WorldWideScience

Sample records for emergency communications prior

  1. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  2. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  3. Communication in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masao

    1996-01-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ''the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others'' are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  4. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru

    1996-01-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  5. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  6. COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Aurel GHIUȚĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is talking about communication use in emergency situations management from a marketing perspective. We have analyzed if this communication is different from the communication of a company with her publics; the legislation which provides the framework for this type of communication in Romania, when is applicable and who is in charge. As methodology we have utilized documentary research. We mention similarities and differences between this type of communication and Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC.

  7. Prior image constrained image reconstruction in emerging computed tomography applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen T.

    Advances have been made in computed tomography (CT), especially in the past five years, by incorporating prior images into the image reconstruction process. In this dissertation, we investigate prior image constrained image reconstruction in three emerging CT applications: dual-energy CT, multi-energy photon-counting CT, and cone-beam CT in image-guided radiation therapy. First, we investigate the application of Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) in dual-energy CT, which has been called "one of the hottest research areas in CT." Phantom and animal studies are conducted using a state-of-the-art 64-slice GE Discovery 750 HD CT scanner to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose reduction in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging. Second, we extend the application of PICCS from dual-energy CT to multi-energy photon-counting CT, which has been called "one of the 12 topics in CT to be critical in the next decade." Numerical simulations are conducted to generate multiple energy bin images for a photon-counting CT acquisition and to investigate the extent to which PICCS can enable radiation dose efficiency improvement. Third, we investigate the performance of a newly proposed prior image constrained scatter correction technique to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT, which, when used in image-guided radiation therapy procedures, can assist in patient localization, and potentially, dose verification and adaptive radiation therapy. Phantom studies are conducted using a Varian 2100 EX system with an on-board imager to investigate the extent to which the prior image constrained scatter correction technique can mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT. Results show that these prior image constrained image reconstruction techniques can reduce radiation dose in dual-energy CT by 50% in phantom and animal studies in material density and virtual monochromatic imaging, can lead to radiation

  8. COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Aurel GHIUȚĂ; Gabriela PRELIPCEAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper is talking about communication use in emergency situations management from a marketing perspective. We have analyzed if this communication is different from the communication of a company with her publics; the legislation which provides the framework for this type of communication in Romania, when is applicable and who is in charge. As methodology we have utilized documentary research. We mention similarities and differences between this type of communication and Integrated Ma...

  9. Report to Congress on NRC emergency communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island highlighted the need for improved communications among the NRC and other organizations which respond to such emergencies. This report summarizes the communication problems identified by several major review groups after the accident, the status of corrective actions, and NRC plans to improve communications still further. (author)

  10. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... 3.2.3.Satellite-Based Communication. Satellite-based communication is another alternative for communication in the event of disaster. Japan, United States of America and Russia are the countries that have utilised the system to disseminate emergency messages during previous disasters. Satellite-based.

  11. Optimized UAV Communication Protocol Based on Prior Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sboui, Lokman; Rabah, Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt a new communication protocol between the UAV and fixed on-ground nodes. This protocol tends to reduce communication power consumption by stopping communication if the channel is not good to communicate (i.e. far nodes, obstacles, etc.) The communication is performed using the XBee 868M standard and Libelium wapsmotes. Our designed protocol is based on a new communication model that we propose in this paper. The protocole decides wether to communicate or not after compu...

  12. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  13. FOMC communication and emerging equity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hayo, Bernd; Kutan, Ali M.; Neuenkirch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Using a GARCH model, we study the effects of Federal Funds target rate changes and FOMC communication on emerging equity market returns and volatility over the period 1998–2006. First, both types of news have a significant impact on market returns. Second, target rate changes are more important than informal communication. Third, the occurrence of monetary policy reports lowers price volatility. Finally, American emerging markets react more to U.S. news than non-American markets.

  14. Emerging trends in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hasan, Syed Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the state of the art in communication networks with the help of illustrative diagrams and recent references published in reputed journals and magazines. The book gives readers a glimpse into the next generation of communication networks. It explores topics that are currently in the research phase and/or are expected to be deployed in recent future such as LTE networks and IPv6 networks. This book is written for students/researchers who wish to come up to date with the recent trends in telecommunications.

  15. Belgonucleaire's emergency exercises; Report on communication experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoele, Sabine van

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is not to have a theoretical explanation about risk communication but rather to give some practical communication hints we learned from the Regional Emergency Exercise Belgonucleaire had a few months ago. Belgonucleaire fabricates Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel since 1973. This fuel is produced at Belgonucleaire's plant at Dessel, which is located in the vicinity of other Belgian plants related to the nuclear sector. Every year Belgonucleaire organises an Internal Emergency Exercise and every 3 years a Regional Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this Emergency Exercise is to make sure that Belgonucleaire is capable of successfully handling in cooperation with the other plants in the nuclear sector, the authorities and security teams a hypothetical crisis scenario. The scenario elaborated this time was that due to a tear in a glove some radioactivity was emitted and because the filter system failed some of this radioactivity came into the air. Some contamination could be measured. The goal of this Emergency Exercise is multiple: to bring under control and to master an emergency situation; to emit an immediate warning to and to protect the employees and the visitors present on the site; to communicate essential information to the security service and co-ordination centre of the government in conformance with the emergency plan for nuclear risks on the Belgian territory. Communication plays a vital role in this emergency organisation plan. It concerns contacts with the authorities (at federal, regional and local level), the nearby-located plants, the support- and emergency services and last but not least with the media. In addition a communication cell was set up at the Dessel Town Hall. An established relationship with all of the organisation's stakeholders based on credibility and trust is the best insurance policy for handling communications during a crisis. This is indeed a process we work on the whole year round. A proactive communication

  16. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  17. Emergence of Leadership in Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Galstyan, Aram

    2016-01-01

    We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well-e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents-in particular, on their inertia against state changes.

  18. Emergence of Leadership in Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2016-01-01

    We study a neuro-inspired model that mimics a discussion (or information dissemination) process in a network of agents. During their interaction, agents redistribute activity and network weights, resulting in emergence of leader(s). The model is able to reproduce the basic scenarios of leadership known in nature and society: laissez-faire (irregular activity, weak leadership, sizable inter-follower interaction, autonomous sub-leaders); participative or democratic (strong leadership, but with feedback from followers); and autocratic (no feedback, one-way influence). Several pertinent aspects of these scenarios are found as well—e.g., hidden leadership (a hidden clique of agents driving the official autocratic leader), and successive leadership (two leaders influence followers by turns). We study how these scenarios emerge from inter-agent dynamics and how they depend on behavior rules of agents—in particular, on their inertia against state changes. PMID:27532484

  19. Emerging trends in computing and communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Kunal; Khan, Gitosree

    2014-01-01

    The book presents papers delivered by researchers, industrial experts and academicians at the Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication (ETCC 2014). As such, the book is a collection of recent and innovative works in the field Network Security and Cryptography, Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics, Data Mining and Data Warehouse, Communication and Nanotechnology and VLSI and Image Processing.

  20. Improving communication between emergency department staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kate

    2014-05-01

    During redevelopment of the emergency department at the Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, it was deemed vital that its internal communication system should be as effective as possible. An audit of staff perceptions of the existing communication system and a relevant literature review were undertaken, therefore, to inform a proposal for the development of a new online system. This article describes the development and implementation of the system.

  1. Experiments on the emergence of human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steels, Luc

    2006-08-01

    Children learn language from their parents and then use the acquired system throughout the rest of their life with little change. At least that is commonly assumed. But a recent paper by Galantucci adds to the growing evidence that adults (and children) are able to create and negotiate complex communication systems from scratch and relatively quickly, without a prior model. This raises questions of what cognitive mechanisms are implied in this joint construction of communication systems, and what the implications are for the origins of human language.

  2. Optical wireless communications an emerging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Capsoni, Carlo; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Boucouvalas, Anthony; Udvary, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on optical wireless communications (OWC), an emerging technology with huge potential for the provision of pervasive and reliable next-generation communications networks. It shows how the development of novel and efficient wireless technologies can contribute to a range of transmission links essential for the heterogeneous networks of the future to support various communications services and traffic patterns with ever-increasing demands for higher data-transfer rates. The book starts with a chapter reviewing the OWC field, which explains different sub-technologies (visible-light, ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) communications) and introduces the spectrum of application areas (indoor, vehicular, terrestrial, underwater, intersatellite, deep space, etc.). This provides readers with the necessary background information to understand the specialist material in the main body of the book, which is in four parts. The first of these deals with propagation modelling and channel characterization of ...

