveforms.The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data in that concentration polarization of carriers caused by slow migration is the probable cause of low frequency dispersion ofdielectric response for oil-paper insulation diagnosis.

  15. Reconstruction of the Evolutionary History and Dispersal of Usutu Virus, a Neglected Emerging Arbovirus in Europe and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dimitri; Jöst, Hanna; Wink, Michael; Börstler, Jessica; Bosch, Stefan; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie; Jöst, Artur; Czajka, Christina; Lühken, Renke; Ziegler, Ute; Groschup, Martin H; Pfeffer, Martin; Becker, Norbert; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2016-02-02

    Usutu virus (USUV), one of the most neglected Old World encephalitic flaviviruses, causes epizootics among wild and captive birds and sporadic infection in humans. The dynamics of USUV spread and evolution in its natural hosts are unknown. Here, we present the phylogeny and evolutionary history of all available USUV strains, including 77 newly sequenced complete genomes from a variety of host species at a temporal and spatial scaled resolution. The results showed that USUV can be classified into six distinct lineages and that the most recent common ancestor of the recent European epizootics emerged in Africa at least 500 years ago. We demonstrated that USUV was introduced regularly from Africa into Europe in the last 50 years, and the genetic diversity of European lineages is shaped primarily by in situ evolution, while the African lineages have been driven by extensive gene flow. Most of the amino acid changes are deleterious polymorphisms removed by purifying selection, with adaptive evolution restricted to the NS5 gene and several others evolving under episodic directional selection, indicating that the ecological or immunological factors were mostly the key determinants of USUV dispersal and outbreaks. Host-specific mutations have been detected, while the host transition analysis identified mosquitoes as the most likely origin of the common ancestor and birds as the source of the recent European USUV lineages. Our results suggest that the major migratory bird flyways could predict the continental and intercontinental dispersal patterns of USUV and that migratory birds might act as potential long-distance dispersal vehicles. Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused massive bird die-offs, mostly in Europe. There is increasing evidence that USUV appears to be pathogenic for humans, becoming a potential public health problem. The emergence of USUV in Europe allows us to understand how an arbovirus

  16. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.; Caravaca, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cadiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided.

  17. Stress response of the black coral Leiopathes glaberrima when exposed to sub-lethal amounts of crude oil and dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannise V. Ruiz-Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil well failure released billions of gallons of crude oil into the deep Gulf of Mexico, and, combined with chemical dispersants, this oil caused significant coral mortality. However, the mechanisms by which oil and dispersed oil impact deep marine fauna are not well understood. Here, we investigate the effects of oil and dispersed oil on a black coral common in the deep Gulf of Mexico, 'Leiopathes glaberrima. 'This coral occurs in several color morphs that show ecological and genetic differences. We hypothesized that dispersed oil would be more detrimental to coral health than oil alone and that this difference would be detectable in the gene expression response of the colonies even at sub-lethal concentrations. In two experiments, four and six colonies of red and white color morphs were exposed to oil, dispersant, and dispersed oil for a minimum of 96 hours. Visual assessment indicated that indeed dispersant and dispersed oil treatments were more damaging than oil alone, for target concentrations of 25 mg L–1. Decline in health was observed for all treatments, independently of color morphotype, but the decline was faster in the white colonies exposed to dispersant. The responses to the treatments were also investigated by monitoring gene expression after 24 hours of sub-lethal chemical exposure. Coral gene expression differed by chemical stressor. Interestingly, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biomarker gene, cytochrome P450, was only up-regulated in dispersed oil but not oil alone, suggesting that the dispersant increased the availability of such hydrocarbons in the tissue. The gene expression response was apparent at 24 hours when visual impacts were not (yet detectable. The use of chemical dispersants in oil-spill remediation may cause health declines in deep-water corals and deserves further study.

  18. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    nuclear accident or radiological emergency even if there is no direct transboundary impact, primarily for the purposes of minimizing the consequences of the accident or emergency e.g. for trade and tourism and providing advice to their nationals living, working and travelling in the Accident State. The provision of such information would also help to avoid unnecessary international rumours and concerns. In order to be able to provide such information in an emergency, States need to be prepared in advance. Moreover, States are encouraged to provide warning messages and other relevant information within the ENATOM framework even in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency that does not trigger the Early Notification Convention but is of international concern. Recent work on clarifying emergency classification schemes for nuclear facilities and on identifying the key information to be transmitted for technical assessment purposes, the development of emergency preparedness and response standards and improvements in communications technology (e-mail and Web servers) have been reflected in the arrangements described in this new edition of ENATOM. ENATOM addresses the issue of requesting and providing assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency. For the provision of assistance, the IAEA is establishing a global Emergency Response Network (ERNET) of teams suitably qualified to respond rapidly, on a regional basis, to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies. ENATOM states the Secretariat's expectations rather than prescribing arrangements. Nevertheless, all States, including States which are neither Member States of the IAEA nor party to either Convention, and the relevant International Intergovernmental Organisations are invited to adopt the arrangements described in it for providing and receiving information about nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies. In the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, the

  19. A real-time monitoring/emergency response modeling workstation for a tritium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawver, B.S.; Sims, J.M.; Baskett, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we developed a real-time system to monitor two stacks on our tritium handling facility. The monitors transmit the stack data to a workstation which computes a 3D numerical model of atmospheric dispersion. The workstation also collects surface and upper air data from meteorological towers and a sodar. The complex meteorological and terrain setting in the Livermore Valley demands more sophisticated resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere to reliably calculate plume dispersion than afforded by Gaussian models. We experience both mountain valley and sea breeze flows. To address these complexities, we have implemented the three-dimensional diagnostic MATHEW mass-adjusted wind field and ADPIC particle-in-cell dispersion models on the workstation for use in real-time emergency response modeling. Both MATHEW and ADPIC have shown their utility in a variety of complex settings over the last 15 years within the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC[1,2]) project

  20. Optimization aspects of the ARAC real-time radiological emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1985-07-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory responds to radiological emergencies throughout the Continental United States. Using complex three-dimensional dispersion models to account for the effects of complex meteorology and regional terrain, ARAC simulates the release of radioactive materials and provides dispersion, deposition, and dose calculations that are displayed over local geographic features for use by authorities at the accident/release site. ARAC's response is ensured by a software system that (1) makes optimal use of dispersion models, (2) minimizes the time required to provide projections, and (3) maximizes the fault-tolerance of the system. In this paper we describe ARAC's goals and functionality and the costs associated with its development and use. Specifically, we address optimizations in ARAC notifications, meteorological data collection, the determination of site- and problem-specific parameters, the generation of site-specific topography and geography, the running of models, and the distribution of ARAC products. We also discuss the backup features employed to ensure ARAC's ability to respond

  1. Enhancing nuclear emergency response through international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugletveit, F.; Aaltonen, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A large number of different national plans and procedures have been established and substantial resources allocated world wide with varying comprehensiveness and quality depending an the national requirements and the possible threat scenarios considered. These national plans are only to a small degree harmonized. It is clear that it is the responsibility of the authorities in the respective countries or utilities under their jurisdiction, to decide upon and implement appropriate response actions to a nuclear emergency. The basic needs for responding properly are: infrastructure in terms of plans, procedures etc.; information regarding the accident, its development and consequences; resources in terms of expertise, man power and tools for acquiring and processing information, making assessments and decisions and carry out the actions. When a large number of countries are making assessments and decisions for their own country and providing the public with information, it is important that assessments, decisions and public information become correct, complete and consistent across boarders. In order to achieve this, they should all have access to the same information as basis for their actions. Lack of information or wrong information could easily lead to wrong assessments, wrong decisions and misleading information to the public. If there is a serious nuclear emergency somewhere that could potentially affect several or many States in one way or another, 'everyone' would like to know 'everything' that happens 'everywhere'. In this case, all States should have the obligation to share with the international community the relevant information they have available themselves and that could be of interest for other States responding to the situation. During a serious nuclear or radiological emergency, the demand for different kinds of resources is huge and could, in many countries, probably exceed national capabilities. Looking at the situation in a global

  2. International IAEA Emergency Response Workshop in Fukushima Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: An IAEA workshop aimed at further strengthening nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response capabilities concluded today in Fukushima, Japan. More than 40 participants from 18 countries took part in the four-day Response and Assistance Network (RANET) workshop, which included a field exercise in areas affected following the March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. During the exercise, participants conducted radiation monitoring and environmental sampling and analysis. They measured the contamination level of the ground surface and conducted gamma spectrum analysis and vehicle-based monitoring - activities that are conducted following any nuclear or radiological incident or emergency. Results were then compared amongst participants. RANET is a network currently comprising 22 countries through which the IAEA can facilitate the provision of expert support and equipment on request under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Pat Kenny, IAEA RANET Officer, said the workshop provided an opportunity to practice cooperation between international teams that would be deployed through RANET following an emergency. 'By bringing together so many experts from different countries in one place, the workshop helped us learn how international teams can work together to provide assistance in a nuclear or radiological emergency situation,' he said. 'It also enabled us to improve the coordination of such assistance, and it gave participants the opportunity to learn from each other.' The workshop was the first activity conducted from the IAEA RANET Capacity Building Centre, a new training centre based in the city of Fukushima that was designated earlier this week with the support of the Japanese Foreign Ministry and Fukushima Prefecture. The Centre will host RANET and other training courses, workshops and exercises aimed at enhancing nuclear emergency preparedness and response

  3. State-level emergency preparedness and response capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Sharon M; Perrotta, Dennis M; Stanbury, Martha; Heumann, Michael; Anderson, Henry; Simms, Erin; Huang, Monica

    2011-03-01

    Prior assessments of public health readiness had identified gaps in radiation preparedness. In recent years, preparedness planning has involved an "all-hazards" approach. Current assessment of the national status related to radiation public health emergency preparedness capabilities at the state and local health department levels was needed. A survey of state health departments related to radiation readiness was undertaken in 2010 by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). States with nuclear power plants were instructed to consider their responses exclusive of capabilities and resources related to the plants given that the emergency response plans for nuclear power plants are specific and unique. Thirty-eight (76%) state health departments responded to the survey, including 26 of the 31 states with nuclear power plants. Specific strengths noted at the state level included that the majority of states had a written radiation response plan and most plans include a detailed section for communications issues during a radiation emergency. In addition, more than half of the states indicated that their relationship with federal partners is sufficient to provide resources for radiation emergencies, indicating the importance states placed on federal resources and expertise. Specific weaknesses are discussed and include that most states had completed little to no planning for public health surveillance to assess potential human health impacts of a radiation event; less than half had written plans to address exposure assessment, environmental sampling, human specimen collection and analysis, and human health assessment. Few reported having sufficient resources to do public health surveillance, radiation exposure assessment, laboratory functions and other capabilities. Levels of planning, resources and partnerships varied among states, those with nuclear power plants were better prepared. Gaps were evident in all states; however and additional training and

  4. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  5. Contrasting germination responses to vegetative canopies experienced in pre- vs. post-dispersal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D.; Auge, Gabriela A.; Bali, Aman; Donohue, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Seeds adjust their germination based on conditions experienced before and after dispersal. Post-dispersal cues are expected to be more accurate predictors of offspring environments, and thus offspring success, than pre-dispersal cues. Therefore, germination responses to conditions experienced during seed maturation may be expected to be superseded by responses to conditions experienced during seed imbibition. In taxa of disturbed habitats, neighbours frequently reduce the performance of germinants. This leads to the hypotheses that a vegetative canopy will reduce germination in such taxa, and that a vegetative canopy experienced during seed imbibition will over-ride germination responses to a canopy experienced during seed maturation, since it is a more proximal cue of immediate competition. These hypotheses were tested here in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Seeds were matured under a simulated canopy (green filter) or white light. Fresh (dormant) seeds were imbibed in the dark, white light or canopy at two temperatures (10 or 22 °C), and germination proportions were recorded. Germination was also recorded in after-ripened (less dormant) seeds that were induced into secondary dormancy and imbibed in the dark at each temperature, either with or without brief exposure to red and far-red light. Key Results Unexpectedly, a maturation canopy expanded the conditions that elicited germination, even as seeds lost and regained dormancy. In contrast, an imbibition canopy impeded or had no effect on germination. Maturation under a canopy did not modify germination responses to red and far-red light. Seed maturation under a canopy masked genetic variation in germination. Conclusions The results challenge the hypothesis that offspring will respond more strongly to their own environment than to that of their parents. The observed relaxation of germination requirements caused by a maturation canopy could be maladaptive for offspring by disrupting germination responses

  6. Roles that numerical models can play in emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1982-03-01

    Four points are presented with regard to a perspective on modeling for emergency preparedness. First, and probably foremost, modeling should be considered a tool, along with measurements and experience when used for emergency preparedness. The second point is that the potential for large errors associated with knowing the source term during an accident should not be used as a guide for determining the level of the model development and application. There are many other uses for models than estimating consequences, given the source term. These uses range from estimating the source term to bracketing the problem at hand. The third point is that several levels of model complexity should be considered when addressing emergency response. These levels can vary from the simple Gaussian calculation to the more complex three-dimensional transport and diffusion calculations where terrain and vertical and horizontal shears in the wind fields can be modeled. Lastly, proper interaction and feedback between model results and measurements enhances the capabilities of each if they were applied independently for emergency response purposes

  7. Ontario Hydro's transportation of radioactive material and emergency response plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmali, N.

    1993-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has been transporting radioactive material for almost 30 years without any exposure to the public or release to the environment. However, there have been three accidents involving Hydro's shipments of radioactive material. In addition to the quality packaging and shipping program, Ontario Hydro has an Emergency Response Plan and capability to deal with an accident involving a shipment of radioactive material. The Corporation's ability to respond, to effectively control and contain the situation, site remediation, and to provide emergency public information in the event of a road accident minimizes the risk to the public and the environment. This emphasizes their commitment to worker safety, public safety and impact to the environment. Response capability is mandated under various legislation and regulations in Canada

  8. Exercises for radiological and nuclear emergency response. Planing - performance - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Faleschini, J.; Goelling, K.; Stapel, R.; Strobl, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report of the study group emergency response seminar covers the following topics: (A) purpose of exercises and exercise culture: fundamentals and appliances for planning, performance and evaluation; (B) exercises in nuclear facilities; (C) exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on nuclear scenarios; exercises of national authorities and aid organizations on other radiological scenarios; (D) exercises in industrial plants, universities, medical facilities and medical services, and research institutes; (E) transnational exercises, international exercises; (F): exercises on public information.

  9. Impact of vector dispersal and host-plant fidelity on the dissemination of an emerging plant pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Johannesen

    Full Text Available Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector.

  10. Emergency preparedness and response for the non-reactor countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.

    2000-01-01

    Preparedness and response for nuclear and radiological accidents in the countries without nuclear power plants (NPP) have some peculiarities. Accident at the Chernobyl NPP clearly showed the necessity of effective response for non-reactor countries in the case of transboundary release. Experience obtained in Belarus is providing evidence for the necessity of changing some aspects of emergency preparedness. The results of analysis made of some protective actions taken during the early stage of the accident form the basis for recommendations provided this paper. Real experience is supported by model predictions of the consequences for the hypothetical accident at a NPP close to the Belarus. (author)

  11. Combining internet technology and mobile phones for emergency response management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palsson, S.E.

    2002-12-01

    The report is intended for persons involved in radiological emergency response management. An introduction is given to the technical basis of the mobile Internet and ongoing development summarised. Examples are given describing how mobile Internet technology has been used to improve monitoring media coverage of incidents and events, and a test is described where web based information was selectively processed and made available to WAP enabled mobile phones. The report concludes with recommendations stressing the need for following mobile Internet developments and taking them into account when designing web applications for radiological response management. Doing so can make web based material accessible to mobile devices at minimal additional cost. (au)

  12. The Bulgarian Emergency Response System for dose assessment in the early stage of accidental releases to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrakov, D.; Veleva, B.; Prodanova, M.; Popova, T.; Kolarova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) is being developed in the Bulgarian National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology since 1994. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast meteorological information and a numerical long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, chemical and radioactive transformations of pollutants. In the present paper, the further development of this system for a mixture of radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants is described. The basic module for the BERS, the numerical dispersion model EMAP, is upgraded with a 'dose calculation block'. Two scenarios for hypothetical accidental atmospheric releases from two NPPs, one in Western, and the other in Eastern Europe, are numerically simulated. The effective doses from external irradiation, from air submersion and ground shinning, effective dose from inhalation and absorbed dose by thyroid gland formed by 37 different radionuclides, significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident, are calculated as dose fields for both case studies and discussed

  13. Estimating sub-surface dispersed oil concentration using acoustic backscatter response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christopher B; Bonner, James S; Islam, Mohammad S; Page, Cheryl; Ojo, Temitope; Kirkey, William

    2013-05-15

    The recent Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in a dispersed oil plume at an approximate depth of 1000 m. Several methods were used to characterize this plume with respect to concentration and spatial extent including surface supported sampling and autonomous underwater vehicles with in situ instrument payloads. Additionally, echo sounders were used to track the plume location, demonstrating the potential for remote detection using acoustic backscatter (ABS). This study evaluated use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to quantitatively detect oil-droplet suspensions from the ABS response in a controlled laboratory setting. Results from this study showed log-linear ABS responses to oil-droplet volume concentration. However, the inability to reproduce ABS response factors suggests the difficultly in developing meaningful calibration factors for quantitative field analysis. Evaluation of theoretical ABS intensity derived from the particle size distribution provided insight regarding method sensitivity in the presence of interfering ambient particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 February 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a large number of States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full parties. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, States that are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). ENATOM was first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States have since then regularly received updates to the manual. In 2000, a complete revision of ENATOM was reissued as EPR-ENATOM (2000) to reflect technological developments, changes in operational concepts, views on standards in the area of emergency preparedness and response, and Member States' expectations. Since then ENATOM has been reviewed and reissued biennially in line with the review cycle of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (the 'Joint Plan'). Since the last edition of ENATOM in 2004, several factors have warranted some modifications to

  15. Innovations in emergency response plans : making the useful application of the 2007 CDA guidelines for emergency response plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, A.J. [Columbia Power Corp., Castlegar, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Columbia Power Corporation (CPC) changed its perspective and approach to emergency response plans (ERP) between 2002 and 2007 from one of administrative necessity to one of important functional reference. The new 2007 Canadian Dam Association Guidelines helped facilitate that transition for both CPC and all dam owners. As part of the licensing requirements for its new facility, CPC had an ERP commissioned and developed in 2002. A potential dam safety event occurred in 2004, which necessitated the need for the ERP to be put to use. However, at the time, it was found to be lacking in functionality for field personnel. As a result, CPC recognized the significance of having a functional ERP for field staff and undertook a substantial redraft between 2005 and 2007. This paper discussed the development of the ERP with particular reference to assessing the top potential emergency scenarios for the facility; development of response plans for the identified scenarios; a flow chart to guide personnel through the required actions; response checklist; detailed inspection checklists and any required forms, photos or specific information. It was concluded that the new ERP has been well received and has improved facility awareness and emergency preparedness. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  16. Optimization of emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Christou, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident has been developed. The method aims at an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise when the minimization of the potential adverse effects of an accident and the simultaneous minimization of the associated socioeconomic impacts is attempted. Additional conflicting objectives appear whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect (e.g. acute deaths) while at the same time it increases another (e.g. latent deaths). The uncertainty is due to the multitude of the possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions and in the variability and/or lack of knowledge in the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted in a dynamic programming scheme. An emergency protective plan consists of defining a protective action (e.g. evacuation, sheltering) at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria (evaluators) are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e. all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point

  17. Emergency response guide for Point Lepreau area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The design, construction and operating procedures of CANDU nuclear generating stations ensure that an accident causing a significant risk to people living near these stations is extremely unlikely. However, despite the excellent safety record of nuclear stations, it is common practice to prepare an emergency plan for such facilities. In this regard, The New Brunswick Emergency Measures Organization is responsible for developing and implementing the Off-Site Emergency Plan for the Point Lepreau Generating Station. Work for the Off-Site Emergency Plan began in 1976 and, under the leadership of N.B.E.M.O., a number of government agencies co-operated in this project. The completed plan thus represents agreement among a number of Province of New Brunswick departments, various community groups, NB Power, and representatives of the Government of Canada. Also, information gathered in the annual door-to-door survey of the Lepreau area enabled government planners to make specialized arrangements such as an extensive warden service, a siren system, and evacuation assistance for the disabled

  18. Study of developing nuclear fabrication facility's integrated emergency response manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taeh Yeong; Cho, Nam Chan; Han, Seung Hoon; Moon, Jong Han; Lee, Jin Hang; Min, Guem Young; Han, Ji Ah

    2016-01-01

    Public begin to pay attention to emergency management. Thus, public's consensus on having high level of emergency management system up to advanced country's is reached. In this social atmosphere, manual is considered as key factor to prevent accident or secure business continuity. Therefore, we first define possible crisis at KEPCO Nuclear Fuel (hereinafter KNF) and also make a 'Reaction List' for each crisis situation at the view of information-design. To achieve it, we analyze several country's crisis response manual and then derive component, indicate duties and roles at the information-design point of view. From this, we suggested guideline to make 'Integrated emergency response manual(IERM)'. The manual we used before have following few problems; difficult to applicate at the site, difficult to deliver information. To complement these problems, we searched manual elements from the view of information-design. As a result, we develop administrative manual. Although, this manual could be thought as fragmentary manual because it confined specific several agency/organization and disaster type

  19. Emergency Response Imagery Related to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, A. V.; Madore, B.; Imahori, G.; Woolard, J.; Sellars, J.; Halbach, A.; Helmricks, D.; Quarrick, J.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and Remote Sensing Division acquired and rapidly disseminated emergency response imagery related to the three recent hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Aerial imagery was collected using a Trimble Digital Sensor System, a high-resolution digital camera, by means of NOAA's King Air 350ER and DeHavilland Twin Otter (DHC-6) Aircraft. The emergency response images are used to assess the before and after effects of the hurricanes' damage. The imagery aids emergency responders, such as FEMA, Coast Guard, and other state and local governments, in developing recovery strategies and efforts by prioritizing areas most affected and distributing appropriate resources. Collected imagery is also used to provide damage assessment for use in long-term recovery and rebuilding efforts. Additionally, the imagery allows for those evacuated persons to see images of their homes and neighborhoods remotely. Each of the individual images are processed through ortho-rectification and merged into a uniform mosaic image. These remotely sensed datasets are publically available, and often used by web-based map servers as well as, federal, state, and local government agencies. This poster will show the imagery collected for these three hurricanes and the processes involved in getting data quickly into the hands of those that need it most.