  3. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Interactive emergency communication involving persons in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor; Nøhr, Øyvind

    2009-01-01

    We studied the dialogue between telephone operators at medical emergency communication centres in Norway and parents of children later diagnosed with sudden infant death syndrome. The aim was to understand how the parents experienced the communication with the telephone operators. The qualitative method involved semi-structured interviews. We interviewed six respondents from urban areas and five from rural areas. An important finding was that all the parents were satisfied with the resuscitation instructions they received. It was also perceived as important that the emergency operators expressed empathy and care. We believe that it is not merely the quality of the resuscitation attempts that the operators' efforts should be measured against. It is also important that the operators provide good explanations and express emotional support. Our findings indicate that this will be enormously appreciated, even if callers do not feel that they are capable of performing optimum resuscitation.

  5. Complexities of emergency communication: clinicians' perceptions of communication challenges in a trilingual emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Jack Kh; Chan, Engle Angela; Murray, Kristen A; Slade, Diana; Matthiessen, Christian Mim

    2017-11-01

    To understand the challenges that clinicians face in communicating with patients and other clinicians within a Hong Kong trilingual emergency department. Effective communication has long been recognised as fundamental to the delivery of quality health care, especially in high-risk and time-constrained environments such as emergency departments. The issue of effective communication is particularly relevant in Hong Kong emergency departments, due to the high volume of patients and the linguistic complexity of this healthcare context. In Hong Kong, emergency department clinicians are native speakers of Chinese, but have received their medical training in English. The clinicians read and record virtually all of their medical documentation in English, yet they communicate verbally with patients in Cantonese and Mandarin. In addition, communication between clinicians occurs in spoken Cantonese, mixed with medical English. Thus, medical information is translated numerous times within one patient journey. This complex linguistic environment creates the potential for miscommunication. A mixed-methods design consisting of a quantitative survey with a sequential qualitative interview. Data were collected in a survey from a purposive sample of 58 clinicians and analysed through descriptive statistics. Eighteen of the clinicians were then invited to take part in semi-structured interviews, the data from which were then subjected to a manifest content analysis. Nearly half of the clinicians surveyed believed that medical information may be omitted or altered through repeated translation in a trilingual emergency department. Eighty-three per cent of clinicians stated that there are communication problems at triage. Over 40% said that they have difficulties in documenting medical information. Around 50% believed that long work hours reduced their ability to communicate effectively with patients. In addition, 34% admitted that they rarely or never listen to patients during a

  6. Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Prior to Pandemic Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    equally closely strains of both H1N2 influenza A virus of swine origin and H3N2 influenza A virus of avian origin. The expected matches for each of...Naval Health Research Center Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic Spread...10.1128/JCM.01336-10 PMCID: PMC3020883 Initial Identification and Characterization of an Emerging Zoonotic Influenza Virus Prior to Pandemic

  7. 30 CFR 57.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 57.18013... Programs Surface and Underground § 57.18013 Emergency communications system. A suitable communication system shall be provided at the mine to obtain assistance in the event of an emergency. ...

  8. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepsoonthorn, C; Yokozuka, T; Miura, S; Ogawa, K; Miyake, Y

    2016-12-02

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony.

  9. Communications systems for emergency deployment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladden, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Emergency Response Team (ERT) communications system was developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide radio and telecommunications service for scientific and management elements located in, and adjacent to, an emergency area. The telephone system consists of six nodes, interconnected via microwave links that support T-1 data links and simultaneous two-way live video. The radio network is a self-contained VHF system arranged around portable and programmable repeaters. The system is comprised of approximately 183 DES voice-private radios and 168 clear text radios. Capability is available in the form of portable International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT) terminals that allow direct dial access to coast earth stations in the US or other countries

  10. 76 FR 41273 - National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Tribal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0025] National Emergency Communications Plan... Communications (CS&C), Office of Emergency Communications (OEC), will submit the following information collection request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the...

  11. 30 CFR 56.18013 - Emergency communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency communications system. 56.18013 Section 56.18013 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Programs § 56.18013 Emergency communications system. A suitable communication system shall be provided at...

  12. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. The Emerging Trends in Satellite and Wireless Communications Technologies · Satellite Communications · Communications Satellites for Global Coverage · Satellite Transponders · The Four Generations Of Commercial Communication Geo-Sat · PowerPoint Presentation · An Indian Scenario INSAT ...

  13. Evaluating emergency risk communications: a dialogue with the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Craig W; Vanderford, Marsha L; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    Evaluating emergency risk communications is fraught with challenges since communication can be approached from both a systemic and programmatic level. Therefore, one must consider stakeholders' perspectives, effectiveness issues, standards of evidence and utility, and channels of influence (e.g., mass media and law enforcement). Evaluation issues related to timing, evaluation questions, methods, measures, and accountability are raised in this dialogue with emergency risk communication specialists. Besides the usual evaluation competencies, evaluators in this area need to understand and work collaboratively with stakeholders and be attuned to the dynamic contextual nature of emergency risk communications. Sample resources and measures are provided here to aid in this emerging and exciting field of evaluation.

  14. Non-communicable diseases in emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines...

  15. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPRprior) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPRduring) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC...... and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPRprior. RESULTS: The study...... included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPRpriorgroup and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPRduringgroup. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPRpriorand CPRduring...

  16. Understanding communication networks in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency departments (EDs are high pressure health care settings involving complex interactions between staff members in providing and organising patient care. Without good communication and cooperation amongst members of the ED team, quality of care is at risk. This study examined the problem-solving, medication advice-seeking and socialising networks of staff working in an Australian hospital ED. Methods A social network survey (Response Rate = 94% was administered to all ED staff (n = 109 including doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, administrative staff and ward assistants. Analysis of the network characteristics was carried out by applying measures of density (the extent participants are concentrated, connectedness (how related they are, isolates (how segregated, degree centrality (who has most connections measured in two ways, in-degree, the number of ties directed to an individual and out-degree, the number of ties directed from an individual, betweenness centrality (who is important or powerful, degree of separation (how many ties lie between people and reciprocity (how bi-directional are interactions. Results In all three networks, individuals were more closely connected to colleagues from within their respective professional groups. The problem-solving network was the most densely connected network, followed by the medication advice network, and the loosely connected socialising network. ED staff relied on each other for help to solve work-related problems, but some senior doctors, some junior doctors and a senior nurse were important sources of medication advice for their ED colleagues. Conclusions Network analyses provide useful ways to assess social structures in clinical settings by allowing us to understand how ED staff relate within their social and professional structures. This can provide insights of potential benefit to ED staff, their leaders, policymakers and researchers.

  17. Emergency Handling for MAC Protocol in Human Body Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Youngmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human body communication (HBC is a technology that enables short range data communication using the human body as a medium, like an electrical wire. Thus it removes the need for a traditional antenna. HBC may be used as a type of data communication in body area network (BAN, while the devices are being in contact with body. One of important issues in BAN is an emergency alarm because it may be closely related to human life. For emergency data communication, the most critical factor is the time constraint. IEEE 802.15.6 specifies that the emergency alarm for the BAN must be notified in less than 1 sec and must provide prioritization mechanisms for emergency traffic and notification. As one type of BAN, the HBC must follow this recommendation, too. Existing emergency handling methods in BAN are based on the carrier sensing capability on radio frequencies to detect the status of channels. However, PHY protocol in HBC does not provide the carrier sensing. So the previous methods are not well suitable for HBC directly. Additionally, in the environment that the emergency rate is very low, the allocation of dedicated slot(s for emergency in each superframe is very wasteful. In this work, we proposed specific emergency handling operation for human body communication's medium access control (HBC-MAC protocol to meet the emergency requirements for BAN. We also showed the optimal number of emergency slots for the various combinations of beacon intervals and emergency rates.

  18. Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara; W Seeger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a model of communication known as crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC). The model is outlined as a merger of many traditional notions of health and risk communication with work in crisis and disaster communication. The specific kinds of communication activities that should be called for at various stages of disaster or crisis development are outlined. Although crises are by definition uncertain, equivocal, and often chaotic situations, the CERC model is presented as a tool health communicators can use to help manage these complex events.

  19. Unprotected intercourse in the 2 weeks prior to requesting emergency intrauterine contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jessica N; Howell, Laura; Saltzman, Hanna M; Schwarz, E Bimla; Thompson, Ivana S; Turok, David K

    2016-11-01

    Previous emergency contraception studies have excluded women who report >1 episode of unprotected or underprotected intercourse. Thus, clinical recommendations are based on exposure to a single episode of underprotected intercourse. We sought to assess the prevalence and timing of underprotected intercourse episodes among women requesting emergency contraception and to examine the probability of pregnancy following an emergency contraception regimen including placement of either a copper intrauterine device or a levonorgestrel intrauterine device with simultaneous administration of an oral levonorgestrel pill in women reporting multiple underprotected intercourse episodes, including episodes beyond the Food and Drug Administration-approved emergency contraception time frame (6-14 days). Women seeking emergency contraception who had a negative pregnancy test and desired either a copper intrauterine device or levonorgestrel emergency contraception regimen enrolled in this prospective observational study. At enrollment, participants reported the number and timing of underprotected intercourse episodes in the previous 14 days. Two weeks later, participants reported the results of a self-administered home pregnancy test. Of the 176 women who presented for emergency contraception and received a same-day intrauterine device, 43% (n = 76) reported multiple underprotected intercourse episodes in the 14 days prior to presenting for emergency contraception. Women with multiple underprotected intercourse episodes reported a median of 3 events (range 2-20). Two-week pregnancy data were available for 172 (98%) participants. Only 1 participant had a positive pregnancy test. Pregnancy occurred in 0 of 97 (0%; 95% confidence interval, 0-3.7%) women with a single underprotected intercourse episode and 1 of 75 (1.3%; 95% confidence interval, 0-7.2%) women reporting multiple underprotected intercourse episodes; this includes 1 of 40 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval, 0-13.2%) women

  20. Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguillos, C.; Deng, H.

    2018-04-01

    The integration and use of different space technology applications for disasters management, play an important role at the time of prevents the causes and mitigates the effects of the natural disasters. Nevertheless, the space technology counts with the appropriate technological resources to provide the accurate and timely information required to support in the decision making in case of disasters. Considering the aforementioned aspects, in this research is presented the design and implementation of an Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela. Network based on the design of a topology that integrates the satellites platforms in orbit operation under administration of Venezuelan state, such as: the communications satellite VENESAT-1 and the remote sensing satellites VRSS-1 and VRSS-2; as well as their ground stations with the aim to implement an emergency communications network to be activated in case of disasters which affect the public and private communications infrastructures in Venezuela. In this regard, to design the network several technical and operational specifications were formulated, between them: Emergency Strategies to Maneuver the VRSS-1 and VRSS-2 satellites for optimal images capture and processing, characterization of the VENESAT-1 transponders and radiofrequencies for emergency communications services, technologies solutions formulation and communications links design for disaster management. As result, the emergency network designed allows to put in practice diverse communications technologies solutions and different scheme or media for images exchange between the areas affected for disasters and the entities involved in the disasters management tasks, providing useful data for emergency response and infrastructures recovery.

  1. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  2. A Way Ahead for National Emergency Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biebuyck, Burt A

    2008-01-01

    .... A variety of factors make sustained progress in this area difficult. The lack of a comprehensive national communications strategy to address information sharing and exchange is the biggest shortfall...

  3. Effective communication of public health guidance to emergency department clinicians in the setting of emerging incidents: a qualitative study and framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasmin; Sanford, Sarah; Sider, Doug; Moore, Kieran; Garber, Gary; de Villa, Eileen; Schwartz, Brian

    2017-04-28

    Evidence to inform communication between emergency department clinicians and public health agencies is limited. In the context of diverse, emerging public health incidents, communication is urgent, as emergency department clinicians must implement recommendations to protect themselves and the public. The objectives of this study were to: explore current practices, barriers and facilitators at the local level for communicating public health guidance to emergency department clinicians in emerging public health incidents; and develop a framework that promotes effective communication of public health guidance to clinicians during emerging incidents. A qualitative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 26 key informants from emergency departments and public health agencies in Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed inductively and the analytic approach was guided by concepts of complexity theory. Emergent themes corresponded to challenges and strategies for effective communication of public health guidance. Important challenges related to the coordination of communication across institutions and jurisdictions, and differences in work environments across sectors. Strategies for effective communication were identified as the development of partnerships and collaboration, attention to specific methods of communication used, and the importance of roles and relationship-building prior to an emerging public health incident. Following descriptive analysis, a framework was developed that consists of the following elements: 1) Anticipate; 2) Invest in building relationships and networks; 3) Establish liaison roles and redundancy; 4) Active communication; 5) Consider and respond to the target audience; 6) Leverage networks for coordination; and 7) Acknowledge and address uncertainty. The qualities inherent in local relationships cut across framework elements. This research indicates that relationships are central to effective communication between public health

  4. Emergence of communication in socio-biological networks

    CERN Document Server

    Berea, Anamaria

    2018-01-01

    This book integrates current advances in biology, economics of information and linguistics research through applications using agent-based modeling and social network analysis to develop scenarios of communication and language emergence in the social aspects of biological communications. The book presents a model of communication emergence that can be applied both to human and non-human living organism networks. The model is based on economic concepts and individual behavior fundamental for the study of trust and reputation networks in social science, particularly in economics; it is also based on the theory of the emergence of norms and historical path dependence that has been influential in institutional economics. Also included are mathematical models and code for agent-based models to explore various scenarios of language evolution, as well as a computer application that explores language and communication in biological versus social organisms, and the emergence of various meanings and grammars in human ...

  5. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... is issuing an Advisory Bulletin to remind operators of gas and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities... Gas Pipeline Systems. Subject: Emergency Preparedness Communications. Advisory: To further enhance the...

  6. Communicating with a deafblind person in an emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J

    1998-07-01

    Deafblind UK is the association of deafblind and dual sensory impaired people in the UK. This paper presents advice on the best way to communicate with people who are disabled in this way, particularly in an emergency.

  7. An Experimental Study of the Emergence of Human Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were…

  8. Challenges of communication system during emergency disaster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to provide the overview of available systems and potential future systems for communication during disaster in Malaysia. Electronic searches in major subject loci databases such as MEDLINE (via PUBMED), Ovid, Science Direct, Scopus, IEEE Xplore digital library and Springer are used in ...

  9. An Emerging Interactional Theory of Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Martin J.

    An interactional model of communication can be based on Erving Goffman's concept of the "interaction order" and the conversation analytic focus on meaning. Three sets of related ideas provide the intellectual foundations for this approach: actions are designed for recipients; talk is multi-functional; and self presentation is semiotic.…

  10. Operative team communication during simulated emergencies: Too busy to respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W Austin; Jones, Seth; Crowell-Kuhnberg, Adrianna M; O'Keeffe, Dara; Boyle, Kelly M; Klainer, Suzanne B; Smink, Douglas S; Yule, Steven

    2017-05-01

    Ineffective communication among members of a multidisciplinary team is associated with operative error and failure to rescue. We sought to measure operative team communication in a simulated emergency using an established communication framework called "closed loop communication." We hypothesized that communication directed at a specific recipient would be more likely to elicit a check back or closed loop response and that this relationship would vary with changes in patients' clinical status. We used the closed loop communication framework to code retrospectively the communication behavior of 7 operative teams (each comprising 2 surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses) during response to a simulated, postanesthesia care unit "code blue." We identified call outs, check backs, and closed loop episodes and applied descriptive statistics and a mixed-effects negative binomial regression to describe characteristics of communication in individuals and in different specialties. We coded a total of 662 call outs. The frequency and type of initiation and receipt of communication events varied between clinical specialties (P communication events than anesthesiologists. For the average participant, directed communication increased the likelihood of check back by at least 50% (P = .021) in periods preceding acute changes in the clinical setting, and exerted no significant effect in periods after acute changes in the clinical situation. Communication patterns vary by specialty during a simulated operative emergency, and the effect of directed communication in eliciting a response depends on the clinical status of the patient. Operative training programs should emphasize the importance of quality communication in the period immediately after an acute change in the clinical setting of a patient and recognize that communication patterns and needs vary between members of multidisciplinary operative teams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Telehone consultations: At the emergency service, Copenhagen County: Analysis of doctor-patient communication patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan-Helge; Risør, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Communications patterns, emergency service, out-of-hours service, telehpone consultations, video-supervision......Communications patterns, emergency service, out-of-hours service, telehpone consultations, video-supervision...