  20. How the Nuclear Applications Laboratories Help in Strengthening Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Safety is one of the most important considerations when engaging in highly advanced scientific and technological activities. In this respect, utilizing the potential of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes also involves risks, and nuclear techniques themselves can be useful in strengthening emergency response measures related to the use of nuclear technology. In the case of a nuclear incident, the rapid measurement and subsequent monitoring of radiation levels are top priorities as they help to determine the degree of risk faced by emergency responders and the general public. Instruments for the remote measurement of radioactivity are particularly important when there are potential health risks associated with entering areas with elevated radiation levels. The Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL) — one of the eight laboratories of the Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications (NA) in Seibersdorf, Austria — focuses on developing a variety of specialized analytical and diagnostic instruments and methods, and transferring knowledge to IAEA Member States. These include instruments capable of carrying out remote measurements. This emergency response work carried out by the NA laboratories supports health and safety in Member States and supports the IAEA’s mandate to promote the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy

  1. Reflections on the emergency preparations and responses of China to Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu; Li Bing; Yu Shaoqing

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the emergency response of Japan in Fukushima nuclear accident, provided and discussed the issues should be of concern on emergency preparedness and response in future: (1) modifying the existing emergency preparedness and response system; (2) consolidating the concept of emergency preparedness as the ultimate level of defense-in-depth; (3) promoting the emergency response decision-making support capabilities; (4) valuing the information opening of involving nuclear news and radiation environmental information. (authors)

  2. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response: There's An App for That.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Daniel J; Jamison, Nathan K; Martin, Andrew; Delgado, Jose; Kman, Nicholas E

    2015-10-01

    Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps. A systematic review of these apps was conducted. A search of the Apple iTunes store (Version 12; Apple Inc.; Cupertino, California USA) was performed using the following terms obtained from the PubMed Medical Subject Headings Database: Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Responders, Disaster, Disaster Planning, Disaster Medicine, Bioterrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). After excluding any unrelated apps, a working list of apps was formed and categorized based on topics. Apps were grouped based on applicability to responders, the lay public, or regional preparedness, and were then ranked based on iTunes user reviews, value, relevance to audience, and user interface. This search revealed 683 applications and was narrowed to 219 based on relevance to the field. After grouping the apps as described above, and subsequently ranking them, the highest quality apps were determined from each group. The Community Emergency Response Teams and FEMA had the best apps for National Disaster Medical System responders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had high-quality apps for emergency responders in a variety of fields. The National Library of Medicine's Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) app was an excellent app for HazMat responders. The American Red Cross had the most useful apps for natural

  3. Design, synthesis, and film formation of stimuli-responsive colloidal dispersions containing phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestage, David Jackson

    These studies were undertaken to further understand the design of colloidal dispersions containing bio-active phospholipids (PL) as stabilizing agents and their stimuli-responsive behaviors during film formation. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) dispersions were synthesized using anionic surfactants and PL, and the surface-responsiveness of coalesced films was monitored at the film-air (F-A) and film-substrate (F-S) interfaces after exposure to temperature, UV, pH, ionic strength, and enzymatic stimuli. Using spectroscopic molecular-level probes such as attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and internal reflection IR imaging (IRIRI), these studies show that structural features of PL and surfactants significantly affect stimuli-responsiveness of polymeric films. MMA/nBA homopolymer, blend, copolymer, and core-shell particle coalescence studies indicated that controlled permeability is influenced by particle composition and sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (SDOSS) mobility to the F-A interface is enhanced in response to temperature. Utilization of hydrogenated soybean phosphocholine (HSPC) as a co-surfactant with SDOSS resulted in bimodal p-MMA/nBA colloidal particles, and experiments showed that ionic interactions with HSPC inhibit SDOSS mobility. However, the controlled release of individual species is detected in the presence of Ca2+ ionic strength stimuli. Utilizing 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), cocklebur-shape particle morphologies were obtained and using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), self-assembled tubules were detected at particle interfaces, but not in the presence of Ca 2+. At altered concentration levels of DCPC, surface localized ionic clusters (SLICs) composed of SDOSS and DCPC form at the F-A and F-S interfaces in response to temperature and ionic strength stimuli. Micelle formation of 1-myristoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (MHPC) stabilizes unimodal p-MMA/nBA colloidal particles

  4. Timing criteria for supplemental BWR emergency response equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Tohuku Earthquake and subsequent Tsunami represented a double failure event which destroyed offsite power connections to Fukushima-Daiichi site and then destroyed on-site electrical systems needed to run decay heat removal systems. The accident could have been mitigated had there been supplemental portable battery chargers, supplemental pumps, and in-place piping connections to provide alternate decay heat removal. In response to this event in the USA, two national response centers, one in Memphis, Tennessee, and another in Phoenix, Arizona, will begin operation. They will be able to dispatch supplemental emergency response equipment to any nuclear plant in the U.S. within 24 hours. In order to define requirements for supplemental nuclear power plant emergency response equipment maintained onsite vs. in a regional support center it is necessary to confirm: (a) the earliest time such equipment might be needed depending on the specific scenario, (b) the nominal time to move the equipment from a storage location either on-site or within the region of a nuclear power plant, and (c) the time required to connect in the supplemental equipment to use it. This paper describes an evaluation process for a BWR-4 with a Mark I Containment starting with: (a) severe accident simulation to define best estimate times available for recovery based on the specific scenario, (b) identify the key supplemental response equipment needed at specific times to accomplish recovery of key safety functions, and (c) evaluate what types of equipment should be warehoused on-site vs. in regional response centers. (authors)

  5. Arctic shipping and risks: Emergency categories and response capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchenko, Nataly A.; Andreassen, Natalia; Borch, Odd Jarl

    2018-01-01

    The sea ice in the Arctic has shrunk significantly in the last decades. The transport pattern has as a result partly changed with more traffic in remote areas. This change may influence the risk pattern. The critical factors are harsh weather, ice conditions, remoteness and vulnerability of natur...... are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic maritime accidents. Hence, this study offers a qualitative analysis and an expert-based risk assessment. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the Arctic region are discussed........ In this paper, we look into the risk of accidents in Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of emergency response. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location. As accidents...

  6. Response of human populations to large-scale emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrow, James; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2010-03-01

    Until recently, little quantitative data regarding collective human behavior during dangerous events such as bombings and riots have been available, despite its importance for emergency management, safety and urban planning. Understanding how populations react to danger is critical for prediction, detection and intervention strategies. Using a large telecommunications dataset, we study for the first time the spatiotemporal, social and demographic response properties of people during several disasters, including a bombing, a city-wide power outage, and an earthquake. Call activity rapidly increases after an event and we find that, when faced with a truly life-threatening emergency, information rapidly propagates through a population's social network. Other events, such as sports games, do not exhibit this propagation.

  7. Two-Graph Building Interior Representation for Emergency Response Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslawski, P.; Mahdjoubi, L.; Zverovich, V.; Fadli, F.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, in a rapidly developing urban environment with bigger and higher public buildings, disasters causing emergency situations and casualties are unavoidable. Preparedness and quick response are crucial issues saving human lives. Available information about an emergency scene, such as a building structure, helps for decision making and organizing rescue operations. Models supporting decision-making should be available in real, or near-real, time. Thus, good quality models that allow implementation of automated methods are highly desirable. This paper presents details of the recently developed method for automated generation of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment, including a full 3D topological model, which may be used not only for standard navigation but also for finding safe routes and simulating hazard and phenomena associated with disasters such as fire spread and heat transfer.

  8. TWO-GRAPH BUILDING INTERIOR REPRESENTATION FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boguslawski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in a rapidly developing urban environment with bigger and higher public buildings, disasters causing emergency situations and casualties are unavoidable. Preparedness and quick response are crucial issues saving human lives. Available information about an emergency scene, such as a building structure, helps for decision making and organizing rescue operations. Models supporting decision-making should be available in real, or near-real, time. Thus, good quality models that allow implementation of automated methods are highly desirable. This paper presents details of the recently developed method for automated generation of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment, including a full 3D topological model, which may be used not only for standard navigation but also for finding safe routes and simulating hazard and phenomena associated with disasters such as fire spread and heat transfer.

  9. The atmospheric release advisory capability (ARAC): A federal emergency response capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1988-03-01

    The Atmospheric Release Capability (ARAC) is a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored emergency-response service set up to provide real-time prediction of the dose levels and the extent of surface contamination resulting from a broad range of possible occurrences (accidents, spills, extortion threats involving nuclear material, reentry of nuclear-powered satellites, and atmospheric nuclear tests) that could involve the release of airborne radioactive material. During the past decade, ARAC has responded to more than 150 real-time situations, including exercises. The most notable responses include the Three Mile Island accident in Pennsylvania, the Titan II missile accident in Arkansas, the reentry of the USSR's COSMOS-954 into the atmosphere over Canada, the accidental release of uranium hexafluoride from the Sequoyah Facility accident in Oklahoma, and, most recently, the Chernobyl reactor accident in the Soviet Union. ARAC currently supports the emergency-preparedness plans at 50 Department of Defense (DOD) and DOE sites within the US and also responds to accidents that happen elsewhere. Our ARAC center serves as the focal point for data acquisition, data analysis and assessments during a response, using a computer-based communication network to acquire real-time weather data from the accident site and the surrounding region, as well as pertinent accident information. Its three-dimensional computer models for atmospheric dispersion, MATHEW and ADPIC, digest all this information and produce the predictions used in accident assessment. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Emergency response arrangements for the transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Response arrangements are required for the transport of radioactive materials, under both transport and health and safety legislation, to safeguard persons, property and the environment in the event of incidents and emergencies. Responsibilities fall on both government and industry: government is responsible for ensuring public safety and providing information and reassurance. This responsibility is discharged for each type of incident by a nominated ''lead department'', supported as appropriate by other government departments and agencies; for their part, operators are obliged to have arrangements in place for dealing with the practicalities of any reasonably foreseeable incident, including recovery and onward transport of a package, and any required clean-up or restoration of the environment. This paper outlines both the government and industry arrangements in Great Britain. The principles of response and intervention are discussed, together with the lead department concept, regulatory requirements, and the plans developed by the transport industry to ensure a nation-wide response capability.

  11. Oil Notifications: Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a national computer database which provides the only centralized mechanism for documenting and verifying incident notification information as initially reported to the National Response Center (NRC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and to a limited extent, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). The initial notification data may be followed up with updated information from various Federal, State and local response authorities, as appropriate. ERNS contains data that can be used to analyze release notifications, support emergency planning efforts, and assist decision makers in developing spill prevention programs. The fact sheet provides summary information on notifications of releases of oil reported in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA). Under Section 311 of the CWA, discharges of oil which: (1) cause a sheen to appear on the surface of the water; (2) violate applicable water quality standards; or (3) cause sludge or emulsion to be deposited beneath the surface of the water or adjoining shoreline, must be reported to the NRC

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of the response of bi-disperse polyelectrolyte brushes to external electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fen; Ding Huan-Da; Duan Chao; Tong Chao-Hui; Zhao Shuang-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Langevin dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the response of bi-disperse and strong polyacid chains grafted on an electrode to electric fields generated by opposite surface charges on the polyelectrolyte (PE)-grafted electrode and a second parallel electrode. Simulation results clearly show that, under a negative external electric field, the longer grafted PE chains are more strongly stretched than the shorter ones in terms of the relative change in their respective brush heights. Whereas under a positive external electric field, the grafted shorter chains collapse more significantly than the longer ones. It was found that, under a positive external electric field, the magnitude of the total electric force acting on one shorter PE chain is larger than that on one longer PE chain, or vice versa. The effects of smeared and discrete charge distributions of grafted PE chains on the response of PE brushes to external electric fields were also examined. (paper)

  13. Regional training course on medical response on radiological emergencies. Annex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This short information is an annex of the documentation distributed to the participants to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on Medical Response on Radiological Emergencies, organised by the IAEA in co-operation with the Government of Argentina thought the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 16-20 October 2000. The course was intended to people from IAEA Member State in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and to professionals and workers on medicine related with the radiation protection. This annex present information about: Radioactive materials transport; Internal and external contamination; Radiation accidents; Physical dosimetry

  14. Use of fiber optics in an emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Wahab, E.Z.

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiber communications medium has been installed in the Emergency Response Data Systems (ERDS) in the E. I. Hatch Nuclear Power Plant. These high-speed, digital communications systems are used to link together two data-collection nodes in each of two computer networks, so that the plant operating data may be shared on a real-time basis. The use of a glass-and-plastic fiber for data communications may have several advantages over a metallic medium in this special application, and it has proven to be a very reliable means of data linkage over several unit-years of operation

  15. SOFTWARE QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENT MODELS AT DOE'S SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Atmospheric Technologies Group develops, maintains, and operates computer-based software applications for use in emergency response consequence assessment at DOE's Savannah River Site. These applications range from straightforward, stand-alone Gaussian dispersion models run with simple meteorological input to complex computational software systems with supporting scripts that simulate highly dynamic atmospheric processes. A software quality assurance program has been developed to ensure appropriate lifecycle management of these software applications. This program was designed to meet fully the overall structure and intent of SRNL's institutional software QA programs, yet remain sufficiently practical to achieve the necessary level of control in a cost-effective manner. A general overview of this program is described

  16. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing their consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a large number of States (Section 1.7), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States that are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). In 2000, a complete revision of ENATOM, with all relevant sections updated, withdrawn or replaced with new material, was reissued as EPR-ENATOM (2000) to reflect new technological developments, operational concepts, views on standards in the area of emergency preparedness and response, and Member States' expectations. A separate publication, EPR-JPLAN (2000), the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (Joint Plan'), described a common understanding of how each of six co-sponsoring international organizations will act during a response and in making preparedness arrangements. It is intended that the ENATOM is reviewed and reissued biennially in line with the review cycle of the Joint Plan. Since the

  17. High-speed LWR transients simulation for optimizing emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.; Stritar, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of computer-assisted emergency response in nuclear power plants, and the requirements for achieving such a response, are presented. An important requirement is the attainment of realistic high-speed plant simulations at the reactor site. Currently pursued development programs for plant simulations are reviewed. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is presented for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computer hardware to achieve high-speed simulations. A newly developed technology for high-speed power plant simulation is described and results are presented. It is shown that simulation speeds ten times greater than real-time process-speeds are possible, and that plant instrumentation can be made part of the computational loop in a small, on-site minicomputer. Additional technical issues are presented which must still be resolved before the newly developed technology can be implemented in a nuclear power plant

  18. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments

  19. Emergency preparedness and response: achievements, future needs and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had a profound effect on emergency preparedness and response world-wide and particularly within Europe. Deficiencies in arrangements for dealing with such a large accident, at both national and international levels (eg, world trade in foodstuffs), led to many problems of both a practical and political nature. Many lessons were learnt and considerable resources have since been committed to improve emergency preparedness and avoid similar problems in future. Improvements have been made at national, regional and international levels and have been diverse in nature. Some of the more notable at an international level are the convention on early notification, limits for the contamination of foodstuffs in international trade and broad agreement on the principles of intervention (albeit less so on their practical interpretation). At a regional level, many bi and multi-lateral agreements have been brought into to force for the timely exchange of information and the efficacy of these arrangements is increasingly being demonstrated by regional exercises. At a national level, the improvements have been diverse, ranging from the installation of extensive networks of gamma monitors to provide early warning of an accident to more robust and effective arrangements between the many organisations with a role or responsibility in an emergency. More than a decade after Chernobyl, it is timely to reflect on what has been achieved in practice and, in particular, whether there is a need for further improvement and, if so, where these aspects will be addressed in the context of the likelihood the decreasing resources will be allocated to this area in future as memories fade post Chernobyl. Particular attention will be given to: the potential for advances in informatics, communications and decision support to provide better emergency preparedness and response at reduced cost; the adequacy of guidance on intervention for the long tern management of containment areas

  20. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises

  1. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  2. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region

  3. Initial operations in local nuclear emergency response headquarter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the Fukushima nuclear accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake and the tsunami that occurred thereafter, local nuclear emergency response headquarters (local headquarters) was set up at off-site center (OFC). However, several obstacles such as the collapse of means of communication resulting from severed communication lines, food and fuel shortage resulting from stagnant physical distribution, and increasing radiation dose around the center significantly restricted originally intended operation of local headquarters. In such severe situation, the personnel gathered at the OFC from the government, local public bodies and electric companies from March 11 to 15 acted without sufficient food, sleep or rest and did all they could against successively occurring unexpected challenges by using limited means of communication. However, issues requiring further consideration were activities of each functional group, location of OFC and the functions of equipment, machines and materials and reflecting the consideration results into future protective measures and revision of the manual for nuclear emergency response were greatly important. This report described investigated results on initial operations in local headquarters such as situation of activities conducted by local headquarters and operations at functional groups. (T. Tanaka)

  4. An environmental BeO-OSL dosimeter for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woda, Clemens; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Urso, Laura; Greiter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented to use measurements of localized absorbed dose in inner cities for production of high resolution maps of the radioactive contamination following a nuclear emergency or radiological attack. The doses are derived from luminescent detectors pre-fixed at places of high importance (e.g. public squares). For such an environmental dosimeter, BeO is used, which can be read out using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). A suitable casing of black Perspex has been developed to give a sufficiently accurate estimate of the air kerma value at the detector position. The dosimeter is characterized according to light tightness, dose response and angular photon energy dependence. A short overview of the approach for map production is also given. - Highlights: ► An inexpensive, environmentally stable BeO based OSL dosimeter has been developed for emergency response. ► The detector enables fast readouts and shows highly favorable dosimetric properties. ► A conceptual design is described to produce maps of radioactive contamination from localized dose measurements in urban areas.

  5. A new emergency response model for MACCS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanin, D.I.

    1992-01-01

    Under DOE sponsorship, as directed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the MACCS code (version 1.5.11.1) [Ch92] was modified to implement a series of improvements in its modeling of emergency response actions. The purpose of this effort has been to aid the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in its performance of the Level III analysis for the Savannah River Site (SRS) probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of K Reactor [Wo90]. To ensure its usefulness to WSRC, and facilitate the new model's eventual merger with other MACCS enhancements, close cooperation with WSRC and the MACCS development team at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) was maintained throughout the project. These improvements are intended to allow a greater degree of flexibility in modeling the mitigative actions of evacuation and sheltering. The emergency response model in MACCS version 1.5.11.1 was developed to support NRC analyses of consequences from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants. The NRC code imposes unnecessary constraints on DOE safety analyses, particularly for consequences to onsite worker populations, and it has therefore been revamped. The changes to the code have been implemented in a manner that preserves previous modeling capabilities and therefore prior analyses can be repeated with the new code

  6. Evaluating the success of an emergency response medical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter, Stacie; Fruhling, Ann

    2011-07-01

    STATPack™ is an information system used to aid in the diagnosis of pathogens in hospitals and state public health laboratories. STATPack™ is used as a communication and telemedicine diagnosis tool during emergencies. This paper explores the success of this emergency response medical information system (ERMIS) using a well-known framework of information systems success developed by DeLone and McLean. Using an online survey, the entire population of STATPack™ users evaluated the success of the information system by considering system quality, information quality, system use, intention to use, user satisfaction, individual impact, and organizational impact. The results indicate that the overall quality of this ERMIS (i.e., system quality, information quality, and service quality) has a positive impact on both user satisfaction and intention to use the system. However, given the nature of ERMIS, overall quality does not necessarily predict use of the system. Moreover, the user's satisfaction with the information system positively affected the intention to use the system. User satisfaction, intention to use, and system use had a positive influence on the system's impact on the individual. Finally, the organizational impacts of the system were positively influenced by use of the system and the system's individual impact on the user. The results of the study demonstrate how to evaluate the success of an ERMIS as well as introduce potential changes in how one applies the DeLone and McLean success model in an emergency response medical information system context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IAEA response assistance network. Incident and Emergency Centre. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 May 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This publication is intended to serve as a tool for supporting the provision of international assistance in the case of nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, cooperation between States, their Competent Authorities and the IAEA, and harmonization of response capabilities of States offering assistance. The publication is issued under the authority of the Director General of the IAEA: (1) under the auspices of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the Assistance Convention) [1], to promote, facilitate and support cooperation between States Parties to coordinate and/or provide assistance to a State Party and/or Member State; and (2) in the case of an incident or emergency, as statutory functions, to provide for the application of its safety standards, upon request by a Member State, and to act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the performance of services or the supplying of materials, equipment or facilities by one Member State for another. The publication sets out the following: a) the RANET concept and the organizational structure for providing assistance; b) functions, responsibilities and activities within the RANET; c) the RANET response operations and arrangements needed for preparedness; and d) the prerequisites for RANET membership and conditions of registration. The RANET is divided into four sections. After the introduction in Section 1, the RANET concept, objectives and scope are described in Section 2. Section 3 presents the concept of operations of the RANET and Section 4 describes expected tasks, capabilities and resources. In addition, EPR-RANET (2006) has three supporting documents, which are issued separately, as follows: 1. Assistance Action Plans with samples of Assistance Action Plans for providing international assistance. 2. Registry with the details of the registry and instructions on how to register national assistance capabilities for the RANET. 3. Technical Guidelines

  8. Incidence of emergency contacts (red responses to Norwegian emergency primary healthcare services in 2007 – a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The municipalities are responsible for the emergency primary health care services in Norway. These services include casualty clinics, primary doctors on-call and local emergency medical communication centres (LEMC. The National centre for emergency primary health care has initiated an enterprise called "The Watchtowers", comprising emergency primary health care districts, to provide routine information (patients' way of contact, level of urgency and first action taken by the out-of-hours services over several years based on a minimal dataset. This will enable monitoring, evaluation and comparison of the respective activities in the emergency primary health care services. The aim of this study was to assess incidence of emergency contacts (potential life-threatening situations, red responses to the emergency primary health care service. Methods A representative sample of Norwegian emergency primary health care districts, "The Watchtowers" recorded all contacts and first action taken during the year of 2007. All the variables were continuously registered in a data program by the attending nurses and sent by email to the National Centre for Emergency Primary Health Care at a monthly basis. Results During 2007 the Watchtowers registered 85 288 contacts, of which 1 946 (2.3% were defined as emergency contacts (red responses, corresponding to a rate of 9 per 1 000 inhabitants per year. 65% of the instances were initiated by patient, next of kin or health personnel by calling local emergency medical communication centres or meeting directly at the casualty clinics. In 48% of the red responses, the first action taken was a call-out of doctor and ambulance. On a national basis we can estimate approximately 42 500 red responses per year in the EPH in Norway. Conclusion The emergency primary health care services constitute an important part of the emergency system in Norway. Patients call the LEMC or meet directly at casualty clinics

  9. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction... allocation of $3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program to the four FTA...