  12. Children's views on research without prior consent in emergency situations: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Louise; Sherratt, Frances C; Young, Bridget; McNamara, Paul; Dawson, Angus; Appleton, Richard; Crawley, Esther; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Woolfall, Kerry

    2018-06-09

    We explored children's views on research without prior consent (RWPC) and sought to identify ways of involving children in research discussions. Qualitative interview study. Participants were recruited through a UK children's hospital and online advertising. 16 children aged 7-15 years with a diagnosis of asthma (n=14) or anaphylaxis (n=2) with recent (<12 months) experience of emergency care. Children were keen to be included in medical research and viewed RWPC as acceptable in emergency situations if trial interventions were judged safe. Children trusted that doctors would know about their trial participation and act in their best interests. All felt that children should be informed about the research following their recovery and involved in discussions with a clinician or their parent(s) about the use of data already collected as well as continued participation in the trial (if applicable). Participants suggested methods to inform children about their trial participation including an animation. Children supported, and were keen to be involved in, clinical trials in emergency situations. We present guidance and an animation that practitioners and parents might use to involve children in trial discussions following their recovery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Effect of bystander CPR initiation prior to the emergency call on ROSC and 30day survival-An evaluation of 548 emergency calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Søren; Palsgaard Møller, Thea; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at evaluating if time for initiation of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) - prior to the emergency call (CPR prior ) versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR (CPR during ) - was associated with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 30-day survival. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of CPR prior . This observational study evaluated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occurring in the Capital Region of Denmark from 01.01.2013 to 31.12.2013. OHCAs were linked to emergency medical dispatch centre records and corresponding emergency calls were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to evaluate the association between time for initiation of bystander CPR, ROSC, and 30-day survival. Univariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of CPR prior . The study included 548 emergency calls for OHCA patients receiving bystander CPR, 34.9% (n=191) in the CPR prior group and 65.1% (n=357) in the CPR during group. Multivariable analyses showed no difference in ROSC (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.56-1.38) or 30-day survival (OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.68-1.92) between CPR prior and CPR during . Predictors positively associated with CPR prior included witnessed OHCA and healthcare professional bystanders. Predictors negatively associated with CPR prior included residential location, solitary bystanders, and bystanders related to the patient. The majority of bystander CPR (65%) was initiated during the emergency call, following dispatcher-assisted CPR instructions. Whether bystander CPR was initiated prior to emergency call versus during the emergency call following dispatcher-assisted CPR was not associated with ROSC or 30-day survival. Dispatcher-assisted CPR was especially beneficial for the initiation of bystander CPR in residential areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Resuscitation Prior to Emergency Endotracheal Intubation: Results of a National Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Green

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory failure is a common problem in emergency medicine (EM and critical care medicine (CCM. However, little is known about the resuscitation of critically ill patients prior to emergency endotracheal intubation (EETI. Our aim was to describe the resuscitation practices of EM and CCM physicians prior to EETI. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was developed and tested for content validity and retest reliability by members of the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. The questionnaire was distributed to all EM and CCM physician members of three national organizations. Using three clinical scenarios (trauma, pneumonia, congestive heart failure, we assessed physician preferences for use and types of fluid and vasopressor medication in pre-EETI resuscitation of critically ill patients. Results: In total, 1,758 physicians were surveyed (response rate 50.2%, 882/1,758. Overall, physicians would perform pre-EETI resuscitation using either fluids or vasopressors in 54% (1,193/2,203 of cases. Most physicians would “always/often” administer intravenous fluid pre-EETI in the three clinical scenarios (81%, 1,484/1,830. Crystalloids were the most common fluid physicians would “always/often” administer in congestive heart failure (EM 43%; CCM 44%, pneumonia (EM 97%; CCM 95% and trauma (EM 96%; CCM 96%. Pre-EETI resuscitation using vasopressors was uncommon (4.9%. Training in CCM was associated with performing pre-EETI resuscitation (odds ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, [1.44-3.36], p<0.001. Conclusion: Pre-EETI resuscitation is common among Canadian EM and CCM physicians. Most physicians use crystalloids pre-EETI as a resuscitation fluid, while few would give vasopressors. Physicians with CCM training were more likely to perform pre-EETI resuscitation.

  15. An experimental study of the emergence of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2005-09-10

    The emergence of human communication systems is typically investigated via 2 approaches with complementary strengths and weaknesses: naturalistic studies and computer simulations. This study was conducted with a method that combines these approaches. Pairs of participants played video games requiring communication. Members of a pair were physically separated but exchanged graphic signals through a medium that prevented the use of standard symbols (e.g., letters). Communication systems emerged and developed rapidly during the games, integrating the use of explicit signs with information implicitly available to players and silent behavior-coordinating procedures. The systems that emerged suggest 3 conclusions: (a) signs originate from different mappings; (b) sign systems develop parsimoniously; (c) sign forms are perceptually distinct, easy to produce, and tolerant to variations. 2005 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  16. Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time. PMID:23521890

  17. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:21625405

  18. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumkale, G Tarcan; Albarracín, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J

    2010-06-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Findings revealed that the Source Credibility × Ability/Motivation interaction emerged only when participants lacked prior attitudes and were unable to form a new attitude based on the message content. In such settings, the effects of source credibility decayed rapidly. The implications of these findings for applied communication campaigns are discussed.

  19. Impact of Prior Therapeutic Opioid Use by Emergency Department Providers on Opioid Prescribing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Pomerleau

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Our study sought to examine the opioid analgesic (OA prescribing decisions of emergency department (ED providers who have themselves used OA therapeutically and those who have not. A second objective was to determine if OA prescribing decisions would differ based on the patient's relationship to the provider. METHODS: We distributed an electronic survey to a random sample of ED providers at participating centers in a nationwide research consortium. Question topics included provider attitudes about OA prescribing, prior personal therapeutic use of OAs (indications, dosing, and disposal of leftover medication, and hypothetical analgesic-prescribing decisions for their patients, family members, and themselves for different painful conditions. RESULTS: The total survey population was 957 individuals; 515 responded to the survey, a 54% response rate. Prior personal therapeutic OA use was reported in 63% (95% CI = [58-68]. A majority of these providers (82%; 95% CI = [77-87] took fewer than half the number of pills prescribed. Regarding provider attitudes towards OA prescribing, 66% (95% CI = [61-71] agreed that OA could lead to addiction even with short-term use. When providers were asked if they would prescribe OA to a patient with 10/10 pain from an ankle sprain, 21% (95% CI = [17-25] would for an adult patient, 13% (95% CI = [10-16] would for an adult family member, and 6% (95% CI = [4-8] indicated they themselves would take an opioid for the same pain. When the scenario involved an ankle fracture, 86% (95% CI = [83-89] would prescribe OA for an adult patient, 75% (95% CI = [71-79] for an adult family member, and 52% (95% CI = [47-57] would themselves take OA. Providers who have personally used OA to treat their pain were found to make similar prescribing decisions compared to those who had not. CONCLUSION: No consistent differences in prescribing decisions were found between ED providers based on their prior therapeutic use of OA

  20. The emergence of information and communication technologies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of information and communication technologies in Africa: challenges and opportunities. SA Igbatayo, SO Igbinedion. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigeria Journal of Business Administration Vol. 6(1) 2004: 17-33. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Impact on patient outcome of emergency department length of stay prior to ICU admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gigorro, R; de la Cruz Vigo, F; Andrés-Esteban, E M; Chacón-Alves, S; Morales Varas, G; Sánchez-Izquierdo, J A; Montejo González, J C