  10. A special purpose vehicle for radiological emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeck, K.

    1995-01-01

    The scope of this paper encompasses the design and application of a Contamination Control Station (CCS) Response Vehicle. The vehicle is part of emergency response assets at the Department of Energy Pantex Plant, the nation's final assembly and disassembly point for nuclear weapons. The CCS Response Vehicle was designed to satisfy the need for a rapid deployment of equipment for the setup of a Contamination Control Station. This deployment may be either on the Pantex Plant site, or, if directed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, to any location in the US or worldwide to a site having radioactive contamination and needing response assets of this type. Based on the specialized nature of the vehicle and its mission, certain design criteria must be considered. The vehicle must be air transportable. This criteria alone poses size, weight, and material restrictions due to the transporting aircraft and temperature/pressure variations. This paper first focuses on the overall mission of the vehicle, then highlights some of the design considerations

  11. Anomalous behavior in the third harmonic generation z response through dispersion induced shape changes and matching χ(3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rajesh S.; Brakenhoff, G. J.; Müller, M.

    2006-09-01

    The third harmonic generation (THG) axial response in the vicinity of an interface formed by two isotropic materials of normal dispersion is typically single peaked, with the maximum intensity at the interface position. Here it is shown experimentally that this THG z response may show anomalous behavior—being double peaked with a dip coinciding with the interface position—when the THG contributions from both materials are of similar magnitude. The observed anomalous behavior is explained, using paraxial Gaussian theory, by considering dispersion induced shape changes in the THG z response.

  12. Information for nuclear emergency response: a case study based on ANGRA nuclear power plant emergency simulation exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Paulo V.R. de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current nuclear emergency management procedures do not always satisfactorily address issues related to the information availability and to how people in emergency control centres use this information to respond to an nuclear accident. The lack of an adequate and prompt information may lead to a response that can be very different from what authorities recommend and thus create confusion, mistrust, and widespread uncertainty. This is a potentially serious problem for emergency planners. An adequate and prompt access to relevant information is a critical requirement that emergency teams face while they work towards reducing the undesired consequences of the emergency. There are three basic types of knowledge according to a conceptual framework developed to deal with emergency response: Previous Personal, Previous and, Current Contextual knowledge. Most decisions in emergency control centres require a dynamic combination of all types of knowledge, particularly the current contextual that comes from the emergency settings, including all information about the activities of other emergency teams. The aim of this paper is to describe the concepts and the structure of a system that aims at storing and disseminating the previous formal and contextual knowledge to help teams make the correct decisions during the evolution of an emergency. The elicitation of critical requirements are provided by a case study based on Cognitive Work Analysis and Naturalistic Decision Making methods, applied to a nuclear emergency response simulation. The framework and a prototype system were tested in a controlled experiment. The paper reports the results of this experiment. (author)

  13. Using the /phi/resund experimental data to evaluate the ARAC emergency response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Gryning, S.E.

    1988-07-01

    A series of meteorological and tracer experiments, was conducted during May and June 1984 over the 20-km wide /O/resund strait between Denmark and Sweden for the purpose of studying atmospheric dispersion processes over cold water and warm land surfaces and providing the data needed to evaluate meso-scale models in a coastal environment. In concert with these objectives the data from these experiments have been used as part of a continuing effort to evaluate the capability of the three-dimensional MATHEW/ADPIC (M/A) atmospheric dispersion models to simulate pollutant transport and diffusion characteristics of the atmospheric during a wide variety of meteorological conditions. Since previous studies have focused primarily on M/A model evaluations over rolling and complex terrain at inland sites, the /O/resund experiments provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the models in a coastal environment. The M/A models are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, for performing real-time assessments of the environmental consequences of potential or actual releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These assessments include estimation of radiation doses to nearby population centers and of the extent of surface contamination. Model evaluations, using field experimental data such as those generated by the /O/resund experiments, serve as a basis for providing emergency response managers with estimated of the uncertainties associated with accident consequence assessments. This report provides a brief description of the /O/resund experiments, the current understanding of the meteorological processes governing pollutant dispersion over the /O/resund strait, and the results of the M/A model simulations of these experiments. 11 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  15. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    2004-10-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation

  16. Emerging Diseases in European Forest Ecosystems and Responses in Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna B. Boberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New diseases in forest ecosystems have been reported at an increasing rate over the last century. Some reasons for this include the increased disturbance by humans to forest ecosystems, changed climatic conditions and intensified international trade. Although many of the contributing factors to the changed disease scenarios are anthropogenic, there has been a reluctance to control them by legislation, other forms of government authority or through public involvement. Some of the primary obstacles relate to problems in communicating biological understanding of concepts to the political sphere of society. Relevant response to new disease scenarios is very often associated with a proper understanding of intraspecific variation in the challenging pathogen. Other factors could be technical, based on a lack of understanding of possible countermeasures. There are also philosophical reasons, such as the view that forests are part of the natural ecosystems and should not be managed for natural disturbances such as disease outbreaks. Finally, some of the reasons are economic or political, such as a belief in free trade or reluctance to acknowledge supranational intervention control. Our possibilities to act in response to new disease threats are critically dependent on the timing of efforts. A common recognition of the nature of the problem and adapting vocabulary that describe relevant biological entities would help to facilitate timely and adequate responses in society to emerging diseases in forests.

  17. Analysis and prediction of radioelement dispersion in the marine environment by the pulse response method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.; Fraizier, A.; Hairie, A.; Baron, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This work presents analysis and prediction of the dispersion of radioelements in the marine environment based on the pulse response theory. The analysis is made on three data sets over the period 1984-1988: the amounts of gamma-emitting radioelements contained in controlled releases from the nuclear reprocessing plant of La Hague (=signal emission point), and gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations in sea water at two stations (signal reception points), situated at 8 and 35 km distance from the release point. Using this data base, the pulse response is determined for each station and for each element. This allows us to estimate the mean delay and the amplitude of the reception signal (i.e. the concentrations of radioelements) and its sensitivity to wind forcing. We then demonstrate that the convolution of the pulse response and released radionuclide time-series is capable of yielding a fairly good prediction of the concentrations at each station. Some particularities of the behaviour of 137 Cs, 106 Ru and 60 Co are evidenced by comparison with that of 125 Sb, assumed to be a conservative element in sea water: adsorption of 106 Ru and 60 Co on to particles, additional sources of 137 Cs. The mean delays calculated for 125 Sb at each station are close to each other (28-30 days) despite their different distances from the release point, and are explained by the specific hydrodynamics of the studied area. (Authors). 16 refs., 9 figs

  18. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting.

  19. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  20. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability

  1. Preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for a nuclear or radiological emergency. Emergency preparedness and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this publication is to serve as a practical tool for the preparation, conduct and evaluation of exercises to test preparedness for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. It fulfils in part the functions assigned to the IAEA under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), namely, to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning the methodologies, techniques and available results of research on such emergencies. To ensure effective response to radiation emergencies when needed, provisions should be made for regular training of emergency response personnel. As stated in Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (Safety Requirements, Safety Standard Series No. GS-R-2), 'The operator and the response organizations shall make arrangements for the selection of personnel and training to ensure that the personnel have the requisite knowledge, skills, abilities, equipment, procedures and other arrangements to perform their assigned response functions'. A further requirement is that 'Exercise programmes shall be conducted to ensure that all specified functions required to be performed for emergency response and all organizational interfaces for facilities in threat category I, II or III and the national level programmes for threat category IV or V are tested at suitable intervals'. In 2004 the IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(48)/RES/10 encouraged Member States to 'implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency'. This document is published as part of the IAEA Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to assist in meeting these requirements and to fulfil Article 5 of the Assistance Convention. It was developed based on a number of assumptions about national and local capabilities. Therefore, the exercise structure, terms and scenarios must be

  2. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Nisbet, A.; Thome, D.; Savkin, M.; Hoe, S.; Brynildsen, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the late phase of a radioactive release, and the development of the initial late phase strategy. It discusses the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Based on this the following recommendations are made: (1) the issues that will arise at the start of the late phase response to a radioactive release require preparation work in advance of any release; (2) this preparation should consider the adequacy of legislation, technical data and modelling, options for waste storage and disposal, resources for monitoring and implementing clean up; (3) late phase preparedness requires regular exercising and (4) the possibility of terrorist releases adds further emphasis to the need for preparedness for the late phase. (authors)

  3. Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Solaiman, K.M.; Al-Arfaj, A.M.; Farouk, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

  4. The emergency response guidelines for the Westinghouse pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekens, J.P.; Bastien, R.; Prokopovich, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Three Mile Island accident has demonstrated that the guidance provided for mitigating the consequences of design basis accidents could be inadequate when multiple incidents, failures or errors occur during or after the accident. Westinghouse and the Westinghouse Owners Group have developed new Emergency Response Guidelines (E.R.G.). The E.R.G. are composed of two independent sets of procedures and of a systematic tool to continuously evaluate the plant safety throughout the response to an accident. a) The Optimal Recovery Guidelines are entered each time the reactor is tripped or the Emergency Core Cooling System is actuated. An immediate verification of the automatic protective actuations is performed and the accident diagnosis process is initiated. When nature of the accident is identified, the operator is transferred to the applicable recovery procedure and subprocedures. A permanent rediagnosis is performed throughout the application of the optimal Recovery Guidelines and cross connections are provided to the adequate procedure if an error in diagnosis is identified. b) Early in the course of the accident, the operating staff initiates monitoring of the Critical Safety Functions. These are defined as the set of functions ensuring the integrity of the physical barriers against radioactivity release. The review of these functions is peformed continuously through a cyclic application of the status trees. c) The Function Restoration Guidelines are entered when the Critical Safety Function monitoring identifies a challenge to one of the functions. Depending on the severity of the challenge, the transfer to a Function Restoration Guideline can be immediate for a severe challenge or delayed for a minor challenge. Those guidelines are independent of the scenario of the accident, but only based on plant parameters and equipment availability

  5. Composition and fundamental requirements of nuclear emergency response monitoring equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yongfang; Huang Weiqi; Wang Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear emergency monitoring equipment is concrete foundation for accomplishing radiation monitoring in nuclear or radiation accidents. Based on technical report: Generic procedures for monitoring in a nuclear or radiological emergency published by IAEA in 1999, this paper presents the main task and composition of nuclear emergency monitoring briefly, and then the basic equipment and trends of nuclear emergency monitoring equipment is put forward in detail, which is useful to construction and reinforcement of our nuclear emergency monitoring. (authors)

  6. Some issues on nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear emergency preparedness and response have comprehensively been developed over ten years in China. In order to promote the sound development of emergency preparedness and response, it is useful to retrospect the process of emergency preparedness and response, to summarize the experiences and absorb the experiences from foreign countries. The main issues are as follows: 1) The preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological accident is basically the same as the response to any accident involving hazardous material. 2) The classification of emergency planning, not only for nuclear facilities, but also irradiation installation, etc. 3) The hazard assessment-- a top priority. 4) The emergency planning zones. 5) Psychological impact

  7. Emergency Response Damage Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Yésou, Hervé; Schneiderhan, Tobias; de Boissezon, Hélène; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-04-01

    During disasters rescue and relief organisations need quick access to reliable and accurate information to be better equipped to do their job. It is increasingly felt that satellites offer a unique near real time (NRT) tool to aid disaster management. A short introduction to the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', in operation since 2000 promoting worldwide cooperation among member space agencies, will be given as it is the foundation on which satellite-based, emergency response, damage assessment has been built. Other complementary mechanisms will also be discussed. The user access, triggering mechanism, an essential component for this user-driven service, will be highlighted with its 24/7 single access point. Then, a clear distinction will be made between data provision and geo-information delivery mechanisms to underline the user need for geo-information that is easily integrated into their working environments. Briefly, the path to assured emergency response product quality will be presented beginning with user requirements, expressed early-on, for emergency response value-adding services. Initiatives were then established, supported by national and European institutions, to develop the sector, with SERTIT and DLR being key players, providing support to decision makers in headquarters and relief teams in the field. To consistently meet the high quality levels demanded by users, rapid mapping has been transformed via workflow and quality control standardisation to improve both speed and quality. As such, SERTIT located in Alsace, France, and DLR/ZKI from Bavaria, Germany, join their knowledge in this presentation to report about recent standards as both have ISO certified their rapid mapping services based on experienced, well-trained, 24/7 on-call teams and established systems providing the first crisis analysis product in 6 hours after satellite data reception. The three main product types provided are then outlined: up-to-date pre

  8. Selective extraction of emerging contaminants from water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using functionalized ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cong; Li, Tianhao; Twu, Pamela; Pitner, William R; Anderson, Jared L

    2011-03-25

    Functionalized ionic liquids containing the tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (FAP) anion were used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of 14 emerging contaminants from water samples. The extraction efficiencies and selectivities were compared to those of an in situ IL DLLME method which uses an in situ metathesis reaction to exchange 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM-Cl) to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (BMIM-NTf(2)). Compounds containing tertiary amine functionality were extracted with high selectivity and sensitivity by the 1-(6-amino-hexyl)-1-methylpyrrolidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (HNH(2)MPL-FAP) IL compared to other FAP-based ILs and the BMIM-NTf(2) IL. On the other hand, polar or acidic compounds without amine groups exhibited higher enrichment factors using the BMIM-NTf(2) IL. The detection limits for the studied analytes varied from 0.1 to 55.1 μg/L using the traditional IL DLLME method with the HNH(2)MPL-FAP IL as extraction solvent, and from 0.1 to 55.8 μg/L using in situ IL DLLME method with BMIM-Cl+LiNTf(2) as extraction solvent. A 93-fold decrease in the detection limit of caffeine was observed when using the HNH(2)MPL-FAP IL compared to that obtained using in situ IL DLLME method. Real water samples including tap water and creek water were analyzed with both IL DLLME methods and yielded recoveries ranging from 91% to 110%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Widespread dispersal of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Julia; Besana, Andrea M; Genersch, Elke; Gisder, Sebastian; Nanetti, Antonio; Tam, Dinh Quyet; Chinh, Tong Xuan; Puerta, Francisco; Ruz, José Maria; Kryger, Per; Message, Dejair; Hatjina, Fani; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar; Paxton, Robert J

    2007-09-01

    The economically most important honey bee species, Apis mellifera, was formerly considered to be parasitized by one microsporidian, Nosema apis. Recently, [Higes, M., Martín, R., Meana, A., 2006. Nosema ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honeybees in Europe, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 92, 93-95] and [Huang, W.-F., Jiang, J.-H., Chen, Y.-W., Wang, C.-H., 2007. A Nosema ceranae isolate from the honeybee Apis mellifera. Apidologie 38, 30-37] used 16S (SSU) rRNA gene sequences to demonstrate the presence of Nosema ceranae in A. mellifera from Spain and Taiwan, respectively. We developed a rapid method to differentiate between N. apis and N. ceranae based on PCR-RFLPs of partial SSU rRNA. The reliability of the method was confirmed by sequencing 29 isolates from across the world (N =9 isolates gave N. apis RFLPs and sequences, N =20 isolates gave N. ceranae RFLPs and sequences; 100% correct classification). We then employed the method to analyze N =115 isolates from across the world. Our data, combined with N =36 additional published sequences demonstrate that (i) N. ceranae most likely jumped host to A. mellifera, probably within the last decade, (ii) that host colonies and individuals may be co-infected by both microsporidia species, and that (iii) N. ceranae is now a parasite of A. mellifera across most of the world. The rapid, long-distance dispersal of N. ceranae is likely due to transport of infected honey bees by commercial or hobbyist beekeepers. We discuss the implications of this emergent pathogen for worldwide beekeeping.

  10. Dose-dependent pulmonary response of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyabu, Takako; Morimoto, Yasuo; Hirohashi, Masami; Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Lee, Byeong Woo; Hashiba, Masayoshi; Mizuguchi, Yohei; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Etsushi

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between pulmonary inflammation and particle clearance of nanoparticles, and also their dose dependency, we performed an instillation study of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammations, the particle clearance rate and histopathological changes. Wistar rats were intratracheally administered 0.1 mg (0.33 mg/kg), 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg), 1 mg (3.3 mg/kg), and 3 mg (10 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO 2 nanoparticles (diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), and the pulmonary inflammation response and the amount of TiO 2 in the lung were determined from 3 days up to 12 months sequentially after the instillation. There were no increases of total cell or neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the 0.1 and the 0.2 mg-administered groups. On the other hand, mild infiltration of neutrophils was observed in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Histopathological findings showed infiltration of neutrophils in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Of special note, a granulomatous lesion including a local accumulation of TiO 2 was observed in the bronchioli-alveolar space in the 3 mg-administered group. The biological half times of the TiO 2 in the lung were 4.2, 4.4, 6.7, and 10.8 months in the 0.1, 0.2, 1, and 3 mg-administered groups, respectively. Neutrophil infiltration was observed as the particle clearance was delayed, suggesting that an excessive dose of TiO 2 nanoparticles may induce pulmonary inflammation and clearance delay.

  11. Dose-dependent pulmonary response of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyabu, Takako [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Hirohashi, Masami; Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology (Japan); Lee, Byeong Woo [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering (Japan); Hashiba, Masayoshi [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology (Japan); Mizuguchi, Yohei; Myojo, Toshihiko [Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    In order to investigate the relationship between pulmonary inflammation and particle clearance of nanoparticles, and also their dose dependency, we performed an instillation study of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammations, the particle clearance rate and histopathological changes. Wistar rats were intratracheally administered 0.1 mg (0.33 mg/kg), 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg), 1 mg (3.3 mg/kg), and 3 mg (10 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), and the pulmonary inflammation response and the amount of TiO{sub 2} in the lung were determined from 3 days up to 12 months sequentially after the instillation. There were no increases of total cell or neutrophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in the 0.1 and the 0.2 mg-administered groups. On the other hand, mild infiltration of neutrophils was observed in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Histopathological findings showed infiltration of neutrophils in the 1 and 3 mg-administered groups. Of special note, a granulomatous lesion including a local accumulation of TiO{sub 2} was observed in the bronchioli-alveolar space in the 3 mg-administered group. The biological half times of the TiO{sub 2} in the lung were 4.2, 4.4, 6.7, and 10.8 months in the 0.1, 0.2, 1, and 3 mg-administered groups, respectively. Neutrophil infiltration was observed as the particle clearance was delayed, suggesting that an excessive dose of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may induce pulmonary inflammation and clearance delay.

  12. The impact of communication materials on public responses to a radiological dispersal device (RDD) attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, M Brooke; Amlôt, Richard; Rubin, G James

    2013-03-01

    It is a common assumption that, in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) attack, a well-prepared and informed public is more likely to follow official recommendations regarding the appropriate safety measures to take. We present findings from a UK study investigating the ability of crisis communication to influence perceptions of risk and behavioral intentions in the general public in response to CBRN terrorism. We conducted a focus group study involving a scenario presented in mock news broadcasts to explore levels of public knowledge, information needs, and intended behavioral reactions to an attack involving an overt radiological dispersal device (RDD), or dirty bomb. We used the findings from these focus groups to design messages for the public that could be presented in a short leaflet. We then tested the effects of the leaflet on reactions to the same scenario in 8 further focus groups. The impact of the new messages on levels of knowledge, information needs, and intended compliance with official recommendations was assessed. The provision of information increased the perceived credibility of official messages and increased reported levels of intended compliance with advice to return to normal/stop sheltering, attend a facility for assessment and treatment, and return to a previously contaminated area after decontamination of the environment has taken place. Should a real attack with an RDD occur, having pretested messages available to address common concerns and information needs should facilitate the public health response to the attack.

  13. A FTA-based method for risk decision-making in emergency response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making problems in emergency response are usually risky and uncertain due to the limited decision data and possible evolvement of emergency scenarios. This paper focuses on a risk decisionmaking problem in emergency response with several distinct characteristics including dynamic...... evolvement process of emergency, multiple scenarios, and impact of response actions on the emergency scenarios. A method based on Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is proposed to solve the problem. By analyzing the evolvement process of emergency, the Fault Tree (FT) is constructed to describe the logical relations...

  14. Emergency response during the radiological control of scraps in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Viltre, Enma O.; Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Dominguez Ley, Orlando; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Caveda Ramos, Celia; Carrazana, Jorge; Barroso Perez, Idelisa

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years, in the international scene, incidents have been reported due to the presence of radioactive materials in the scrap. This reality has motivated the adoption of measures of radiological security, due to the implications that these incidents have for the public and the environment, as well as for the international trade. Among theses actions is the implementation of the radiological control of scrap, with the additional requirement that this control has to be implemented in the framework of a Quality Management Program.Taking into account the international experience, our institution designed and organized in 2002 a national service for the radiological monitoring of scrap, being the clients the main exporting and trading enterprises of this material in the country. During these years, several contaminated materials have been detected, causing incidents that activated the radiological emergency response system. In this sense, since some years ago, our country has been working in the implementation of a national and ministerial system for facing and mitigating the consequences of accidental radiological situations, conjugating efforts and wills from different national institutions with the leadership of the Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) and the Center of Nuclear Security (CNSN) in correspondence with the social responsibility assigned to the them. These incidents propitiate to have not only a system of capacity and quick response oriented to limit the exposure of people, to control the sources, to mitigate the consequences of the accident and to reestablish the conditions of normality, but also a previous adequate planning that guarantees the speed and effectiveness of it. In these work the experiences reached by the specialists of the CPHR from Cuba during the occurrence of an incident in the execution of the service of radiological monitoring of scraps are exposed. (author)

  15. Radioactive source recovery program responses to neutron source emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinehart, S.M.; Hatler, V.A.; Gray, D.W.; Guillen, A.D.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of neutron sources containing Pu 239 and Be is currently taking place at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The program was initiated in 1979 by the Department of Energy (DOE) to dismantle and recover sources owned primarily by universities and the Department of Defense. Since the inception of this program, Los Alamos has dismantled and recovered more than 1000 sources. The dismantlement and recovery process involves the removal of source cladding and the chemical separation of the source materials to eliminate neutron emissions. While this program continues for the disposal of 239 Pu/Be sources, there is currently no avenue for the disposition of any sources other than those containing Pu 239 . Increasingly, there have been demands from agencies both inside and outside the Federal Government and from the public to dispose of unwanted sources containing 238 Pu/Be and 241 Am/Be. DOE is attempting to establish a formal program to recover these sources and is working closely with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a proposed Memorandum of Understanding to formalize an Acceptance Program. In the absence of a formal program to handle 238 Pu/Be and 241 Am/Be neutron sources, Los Alamos has responded to several emergency requests to receive and recover sources that have been determined to be a threat to public health and safety. This presentation will: (1) review the established 239 Pu neutron source recovery program at Los Alamos, (2) detail plans for a more extensive neutron source disposal program, and (3) focus on recent emergency responses

  16. UTILIZING SAR AND MULTISPECTRAL INTEGRATED DATA FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Havivi

    2016-06-01

    complete scene for the emergency response following an event.

  17. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the Assistant...

  18. International Responses to Human Protection Crises: Responsibility to Protect and the Emerging Protection Regime*

    OpenAIRE

    Bellamy, Alex J.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines contemporary debates about human protection by the UN Security Council and others in response to major humanitarian crises. It argues that there are clear signs of an emerging international human protection regime in the evolving practice of the Security Council and suggests that this regime is based on an accommodation between different moral accounts of humanitarian intervention. The first section examines some of the legal and moral debates that have arisen with respect...

  19. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included

  20. Updated tool for nuclear criticality accident emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Some 20 yr ago a hand-held slide rule was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to aid in the response to several postulated nuclear criticality accidents. These assumed accidents involved highly enriched uranium in either a bare metal or a uranyl nitrate system. The slide rule consisted of a sliding scale based on the total fission yield and four corresponding dose indicators: (1) a prompt radiation dose relationship as a function of distance; (2) a delayed fission product gamma dose rate relationship as a function of time and distance; (3) the total dose relationship with time and distance; and (4) the I-min integrated dose relationship with time and distance. The original slide rule was generated assuming very simplistic numerical procedures such as the inverse-square relationship of dose with distance and the Way-Wigner relationship to express the time dependence of the dose. The simple prescriptions were tied to actual dose measurements from similar systems to yield a meaningful, yet simple approach to emergency planning and response needs. This paper describes the application of an advanced procedure to the updating of the original slide rule for five critical systems. These five systems include (a) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranium metal, (b) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranyl nitrate solution with a H/ 235 U ratio of 500, (c) an unreflected sphere of damp 93.2 wt% enriched uranium oxide with a H/ 235 U ratio of 10, (d) an unreflected sphere of 4.95 wt% enriched uranyl fluoride solution having a H/ 235 U ratio of 410, and (e) an unreflected sphere of damp 5 wt% enriched uranium dioxide having a H/ 235 U ratio of 200

  1. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions allocated to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a number of States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). The manual is intended for use primarily by Contact Points as identified in the Conventions. Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (lACRNA), whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments - general functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response. Moreover, some regional organizations (e.g. the European Union) are party to legally binding treaties and have

  2. Integration of radiation monitoring for nuclear emergency response teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J T; Thompson, N Y [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Forces have established Nuclear Emergency Response Teams to cope with potential radiation accidents. Previously, only gamma and high-energy beta radiation could be detected. Recently, new radiation sampling, detecting, and analytical equipment has been bought, including air samplers, beta counters, high-purity germanium gamma detectors, and multi-channel analyzers together with Gamma Vision Software to analyze gamma spectra. The purpose of the present study is to propose a way to use the new equipment, to analyze the results from the gamma and beta detectors, and to integrate the results into a format for decision making. Integration is achieved through the creation of a computer program, Radiation Integration Program (RIP). This program analyzes gross beta counts, and uses them to estimate danger to the thyroid. As well the results from Gamma Vision are converted from Bq to dose rate for several parts of the body. Overall gamma results affecting the thyroid are compared to the beta results to verify the initial estimations.

  3. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.; Khan, A.J.; Semkow, T.M.; Syed, U.-F.; Roselan, A.; Haines, D.K.; Roth, G.; West, L.; Arndt, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with 241 Am (alpha radioactivity), 90 Sr/ 90 Y (beta radioactivity), and 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 241 Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  4. Radiological emergency response in a medical waste treatment unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Vianna, Estanislau B.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive materials are largely used in medicine, research and industry. The amount of radioactive material employed in each application varies from negligible to large and it can be in sealed or non-sealed form. A medical waste treatment unit that deals only with A-type medical waste (ABNT-NBR 12808), which does not include radioactive waste, detected abnormal radiation levels in a collecting truck and the IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team was called. The presence of radioactive material inside the truck was confirmed; however, its origin and nature were not possible to be determined because the truck had collected medical waste in several facilities. So, an operation in order to segregate and identify that material was carried out. During the operation, a second collecting truck presenting abnormal radiation levels arrived to the unit and the same procedure was carried out on that truck. In both situations, the contaminated objects found were infantile diapers. The radioactive waste was transported to IPEN-CNEN/SP to be managed. Samples of the radioactive materials were submitted to gamma spectrometry and the radionuclide was identified as Iodine-131. Since that attendance, similar occurrences have been frequent. These events suggest that it is necessary a better control of the radioactive waste at the generating facilities and there should be basic radioprotection orientations to the discharging patients that were submitted to nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  5. Radiological emergency response in a medical waste treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.; Boni-Mitake, Malvina; Vianna, Estanislau B.; Nicolau, Jose R.A.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive materials are largely used in medicine, research and industry. The amount of radioactive material employed in each application varies from negligible to large and it can be in sealed or non-sealed form. A medical waste treatment unit that deals only with A-type medical waste (ABNT-NBR 12808), which does not include radioactive waste, detected abnormal radiation levels in a collecting truck and the IPEN-CNEN/SP Nuclear and Radiological Emergency Response Team was called. The presence of radioactive material inside the truck was confirmed; however, its origin and nature were not possible to be determined because the truck had collected medical waste in several facilities. So, an operation in order to segregate and identify that material was carried out. During the operation, a second collecting truck presenting abnormal radiation levels arrived to the unit and the same procedure was carried out on that truck. In both situations, the contaminated objects found were infantile diapers. The radioactive waste was transported to IPEN-CNEN/SP to be managed. Samples of the radioactive materials were submitted to gamma spectrometry and the radionuclide was identified as Iodine-131. Since that attendance, similar occurrences have been frequent. These events suggest that it is necessary a better control of the radioactive waste at the generating facilities and there should be basic radioprotection orientations to the discharging patients that were submitted to nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  6. New Structure of Emergency Response Plan in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcic, I.; Subasic, D.; Cavlina, N.

    1998-01-01

    The new structure of a national emergency response plan in the case of nuclear accident is based on general requirements of modernization according to international recommendations, with a new Technical Support Center as a so-called lead technical agency, with the plan adapted to the organization of the Civil Protection, with all necessary elements of preparedness for the event of a nuclear accident in Krsko NPP and Paks NPP and with such a plan of procedures that will, to greatest possible extent, be compatible with the existing plan in neighboring countries Slovenia and Hungary. The main requirement that direct s a new organization scheme for taking protective actions in the event of a nuclear accident, is the requirement of introducing a Technical Support Center. The basic role of TSC is collecting data and information on nuclear accident, analyzing and estimating development of an accident, and preparing proposals for taking protective actions and for informing the public. TSC is required to forward those proposals to the Civil Protection, which on the basis of evaluation of proposals makes decisions on implementation and surveillance of implementation of protective measures. (author)

  7. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Hanford Site emergency response needs, Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive third party needs assessment of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD), conducted by Hughes Associates Inc. The assessment was commissioned with the intent of obtaining an unbiased report which could be used as a basis for identifying needed changes/modifications to the fire department and its services. This report serves several functions: (1) it documents current and future site operations and associated hazards and risks identified as a result of document review, site and facility surveys, and interviews with knowledgeable personnel; (2) describes the HFD in terms of organization, existing resources and response capabilities; (3) identifies regulatory and other requirements that are applicable to the HFD and includes a discussion of associated legal liabilities; and (4) provides recommendations based on applicable requirements and existing conditions. Each recommendation is followed by a supporting statement to clarify the intent or justification of the recommendation. This report will be followed by a Master Plan document which will present an implementation method for the recommendations (with associated costs) considered to be essential to maintaining adequate, cost effective emergency services at the Hanford site in the next five to seven years

  9. Hanford Site emergency response needs, Volumes 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, D.E.

    1996-04-16

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive third party needs assessment of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD), conducted by Hughes Associates Inc. The assessment was commissioned with the intent of obtaining an unbiased report which could be used as a basis for identifying needed changes/modifications to the fire department and its services. This report serves several functions: (1) it documents current and future site operations and associated hazards and risks identified as a result of document review, site and facility surveys, and interviews with knowledgeable personnel; (2) describes the HFD in terms of organization, existing resources and response capabilities; (3) identifies regulatory and other requirements that are applicable to the HFD and includes a discussion of associated legal liabilities; and (4) provides recommendations based on applicable requirements and existing conditions. Each recommendation is followed by a supporting statement to clarify the intent or justification of the recommendation. This report will be followed by a Master Plan document which will present an implementation method for the recommendations (with associated costs) considered to be essential to maintaining adequate, cost effective emergency services at the Hanford site in the next five to seven years.

  10. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications.

  11. Response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of a Radiological Dispersal Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luís, R.; Fleta, C.; Balbuena, J.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Disch, C.; Jumilla, C.; Lozano, M.; Marques, J.G.; Vaz, P.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the REWARD project consisted in building a mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance, using a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit includes a GPS system and a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station, where it will be analyzed in real time and correlated with historical data from the tag location, in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The main objective of this work consisted in making predictions regarding the behavior of the REWARD system in the presence of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), one of the reference scenarios foreseen for REWARD, using experimental data and the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP6. Experimental tests were performed at the Fire Brigades Facilities in Rome and at the Naples Fire Brigades. The response of the REWARD detection system to the presence of an RDD is predicted and discussed. - Highlights: • A prototype mobile system for real-time, wide-area radiation surveillance was built. • Experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations were used to test the system. • The system is suitable to detect and identify radiation sources in threat scenarios.

  12. United States Department of Energy radiological emergency response programme - a national capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon-Hagerty, L.E.

    1993-01-01

    In order to respond to a radiological emergency, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) maintains seven emergency response assets and capabilities in support of a radiological emergency of any proportion within the continental United States and abroad. The seven emergency response assets and capabilities include: Accident Response Group; Aerial Measuring Systems; Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability; Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center; Nuclear Emergency Search Team; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiological Assistance Program. Presently, USDOE maintains the most comprehensive national radiological emergency response assets in the United States, capable of dealing with any type of emergency involving nuclear materials. In all, the Department's assets are available to support any type of accident/incident involving radioactive materials in coordination with other United States Federal agencies, as well as state and local governments, as required. (author)

  13. Analysis of dispersed frequency response for ionic glasses: influence of electrode and nearly constant loss effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J Ross

    2005-01-01

    Analysis by D L Sidebottom of the dispersive frequency response of the real-part of the conductivity, σ'(ω), for many alkali phosphate and metaphosphate glasses, using a fitting model involving a 'universal dynamic response' power law with an exponent n and a constant-loss term, led to anomalous n behaviour that he explained as arising from variable constriction of the local cation conduction space. In order to obtain adequate fits, he eliminated from the data all low-frequency decreases of σ'(ω) below the dc plateau, ones actually associated with electrode effects. Such a cut-off does not, however, eliminate electrode effects possibly present in the high-frequency part of the data range. The results of the present detailed analysis and fitting of both synthetic data and several of his experimental data sets show unequivocally that his anomalous n behaviour arose from neglecting electrode effects. Their inclusion, with or without data cut-off in the fitting model, leads to the expected high-frequency slope value of n = 2/3 associated with bulk conduction, as required by recently published topological effective-dimension considerations for dielectric relaxation in conductive systems. Further, the effects of the inclusion in a full fitting model of series and possibly parallel complex constant-phase-element contributions, representing electrode and nearly constant loss effects, respectively, have been investigated in detail. Such composite models usually lead to best fitting of either the full or cut-off complex data when they include the semi-universal, topologically based K1 bulk model, one indirectly derived from the assumption of stretched-exponential temporal behaviour

  14. Development of emergency response tools for accidental radiological contamination of French coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffa, Céline; Bailly du Bois, Pascal; Caillaud, Matthieu; Charmasson, Sabine; Couvez, Céline; Didier, Damien; Dumas, Franck; Fievet, Bruno; Morillon, Mehdi; Renaud, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident resulted in the largest ever accidental release of artificial radionuclides in coastal waters. This accident has shown the importance of marine assessment capabilities for emergency response and the need to develop tools for adequately predicting the evolution and potential impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. The French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) equips its emergency response centre with operational tools to assist experts and decision makers in the event of accidental atmospheric releases and contamination of the terrestrial environment. The on-going project aims to develop tools for the management of marine contamination events in French coastal areas. This should allow us to evaluate and anticipate post-accident conditions, including potential contamination sites, contamination levels and potential consequences. In order to achieve this goal, two complementary tools are developed: site-specific marine data sheets and a dedicated simulation tool (STERNE, Simulation du Transport et du transfert d’Eléments Radioactifs dans l'environNEment marin). Marine data sheets are used to summarize the marine environment characteristics of the various sites considered, and to identify vulnerable areas requiring implementation of population protection measures, such as aquaculture areas, beaches or industrial water intakes, as well as areas of major ecological interest. Local climatological data (dominant sea currents as a function of meteorological or tidal conditions) serving as the basis for an initial environmental sampling strategy is provided whenever possible, along with a list of possible local contacts for operational management purposes. The STERNE simulation tool is designed to predict radionuclide dispersion and contamination in seawater and marine species by incorporating spatio-temporal data. 3D hydrodynamic forecasts are used as input data. Direct discharge points or

  15. Development of a Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring Network for Emergency Response at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldo, N; Hunter, S; Fertig, R; Laguna, G; MacQueen, D

    2004-01-01

    A real-time radiological sensor network for emergency response was developed and deployed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Real-Time Radiological Area Monitoring (RTRAM) network is comprised of 16 Geiger-Mueller (GM) sensors positioned on the LLNL Livermore site perimeter to continuously monitor for a radiological condition resulting from a terrorist threat to site security and the health and safety of LLNL personnel. The RTRAM network sensor locations coincide with wind sector directions to provide thorough coverage of the one square mile site. These loW--power sensors are supported by a central command center (CCC) and transmit measurement data back to the CCC computer through the LLNL telecommunications infrastructure. Alarm conditions are identified by comparing current data to predetermined threshold parameters and are validated by comparison with plausible dispersion modeling scenarios and prevailing meteorological conditions. Emergency response personnel are notified of alarm conditions by automatic radio and computer based notifications. A secure intranet provides emergency response personnel with current condition assessment data that enable them to direct field response efforts remotely. The RTRAM network has proven to be a reliable system since initial deployment in August 2001 and maintains stability during inclement weather conditions

  16. Generic Procedures for Medical Response During a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this manual is to provide the medical community with practical guidance for medical emergency preparedness and response, describing the tasks and actions of different members of the national, regional or local medical infrastructure in accordance with international standards. This document provides generic response procedures for medical personnel responding to different types of radiation emergencies and at the different stages of the emergency response (at the scene of the emergency, pre-hospital, hospital), and during the early post-emergency stage (about 1-2 months afterwards).

  17. Development of emergency response plans for community water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    what to do if there is an emergency situation that may affect the water system. To assist water ... need to expand the water treatment system, a desire to improve the efficiency ..... notes on drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies.

  18. The appropriateness of emergency medical service responses in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-10

    Oct 10, 2015 ... P R Newton,1 MTech (Emergency Medical Care); R Naidoo,1 MSc (Cardiology); P Brysiewicz,2 PhD (Health Science). 1 Department of Emergency Medical Care and Rescue, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa ..... tation, may include a straightforward refusal.

  19. Responsibilities and tasks of the Emergency planning organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, B.

    1983-10-01

    In order to strengthen the emergency preparedness of the most essential agencies so that all types of nuclear accidents can be mastered, the following measures will be taken: - special training for decision-makers and other personnel - introduction of continuously operating staff emergency organization - introduction of a prompt radiation measurement organization - introduction of reliable telecommunications links. (author)

  20. Helicopter emergency medical services response to equestrian accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard M; Macauley, Ben; Richardson, Sarah; de Coverly, Richard; Russell, Malcolm

    2015-04-01

    Horse riding is a common leisure activity associated with a significant rate of injury. Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) may be called to equestrian accidents. Accurate HEMS tasking is important to ensure appropriate use of this valuable medical resource. We sought to review HEMS response to equestrian accidents and identify factors associated with the need for HEMS intervention or transport of the patient to a major trauma centre. Retrospective case review of all missions flown by Kent, Surrey & Sussex Air Ambulance Trust over a 1-year period (1 July 2011 to 1 July 2012). All missions were screened for accidents involving a horse. Call details, patient demographics, suspected injuries, clinical interventions and patient disposition were all analysed. In the 12-month data collection period there were 47 equestrian accidents, representing ∼3% of the total annual missions. Of the 42 cases HEMS attended, one patient was pronounced life extinct at the scene. In 15 (36%) cases the patient was airlifted to hospital. In four (10%) cases, the patient underwent prehospital anaesthesia. There were no specific predictors of HEMS intervention. Admission to a major trauma centre was associated with the rider not wearing a helmet, a fall onto their head or the horse falling onto the rider. Equestrian accidents represent a significant proportion of HEMS missions. The majority of patients injured in equestrian accidents do not require HEMS intervention, however, a small proportion have life-threatening injuries, requiring immediate critical intervention. Further research is warranted, particularly regarding HEMS dispatch, to further improve accuracy of tasking to equestrian accidents.

  1. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-01

    Neutron detectors are used in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  2. Emergency response capabilities developed in the United States to deal with nuclear materials transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevender, S.G.; Reese, R.T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The non-existence of emergency response programs is frequently stated as a reason for restricting the movement of radioactive materials through states or local jurisdictions. Yet, studies discussed here indicate that emergency response capability, while not in the best condition, is getting more money, interest and attention, and in most states response networks exist which could be effective in responding to radiological emergencies. Awareness of such capabilities by the public is an important feature in increasing the public's confidence in the ability of federal, state and local officials in controlling hazards. One aspect of this awareness program could be in broader availability of radioactive emergency techniques for possible first responders to emergencies. This training, public awareness and more emphasis on workable emergency plans will help to assure reliable and workable emergency response plans

  3. EXAMINATION OF THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSE SYSTEM IN KOREA AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-Chang OH, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of current emergency medical response system related to the transport of emergency vehicles and suggests some transport-related ideas to improve the system in Korea. The study aimed to investigate the present emergency medical response system and identify problems, questionnaire survey and literature review were carried. The ideas include the improvement of emergency information flow and the development of preferential treatment methods for emergency vehicles. To improve the emergency information flow, this research studied the bridge between emergency medical information center and traffic information center and proposed the efficient utilization of traffic information for the better treatment of an emergency. When it comes to the movement of emergency vehicles, various preferential treatment methods were suggested.

  4. U.S. Strategy for Bioterrorism Emergency Medical Preparedness and Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lugo, Angel

    2003-01-01

    ... diseases and mass casualty dangers. The 2002 National Strategy for Homeland Security includes numerous emergency preparedness and response initiatives as part of the overall homeland security strategy...

  5. Rescue Emergency Drone (RED) for Fast Response to Medical Emergencies Due to Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Saqib; Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2017-01-01

    of inflicted persons can be reduced significantly. Smart and innovative technologies can play a pivotal role to respond faster to traffic crash emergencies comparing conventional means of transportation. For instance, Rescue Emergency Drone (RED) can provide faster and real-time crash site risk assessment...

  6. Rescue Emergency Drone for Fast Response to Medical Emergencies Due to Traffic Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Schmidt; Ahsan, Dewan; Mehmood, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    of inflicted persons can be reduced significantly. Smart and innovative technologies can play a pivotal role to respond faster to traffic crash emergencies comparing conventional means of transportation. For instance, Rescue Emergency Drone (RED) can provide faster and real-time crash site risk assessment...