    2017-05-01

    The favorable evolution of critically ill patients is often dependent on time-sensitive care intervention. The timing of transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) therefore may be an important determinant of outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact upon patient outcome of the length of stay in the Emergency Care Department. A single-center ambispective cohort study was carried out. A general ICU and Emergency Care Department (ED) of a single University Hospital. We included 269 patients consecutively transferred to the ICU from the ED over an 18-month period. Patients were first grouped into different cohorts based on ED length of stay (LOS), and were then divided into two groups: (a) ED LOS ≤5h and (b) ED LOS >5h. Demographic, diagnostic, length of stay and mortality data were compared among the groups. Median ED LOS was 277min (IQR 129-622). Patients who developed ICU complications had a longer ED LOS compared to those who did not (349min vs. 209min, p5h. The odds ratio of dying for patients with ED LOS >5h was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.7). Age and sepsis diagnosis were the risk factors associated to prolongation of ED length of stay. A prolonged ED stay prior to ICU admission is related to the development of time-dependent complications and increased mortality. These findings suggest possible benefit from earlier ICU transfer and the prompt initiation of organ support. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergency Department Visits Prior to Suicide and Homicide: Linking Statewide Surveillance Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; Singleton, Michael D; Brown, Margaret M; Brown, Sabrina V; Bush, Heather M; Brancado, Candice J

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) serve a wide range of patients who present at risk of impending suicide and homicide. Two statewide surveillance systems were probabilistically linked to understand who utilizes EDs and then dies violently within 6 weeks. Each identified case was matched with four randomly selected controls on sex, race, date of birth, resident zip code, and date of ED visit vs. date of death. Matched-pair odds ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression to assess differences between cases and controls on reported diagnoses and expected payment sources. Of 1,599 suicides and 569 homicides in the 3-year study period, 10.7% of decedents who died by suicide (mean = 13.6 days) and 8.3% who died by homicide (mean = 16.3 days) were seen in a state ED within 6 weeks prior to death. ED attendees who died by suicide were more likely to have a diagnosis of injury/ poisoning diagnosis or mental disorder and more likely to have Medicare. Those who died by homicide were more likely to have a diagnosis of injury/poisoning and less likely to have commercial insurance. It is essential for research to further explore risk factors for imminent suicide and homicide in ED patients who present for psychiatric conditions and general injuries.

  3. Depression and doctor-patient communication in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerizadeh, Mytra; Moise, Nathalie; Chang, Bernard P; Edmondson, Donald; Kronish, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    Depression may adversely affect health outcomes by influencing doctor-patient communication. We aimed to determine the association between depressive symptoms and doctor-patient communication among patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We enrolled a consecutive sample of 500 patients evaluated for ACS symptoms from the ED of an urban medical center. Depressive symptoms (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-8) and doctor-patient communication in the ED (Interpersonal Processes of Care) were assessed during hospitalization. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between depressive symptoms and doctor-patient communication, adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, language, health insurance status and comorbidities. Compared to nondepressed patients, depressed patients (PHQ-8≥10) were more likely (Pcommunication on five of seven communication domains: clarity, elicitation of concerns, explanations, patient-centered decision making and discrimination. A greater proportion of depressed versus nondepressed patients reported suboptimal overall communication (39.8% versus 22.9%, Pcommunication (adjusted odds ratio 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.52-3.87; Pcommunication in the ED than nondepressed patients. Research is needed to determine whether subjectively rated differences in communication are accompanied by observable differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Scholarly communication, scholarly publication and the status of emerging formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Halliday

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to clarify the term 'scholarly publication' and to explore the role of this activity in the scholarly communication process. Desk research was supplemented by responses to a questionnaire from key figures in the development of emerging scholarly communicative behaviours. This facilitated development of a working definition of scholarly publication consisting of a list of criteria. These may be used to analyse the degree to which emerging formats can be categorised as scholarly publications and to identify the means by which these formats may be supplemented so that their status may be promoted to that of ‘scholarly publication’, i.e., documents that meet all of the publication needs of scholarly communities.

  5. The Emergence of Compositional Communication in a Synthetic Ethology Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-12

    maintained starting from selfish genes (see [45] for a review). In that sense, by exposing the obstacles to explain compositionality from an...the coordinated work of distinct genes is germane to the emergence of cells, it is still not clear how such an assemblage could be formed and...communication, which can be viewed as a one-to-one mapping between meanings and signals, has to confront some fundamental difficulties ( Dawkins and

  6. EM Talk: communication skills training for emergency medicine patients with serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzen, Corita R; Emlet, Lillian L; Kuntz, Joanne; Shreves, Ashley; Zimny, Erin; Gang, Maureen; Schaulis, Monique; Schmidt, Scott; Isaacs, Eric; Arnold, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The emergency department visit for a patient with serious illness represents a sentinel event, signalling a change in the illness trajectory. By better understanding patient and family wishes, emergency physicians can reinforce advance care plans and ensure the hospital care provided matches the patient's values. Despite their importance in care at the end of life, emergency physicians have received little training on how to talk to seriously ill patients and their families about goals of care. To expand communication skills training to emergency medicine, we developed a programme to give emergency medicine physicians the ability to empathically deliver serious news and to talk about goals of care. We have built on lessons from prior studies to design an intervention employing the most effective pedagogical techniques, including the use of simulated patients/families, role-playing and small group learning with constructive feedback from master clinicians. Here, we describe our evidence-based communication skills training course EM Talk using simulation, reflective feedback and deliberate practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Assessing interpersonal and communication skills in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa M; Wallner, Clare; Swoboda, Thomas K; Leone, Katrina A; Kessler, Chad

    2012-12-01

    Interpersonal and communication skills (ICS) are a key component of several competency-based schemata and key competency in the set of six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. With the shift toward a competency-based educational framework, the importance of robust learner assessment becomes paramount. The journal Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) hosted a consensus conference to discuss education research in emergency medicine (EM). This article summarizes the initial preparatory research that was conducted to brief consensus conference attendees and reports the results of the consensus conference breakout session as it pertains to ICS assessment of learners. The goals of this consensus conference session were to twofold: 1) to determine the state of assessment of observable learner performance and 2) to determine a research agenda within the ICS field for medical educators. The working group identified six key recommendations for medical educators and researchers. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. How Do Obstetric and Neonatology Teams Communicate Prior to High-Risk Deliveries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Suresh, Gautham K

    2018-01-01

     Improving communication in healthcare improves the quality of care and patient outcomes, but communication between obstetric and neonatal teams before and during a high-risk delivery is poorly studied.  We developed a survey to study communication between obstetric and neonatal teams around the time of a high-risk delivery. We surveyed neonatologists from North America and asked them to answer questions about their institutions' communication practices.  The survey answers revealed variations in communication practices between responders. Most institutions relied on nursing to communicate obstetric information to the neonatal team. Although a minority of institutions used a standardized communication process to summon neonatology team or to communicate in the delivery room, these reported higher rates of information sharing and greater satisfaction with communication between services.  Standardized communication procedures are an underutilized method of communication and have the potential to improve communication around high-risk deliveries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Development and testing of emergency department patient transfer communication measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals.(1) The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality measurement of interfacility patient transfer communication. Input from existing measures, measurement and health care delivery experts, as well as hospital frontline staff was used to design and modify ED quality measures. Three field tests were conducted to determine the feasibility of data collection and the effectiveness of different training methods and types of partnerships. Measures were evaluated based on their prevalence, ease of data collection, and usefulness for internal and external improvement. It is feasible to collect ED quality measure data. Different data sources, data collection, and data entry methods, training and partners can be used to examine hospital ED quality. There is significant room for improvement in the communication of patient information between health care facilities. Current health care reform efforts highlight the importance of clear communication between organizations held accountable for patient safety and outcomes. The patient transfer communication measures have been tested in a wide range of rural settings and have been vetted nationally. They have been endorsed by the National Quality Forum, are included in the National Quality Measurement Clearinghouse supported by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ), and are under consideration by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for future payment determinations beginning in calendar year 2013. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Coastal emergency managers' preferences for storm surge forecast communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Betty Hearn; Lazo, Jeffrey K

    2014-01-01

    Storm surge, the most deadly hazard associated with tropical and extratropical cyclones, is the basis for most evacuation decisions by authorities. One factor believed to be associated with evacuation noncompliance is a lack of understanding of storm surge. To address this problem, federal agencies responsible for cyclone forecasts are seeking more effective ways of communicating storm surge threat. To inform this process, they are engaging various partners in the forecast and warning process.This project focuses on emergency managers. Fifty-three emergency managers (EMs) from the Gulf and lower Atlantic coasts were surveyed to elicit their experience with, sources of, and preferences for storm surge information. The emergency managers-who are well seasoned in hurricane response and generally rate the surge risk in their coastal areas above average or extremely high-listed storm surge as their major concern with respect to hurricanes. They reported a general lack of public awareness about surge. Overall they support new ways to convey the potential danger to the public, including the issuance of separate storm surge watches and warnings, and the expression of surge heights using feet above ground level. These EMs would like more maps, graphics, and visual materials for use in communicating with the public. An important concern is the timing of surge forecasts-whether they receive them early enough to be useful in their evacuation decisions.