  7. Generation of shrimp waste-based dispersant for oil spill response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kedong; Zhang, Baiyu; Song, Xing; Liu, Bo; Jing, Liang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    In this study, shrimp waste was enzymatically hydrolyzed to generate a green dispersant and the product was tested for crude oil dispersion in seawater. The hydrolysis process was first optimized based on the dispersant effectiveness (DE) of the product. The functional properties of the product were identified including stability, critical micelle concentration, and emulsification activity. Water was confirmed as a good solvent for dispersant generation when compared with three chemical solvents. The effects of salinity, mixing energy, and temperature on the dispersion of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil were examined. Microtox acute toxicity test was also conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the produced dispersant. In addition, DE of the product on three different types of crude oil, including ANS crude oil, Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), and Arabian Light crude oil (ALC) was compared with that of the Corexit 9500, respectively. The research output could lead to a promising green solution to the oil spill problem and might result in many other environmental applications.

  8. Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data

  9. Emergency Response of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters: A Practical Framework for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janati, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hasanpoor, Edris; Sokhanvar, Mobin; HaghGoshyie, Elaheh; Salehi, Abdollah

    2018-04-01

    Hospital emergency management is a continuous process that requires monolithic integration of planning and response attempts with local and national schemes. The aim of the current study is to evaluate emergency response by hospitals against potential disasters in Tabriz, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Tabriz, in Iran, in 2016. The study population included all hospitals in Tabriz. A total of 18 hospitals were assessed. The hospital emergency response checklist was used to collect data. Tool components included command and control, communication, safety and security, triage, surge capacity, continuity of essential services, human resources, logistics and supply management, and post-disaster recovery. Data entry and analysis were carried out using SPSS software (version 20). The results showed that the emergency response rate of hospitals was 54.26% in Tabriz. The lowest response rates were for Shafaa hospital (18.89%) and the highest response rates were for Razi Hospital (91.67%). The components of hospital emergency response were assessed to be between 48.07% (surge capacity) and 58.95% (communication). On the basis of the World Health Organization checklist, the emergency response rate for hospitals in Tabriz was only 54.26%. Therefore, hospital emergency responses against disasters have to be improved and must be made to reach 100%. It is essential to design a comprehensive framework for hospital emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:166-171).

  10. Application of the Bulgarian emergency response system in case of nuclear accident in environmental assessment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, Dimiter; Veleva, Blagorodka; Georgievs, Emilia; Prodanova, Maria; Slavov, Kiril; Kolarova, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The development of the Bulgarian Emergency Response System (BERS) for short term forecast in case of accidental radioactive releases to the atmosphere has been started in the mid 1990's [1]. BERS comprises of two main parts - operational and accidental, for two regions 'Europe' and 'Northern Hemisphere'. The operational part runs automatically since 2001 using the 72 hours meteorological forecast from DWD Global model, resolution in space of 1.5o and in time - 12 hours. For specified Nuclear power plants (NPPs), 3 days trajectories are calculated and presented on NIMH's specialized Web-site (http://info.meteo.bg/ews/). The accidental part is applied when radioactive releases are reported or in case of emergency exercises. BERS is based on numerical weather forecast information and long-range dispersion model accounting for the transport, dispersion, and radioactive transformations of pollutants. The core of the accidental part of the system is the Eulerian 3D dispersion model EMAP calculating concentration and deposition fields [2]. The system is upgraded with a 'dose calculation module' for estimation of the prognostic dose fields of 31 important radioactive gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The prognostic doses significant for the early stage of a nuclear accident are calculated as follows: the effective doses from external irradiation (air submersion + ground shinning); effective dose from inhalation; summarized effective dose and absorbed thyroid dose [3]. The output is given as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours prognostic dose fields according the updated meteorology. The BERS was upgraded to simulate the dispersion of nuclear materials from Fukushima NPP [4], and results were presented in NIMH web-site. In addition BERS took part in the respective ENSEMBLE exercises to model 131I and 137Cs in Fukushima source term. In case of governmental request for expertise BERS was applied for environmental impact assessment of hypothetical accidental transboundary

  11. The appropriateness of emergency medical service responses in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-10

    Oct 10, 2015 ... in the eThekwini district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ... Rescue, Faculty of Health Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa ... Emergency medical services (EMS) are sometimes required to respond to cases ...

  12. Evacuation emergency response model coupling atmospheric release advisory capability output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.C.; Lawver, B.S.; Buckley, D.W.; Finn, S.P.; Swenson, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) sponsored project to develop a coupled set of models between those of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) system and candidate evacuation models is discussed herein. This report describes the ARAC system and discusses the rapid computer code developed and the coupling with ARAC output. The computer code is adapted to the use of color graphics as a means to display and convey the dynamics of an emergency evacuation. The model is applied to a specific case of an emergency evacuation of individuals surrounding the Rancho Seco Nuclear Power Plant, located approximately 25 miles southeast of Sacramento, California. The graphics available to the model user for the Rancho Seco example are displayed and noted in detail. Suggestions for future, potential improvements to the emergency evacuation model are presented

  13. Fast response system for vacuum volume emergency separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubrienko, K.I.; Lastochkin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    A system which allows to separate vacuum systems of the magnetic-optic beam channels connected with the accelerator has been worked out for case of emergency environment break through the extraction ''window''. The system, consisting of two valve - gate devices and a control unit, allows one in the emergency case to separate more than 20 m long volume from the accelerator without any pressure changes in the latter one

  14. Factors associated with the utilization of primary care emergency centers in a Spanish region with high population dispersion: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Otero-García, Laura; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2014-09-03

    Adequate access to primary care emergency centers is particularly important in rural areas isolated from urban centers. However, variability in utilization of emergency services located in primary care centers among inhabitants of nearby geographical areas is understudied. The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to analyze the association between the availability of municipal emergency care centers and utilization of primary care emergency centers (PCEC), in a Spanish region with high population dispersion; and 2) to determine healthcare providers' perceptions regarding PCEC utilization. A mixed-methods study was conducted. Quantitative phase: multilevel logistic regression modeling using merged data from the 2003 Regional Health Survey of Castile and Leon and the 2001 census data (Spain). Qualitative phase:14 in-depth- interviews of rural-based PCEC providers. Having PCEC as the only emergency center in the municipality was directly associated with its utilization (p use. PCEC users were considered to be predominantly workers and students with scheduling conflicts with rural primary care opening hours. The location of emergency care centers is associated with PCEC utilization. Increasing access to primary care by extending hours may be an important step toward optimal PCEC utilization. Further research would determine whether lower PCEC use by certain groups is associated with disparities in access to care.

  15. Short-term dispersal response of an endangered Australian lizard varies with time of year.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehregan Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available Dispersal is an important component in the demography of animal populations. Many animals show seasonal changes in their tendency to disperse, reflecting changes in resource availability, mating opportunities, or in population age structure at the time when new offspring enter the population. Understanding when and why dispersal occurs can be important for the management of endangered species. The pygmy bluetongue lizard is an endangered Australian species that occupies and defends single burrow refuges for extended periods of time, rarely moving far from the burrow entrance. However, previous pitfall trapping data have suggested movement of adult males in spring and of juveniles in autumn of each year. In the current study we compared behaviours of adult lizards each month, over the spring-summer activity period over two consecutive field seasons, to provide deeper understanding of the seasonal dispersal pattern. We released adult pygmy bluetongue lizards into a central area, provided with artificial burrows, within large enclosures, and monitored the behaviour and movements of the released lizards over a four day period. There was a consistent decline in time spent basking, amount of movement around burrow entrances, and rates of dispersal from the central release area from early spring to late summer. Results could be relevant to understanding and managing natural populations and for any translocation attempts of this endangered lizard species.

  16. Heterotrimeric Kinesin II Is the Microtubule Motor Protein Responsible for Pigment Dispersion in Xenopus Melanophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, M. Carolina; Zill, Andrew; Le Bot, Nathalie; Vernos, Isabelle; Gelfand, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    Melanophores move pigment organelles (melanosomes) from the cell center to the periphery and vice-versa. These bidirectional movements require cytoplasmic microtubules and microfilaments and depend on the function of microtubule motors and a myosin. Earlier we found that melanosomes purified from Xenopus melanophores contain the plus end microtubule motor kinesin II, indicating that it may be involved in dispersion (Rogers, S.L., I.S. Tint, P.C. Fanapour, and V.I. Gelfand. 1997. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 3720–3725). Here, we generated a dominant-negative construct encoding green fluorescent protein fused to the stalk-tail region of Xenopus kinesin-like protein 3 (Xklp3), the 95-kD motor subunit of Xenopus kinesin II, and introduced it into melanophores. Overexpression of the fusion protein inhibited pigment dispersion but had no effect on aggregation. To control for the specificity of this effect, we studied the kinesin-dependent movement of lysosomes. Neither dispersion of lysosomes in acidic conditions nor their clustering under alkaline conditions was affected by the mutant Xklp3. Furthermore, microinjection of melanophores with SUK4, a function-blocking kinesin antibody, inhibited dispersion of lysosomes but had no effect on melanosome transport. We conclude that melanosome dispersion is powered by kinesin II and not by conventional kinesin. This paper demonstrates that kinesin II moves membrane-bound organelles. PMID:9852150

  17. Method for developing arrangements for response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. Updating IAEA-TECDOC-953. Emergency preparedness and response. Publication date: October 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    In 1997 the IAEA compiled, consolidated and organized existing information, and published the TECDOC-953 'Method for Development of Emergency Response Preparedness for Nuclear or Radiological Accidents'. Subsequently this publication was used extensively by the IAEA for training and for evaluation of emergency response programmes. In November 1999 a technical committee meeting (TCM) with representatives of over 20 States reviewed and provided feedback on IAEA-TECDOC-953. In March 2002, the IAEA's Board of Governors approved a Safety Requirements publication, 'Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency', jointly sponsored by seven international organizations, which establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. The IAEA General Conference in resolution GC(46)/RES/9 encouraged Member States to implement, if necessary, instruments for improving their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and accidents, including their arrangements for responding to acts involving the malicious use of nuclear or radioactive material and to threats of such acts, and has further encouraged them to implement the Safety Requirements for Preparedness and Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. The obligations, responsibilities and requirements for preparedness and response for radiation emergencies are set out in the safety standards, in particular the 1996 'International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources'. Consensus information on relevant radiation protection criteria was established in 1994 and published in 'Intervention Criteria in a Nuclear or Radiation Emergency'. Several other guides and publications in the area of emergency preparedness and response had previously been issued. The present publication now being issued in the Emergency Preparedness and

  18. An overview of the Environmental Response Team's air surveillance procedures at emergency response activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, R.D.; Campagna, P.R. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ (USA))

    The Safety and Air Surveillance Section of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Response Team responds to emergency air releases such as tire fires and explosions. The air surveillance equipment and procedures used by the organization are described, and case studies demonstrating the various emergency response activities are presented. Air response activities include emergency air responses, occupational and human health air responses and remedial air responses. Monitoring and sampling equipment includes photoionization detectors, combustible gas meters, real-time aerosol monitors, personal sampling pumps, and high flow pumps. Case histories presented include disposal of dioxane from a cotton plant, response to oil well fires in Kuwait, disposal of high pressure cylinders in American Samoa, and response to hurricane Hugo. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Meteorological data assimilation for real-time emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, G.; Chan, S.T.

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time dose assessments of airborne pollutant releases. Diverse data assimilation techniques are required to meet the needs of a new generation of ARAC models and to take advantage of the rapidly expanding availability of meteorological data. We are developing a hierarchy of algorithms to provide gridded meteorological fields which can be used to drive dispersion codes or to provide initial fields for mesoscale models. Data to be processed include winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence

  20. Development of urban planning guidelines for improving emergency response capacities in seismic areas of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Kambod Amini; Jafari, Mohammad Kazem; Hosseini, Maziar; Mansouri, Babak; Hosseinioon, Solmaz

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of research carried out to improve emergency response activities in earthquake-prone areas of Iran. The research concentrated on emergency response operations, emergency medical care, emergency transportation, and evacuation-the most important issues after an earthquake with regard to saving the lives of victims. For each topic, some guidelines and criteria are presented for enhancing emergency response activities, based on evaluations of experience of strong earthquakes that have occurred over the past two decades in Iran, notably Manjil (1990), Bam (2003), Firouz Abad-Kojour (2004), Zarand (2005) and Broujerd (2006). These guidelines and criteria are applicable to other national contexts, especially countries with similar seismic and social conditions as Iran. The results of this study should be incorporated into comprehensive plans to ensure sustainable development or reconstruction of cities as well as to augment the efficiency of emergency response after an earthquake.

  1. Tactical and strategic decision-making aids for nuclear power plant emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the prospective role of computer-based decision aids for nuclear power plant emergency response. The role of these systems is subordinate to human activities, but in a complementary manner these systems process decision logic more accurately and foster a more thorough understanding of emergency situations than might other wise be possible. Within this context two decision support systems being developed are discussed. Both of these systems utilize technology derived from artificial intelligence, focussing on two different facets of emergency response. An automated emergency operating procedures (EOP) tracking expert system is described as a tactical aid for control room operator response. A reactor emergency action level monitor (REALM) expert system is proposed as a strategic decision aid for site emergency response. The discrimination between tactical and strategic decision-making is an intrinsic part of this examination

  2. Method for the development of emergency response preparedness for nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This report supplements IAEA emergency preparedness guidance published in the 1980s, and is consistent with the new international guidance. It provides practical advice for the development of an emergency response capability based on the potential nature and magnitude of the risk. In order to apply this method, emergency planners should have a good understanding of the basic radiological emergency response principles. Therefore, other applicable international guidance should be reviewed before using this report. This report provides a practical step-by-step method for developing integrated user, local and national emergency response capabilities. It can also be used as the basis for conducting an audit of an existing emergency response capability. 14 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response. How well are we prepared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geick, Gunther H.G.; Herrmann, Andre R.; Koch, Doris; Meisenberg, Oliver; Rauber, Dominique; Stuerm, Rolf P.; Weiss, Wolfgang; Miska, Horst; Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The contributions to this topic are dealing, in a broad overview, with important aspects of Nuclear Emergency Preparedness and Response, like the influence of the new ICRP recommendations number 103 and number 109 on emergency preparedness and on planning for response, possible problems in installing and operating emergency care centres, experience from exercises as well as the training of response personnel in Austria and Germany. Finally, measures in emergency preparedness with regard to a dirty bomb attack are reported by means of an INEX-4-exercise in Switzerland. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of emergency response at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Emergency response at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is handled through a graded approach depending on the specific emergency situation . LANL maintains a comprehensive capability to respond to events ranging from minor facility events (alerts) through major community events (general emergencies), including criticality accidents . Criticality safety and emergency response apply to all activities involving significant quantities of fissile material at LANL, primarily at Technical Area 18 (TA-18, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility) and Technical Area 55 (TA-55, the Plutonium Facility). This discussion focuses on response to a criticality accident at TA-55; the approach at TA-18 is comparable .

  5. Coordinated emergency response in a competitive electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindley, S. [Independent Electricity Market Operator, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The Ontario Electricity Act and the Market Rules oblige electricity market participants to prepare and submit emergency plans to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the power system. Security and emergency preparedness includes emergency planning, drills and exercises, and critical infrastructure protection. The risk of power disruption is credible and the impact is large, as witnessed by the 1998 ice storm in eastern Ontario which resulted in major power outages, and as witnessed by the events of September 11, 2001. The emergency control actions that manage power system contingencies include recalling planned outages, reducing interchanges, increasing reserves, reducing voltage, purchasing emergency energy, and load shedding. Restoration priorities are to first restore power to critical transmission and generating station service loads, then to restore critical telecom facilities. This is followed by the restoration of customer loads only to the extent needed to control voltage and secure generating units. The final priority is to interconnect neighbours. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) was established following the major 1965 blackout. NERC developed operational reliability standards and monitored compliance. A map depicting NERC regions and control areas in the US was presented. In Canada, the Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) addresses issues regarding critical infrastructure protection (CIP). It safeguards the essential components of the electricity infrastructure against physical and cyber threats through early warning systems and information sharing. 9 figs.

  6. Emergency planning, response and assessment: a concept for a center of excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a general concept for a center of excellence devoted to emergency planning, response and assessment. A plan is presented to implement the concept, based on experience gained from emergency response as it relates to the nuclear and toxic chemical industries. The role of the World Laboratory in this endeavor would complement and enhance other organizations than are involved in related activities

  7. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating emergency response by rapidly restoring... copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445 12th Street...

  8. Development of procedure for emergency response in the combined disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Lessons learned from operating experience at the emergency after a East Japan Great Earthquake, have shown that development of decision making procedure and criteria for protective action implementation would be important at the emergency in the combined disaster such as nuclear accidents caused by natural disasters (including tsunami, flood, heavy snow, fire, etc.). In this study, the problemdefinition, the concept of operation and the data development were planned for three years since fiscal year 2011. In tins year, trial calculation of evacuation time estimate (ETE) for the wide area was performed. Moreover, the basic concept and procedure for carrying out ETE condidering the combined emergency were developed based on the last year results. (author)

  9. Technical support and preparations for the response to radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas H, J.; Ramos V, E.O.; Fernandez G, I.M.; Capote F, E.; Zerquera J, T.; Garcia L, O.; Lopez B, G.; Molina P, D.; Lamdrid B, A.I.; Benitez N, J.C.; Salgado M, M.; Lopez F, Y.; Jerez V, P.

    2006-01-01

    The work picks up the efforts directed to elevate the technical capacity of the answer in front of the radiological emergencies. Expressing them by means of the actions carried out as for teaching, research and development and intervention before accidental radiological events. The same one reflects the leading role of the participant institutions in those marks of the answer system to radiological emergencies that for its technical level it satisfies the national and international demands in the matter. In execution of the mentioned goals research projects guided to endow to the national system of methodologies and procedures for the administration of radiological emergencies have been executed that favor the improvement of its technical and organizational capacities. As well as the postulates of the National Plan of Measures for Case of Catastrophes in the corresponding to radiological accidents. (Author)

  10. Development of procedure for emergency response in the combined disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Lessons learned from operating experience at the emergency after a East Japan Great Earthquake, have shown that development of decision making procedure and criteria for protective action implementation would be important at the emergency in the combined disaster such as nuclear accidents caused by natural disasters (including tsunami, flood, heavy snow, fire, etc.). In this study, the problemdefinition, the concept of operation and the data development were planned for three years since fiscal year 2011. In tins year, trial calculation of evacuation time estimate (ETE) for the wide area was performed. Moreover, the basic concept and procedure for carrying out ETE condidering the combined emergency were developed based on the last year results. (author)

  11. Community response grids: using information technology to help communities respond to bioterror emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T; Fleischmann, Kenneth R; Preece, Jennifer; Shneiderman, Ben; Wu, Philip Fei; Qu, Yan

    2007-12-01

    Access to accurate and trusted information is vital in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from an emergency. To facilitate response in large-scale emergency situations, Community Response Grids (CRGs) integrate Internet and mobile technologies to enable residents to report information, professional emergency responders to disseminate instructions, and residents to assist one another. CRGs use technology to help residents and professional emergency responders to work together in community response to emergencies, including bioterrorism events. In a time of increased danger from bioterrorist threats, the application of advanced information and communication technologies to community response is vital in confronting such threats. This article describes CRGs, their underlying concepts, development efforts, their relevance to biosecurity and bioterrorism, and future research issues in the use of technology to facilitate community response.

  12. Planning and Preparing for Emergency Response to Transport Accidents Involving Radioactive Material. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on various aspects of emergency planning and preparedness for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material, including the assignment of responsibilities. It reflects the requirements specified in Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, and those of Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Framework for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 3. Responsibilities for planning and preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 4. Planning for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; 5. Preparing for response to accidents in the transport of radioactive material; Appendix I: Features of the transport regulations influencing emergency response to transport accidents; Appendix II: Preliminary emergency response reference matrix; Appendix III: Guide to suitable instrumentation; Appendix IV: Overview of emergency management for a transport accident involving radioactive material; Appendix V: Examples of response to transport accidents; Appendix VI: Example equipment kit for a radiation protection team; Annex I: Example of guidance on emergency response to carriers; Annex II: Emergency response guide.

  13. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  14. Context-dependent conservation responses to emerging wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate E Langwig; Jamie Voyles; Mark Q Wilber; Winifred F Frick; Kris A Murray; Benjamin M Bolker; James P Collins; Tina L Cheng; Matthew C Fisher; Joseph R Hoyt; Daniel L Lindner; Hamish I McCallum; Robert Puschendorf; Erica Bree Rosenblum; Mary Toothman; Craig KR Willis; Cheryl J Briggs; A Marm Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases pose an important threat to wildlife. While established protocols exist for combating outbreaks of human and agricultural pathogens, appropriate management actions before, during, and after the invasion of wildlife pathogens have not been developed. We describe stage-specific goals and management actions that minimize disease impacts on...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1507 - Emergency Response Plan; refuge alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accident at a mine. (3) Permissions to cross properties, build roads, and construct drill sites. (4.... 75.1507 Section 75.1507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Mine Emergencies § 75...