  11. Emergency department team communication with the patient: the patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Danielle M; Ellison, Emily P; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Engel, Kirsten G; Cameron, Kenzie A; Makoul, Gregory; Adams, James G

    2013-08-01

    Effective communication is important for the delivery of quality care. The Emergency Department (ED) environment poses significant challenges to effective communication. The objective of this study was to determine patients' perceptions of their ED team's communication skills. This was a cross-sectional study in an urban, academic ED. Patients completed the Communication Assessment Tool for Teams (CAT-T) survey upon ED exit. The CAT-T was adapted from the psychometrically validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT) to measure patient perceptions of communication with a medical team. The 14 core CAT-T items are associated with a 5-point scale (5 = excellent); results are reported as the percent of participants who responded "excellent." Responses were analyzed for differences based on age, sex, race, and operational metrics (wait time, ED daily census). There were 346 patients identified; the final sample for analysis was 226 patients (53.5% female, 48.2% Caucasian), representing a response rate of 65.3%. The scores on CAT-T items (reported as % "excellent") ranged from 50.0% to 76.1%. The highest-scoring items were "let me talk without interruptions" (76.1%), "talked in terms I could understand" (75.2%), and "treated me with respect" (74.3%). The lowest-scoring item was "encouraged me to ask questions" (50.0%). No differences were noted based on patient sex, race, age, wait time, or daily census of the ED. The patients in this study perceived that the ED teams were respectful and allowed them to talk without interruptions; however, lower ratings were given for items related to actively engaging the patient in decision-making and asking questions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Communication between nurses and physicians: strategies to surviving in the emergency department trenches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourbih, Daniel; Armstrong, Sherry; Nixon, Kirsty; Ackery, Alun D

    2015-02-01

    The emergency department (ED) is a challenging and stressful work environment where communication lapses can lead to negative health outcomes. This article offers strategies to Emergency Medicine residents, nurses and staff physicians on how to improve communication to optimize patient care. © 2014 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). Methods. The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001–2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. Results. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees’ data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies. PMID:28892436

  14. Accurate measurement of RF exposure from emerging wireless communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letertre, Thierry; Toffano, Zeno; Monebhurrun, Vikass

    2013-01-01

    Isotropic broadband probes or spectrum analyzers (SAs) may be used for the measurement of rapidly varying electromagnetic fields generated by emerging wireless communication systems. In this paper this problematic is investigated by comparing the responses measured by two different isotropic broadband probes typically used to perform electric field (E-field) evaluations. The broadband probes are submitted to signals with variable duty cycles (DC) and crest factors (CF) either with or without Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) modulation but with the same root-mean-square (RMS) power. The two probes do not provide accurate enough results for deterministic signals such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX) or Long Term Evolution (LTE) as well as for non-deterministic signals such as Wireless Fidelity (WiFi). The legacy measurement protocols should be adapted to cope for the emerging wireless communication technologies based on the OFDM modulation scheme. This is not easily achieved except when the statistics of the RF emission are well known. In this case the measurement errors are shown to be systematic and a correction factor or calibration can be applied to obtain a good approximation of the total RMS power.

  15. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M

    2017-09-01

    To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001-2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees' data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies.

  16. Bystander Intervention Prior to The Arrival of Emergency Medical Services: Comparing Assistance across Types of Medical Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Mark; Aikman, Shelley N; Sasser, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the situational circumstances associated with bystander interventions to render aid during a medical emergency. This study examined 16.2 million Emergency Medical Service (EMS) events contained within the National Emergency Medical Services Information System. The records of patients following a 9-1-1 call for emergency medical assistance were analyzed using logistic regression to determine what factors influenced bystander interventions. The dependent variable of the model was whether or not a bystander intervened. EMS providers recorded bystander assistance 11% of the time. The logistic regression model correctly predicted bystander intervention occurrence 71.4% of the time. Bystanders were more likely to intervene when the patient was male (aOR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.12-1.3) and if the patient was older (progressive aOR = 1.10, 1.46 age group 20-29 through age group 60-99). Bystanders were less likely to intervene in rural areas compared to urban areas (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.58-0.59). The highest likelihood of bystander intervention occurred in a residential institution (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.85-1.86) and the lowest occurred on a street or a highway (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.95-0.96). Using death as a reference group, bystanders were most likely to intervene when the patient had cardiac distress/chest pain (aOR = 11.38, 95% CI = 10.93-11.86), followed by allergic reaction (aOR = 7.63, 95% CI = 7.30-7.99), smoke inhalation (aOR = 6.65, 95% CI = 5.98-7.39), and respiration arrest/distress (aOR = 6.43, 95% CI = 6.17-6.70). A traumatic injury was the most commonly recorded known event, and it was also associated with a relatively high level of bystander intervention (aOR = 5.81, 95% CI = 5.58-6.05). The type of injury/illness that prompted the lowest likelihood of bystander assistance was Sexual Assault/Rape (aOR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.32-1.84) followed by behavioral/psychiatric disorder (aOR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.57-1.71). Bystander intervention varies greatly on

  17. Short communication: Alteration of priors for random effects in Gaussian linear mixed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenplas, Jérémie; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Gengler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    such alterations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose a method to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior multivariate normal distributions of random effects of linear mixed models while using currently available software packages. The proposed method was tested on simulated examples with 3......, multiple-trait predictions of lactation yields, and Bayesian approaches integrating external information into genetic evaluations) need to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior distributions and, to our knowledge, most software packages available in the animal breeding community do not permit...... different software packages available in animal breeding. The examples showed the possibility of the proposed method to alter both the mean and (co)variance of the prior distributions with currently available software packages through the use of an extended data file and a user-supplied (co)variance matrix....

  18. Implementation of emergency department transfer communication measures in Minnesota critical access hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Casey, Michelle; McEllistrem Evenson, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Previously published findings based on field tests indicated that emergency department patient transfer communication measures are feasible and worthwhile to implement in rural hospitals. This study aims to expand those findings by focusing on the wide-scale implementation of these measures in the 79 Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) in Minnesota from 2011 to 2013. Information was obtained from interviews with key informants involved in implementing the emergency department patient transfer communication measures in Minnesota as part of required statewide quality reporting. The first set of interviews targeted state-level organizations regarding their experiences working with providers. A second set of interviews targeted quality and administrative staff from CAHs regarding their experiences implementing measures. Implementing the measures in Minnesota CAHs proved to be successful in a number of respects, but informants also faced new challenges. Our recommendations, addressed to those seeking to successfully implement these measures in other states, take these challenges into account. Field-testing new quality measure implementations with volunteers may not be indicative of a full-scale implementation that requires facilities to participate. The implementation team's composition, communication efforts, prior relationships with facilities and providers, and experience with data collection and abstraction tools are critical factors in successfully implementing required reporting of quality measures on a wide scale. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Idarucizumab (Praxbind for reversal of pradaxa prior to emergent repair of contained ruptured transverse arch aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Vahit Belli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idarucizumab before cardiopulmonary bypass was used for the reversal of dabigatran during an emergent frozen elephant trunk repair of a transverse arch aneurysm. Reversal was successful and minimal not massive transfusion was required with no abnormal sequelae seen with use before cardiopulmonary bypass.

  20. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  1. 76 FR 2700 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Programs Directorate (NPPD)/Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)/Office of Emergency Communications (OEC) will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office of Management and... Directorate; National Emergency Communications Plan (NECP) Goal 2 Performance Report AGENCY: National...

  2. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating emergency response by rapidly restoring... copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445 12th Street...

  3. Communicating one's local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    Information Technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group; Human Resources Department, SPS (Services, Procedures and Social) Group

    2007-01-01

    As part of the ongoing simplification of procedures and rationalisation of administrative processes, the IT, PH (Users Office) and HR Departments have developed two new EDH forms for communicating or updating one's local address and emergency contact details. This is the first time that the forms relating to an official HR procedure can be accessed on a self-service basis and directly updated by the members of personnel themselves. The information recorded remains confidential and may only be accessed by the authorised administrative services and the emergency services. Local address: Members of the personnel must declare any change in their local address (Art. R V 1.38 of the Staff Regulations). This declaration is henceforth made by directly filling out the EDH document indicated below, and without requiring any other spontaneous formality vis-à-vis the department secretariat or the Users Office. It is also possible for any member of the personnel to check whether the local address in the Organizati...