  16. All dispersal functions are wrong, but many are useful: A response to Cousens etal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bullock, J. M.; Hooftman, D. A. P.; Tamme, R.; Götzenberger, Lars; Pärtel, M.; González, L. M.; White, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2018), s. 907-910 ISSN 0022-0477 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : seed dispersal * probability density function * prediction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 5.813, year: 2016

  17. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Probanz, B; Foster, K T; Simpson, M; Vogt, P; Aluzzi, F; Dillon, M; Homann, S

    2012-02-14

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff

  18. NARAC Modeling During the Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, G.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Probanz, B.; Foster, K.T.; Simpson, M.; Vogt, P.; Aluzzi, F.; Dillon, M.; Homann, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities of the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) during the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis. NARAC provided a wide range of products and analyses as part of its support including: (1) Daily Japanese weather forecasts and hypothetical release (generic source term) dispersion predictions to provide situational awareness and inform planning for U.S. measurement data collection and field operations; (2) Estimates of potential dose in Japan for hypothetical scenarios developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to inform federal government considerations of possible actions that might be needed to protect U.S. citizens in Japan; (3) Estimates of possible plume arrival times and dose for U.S. locations; and (4) Plume model refinement and source estimation based on meteorological analyses and available field data. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) deployed personnel to Japan and stood up 'home team' assets across the DOE complex to aid in assessing the consequences of the releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The DOE Nuclear Incident Team (NIT) coordinated response activities, while DOE personnel provided predictive modeling, air and ground monitoring, sample collection, laboratory analysis, and data assessment and interpretation. DOE deployed the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) personnel, and the Consequence Management Response Team (CMRT) to Japan. DOE/NNSA home team assets included the Consequence Management Home Team (CMHT); National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC); Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS); and Radiological Triage. NARAC was activated by the DOE/NNSA on March 11, shortly after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami occurred. The center remained on active operations through late May when DOE ended its deployment to Japan. Over 32 NARAC staff members

  19. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  20. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  1. Addressing the gap between public health emergency planning and incident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Ariela M; Mindlin, Michele; Morley, Christopher; Griffin, Meghan; Wooten, Wilma; Miner, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Since 9/11, Incident Command System (ICS) and Emergency Operations Center (EOC) are relatively new concepts to public health, which typically operates using less hierarchical and more collaborative approaches to organizing staff. This paper describes the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak in San Diego County to explore the use of ICS and EOC in public health emergency response. Methods: This study was conducted using critical case study methodology consisting of document review and 18 key-informant interviews with individuals who played key roles in planning and response. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. Results: Several broad elements emerged as key to ensuring effective and efficient public health response: 1) developing a plan for emergency response; 2) establishing the framework for an ICS; 3) creating the infrastructure to support response; 4) supporting a workforce trained on emergency response roles, responsibilities, and equipment; and 5) conducting regular preparedness exercises. Conclusions: This research demonstrates the value of investments made and that effective emergency preparedness requires sustained efforts to maintain personnel and material resources. By having the infrastructure and experience based on ICS and EOC, the public health system had the capability to surge-up: to expand its day-to-day operation in a systematic and prolonged manner. None of these critical actions are possible without sustained funding for the public health infrastructure. Ultimately, this case study illustrates the importance of public health as a key leader in emergency response. PMID:28228983

  2. Emergency response planning and preparedness for transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this Guide is to provide assistance to public authorities and others (including consignors and carriers of radioactive materials) who are responsible for ensuring safety in establishing and developing emergency response arrangements for responding effectively to transport accidents involving radioactive materials. This Guide is concerned mainly with the preparation of emergency response plans. It provides information which will assist those countries whose involvement with radioactive materials is just beginning and those which have already developed their industries involving radioactive materials and attendant emergency plans, but may need to review and improve these plans. The need for emergency response plans and the ways in which they are implemented vary from country to country. In each country, the responsible authorities must decide how best to apply this Guide, taking into account the actual shipments and associated hazards. In this Guide the emergency response planning and response philosophy are outlined, including identification of emergency response organizations and emergency services that would be required during a transport accident. General consequences which could prevail during an accident are described taking into account the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. 43 refs, figs and tabs

  3. Explanation of procedure on site medical emergency response for nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulong; Jiang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    National occupational health standard-Procedure on Site Medical Emergency Response for Nuclear Accident has been approved and issued by the Ministry of Health. This standard is formulated according to the Emergency Response Law of the People's Republic of China, Law of the People 's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases, Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, and Health Emergency Plans for Nuclear and Radiological Accidents of Ministry of Health, supporting the use of On-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents and Off-site Medical Emergency Planning and Preparedness for Nuclear Accidents. Nuclear accident on-site medical response procedure is a part of the on-site emergency plan. The standard specifies the basic content and requirements of the nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response procedures of nuclear facilities operating units to guide and regulate the work of nuclear accident on-site medical emergency response of nuclear facilities operating units. The criteria-related contents were interpreted in this article. (authors)

  4. Radioecology teaching: response to a nuclear or radiological emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, R. M.

    2006-03-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers rarely have the opportunity to discuss with their students the effects of radioactive contamination in forest and agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear or radiological emergency, or to conduct experiments to illustrate the methodology employed to assess the consequences of such an event. This paper presents a laboratory experiment which could be included as part of a teaching programme on ionizing radiation physics, addressing some of the aspects related to the fate and effects of anthropogenic radionuclides following a radiation emergency, and the possible physical countermeasures that could be adopted in order to reduce their impact on the environment.

  5. Radioecology teaching: response to a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, R M

    2006-01-01

    The study of environmental radioactivity is a topic not usually included in physics courses in Brazilian and Latin American universities. Consequently, high-school teachers rarely have the opportunity to discuss with their students the effects of radioactive contamination in forest and agricultural ecosystems following a nuclear or radiological emergency, or to conduct experiments to illustrate the methodology employed to assess the consequences of such an event. This paper presents a laboratory experiment which could be included as part of a teaching programme on ionizing radiation physics, addressing some of the aspects related to the fate and effects of anthropogenic radionuclides following a radiation emergency, and the possible physical countermeasures that could be adopted in order to reduce their impact on the environment

  6. Engendering Responses to Complex Emergencies: Lessons from South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    bolster the effectiveness of their response—for both women and men—in the affected communities. But what do the gender dimensions of a complex emergency... gender justice in South Sudan,” Oxfam (March 2013). 2 Thomas Pluemper and Eric Neumeyer, “The Unequal Burden of War: The Effect of Armed Conflict...single natural disaster, but by a combination of political and ethnic conflict, social inequality , poverty, and many other interrelated factors. As

  7. Assessing Automatic Aid as an Emergency Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    provides examples such as Warren Buffet as someone who exhibits “smart trust.”20 Events that exceed the capacity of one agency require interagency...federal grant dollars to adoption is most successful. The 2004 Government Accountability Office report conclusion that some jurisdictions failed to work... Accountability Office, Effective Regional Coordination Can Enhance Emergency Preparedness (2004), 9, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/gaoreports/index.html. 19 III

  8. A knowledge based system for training radiation emergency response personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Peter, T.U.; Natarajan, A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the important aspects of radiation emergency preparedness is to impart training to emergency handling staff. Mock exercises are generally used for this purpose. But practical considerations limit the frequency of such exercises. A suitably designed computer software can be effectively used to impart training. With the advent of low cost personal computers, the frequency with which the training programme can be conducted is unlimited. A computer software with monotonic behaviour is inadequate for such training. It is necessary to provide human like tutoring capabilities. With the advances in knowledge based computer systems, it is possible to develop such a system. These systems have the capability of providing individualized training. This paper describes the development of such a system for training and evaluation of agencies associated with the management of radiation emergency. It also discusses the utility of the software as a general purpose tutor. The details required for the preparation of data files and knowledge base files are included. It uses a student model based on performance measures. The software is developed in C under MS-DOS. It uses a rule based expert system shell developed in C. The features of this shell are briefly described. (author). 5 refs

  9. Emergency preparedness: a responsibility of the medical profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammons, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    There are a series of things that we might do with regard to emergency planning. Some are clearly obvious, some perhaps are less so. Obviously, we should try to prevent a disaster from occurring. But we know that disasters are going to happen. Second, we should attempt to minimize the number of casualties in the event of an emergency. A part of planning is traffic control, with the traffic control designed to prevent that particular difficulty. Clearly we need to prevent additional casualties once the natural or man-made disaster has occurred. Without question, we have to rescue the injured, we have to be able to provide first aid, and we have to make value judgments instantly on who needs aid and who does not. Obviously, the medical community has to supply the leaders in terms of the care of the injured. Equally obvious is that other people in the community, such as the governor, the mayor, the city manager, the chief of police, and the fire chief, have to be involved. When you become involved in emergency planning, remember that there are other people in the health care family. It is not just physicians who are important; the Red Cross, nurses, public health agencies, those in state radiation control programs, and many others also are important. And let us not forget the people with specialized training in nuclear medicine, as well as radiologists and radiation oncologists

  10. Emergency preparedness and response: compensating victims of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The 1986 tragedy at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine motivated the entire international nuclear community to ensure that countries would, in the future, be well prepared to manage the physical, psychological and financial consequences of a serious nuclear accident. Since that event, numerous nuclear emergency preparedness and post-emergency management programmes have been established at national and international levels to ensure that appropriate mechanisms will respond to the threat, and the aftermath, of a nuclear accident. The INEX 2000 Workshop on the Indemnification of Nuclear Damage, jointly organised by the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency and the French Government, was the first ever international programme to address the manner in which victims of a nuclear accident with trans-boundary consequences would be compensated for damage suffered before, during and after the accident. The Workshop results revealed striking differences in the compensation principles and practices implemented in the 30 participating countries, in the co-ordination measures between different public authorities within an affected state, and in the co-operative procedures between the accident state and its neighbours. All participants agreed on the need for improvement in these areas, particularly for maintaining public confidence in governments' ability to properly manage nuclear emergencies

  11. Study on IAEA international emergency response exercise convEx-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuya

    2007-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out a large-scale international emergency response exercise in 2005 under the designated name of ConvEx-3(2005), at Romania. This review report summarizes a study about ConvEx-3(2005) based on several related open literature. The ConvEx-3 was conducted in accordance with Agency's safety standard series and requirements in the field of Emergency Preparedness and Response. The study on the preparation, conduct and evaluation of ConvEx-3(2005) exercise is expected to provide very useful knowledge for development of drills and educational programs conducted by Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center (NEAT). Especially, study on the exercise evaluations is instrumental in improving evaluations of drills planned by the national government and local governments. As international cooperation among Asian countries in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness and response is going to realize, it is very useful to survey and consider scheme and methodology about international emergency preparedness, response and exercise referring the knowledge of this ConvEx-3 study. The lessons learned from this study of ConvEx-3(2005) are summarized in four chapters; methodology of exercises and educational programs, exercise evaluation process, amendments/verification of the emergency response plan of NEAT, and technical issues of systems for emergency response and assistance of NEAT relevant to interface for international emergency communication. (author)

  12. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  13. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-01-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material.

  14. Planning and preparing for emergency response to transport accidents involving radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance to the public authorities and others (including consignors, carriers and emergency response authorities) who are responsible for developing and establishing emergency arrangements for dealing effectively and safely with transport accidents involving radioactive material. It may assist those concerned with establishing the capability to respond to such transport emergencies. It provides guidance for those Member States whose involvement with radioactive material is just beginning. It also provides guidance for those Member States that have already developed their radioactive material industries and the attendant emergency plans but that may need to review and improve these plans

  15. Determination of atmospheric dispersion factors in emergency situations in Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant - unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.

    1987-08-01

    The necessity of Knowing the atmospheric dispersion factor, used to obtain the first estimation dose in the public case for accidents with releasing of radioactive material to atmosphere in Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant - unit I, lead to the development of a fast and efficient method to determine the dilution factors, in a pre-determined distance from the source, to be used in the dose estimate. The ACID computer program for pocket calculation allow to obtain the meteorological information to evaluate the dose. In this work the mathemathical models used and the program developed are described. (Author) [pt

  16. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  17. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  18. Proposal of new framework in nuclear emergency response based on problem in East Japan Great Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In the nuclear emergency response activity in a East Japan great earthquake, the weakness the frame and the activity procedure (scheme) of the emergency response activity of our country that had been constructed after the accident of JCO became clear. Especially, it is necessary to recognize the importance of the enhancement of a prior plan after not only provision to response but also the damage to the environment occurs in the emergency for measures for restoration. Moreover, it is necessary to examine a concrete strategy about the management system strengthening of the radiation exposure at the accident. In this study, the experience and the finding in a East Japan great earthquake are arranged. The accident scenario that should be targeted is rearranged, and it proposes a new frame in the nuclear emergency response field through the requirement examinations such as the points of procedure, equipment, and the capital machine parts that lie a regulations frame of the nuclear emergency response, the activity frame of the nuclear emergency response, and materialized of the nuclear emergency response activity. (author)

  19. Use of field experimental studies to evaluate emergency response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Lange, R.; Rodriguez, D.J.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional diagnostic wind field model (MATHEW) and the particle-in-cell atmospheric transport and diffusion model (ADPIC) are used by the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability to estimate the environmental consequences of accidental releases of radioactivity into the atmosphere. These models have undergone extensive evaluations against field experiments conducted in a variety of environmental settings ranging from relatively flat to very complex terrain areas. Simulations of tracer experiments conducted in a complex mountain valley setting revealed that 35 to 50% of the comparisons between calculated and measured tracer concentrations were within a factor of 5. This may be compared with a factor of 2 for 50% of the comparisons for relatively flat terrain. This degradation of results in complex terrain is due to a variety of factors such as the limited representativeness of measurements in complex terrain, the limited spatial resolution afforded by the models, and the turbulence parameterization based on sigma/sub theta/ measurements to evaluate the eddy diffusivities. Measurements of sigma/sub theta/ in complex terrain exceed those measured over flat terrain by a factor of 2 to 3 leading to eddy diffusivities that are unrealistically high. The results of model evaluations are very sensitive to the quality and the representativeness of the meteorological data. This is particularly true for measurements near the source. The capability of the models to simulate the dispersion of an instantaneously produced cloud of particulates was illustrated to be generally within a factor of 2 over flat terrain. 19 refs., 16 figs

  20. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES FOR CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is provided for selecting the best spill stabilization controls for hazardous substances regulated by the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Information is also provided on the onsite assessment of spill severity, app...

  1. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eMadeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, ``Omics'' and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm, and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or ``willingness'' to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments.

  2. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a number of States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). The manual is intended for use primarily by contact points as identified in the Conventions. Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (IACRNA)2, whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments - general functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response. Moreover, some regional organizations (e.g. the European Union) are party to legally binding treaties and have

  3. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/ reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp.

  4. Analyses of transient plant response under emergency situations. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Hishida, Masahiko

    2000-03-01

    In order to support development of the dynamic reliability analysis program DYANA, analyses were made on the event sequences anticipated under emergency situations using the plant dynamics simulation computer code Super-COPD. In this work 9 sequences were analyzed and integrated into an input file for preparing the functions for DYANA using the analytical model and input data which developed for Super-COPD in the previous work. These sequences could not analyze in the previous work, which were categorized into the PLOHS (Protected Loss of Heat Sink) event. (author)

  5. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, K.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  6. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel

  7. The development and revision of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.; Wolff, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1985, federal agencies have been using the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) in exercises and real events. This experience and the development of other emergency response guidance (e.g., National System for Emergency Coordination) are fueling current efforts to review and revise the FRERP to reflect what the agencies have learned since the FRERP was published. Revision efforts are concentrating on clarifying the plan and addressing deficiencies. No major changes are expected in the general structure of the federal response nor should states need to revise their plans because of these modifications. 5 refs

  8. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a number of States, the European Union (EURATOM), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM)1. The manual is intended for use primarily by contact points as identified in the Conventions. Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (IACRNA)2, whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments - general functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response. Moreover, some regional organizations (e.g. the European Union) are party to legally

  9. Analyses of transient plant response under emergency situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Kazuya [Advanced Reactor Technology, Co. Ltd., Engineering Department, Tokyo (Japan); Shimakawa, Yoshio; Hishida, Masahiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Ltd., Reactor Core Engineering and Safety Engineering Department, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    In order to support development of the dynamic reliability analysis program DYANA, analyses were made on the event sequences anticipated under emergency situations using the plant dynamics simulation computer code Super-COPD. The analytical models were developed for Super-COPD such as the guard vessel, the maintenance cooling system, the sodium overflow and makeup system, etc. in order to apply the code to the simulation of the emergency situations. The input data were prepared for the analyses. About 70 sequences were analyzed, which are categorized into the following events: (1) PLOHS (Protected Loss of Heat Sink), (2) LORL (Loss of Reactor Level)-J: failure of sodium makeup by the primary sodium overflow and makeup system, (3) LORL-G : failure of primary coolant pump trip, (4) LORL-I: failure of the argon cover gas isolation, and (5) heat removal only using the ventilation system of the primary cooling system rooms. The results were integrated into an input file for preparing the functions for the neural network simulation. (author)

  10. Networking of TSOs in Emergency Preparedness and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.P.; Maqua, M.; Kerner, A.; Scott-de-Martinville, E.

    2012-01-01

    On its 2011 General Conference, the IAEA announced the foundation of a forum of technical safety organizations (TSO), the TSO forum, to promote the international cooperation and networking among the TSOs worldwide and to complement the existing network of the regulators. In the light of the Fukushima accident it appears that in case of a large accident, every national crisis organization of the country immediately impacted needs the full access to its technical and human resources to face the situation and obviously the communication and collaboration with other crisis centers will suffer from such challenging conditions. Such a limiting issue can only be resolved by making the international collaboration of the technical crisis centers an official part of their work. Therefore, a new framework has to be settled to establish a worldwide network of technical emergency centers. This, certainly will require state negotiations at top level. The feedback experience from the collaboration between the technical emergency centers during the Fukushima accident could be very fruitful for the new framework. (A.C.)

  11. DAE emergency response centre (ERC) at Kalpakkam for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies in public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshisundaram, V.; Rajagopal, V.; Mathiyarasu, R.; Subramanian, V.; Rajaram, S.; Somayaji, K.M.; Kannan, V.; Rajagopalan, H.

    2008-01-01

    In India, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has been identified as the nodal agency/authority in respect of providing the necessary technical inputs in the event of any radiation emergency that may occur in public domain. The overall system takes into consideration statutory requirements, executive decisions as well as National and International obligations. This paper highlights the details about the strength of the Kalpakkam ERC and other essential requisites and their compliance since its formation

  12. Generic Procedures for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency at Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Under Article 5.a(ii) of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The IAEA publishes the Emergency Preparedness and Response Series to fulfil that function. This publication is part of that series. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, contains the following requirement: 'To ensure that arrangements are in place for a timely, managed, controlled, coordinated and effective response at the scene...'. The IAEA General Conference, in resolution GC(53)/RES/10, continues to encourage Member States '...to enhance, where necessary, their own preparedness and response capabilities for nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies, by improving capabilities to prevent accidents, to respond to emergencies and to mitigate any harmful consequences...'. This publication is intended to assist Member States meet the requirements of GS-R-2 and enhance their preparedness by providing guidance on the response by facility personnel to emergencies at research reactor facilities.

  13. Lessons learned from the second Federal Radiology Emergency Response Plan Field Exercise (FFE-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.; Weiss, B.H.; Wolff, W.F.; Adler, V.

    1988-01-01

    The FFE-2, held in 1987 at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, provided a large-scale, multiagency, field test of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP). The FRERP provided workable guidance for coordinating the federal response efforts and effectively supplementing the states' resources. Needs for more training for responders and clarification in portions of the response were identified

  14. A GLIMPSE INTO THE EYE OF THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE AT EPA KATRINA AND RITA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation was given at the Texas Environmental Health Association Annual Meeting in Round Rock, TX on October 12, 2005. The keynote address was focused on the conditions after Katrins, organizing response, field response, EPA's role in emergency response, what is EPA doi...

  15. Cognitive radio-aided wireless sensor networks for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkoulis, Stamatios; Spanos, Dimitrios-Emmanuel; Barbounakis, Socrates; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Mitrou, Nikolas

    2010-01-01

    A lot of research effort has been put into wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and several methods have been proposed to minimize the energy consumption and maximize the network's lifetime. However, little work has been carried out regarding WSNs deployed for emergency situations. We argue that such WSNs should function under a flexible channel allocation scheme when needed and be able to operate and adapt in dynamic, ever-changing environments coexisting with other interfering networks (IEEE 802.11b/g, 802.15.4, 802.15.1). In this paper, a simple and efficient method for the detection of a single operational frequency channel that guarantees satisfactory communication among all network nodes is proposed. Experimental measurements carried out in a real environment reveal the coexistence problem among networks in close proximity that operate in the same frequency band and prove the validity and efficiency of our approach

  16. Are archetypes transmitted or emergent? A response to Christian Roesler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Vallas, François

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the author argues that Jung's concept of archetype should not be reduced to an univocal definition. Jung himself proposed many definitions of this concept, some of them being partially or totally contradictory to others. A univocal and logical way of thinking can lead us to refute and reject part of those definitions, but a complex way of thinking, as proposed by Edgar Morin or Roy Bhaskar for example, can allow us to consider that those apparent contradictions in Jung's definitions of archetype reflect the complexity of the psychic reality. The main argument of the author is that Jung was missing the epistemological concept of emergence (which appeared in science at the time of his death) and that he tried to express it with the epistemological concepts of his time. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2005-01-01

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments

  18. Angular dependent anisotropic terahertz response of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays with spatial dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yixuan; Yiwen, E.; Xu, Xinlong; Li, Weilong; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Lipeng; Bai, Jintao; Ren, Zhaoyu; Wang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Spatial dispersion effect of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the terahertz (THz) region has significance for both theoretical and applied consideration due to the unique intrinsically anisotropic physical properties of CNTs. Herein, we report the angular dependent reflection of p-polarized THz wave from vertically aligned multi-walled CNT arrays in both experiment and theory. The spectra indicate that the reflection depends on the film thickness of vertically aligned CNTs, the incident angle, and the frequency. The calculation model is based on the spatial dispersion effect of aligned CNTs and performed with effective impedance method and the Maxwell-Garnett approximation. The results fit well with the experiment when the thickness of CNT film is thin, which reveals a coherent superposition mechanism of the CNT surface reflection and CNTs/Si interface reflection. For thick CNT films, the CNTs/Si interface response determines the reflection at small incident angles, while the CNTs surface effect dominates at large incident angles. This work investigates the spatial dispersion effect of vertically aligned CNT arrays in the THz region, and paves a way for potential anisotropic THz applications based on CNTs with oblique incidence requirements.

  19. Emergency response exercise of laboratories equipped with gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mala, H.; Jezkova, T.; Rulik, P.; Beckova, V. et al.