  4. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Building of communication system for nuclear accident emergency disposal based on IP multimedia subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Gao, Guiqing; Qin, Yuanli; He, Xiangyong

    2018-05-01

    The nuclear accident emergency disposal must be supported by an efficient, real-time modularization and standardization communication system. Based on the analysis of communication system for nuclear accident emergency disposal which included many functions such as the internal and external communication, multiply access supporting and command center. Some difficult problems of the communication system were discussed such as variety access device type, complex composition, high mobility, set up quickly, multiply business support, and so on. Taking full advantages of the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), a nuclear accident emergency communication system was build based on the IMS. It was studied and implemented that some key unit and module functions of communication system were included the system framework implementation, satellite access, short-wave access, load/vehicle-mounted communication units. The application tests showed that the system could provide effective communication support for the nuclear accident emergency disposal, which was of great practical value.

  6. Computer Mediated Communication and the Emergence of "Electronic Opportunism"

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco, Elena; Warglien, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    An experiment on how communication affects cooperation in a social dilemma shows that computer mediated communication (CMC) and face to face communication have markedly different effects on patterns of collective behavior. While face to face communication sustains stable cooperation, CMC makes cooperative agreements in groups extremely fragile, giving rise to waves of opportunistic behavior. Further analysis of communication protocols highlights that the breakdown of ordinary communication ru...

  7. Investigation of Evolutionary Pheromone Communication Based on External Measurement and Emergence of Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    川村, 秀憲; 山本, 雅人; 大内, 東

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the emergence phenomenon related with artificial pheromone communication and swarm intelligence among many agents in Ants War environment, in which two colonies of artificial ant agents compete for the limited number of food items in order to survive in evolutionary process. The purpose of this research is to clarify the emerging process of communication and the relationship between communication and swarm intelligence. For investigation of communication, we introdu...

  8. Information communication technology and electricity consumption in emerging economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of information communication technology (ICT) on electricity consumption in emerging economies. The empirical results, obtained from dynamic panel demand models, show a positive and statistically significant relationship between ICT and electricity consumption when ICT is measured using internet connections, mobile phones or the number of PCs. Long-run ICT elasticities are smaller than income elasticities but because ICT growth rates are so much higher than income growth rates, the impact of ICT on electricity demand is greater than the impact of income on electricity demand. One implication of these results is that policies designed to close the “digital divide” between developed and developing economics by increasing the adoption of ICT in developing countries are put at odds with energy policies to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► ICT usage is growing rapidly in developing countries. ► ICT usage affects electricity consumption. ► Three different measures of ICT are examined. ► Short-run and long-run ICT elasticities are calculated. ► Implications for energy policy are discussed.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Terrestrial Emergency Communication System in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Gwang Sub; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accident induced by the great earthquake and tsunami reveals the vulnerability of I and C System. In the severe environment, the normal I and C system did not work properly and results in false information about the internal situation in NPP. Eventually the accident was not properly handled at the early stage. Therefore advanced emergency response system using a wireless channel is necessary to cope with the severe accident. In this paper, we introduce the ERS consisting of the HMS and MCS the ECS linking the HMS with MCS and the performance requirement of the ECS is analyzed. The ECS satisfying the requirement is designed conceptually and the performance of the ECS is evaluated through analysis and simulator. The terrestrial communication system is designed based on the IEEE 802.11. Analyzed performance results prove that the performance requirement can be sufficiently achieved. But if the scalability of data capacity is considered later, use of the advanced 802.11 standard such as 802.11n and multiple signal paths between the HMS and MCS are necessary

  10. Performance Evaluation of Terrestrial Emergency Communication System in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Gwang Sub; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima accident induced by the great earthquake and tsunami reveals the vulnerability of I and C System. In the severe environment, the normal I and C system did not work properly and results in false information about the internal situation in NPP. Eventually the accident was not properly handled at the early stage. Therefore advanced emergency response system using a wireless channel is necessary to cope with the severe accident. In this paper, we introduce the ERS consisting of the HMS and MCS the ECS linking the HMS with MCS and the performance requirement of the ECS is analyzed. The ECS satisfying the requirement is designed conceptually and the performance of the ECS is evaluated through analysis and simulator. The terrestrial communication system is designed based on the IEEE 802.11. Analyzed performance results prove that the performance requirement can be sufficiently achieved. But if the scalability of data capacity is considered later, use of the advanced 802.11 standard such as 802.11n and multiple signal paths between the HMS and MCS are necessary.

  11. Method for Developing a Communication Strategy and Plan for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical resource for emergency planning in the area of public communication in the development of a radiation emergency communication plan (RECP). The term 'public communication' is defined as any activity that communicates information to the public and the media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To avoid confusion, the term public communication has been used in this publication rather than public information, which may be used in other IAEA publications and documents to ensure consistency with the terminology used in describing the command and control system. This publication also aims to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(11) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research with regard to the response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. This publication is intended to provide guidance to national and local authorities on developing an RECP which incorporates the specific functions, arrangements and capabilities that will be required for public communication during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The two main features of this publication are the template provided to develop an RECP and detailed guidance on developing a communication strategy for emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The template is consistent with the outline of the national radiation emergency plan proposed in Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (EPR-Method 2003). This publication is part of the IAEA

  12. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  13. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  14. Research in corporate communication: An overview of an emerging field

    OpenAIRE

    Riel, Cees

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis commentary is intended as an amendment to Argenti's (1996) viewpoint, published in Volume 10, Issue 1, of Management Communication Quarterly. Van Riel provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature in both communication and business school disciplines. In the author's opinion, there are three key concepts in corporate communication research: corporate identity, corporate reputation, and orch...

  15. Research in Corporate Communication: An Overview of an Emerging Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Cees B. M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature in both communication and business school disciplines. Gives three key concepts in such research: corporate identity, corporate reputation, and orchestration of communication. Advocates an interdisciplinary approach…

  16. Smartphones let surgeons know WhatsApp: an analysis of communication in emergency surgical teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Maximilian J; King, Dominic; Arora, Sonal; Behar, Nebil; Athanasiou, Thanos; Sevdalis, Nick; Darzi, Ara

    2015-01-01

    Outdated communication technologies in healthcare can place patient safety at risk. This study aimed to evaluate implementation of the WhatsApp messaging service within emergency surgical teams. A prospective mixed-methods study was conducted in a London hospital. All emergency surgery team members (n = 40) used WhatsApp for communication for 19 weeks. The initiator and receiver of communication were compared for response times and communication types. Safety events were reported using direct quotations. More than 1,100 hours of communication pertaining to 636 patients were recorded, generating 1,495 communication events. The attending initiated the most instruction-giving communication, whereas interns asked the most clinical questions (P WhatsApp helped flatten the hierarchy within the team. WhatsApp represents a safe, efficient communication technology. This study lays the foundations for quality improvement innovations delivered over smartphones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-Communicable Diseases in Emergencies: A Call to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Jamieson, Jennifer; Horn, Rebecca; de Courten, Maximilian; Tellier, Siri

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have demonstrated the devastating health consequences of complex emergencies and natural disasters and thereby highlighted the importance of comprehensive and collaborative approaches to humanitarian responses and risk reduction. Simultaneously, noncommunicable diseases are now recognised as a real and growing threat to population health and development; a threat that is magnified by and during emergencies. Noncommunicable diseases, however, continue to receive little attention from humanitarian organisations in the acute phase of disaster and emergency response. This paper calls on all sectors to recognise and address the specific health challenges posed by noncommunicable diseases in emergencies and disaster situations. This publication aims to highlight the need for: • Increased research on morbidity and mortality patterns due to noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Raised awareness through greater advocacy for the issue and challenges of noncommunicable diseases during and following emergencies; • Incorporation of noncommunicable diseases into existing emergency-related policies, standards, and resources; • Development of technical guidelines on the clinical management of noncommunicable diseases in emergencies; • Greater integration and coordination in health service provision during and following emergencies; • Integrating noncommunicable diseases into practical and academic training of emergency workers and emergency-response coordinators. PMID:24056956