    2014-01-01

    Seven laboratories equipped with semiconductor gamma spectrometry (HPGe detectors) are currently included in the Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN) in the Czech Republic. These laboratories have more than 30 spectrometric chains and approximately 20 'experts' and 70 'users' who would guarantee measurements during the radiological emergency (RE). The emergency exercise was carried out in 5 of them in 2014 (in 4 of them also in 2013). The aim was to test repeatedly their capacity in existing technical facilities and with current staff in the event of a RE and identify problems (bottlenecks) in the whole process from receipt of samples to entering the results into the central database of RMN. Duration of the exercise was 12 hours, due to the shortage of staff; work in one 12-hour shift is presumed during a RE, which the laboratories should be able to provide for 14 days. These exercise samples covered a wide range of commodities that would probably come to the laboratories during the RE (aerosol filters, sorbents for sorption of gaseous forms of iodine, fallout, surface and drinking waters, food chain components and soils). Some of the samples were previously spiked with 85 Sr, 88 Y and 40 K (in the exercise these nuclides represented actual contamination that would occur in RE); liquid samples were spiked with 85 Sr and 88 Y and bulk materials with 40 K.During the exercise almost 800 samples were analysed; in addition, the automatic gamma counter (GA) in Prague laboratory measured other 90 samples automatically during the night (samples were prepared during the day-shift). On the basis of the results the total measuring capacity of the laboratories of RMN CR was estimated at about 1300 samples per day. (authors)

  20. Emergency response exercise of laboratories equipped with gammaspectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mala, H.; Jezkova, T.; Rulik, P.; Beckova, V.

    2014-01-01

    Seven laboratories equipped with semiconductor gamma spectrometry (HPGe detectors) are currently included in the Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN) in the Czech Republic. These laboratories have more than 30 spectrometric chains and approximately 20 'experts' and 70 'users' who would guarantee measurements during the radiological emergency (RE). The emergency exercise was carried out in 5 of them in 2014 (in 4 of them also in 2013). The aim was to test repeatedly their capacity in existing technical facilities and with current staff in the event of a RE and identify problems (bottlenecks) in the whole process from receipt of samples to entering the results into the central database of RMN. Duration of the exercise was 12 hours, due to the shortage of staff; work in one 12-hour shift is presumed during a RE, which the laboratories should be able to provide for 14 days. These exercise samples covered a wide range of commodities that would probably come to the laboratories during the RE (aerosol filters, sorbents for sorption of gaseous forms of iodine, fallout, surface and drinking waters, food chain components and soils). Some of the samples were previously spiked with 85 Sr, 88 Y and 40 K (in the exercise these nuclides represented actual contamination that would occur in RE); liquid samples were spiked with 85 Sr and 88 Y and bulk materials with 40 K.During the exercise almost 800 samples were analysed; in addition, the automatic gamma counter (GA) in Prague laboratory measured other 90 samples automatically during the night (samples were prepared during the day-shift). On the basis of the results the total measuring capacity of the laboratories of RMN CR was estimated at about 1300 samples per day. (authors)

  1. Severe accident management at nuclear power plants - emergency preparedness and response actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.K.; Krishnamurthy, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the current level of emergency planning and preparedness and also improvement in the emergency management programme over the years including lessons learned from Fukushima accident, hazard analysis and categorization of nuclear facilities into hazard category for establishing the emergency preparedness class, classification of emergencies based on the Emergency Action Levels (EAL), development of EAL’s for PHWR, Generic Criteria in terms of projected dose for initiating protective actions (precautionary urgent protective actions, urgent protective actions, early protective actions), operational intervention levels (OIL), Emergency planning zones and distances, protection strategy and reference levels, use of residual dose for establishing reference levels for optimization of protection strategy, criteria for termination of emergency, transition of emergency exposure situation to existing exposure situation or planned exposure situation, criteria for medical managements of exposed persons and guidance for controlling the dose of emergency workers. This paper also highlights the EALs for typical PHWR type reactors for all types of emergencies (plant, site and offsite), transition from emergency operating procedures (EOP) to accident management guidelines (AMG) to emergency response actions and proposed implementation of guidelines

  2. Measurement of Chromatic Dispersion using the Baseband Radio-Frequency Response of a Phase-Modulated Analog Optical Link Employing a Reference Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinney, Jason D; Diehl, John

    2007-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new technique for measuring the chromatic dispersion of an optical fiber using the baseband RF response of a phase-modulated analog optical link in concert with a well...

  3. Innovation and responsibility: engaging with new and emerging technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, C.; Dijkstra, A.F.B.; Fautz, C.; Guivant, J.; Konrad, Kornelia Elke; Milburn, C.; van Lente, H

    2014-01-01

    The contributions to this volume engage with diverse aspects of responsible innovation, reflecting on its history and its current form, reporting on success stories and critical discussions, pointing out shortcomings and obstacles, and analyzing the grand narratives that shape discourse on new and

  4. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-01-01

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas

  5. Resolution no. 18/2012 Guide for the preparation and emergency response radiological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This guide aims to establish requirements to ensure an adequate level of entities, for the preparation and response to radiological emergencies and to prepare the Radiation Emergency Plan (PER), asset out in the Basic Safety Standards radiological and authorizations Regulations in force. This guide applies to organizations providing employment practices associated with sources of ionizing radiation, hereinafter sources.

  6. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  7. Experience Report: Constraint-Based Modelling and Simulation of Railway Emergency Response Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sandberg, Lene

    2016-01-01

    ways to proceed, including ways not necessarily anticipated in the paper-based emergency response plans. The case study was undertaken as part of a short research, ProSec, project funded by the Danish Defence Agency, with the aim of applying and developing methods for collaborative mapping of emergency...

  8. Occupational Safety and Health System for Workers Engaged in Emergency Response Operations in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Mori, Koji

    2016-12-03

    To study the occupational safety and health systems used for emergency response workers in the USA, we performed interviews with related federal agencies and conducted research on related studies. We visited the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and performed interviews with their managers on the agencies' roles in the national emergency response system. We also obtained information prepared for our visit from the USA's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition, we conducted research on related studies and information on the website of the agencies. We found that the USA had an established emergency response system based on their National Incident Management System (NIMS). This enabled several organizations to respond to emergencies cooperatively using a National Response Framework (NRF) that clarifies the roles and cooperative functions of each federal agency. The core system in NIMS was the Incident Command System (ICS), within which a Safety Officer was positioned as one of the command staff supporting the commander. All ICS staff were required to complete a training program specific to their position; in addition, the Safety Officer was required to have experience. The All-Hazards model was commonly used in the emergency response system. We found that FEMA coordinated support functions, and OSHA and NIOSH, which had specific functions to protect workers, worked cooperatively under NRF. These agencies employed certified industrial hygienists that play a professional role in safety and health. NIOSH recently executed support activities during disasters and other emergencies. The USA's emergency response system is characterized by functions that protect the lives and health of emergency response workers. Trained and experienced human resources support system effectiveness. The findings provided valuable information that could be used to improve the

  9. Bacterial Community Response in Deep Faroe-Shetland Channel Sediments Following Hydrocarbon Entrainment With and Without Dispersant Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Perez Calderon

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep sea oil exploration is increasing and presents environmental challenges for deep ocean ecosystems. Marine oil spills often result in contamination of sediments with oil; following the Deepwater Horizon (DwH disaster up to 31% of the released oil entrained in the water column was deposited as oily residues on the seabed. Although the aftermath of DwH was studied intensely, lessons learned may not be directly transferable to other deep-sea hydrocarbon exploration areas, such as the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC which comprises cold temperatures and a unique hydrodynamic regime. Here, transport of hydrocarbons into deep FSC sediments, subsequent responses in benthic microbial populations and effects of dispersant application on hydrocarbon fate and microbial communities were investigated. Sediments from 1,000 m in the FSC were incubated at 0°C for 71 days after addition of a 20-hydrocarbon component oil-sediment aggregate. Dispersant was added periodically from day 4. An additional set of cores using sterilized and homogenized sediment was analyzed to evaluate the effects of sediment matrix modification on hydrocarbon entrainment. Sediment layers were independently analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and modeled with linear mixed effects models. Oil was entrained over 4 cm deep into FSC sediments after 42 days and dispersant effectiveness on hydrocarbon removal from sediment to the water column decreased with time. Sterilizing and homogenizing sediment resulted in hydrocarbon transport over 4 cm into sediments after 7 days. Significant shifts in bacterial populations were observed (DGGE profiling in response to hydrocarbon exposure after 42 days and below 2 cm deep. Dispersant application resulted in an accelerated and modified shift in bacterial communities. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing of oiled sediments revealed dominance of Colwellia and of Fusibacter when dispersant was applied over

  10. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  11. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  12. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  13. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. General Safety Requirements (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication, jointly sponsored by the FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, IMO, INTERPOL, OECD/NEA, PAHO, CTBTO, UNEP, OCHA, WHO and WMO, is the new edition establishing the requirements for preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency which takes into account the latest experience and developments in the area. It supersedes the previous edition of the Safety Requirements for emergency preparedness and response, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, which was published in 2002. This publication establishes the requirements for ensuring an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency, irrespective of its cause. These Safety Requirements are intended to be used by governments, emergency response organizations, other authorities at the local, regional and national levels, operating organizations and the regulatory body as well as by relevant international organizations at the international level.

  14. Training and exercises of the Emergency Response Team at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yearwood, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has an active Emergency Response Team. The Emergency Response Team is composed of members of the operating and support groups within the Plutonium Facility. In addition to their initial indoctrination, the members are trained and certified in first-aid, CPR, fire and rescue, and the use of self-contained-breathing-apparatus. Training exercises, drills, are conducted once a month. The drills consist of scenarios which require the Emergency Response Team to apply CPR and/or first aid. The drills are performed in the Plutonium Facility, they are video taped, then reviewed and critiqued by site personnel. Through training and effective drills and the Emergency Response Team can efficiently respond to any credible accident which may occur at the Plutonium Facility. 3 tabs

  15. Emergency Response Program Designing Based On Case Study ERP Regulations In Ilam Gas Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tahmasbi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Emergency response plan designing is one of the most important prevention approaches in crisis management. This study aims to design emergency response plan based on case study ERP regulations in Ilam gas refinery. On the basis of risk assessment and identification techniques such as HAZOP and FMEA in Ilam gas refinery the risks have been prioritized and then according to this prioritization the design of possible scenarios which have the highest rate of occurrence and the highest level of damage has been separated. Possible scenarios were simulated with PHAST software. Then emergency response program has been designed for the special mode or similar cases. According to the internal emergency response plan for Ilam gas refinery and predictable conditions of the process special instructions should be considered at the time of the incident to suffer the least damage on people and environment in the shortest time possible.

  16. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations

  17. Emergency First Response to a Crisis Event: A Multi-Agent Simulation Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roginski, Jonathan W

    2006-01-01

    .... This process led to the development of a multi-agent simulation methodology for emergency first response specifically applied to analyze a notional vehicle bomb attack during a festival in the Baltimore Inner Harbor...

  18. Nigeria status on capabilities for response to nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambo, I.; Elegba, S.B.; Ogharandukun, M.

    2007-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology has been widely employed and will continue to expand in use in Nigeria particularly in the health, industrial, mining, water resources, agriculture, manufacturing, education and research sectors. Incidents and emergencies cannot therefore be ruled out. Effective national response capabilities are essential to minimize the impacts from nuclear and radiological emergencies, and to build public trust in the safety and security of nuclear technology. The often discussed Nigeria's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) project cannot occur without enhanced national capabilities to respond to an incidence or emergency. Moreover, increased concern over the use of nuclear or radioactive materials malevolent acts increases the need to broaden response capabilities. This paper examines Nigeria's status on capabilities for response to a nuclear and radiological emergency vis-a-vis international requirements for effective response capabilities

  19. 76 FR 23810 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY... Fullano, Associate Chief, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau, Federal Communications Commission...

  20. Behavioural response of pink salmon Fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha to fresh, weathered, and dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about fish behaviour in relation to oil spill contamination. In this study, out-migrant pink salmon fry Oncorhynchus gorbuscha were subjected to varying concentrations of oil and sea water solutions, or uncontaminated sea water at a temperature of 7 degrees C. Fresh oil, artificially weathered oil, and dispersed oil samples were used. Twenty trials were run for concentrations of 48 aromatic and 30alkane hydrocarbons. The number of minutes spent in the uncontaminated water was significantly higher than sample areas. Fry avoided water-accommodated mixtures of Alaska North Slope crude oil in sea water at concentrations of 960 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon fresh oil and 873 mg/L total aromatic hydrocarbon dispersed oil. Concentrations corresponded to 75 per cent and 68 per cent of the median lethal concentration level. However, the fry did not avoid the weathered oil, which indicated that the fry may be sensitive to monoaromatic hydrocarbon components in the oil. It was concluded that oil pollution may alter pink salmon migration behaviour. 28 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Medical Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Training Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    In almost all nuclear and radiological emergencies, local emergency services (e.g. local medical, law enforcement, and fire brigades) will have the most important role in the early response. Within hours, hospitals may also have an important role to play in the response at the local level. Since nuclear and radiological emergencies are rare, medical responders often have little or no experience in dealing with this type of emergency and inexperience may lead to an inadequate response. For this reason, training in medical preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency is an important aspect of preparedness and response activities. These materials are designed for use at a training course on medical preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency. They contain a wide range of lectures and supporting materials, which cover the basic topics and more specific areas of medical preparedness and response. Therefore, in planning their specific courses, organizers are encouraged to choose those lectures and supportive materials from the CD-ROM that best match their training priorities. Materials on the CD-ROM address the following areas: • Terrorism in Perspective; • Malicious Act Scenarios; • Providing Information to the Medical Community and the Public; • Medical Response to a Radiation Mass Casualty Event; • Handling of Contaminated Persons in Malicious Events; • Planning and Preparedness for Medical Response to Malicious Events with Radioactive Material; • Handling the Bodies of Decedents Contaminated with Radioactive Material; • Radiation Emergencies: Scope of the Problem; • Common Sources of Radiation; • Basic Concepts of Ionizing Radiation; • Basic Concepts of Radiation Protection; • Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation – Basic Notions; • Basics of Radiopathology; • External Radioactive Contamination; • Internal Radioactive Contamination; • Acute Radiation Syndrome; • Cutaneous Radiation

  2. Development of an extended framework for emergency response criteria. Interim report for comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Experience from response to recent nuclear and radiological emergencies has clearly demonstrated the importance of an efficient response system that includes, among other components, emergency plans, procedures, and internally consistent operational criteria. An analysis of lessons identified from recent responses has shown that a lack of crucial components in the emergency response system could result in major radiological and nonradiological consequences at the national level. One of the reasons for the overwhelming psychological consequences of the Chernobyl and Goiania emergencies was public mistrust of decision-makers, who lost their credibility by frequently changing the criteria for taking action. Moreover, national response arrangements that are incompatible among countries can result in major mistrust by the public. It is considered important to have internationally agreed criteria and guidance for emergency response established in advance of an emergency. Currently there are several IAEA safety standards that contain recommendations for response to radiation emergencies, addressing principles and response criteria. Mindful of the lessons identified from recent emergencies, the IAEA convened in November 2001 a technical committee meeting (TCM) to develop aspects of the technical basis for emergency response to radiation emergencies. At this meeting, the lessons from response to the Chernobyl, Goiania and other emergencies over the past years were examined to identify where revisions were needed to the existing international guidance for response. In particular, the existing international criteria and guidance for taking protective and other actions were examined in the light of these lessons. The objectives of this document are: (1) to propose an extension of existing criteria for undertaking protective and other actions during or following a nuclear or radiological emergency that: addresses the lessons from past emergencies, addresses the recently

  3. Emerging Role of the Unfolded Protein Response in Tumor Immunosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Hélène; Vetters, Jessica; Moudombi, Lyvia; Caux, Christophe; Janssens, Sophie; Michallet, Marie-Cécile

    2017-07-01

    Disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). This response alleviates cell stress, and is activated in both tumor cells and tumor infiltrating immune cells. The UPR plays a dual function in cancer biology, acting as a barrier to tumorigenesis at the premalignant stage, while fostering cancer maintenance in established tumors. In infiltrating immune cells, the UPR has been involved in both immunosurveillance and immunosuppressive functions. This review aims to decipher the role of the UPR at different stages of tumorigenesis and how the UPR shapes the balance between immunosurveillance and immune escape. This knowledge may improve existing UPR-targeted therapies and the design of novel strategies for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Public health response to radiation emergencies and the role of the Helsinki Project Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, Keith F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on the public health element of nuclear emergency preparedness, defined as the mitigation of the long-term effects of radiation on exposed populations, as opposed to dealing with the health consequences of an exposure in an individual (termed medical aspects). The paper also approaches to the role of the Helsinki Project Office which is concerned with the protection of public health through effective response to nuclear emergencies, and falling into two categories, namely contingency planning or preparedness, and response

  5. Emergency preparedness and response in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - the Three Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergency response mechanism and legal basis in effect in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the time of the Three Mile Island incident. It reviews the sequence of events as they directly affected the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency and examines the method used by the Agency to discharge its responsibilities. Finally, the paper lists some of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island experience. (author)

  6. Medical response guide for the initial phase of a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Marina A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2007-01-01

    In case of a sanitary emergency, the local community and its health care system are the first aid providers. Therefore, preparedness through education and training programs would allow emergency systems to provide an appropriate first medical response. The main objective of this guide is to give basic guidelines for the medical response management after situations involving radioactive materials, in an easy and simple way. The information contained in this guide is addressed to health care personnel of any local assistance center. (author) [es

  7. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  8. Developing a highway emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous materials, second edition, March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This provides minimum guidelines for developing an emergency response plan for incidents involving hazardous liquid hydrocarbons, such as gasoline and crude oil, transported in MC 306/DOT 406 and MC 307/DOT 407 aluminum cargo tanks and for coordinating and cooperating with local, state, and federal officials. This publication covers response plan priorities, personnel training, special equipment, media relations, environmental relations, and post-response activities. The apprendixes to this recommended practice outline a highway emergency response plan and suggest a procedure for removing liquid hydrocarbons from overturned cargo tanks and righting the tank vehicles

  9. Emerging strategic corporate social responsibility partnership initiatives in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has gained momentum in business practices and strategies. In the agribusiness sector, the need for CSR integration has recently triggered a number of private sector led initiatives that should contribute to sustainable...... we analyse the Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) platform and its principles. We conclude that over the past 5 years agribusiness corporations have become more pro-active in addressing sustainability concerns, and mainstream initiatives start to compete with the traditional niche markets...... development, we advise scholars, policy makers, and managers to not only address questions about legitimacy and stakeholder involvement, but also take strategic objectives into account....

  10. Emergency response exercise of laboratories equipped with gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, Helena; Rulik, Petr; Jezkova, Tereza; Beckova, Vera [National Radiation Protection Institute (SURO), 140 00 Praha 28 (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-01

    At present 7 laboratories equipped with semiconductor gamma spectrometry (HPGe detectors) are included in the Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN) in the Czech Republic. These laboratories have 31 spectrometric chains and approximately 20 'experts' and 70 'users' who would guarantee measurements during a radiological emergency (RE). The stress exercise (a load test) was carried out in 4 of them. The aim was to test their measuring capacity in existing technical facilities and staff in the event of a RE and identify problems (bottlenecks) in the whole process from receipt of samples to entering the results into the central database of RMN. Duration of the exercise was 8 to 14 hours. Due to lack of staff, work in one 12-hour shift during a RE is presumed, which the laboratories should be able to provide for 14 days. Exercise samples covered a wide range of commodities that would probably come to the laboratories during RE (aerosol filters, adsorbed gaseous forms of iodine, fallout, surface and drinking waters, food chain components and soils). Some of the samples were previously spiked with {sup 85}Sr, {sup 88}Y and {sup 40}K (these nuclides represented actual nuclides that would occur in RE); soil samples contained higher values of {sup 137}Cs activity originating from the Chernobyl accident. Almost 40 employees took part in the exercise and measurements were carried out at 18 spectrometric chains. An automatic gamma counter which allows automatic operation of two HPGe detectors including the analysis of the spectra with a storage for up to 180 sample containers was operating in one of the laboratories involved in the exercise. The procedures in individual laboratories varied slightly depending on the staff and laboratory space available. During the exercise about 700 samples were evaluated; in addition, gamma-automat measured other 80 samples in the 'night shift'. 700 samples, this means 40 samples per a spectrometric chain or, from

  11. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Apple, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  12. Development of supporting system for emergency response to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Matsuoka, T.; Suzuki, H.

    2004-01-01

    National Maritime Research Institute has developed a supporting system for emergency response of competent authority to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material. The supporting system for emergency response has functions of radiation shielding calculation, marine diffusion simulation, air diffusion simulation and radiological impact evaluation to grasp potential hazard of radiation. Loss of shielding performance accident and loss of sealing ability accident were postulated and impact of the accidents was evaluated based on the postulated accident scenario. Procedures for responding to emergency were examined by the present simulation results

  13. A case of timely satellite image acquisitions in support of coastal emergency environmental response management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Werle, Dirk; Lu, Zhong; Rangoonwala, Amina; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    The synergistic application of optical and radar satellite imagery improves emergency response and advance coastal monitoring from the realm of “opportunistic” to that of “strategic.” As illustrated by the Hurricane Ike example, synthetic aperture radar imaging capabilities are clearly applicable for emergency response operations, but they are also relevant to emergency environmental management. Integrated with optical monitoring, the nearly real-time availability of synthetic aperture radar provides superior consistency in status and trends monitoring and enhanced information concerning causal forces of change that are critical to coastal resource sustainability, including flooding extent, depth, and frequency.

  14. Optically induced anisotropy in photo responsive sol-gel matrix bearing a silylated disperse red 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kang Jin; Cha, Young Kwan; Oh, Sang Joon

    2000-01-01

    We synthesized the simple triethoxysilanes (SGDR1) bearing a disperse red 1 for thin film fabrication. The thin films were prepared using the solution of SGDR1 after hydrolysis and condensation. The films were annealed at two different temperatures such as 150.deg.C and 200.deg.C. Trans-to-cis photoisomerization was observed under the exposure of 532 nm light with UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The kinetic study of photoisomerization was performed in the film. Reorientation of the polar azobenzene molecules induced optical anisotropy under a linearly polarized light at 532 nm. The effect of aggregation of the chromophores and annealing of the silicon oxide in the matrix were studied on the dynamic properties of isomerization and induced birefringence

  15. Sensing response of copper phthalocyanine salt dispersed glass with organic vapours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridhi, R.; Sachdeva, Sheenam; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (INDIA) Fax: +91-172-2783336; Tel.:+91-172-2544362 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Copper Phthalocyanine and other Metal Phthalocyanines are very flexible and tuned easily to modify their structural, spectroscopic, optical and electrical properties by either functionalizing them with various substituent groups or by replacing or adding a ligand to the central metal atom in the phthalocyanine ring and accordingly can be made sensitive and selective to various organic species or gaseous vapours. In the present work, we have dispersed Copper Phthalocyanine Salt (CuPcS) in sol-gel glass form using chemical route sol-gel method and studied its sensing mechanism with organic vapours like methanol and benzene and found that current increases onto their exposure with vapours. A variation in the activation energies was also observed with exposure of vapours.

  16. Network of siren, public address and display system to preparedness and response for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.H.; Padmanabhan, N.; Raman, N.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    For an effective emergency response and implementation of counter measures, communication during a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect. The declaration of a nuclear emergency must be immediately conveyed to all those working in the plant and around the nuclear site. Besides this, the nature of emergency also needs to be conveyed unambiguously along with corresponding counter measures, such as stay in, evacuation or all clear signal for the relevant plants. This requirement has necessitated the need for a networked signaling system. Based on this requirement, a microcontroller based signaling and a telephone/wireless based communication and display system has been designed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. It is proposed to be used as a part of emergency preparedness and response programme at the nuclear facility sites. As per the design made for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site, each plant or area in the site is identified by a unique identification code. The main Site Emergency Control Centre/Emergency Response Centre at Mod. Labs. selectively calls the various plants and declares the nature of emergency to be followed In that plant/area through different siren signals along with display and announcement of instructions. This paper describes the details of the system that is designed for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site and proposed for other nuclear power plant sites. (author)

  17. Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wagner Schenkel; Buarque, Lia; Voshell, Martin; Branlat, Matthieu; Woods, David D.; Gomes, Jose Orlando

    2008-01-01

    The current work presents results from a cognitive task analysis (CTA) of a nuclear disaster simulation. Audio-visual records were collected from an emergency room team composed of individuals from 26 different agencies as they responded to multiple scenarios in a simulated nuclear disaster. This simulation was part of a national emergency response training activity for a nuclear power plant located in a developing country. The objectives of this paper are to describe sources of resilience and brittleness in these activities, identify cues of potential improvements for future emergency simulations, and leveraging the resilience of the emergency response System in case of a real disaster. Multiple CTA techniques were used to gain a better understanding of the cognitive dimensions of the activity and to identify team coordination and crisis management patterns that emerged from the simulation training. (authors)

  18. Expert system technology to support emergency response: its prospects and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardo, S.; Wallace, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities for computer technologies to provide decision support in emergency response are now well recognized. The information flow prior to, during, and after potentially catastrophic events must be managed in order to have effective response. We feel strongly that computer technology can be a crucial component in this management process. We will first review a relatively new facet of computer technology - expert systems. We will then provide a conceptual framework for decision making under crisis, a situation typified by emergency response. We follow with a discussion of a prototype expert system for response to an accident at a nuclear power generation facility. Our final section discusses the potential advantages and limitations of expert system technology in emergency response. (author)

  19. The IAEAs incident and emergency centre: the global focal point for nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness and response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.

    2016-08-01

    The continuous use of nuclear power to generate electricity and the continued threat of radioactive materials being used for nefarious reasons reminds us of the importance to stay prepared to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Stringent nuclear safety and nuclear security requirements, the training of personnel, operational checks and legal frameworks cannot always prevent radiation-related emergencies. Though these events can range in severity, each has the potential to cause harm to the public, employees, patients, property and the environment. Until the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, there was no international information exchange system. Immediately following that accident, the international community negotiated the so-called Emergency Conventions to ensure that the country suffering an accident with an international transboundary release of radioactive material would issue timely, authenticated information, while the States that could field technical support, would do so in a coordinated fashion. The Conventions also place specific legal obligations on the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA) with regard to emergency preparedness and response. (Author)

  20. Analysis of emergency response to fukushima nuclear accident in Japan and suggestions for China's nuclear emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Ding Qihua; Wu Haosong

    2014-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station of the Tokyo Electric Power Company ('TEPCO') was hit and damaged by a magnitude 9 earthquake and accompanying tsunami. The accident is determined to be of the highest rating on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The Government of Japan and TEPCO have taken emergency response actions on-site and off-site at the accident. It became clear through the investigation that the accident had been initiated on the occasion of a natural disaster of an earthquake and tsunami, but there have been various complex problems behind this very serious and large scale accident. For an example, the then-available accident preventive measures and disaster preparedness of TEPCO were insufficient against tsunami and severe accidents; inadequate TEPCO emergency responses to the accident at the site were also identified. The accident rang the alarm for the nuclear safety of nuclear power plants. It also taught us a great of lessons in nuclear emergency management. (authors)

  1. Protective response to technological emergency: risk perception and behavioral intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Barnes, V.E.

    1986-01-01

    This article examines why, as suggested by the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (TMI) event, the public is more inclined to evacuate in response to a radiation release than to a natural hazard. During the TMI incident, for example, did authorities present confusing or conflicting information or did the public have an exaggerated perception of radiation risk. Behavioral intention studies are combined with risk perception analyses to ascertain (1) the extent to which intentions to evacuate can be generalized from one sample to another and from one hazard to another, (2) the degree to which behavioral intentions are related to specific dimensions of risk perception, and (3) how public perceptions of risk compare with estimates of risk produced by reactor accident consequence analyses

  2. Sustainability Ethics Emergency and Media Responsibility in the Consumption Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bianchi de Araujo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is discussed the sustainable development and the importance of the environmental cause, in order to create models of development that consider the sustainability and environmental preservation for the future generations. The participation of all society is essential in this debate. The establishment of new habits that do not compromise the subsistence and the conscience of the real self-destruction possibility must be studied and analysed; they consist in challenging intentions, which detach the relevance and the moral duty of the media to restore a new ethics and a new way to understand the reality, as well as to divulge the impact of this different perception in the human life. Therefore occurs the requirement of a responsible compromise relating to the development, by way of understanding the biosphere as the social life basis, considering that, in these ecosystems, the human being is only one of the many species that live in an interdependence relationship.

  3. Preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Samah Alzebair.

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to find out what is ionizing radiation and its users in various medical and industrial fields and extent of the risk resulting from it as a result of inappropriate use. Examples have been mentioned so (the Chernobyl accident and San Salvador) and caused problems. Due to the non-use of nuclear and ionizing radiation in industrial areas in Sudan. There are no radiological incidents remember. Current and universally agreed-upon court plants have been developed by the organization and the competent authorities at the regional and local level and global and who is responsible because of the dangers caused to humans and the environment and all around him. (Author)

  4. Clarification of TMI action plan requirements. Requirements for emergency response capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This document, Supplement 1 to NUREG-0737, is a letter from D. G. Eisenhut, Director of the Division of Licensing, NRR, to licensees of operating power reactors, applicants for operating licenses, and holders of construction permits forwarding post-TMI requirements for emergency response capability which have been approved for implementation. On October 30, 1980, the NRC staff issued NUREG-0737, which incorporated into one document all TMI-related items approved for implementation by the Commission at that time. In this NRC report, additional clarification is provided regarding Safety Parameter Display Systems, Detailed Control Room Design Reviews, Regulatory Guide 1.97 (Revision 2) - Application to Emergency Response Facilities, Upgrade of Emergency Operating Procedures, Emergency Response Facilities, and Meteorological Data

  5. Using Geo-Data Corporately on the Response Phase of Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir Ozbek, E.; Ates, S.; Aydinoglu, A. C.

    2015-08-01

    Response phase of emergency management is the most complex phase in the entire cycle because it requires cooperation between various actors relating to emergency sectors. A variety of geo-data is needed at the emergency response such as; existing data provided by different institutions and dynamic data collected by different sectors at the time of the disaster. Disaster event is managed according to elaborately defined activity-actor-task-geodata cycle. In this concept, every activity of emergency response is determined with Standard Operation Procedure that enables users to understand their tasks and required data in any activity. In this study, a general conceptual approach for disaster and emergency management system is developed based on the regulations to serve applications in Istanbul Governorship Provincial Disaster and Emergency Directorate. The approach is implemented to industrial facility explosion example. In preparation phase, optimum ambulance locations are determined according to general response time of the ambulance to all injury cases in addition to areas that have industrial fire risk. Management of the industrial fire case is organized according to defined actors, activities, and working cycle that describe required geo-data. A response scenario was prepared and performed for an industrial facility explosion event to exercise effective working cycle of actors. This scenario provides using geo-data corporately between different actors while required data for each task is defined to manage the industrial facility explosion event. Following developing web technologies, this scenario based approach can be effective to use geo-data on the web corporately.

  6. Role of EPS, Dispersant and Nutrients on the Microbial Response and MOS Formation in the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gutierrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we report the formation of marine oil snow (MOS, its associated microbial community, the factors influencing its formation, and the microbial response to crude oil in surface waters of the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC. The FSC is a subarctic region that is hydrodynamically complex located in the northeast Atlantic where oil extraction is currently occurring and where exploration is likely to expand into its deeper waters (>500 m. A major oil spill in this region may mirror the aftermath that ensued following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, where the massive influx of Macondo crude oil triggered the formation of copious quantities of rapidly sinking MOS and successional blooms of opportunistic oil-degrading bacteria. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions in sea surface waters of the FSC using water collected from this site during the winter of 2015. We demonstrated that the presence of dispersant triggers the formation of MOS, and that nutrient amendments magnify this. Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed the enrichment on MOS of associated oil-degrading (Cycloclasticus, Thalassolituus, Marinobacter and EPS-producing (Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Alteromonas bacteria, and included major representation by Psychrobacter and Cobetia with putative oil-degrading/EPS-producing qualities. The formation of marine snow, in the absence of crude oil and dispersant, in seawater amended with nutrients alone indicated that the de novo synthesis of bacterial EPS is a key factor in MOS formation, and the glycoprotein composition of the MOS aggregates confirmed that its amorphous biopolymeric matrix was of microbial (likely bacterial origin. The presence of dispersants and crude oil with/without nutrients resulted in distinct microbial responses marked by intermittent, and in some cases short-lived, blooms of opportunistic heterotrophs, principally obligate hydrocarbonoclastic (Alcanivorax

  7. Immune response in pemphigus and beyond: progresses and emerging concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Amber, Kyle T; Sayar, Beyza S; Müller, Eliane J; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called desmosomes and represent extra-desmosomal adhesion receptors. We herein review the advances in our understanding of the immune response underlying pemphigus, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-associated genetic susceptibility, characteristics of pathogenic anti-Dsg antibodies, antigenic mapping studies as well as findings about Dsg-specific B and T cells. The pathogenicity of anti-Dsg autoantibodies has been convincingly demonstrated. Disease activity and clinical phenotype correlate with anti-Dsg antibody titers and profile while passive transfer of anti-Dsg IgG from pemphigus patients' results in pemphigus-like lesions in neonatal and adult mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3-knockout mice immunized with murine Dsg3 into immunodeficient mice phenotypically recapitulates PV. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms leading to blister formation have not been fully elucidated, intracellular signaling following antibody binding has been found to be necessary for inducing cell-cell dissociation, at least for PV. These new insights not only highlight the key role of Dsgs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis but are expected to progressively change pemphigus management, paving the way for novel targeted immunologic and pharmacologic therapies.

  8. Modeling long distance dispersal of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus as a polydisperse aerosol - Application to the emergence of a new strain from Egypt to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Ziv; Klement, Eyal; Fattal, Eyal

    2015-12-01

    Long distance dispersal (LDD) of airborne aerosol of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was extensively modeled in the literature. Most studies modeled this aerosol in simplistic approach as a passive tracer, neglecting physical and biological mechanisms that affect bio-aerosols such as the FMD aerosol. This approach was justified either because under persistent wind these mechanisms lower the extant of downwind hazard or on the grounds that the effect of some of the physical mechanisms on particles as small as the FMD particles (0.015-20 μm) is supposed to be negligible compared to the effect of atmospheric turbulence. Even when the FMD aerosol was treated as aerosol, it was assumed that it is monodisperse, i.e., all its particles are of the same size. The aim of the study is to examine whether these simplistic approaches are indeed justified when dealing with LDD of a bio-aerosol under actual atmospheric conditions. In order to do so, the influence of a more realistic modeling of the FMD aerosol as a polydisperse aerosol was compared to passive tracer and to monodisperse aerosol. The comparison refers to a case of a widespread FMD outbreak that occurred in 2012 in Egypt. This outbreak involved the emergence of a new serotype in Egypt, SAT2 and concern was raised that this serotype will advance further to Asia and Europe. Israel is located on the land bridge between Africa, Asia and Europe, and shares a long desert border with Egypt as well as a long Mediterranean shore adjacent to Egypt's shore. This unique location as well as the fact that Israel does not have any cattle trade with its neighboring countries make Israel an interesting test case for the examination of the necessary conditions for the long distance dispersal (LDD) of a new FMD strains from Africa to Europe. The analysis in this study shows that under quasi-stationary wind conditions modeling FMD dispersal as a passive tracer results in a significantly longer hazard distance. Under non

  9. An Ontology-Underpinned Emergency Response System for Water Pollution Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Meng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the unceasing development and maturation of environment geographic information system, the response to water pollution accidents has been digitalized through the combination of monitoring sensors, management servers, and application software. However, most of these systems only achieve the basic and general geospatial data management and functional process tasks by adopting mechanistic water-quality models. To satisfy the sustainable monitoring and real-time emergency response application demand of the government and public users, it is a hotspot to study how to make the water pollution information being semantic and make the referred applications intelligent. Thus, the architecture of the ontology-underpinned emergency response system for water pollution accidents is proposed in this paper. This paper also makes a case study for usability testing of the water ontology models, and emergency response rules through an online water pollution emergency response system. The system contributes scientifically to the safety and sustainability of drinking water by providing emergency response and decision-making to the government and public in a timely manner.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Response to Radiation Emergencies (1945-2010) (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An underlying concept in the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is that prevention is better than cure. This is achieved through the application of appropriate standards in design and operation. Nevertheless, radiation incidents and emergencies do occur and safety standards are necessary that define the approaches to be used in mitigating the consequences. The IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, GS-R-2, establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. They take account of several other Safety Standards at the Safety Requirements level, namely: the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS); Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, GSR Part 1; Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, NS-R-1; and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, NS-R-2. Implementation of the requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. Although developed before the publication of the Fundamental Safety Principles, they define the requirements that must be satisfied in order to achieve the overall objective and apply the principles that are presented in publications relating to emergencies. An emergency is defined in the Agency's glossary as 'a non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard'. Several nuclear emergencies have

  11. Lessons Learned from the Response to Radiation Emergencies (1945-2010) (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An underlying concept in the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is that prevention is better than cure. This is achieved through the … application of appropriate standards in design and operation. Nevertheless, radiation incidents and emergencies do occur and safety standards are necessary that define the approaches to be used in mitigating the consequences. The IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, GS-R-2, establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. They take account of several other Safety Standards at the Safety Requirements level, namely: the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS); Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, GSR Part 1; Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, NS-R-1; and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, NS-R-2. Implementation of the requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. Although developed before the publication of the Fundamental Safety Principles, they define the requirements that must be satisfied in order to achieve the overall objective and apply the principles that are presented in publications relating to emergencies. An emergency is defined in the Agency's glossary as 'a non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard'. Several nuclear emergencies have

  12. Lessons Learned from the Response to Radiation Emergencies (1945-2010) (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    An underlying concept in the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is that prevention is better than cure. This is achieved through the application of appropriate standards in design and operation. Nevertheless, radiation incidents and emergencies do occur and safety standards are necessary that define the approaches to be used in mitigating the consequences. The IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, GS-R-2, establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. They take account of several other Safety Standards at the Safety Requirements level, namely: the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS); Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, GSR Part 1; Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, NS-R-1; and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, NS-R-2. Implementation of the requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. Although developed before the publication of the Fundamental Safety Principles, they define the requirements that must be satisfied in order to achieve the overall objective and apply the principles that are presented in publications relating to emergencies. An emergency is defined in the Agency's glossary as 'a non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard'. Several nuclear emergencies have

  13. Lessons Learned from the Response to Radiation Emergencies (1945-2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    An underlying concept in the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is that prevention is better than cure. This is achieved through the application of appropriate standards in design and operation. Nevertheless, radiation incidents and emergencies do occur and safety standards are necessary that define the approaches to be used in mitigating the consequences. The IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, GS-R-2, establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. They take account of several other Safety Standards at the Safety Requirements level, namely: the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS); Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, GSR Part 1; Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, NS-R-1; and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, NS-R-2. Implementation of the requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. Although developed before the publication of the Fundamental Safety Principles, they define the requirements that must be satisfied in order to achieve the overall objective and apply the principles that are presented in publications relating to emergencies. An emergency is defined in the Agency's glossary as 'a non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard'. Several nuclear emergencies have

  14. Lessons Learned from the Response to Radiation Emergencies (1945-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    An underlying concept in the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is that prevention is better than cure. This is achieved through the application of appropriate standards in design and operation. Nevertheless, radiation incidents and emergencies do occur and safety standards are necessary that define the approaches to be used in mitigating the consequences. The IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, GS-R-2, establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. They take account of several other Safety Standards at the Safety Requirements level, namely: the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS); Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, GSR Part 1; Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, NS-R-1; and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, NS-R-2. Implementation of the requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. Although developed before the publication of the Fundamental Safety Principles, they define the requirements that must be satisfied in order to achieve the overall objective and apply the principles that are presented in publications relating to emergencies. An emergency is defined in the Agency's glossary as 'a non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard'. Several nuclear emergencies have

  15. Lessons Learned from the Response to Radiation Emergencies (1945-2010) (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    An underlying concept in the safety standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is that prevention is better than cure. This is achieved through the application of appropriate standards in design and operation. Nevertheless, radiation incidents and emergencies do occur and safety standards are necessary that define the approaches to be used in mitigating the consequences. The IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, GS-R-2, establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness and response for a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State. They take account of several other Safety Standards at the Safety Requirements level, namely: the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS); Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for Safety, GSR Part 1; Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, NS-R-1; and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, NS-R-2. Implementation of the requirements is intended to minimize the consequences for people, property and the environment of any nuclear or radiological emergency. Although developed before the publication of the Fundamental Safety Principles, they define the requirements that must be satisfied in order to achieve the overall objective and apply the principles that are presented in publications relating to emergencies. An emergency is defined in the Agency's glossary as 'a non-routine situation or event that necessitates prompt action, primarily to mitigate a hazard or adverse consequences for human health and safety, quality of life, property or the environment. This includes nuclear and radiological emergencies and conventional emergencies such as fires, release of hazardous chemicals, storms or earthquakes. It includes situations for which prompt action is warranted to mitigate the effects of a perceived hazard'. Several nuclear emergencies have

  16. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses ''lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made

  17. Problems related to public perceptions of radiological emergency planning and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Margaret A.

    1989-01-01

    Beyond the scientific, the administrative and procedural issues of radiological emergency planning and response there is the issue of public perception. This paper emphasises that, radiation crises being a rare occurrence there is no enough database for generating scholarly quantitative reports. It suggests the need for disseminating timely and accurate information through a single spokesman from a responsible public agency

  18. Modernisation of Radiation Monitoring Room as a Part of Slovenian Emergency Response Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvari, A.; Mitic, D.

    2003-01-01

    In the year 2002 the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) moved to the new premises therefore it had to rearrange some of its rooms for the emergency situation. SNSA does not operate with a dedicated Emergency Response Centre (ERC), instead of it the SNSA has to rearrange the existing rooms in case of an emergency. Modernisation of the equipment, with the help of government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, for the emergency situation was carried out, especially in the monitoring room. The radiation monitoring system, which is placed in the monitoring room, continuously collects, processes and archives the incoming data of exposure to radiation and meteorological parameters on the Slovenian territory (A model national emergency response plan for radiological accidents, IAEA, Vienna, 1993. IAEA-TECDOC-718). In the emergency situation the monitoring room transforms into the room for the Dose Assessment Group (DAG), which is part of ERC (IAEA emergency response network, IAEA, Vienna, 2000, EPR-ERNET (2000)). The modernisation of monitoring room and within the DAG room with new equipment and its purpose is described in this article. Modernisation of the monitoring room and the room for DAG showed to be inevitably needed. Modernisation of the monitoring room has brought the SNSA a sophisticated and reliable system of controlling the external exposure to radiation on the Slovenian territory. The equipment, especially the equipment for the use in the emergency situation, brought novelties for the Dose Assessment Group. The group has now better and easier control of radiation situation in case of an accident. In overall this modernisation has put the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration a step forward in having a dedicated Emergency Response Centre, since it does not need to rearrange the room for the Dose Assessment Group. (author)

  19. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation.

  20. Identifying and training non-technical skills of nuclear emergency response teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crichton, M.T.; Flin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Training of the non-technical (social and cognitive) skills that are crucial to safe and effective management by teams in emergency situations is an issue that is receiving increasing emphasis in many organisations, particularly in the nuclear power industry. As teams play a major role in emergency response organisations (ERO), effective functioning and interactions within, between and across teams is crucial, particularly as the management of an emergency situation often requires that teams are extended by members from various other sections and strategic groups throughout the company, as well as members of external agencies. A series of interviews was recently conducted with members of a UK nuclear emergency response organisation to identify the non-technical skills required by team members that would be required for managing an emergency. Critical skills have been identified as decision making and situation assessment, as well as communication, teamwork, and stress management. A number of training strategies are discussed which can be tailored to the roles and responsibilities of the team members and the team leader, based on the roles within the team being defined as either Decision Maker, Evaluator, or Implementor, according to Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) classifications. It is anticipated that enhanced learning of the necessary non-technical skills, through experience and directed practice, will improve the skills of members of emergency response teams