  18. Research in corporate communication: An overview of an emerging field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis commentary is intended as an amendment to Argenti's (1996) viewpoint, published in Volume 10, Issue 1, of Management Communication Quarterly. Van Riel provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature

  19. Development of a standard communication protocol for an emergency situation management in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol, E-mail: charleskim@kaeri.re.k [Integrated Risk Assessment Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea [Integrated Risk Assessment Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Deokjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hanjeom; Kim, Yoon Joong [YGN Nuclear Power Division Training Center, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, 517 Kyemari, Hongnong-eup, Yeongkwang-gun, Chonnam 513-880 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Correct communication between main control room (MCR) operators is an important factor in the management of emergency situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). For this reason, a standard communication protocol for the management of emergency situations in NPPs has been developed, with the basic direction of enhancing the safety of NPPs and the standardization of communication protocols. To validate the newly developed standard communication protocol, validation experiments with 10 licensed NPP MCR operator teams was performed. From the validation experiments, it was found that the use of the standard communication protocol required more time, but it can contribute to the enhancement of the safety of NPPs by an operators' better grasp of the safety-related parameters and a more efficient and clearer communication between NPP operators, while imposing little additional workloads on the NPP MCR operators. The standard communication protocol is expected to be used to train existing NPP MCR operators without much aversion, as well as new operators.

  20. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Lorna

    2014-10-16

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men\\'s psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men\\'s narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009\\/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants\\' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend\\'s inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk.

  1. Communication and interpretation of emotional distress within the friendships of young Irish men prior to suicide: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lorna; Owens, Christabel; Malone, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    The potential for young men in crisis to be supported by their lay networks is an important issue for suicide prevention, due to the under-utilisation of healthcare services by this population. Central to the provision of lay support is the capability of social networks to recognise and respond effectively to young men's psychological distress and suicide risk. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore young men's narratives of peer suicide, in order to identify how they interpreted and responded to behavioural changes and indications of distress from their friend before suicide. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted during 2009/10 with 15 Irish males (aged 19-30 years) who had experienced the death by suicide of a male friend in the preceding 5 years. The data were analysed using a thematic approach. Through the analysis of the participants' stories and experiences, we identified several features of young male friendships and social interactions that could be addressed to strengthen the support available to young men in crisis. These included the reluctance of young men to discuss emotional or personal issues within male friendships; the tendency to reveal worries and emotion only within the context of alcohol consumption; the tendency of friends to respond in a dismissive or disapproving way to communication of suicidal thoughts; the difficulty of knowing how to interpret a friend's inconsistent or ambiguous behaviour prior to suicide; and beliefs about the sort of person who takes their own life. Community-based suicide prevention initiatives must enhance the potential of young male social networks to support young men in crisis, through specific provisions for developing openness in communication and responsiveness, and improved education about suicide risk. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Communication and Information Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Amit; Sankar, V; Rao, N; Sarma, T

    2017-01-01

    This book includes the original, peer-reviewed research from the 2nd International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical, Communication and Information Technologies (ICECIT 2015), held in December, 2015 at Srinivasa Ramanujan Institute of Technology, Ananthapuramu, Andhra Pradesh, India. It covers the latest research trends or developments in areas of Electrical Engineering, Electronic and Communication Engineering, and Computer Science and Information.

  3. Building emerging leaders in communications policy in Africa and Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Among the activities supported will be tutorials, conferences, development of a social media-based platform for practitioners, and organization of a workshop on big data and development. The project is expected to build a new cohort of communications policy leaders and provide a nuanced understanding of how to ...

  4. Building emerging leaders in communications policy in Africa and Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the last ten years, the Communication for Policy Research South ... as well as policy contributions by CPRsouth scholars in their respective countries. ... conferences, development of a social media-based platform for practitioners, and ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  5. Communication between anesthesiologists, patients and the anesthesia team: a descriptive study of induction and emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F; Pope, Catherine; Goodwin, Dawn; Mort, Maggie

    2005-11-01

    Although the importance of communication skills in anesthetic practice is increasingly recognized, formal communication skills training has hitherto dealt only with limited aspects of this professional activity. We aimed to document and analyze the informally-learned communication that takes place between anesthesia personnel and patients at induction of and emergence from general anesthesia. We adopted an ethnographic approach based principally on observation of anesthesia personnel at work in the operating theatres with subsequent analysis of observation transcripts. We noted three main styles of communication on induction, commonly combined in a single induction. In order of frequency, these were: (1) descriptive, where the anesthesiologists explained to the patient what he/she might expect to feel; (2) functional, which seemed designed to help anesthesiologists maintain physiological stability or assess the changing depth of anesthesia and (3) evocative, which referred to images or metaphors. Although the talk we have described is nominally directed at the patient, it also signifies to other members of the anesthetic team how induction is progressing. The team may also contribute to the communication behaviour depending on the context. Communication on emergence usually focused on establishing that the patient was awake. Communication at induction and emergence tends to fall into specific patterns with different emphases but similar functions. This communication work is shared across the anesthetic team. Further work could usefully explore the relationship between communication styles and team performance or indicators of patient safety or well-being.

  6. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental), the main barrier to emergency department inter-professional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari Varjoshani, Nasrin; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2014-08-22

    A highly important factor in enhancing quality of patient care and job satisfaction of health care staff is inter-professional communication. Due to the critical nature of the work environment, the large number of staff and units, and complexity of professional tasks and interventions, inter-professional communication in an emergency department is particularly and exceptionally important. Despite its importance, inter-professional communication in emergency department seems unfavorable. Thus, this study was designed to explain barriers to inter-professional communication in an emergency department. This was a qualitative study with content analysis approach, based on interviews conducted with 26 participants selected purposively, with diversity of occupation, position, age, gender, history, and place of work. Interviews were in-depth and semi-structured, and data were analyzed using the inductive content analysis approach. In total, 251 initial codes were extracted from 30 interviews (some of the participants re-interviewed) and in the reducing trend of final results, 5 categories were extracted including overcrowded emergency, stressful emergency environment, not discerning emergency conditions, ineffective management, and inefficient communication channels. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical, mental) was the common theme between categories, and was decided to be the main barrier to effective inter-professional communication. Tumultuous atmosphere (physical-mental) was found to be the most important barrier to inter-professional communication. This study provided a better understanding of these barriers in emergency department, often neglected in most studies. It is held that by reducing environmental turmoil (physical-mental), inter-professional communication can be improved, thereby improving patient care outcomes and personnel job satisfaction.

  7. The Multi-Dimensional Nature of Emergency Communications Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staman, E. Michael; Katsouros, Mark; Hach, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Within an incredibly short period--perhaps less than twenty-four months--the need for emergency preparedness has risen to a higher level of urgency than at any other time in the history of academe. Large or small, public or private, higher education institutions are seriously considering the dual problems of notification and communications…

  8. Three Types of Memory in Emergency Medical Services Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Elizabeth L.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines memory and distributed cognition involved in the writing practices of emergency medical services (EMS) professionals. Results from a 16-month study indicate that EMS professionals rely on distributed cognition and three kinds of memory: individual, collaborative, and professional. Distributed cognition and the three types of…

  9. Use of Near Field Communication in emergency Rescue situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramp, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) where the placement of two devices in close proximity of each other makes it possible for two devices to exhange and share information, opens up for a variety of transparent and intuitive interaction possibilities. However, as we have identified in the palcom project...... [1], instant and appropriate feedback regarding state of the connection and identification of which devices are connected to each other, is crucial for use....

  10. FORUM: Instructional Communication and Millennial Students: Teaching Communication to Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Paula S.

    2016-01-01

    The new developmental stage of emerging adulthood (age 18-25) offers a framework for thinking about younger millennials in our classrooms. Smith, Christoffersen, Davidson, and Herzog's (2011) profile of emerging adults, based on longitudinal study of over 3200 emerging adults and culminating in 230 in-depth interviews, parallels research of the…

  11. A state of emergency in crisis communication: An intercultural crisis communication research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Diers-Lawson, AR

    2016-01-01

    This article seeks to provide an evidence-based set of recommendations for the development of an intercultural crisis communication research agenda with three goals. First, to provide an advancement in our understanding of the state of crisis communication research in general. Second, to offer a grounded introduction to crisis communication for intercultural scholars who may not be as familiar with the field. Finally to identify three broad evidence-based areas for developing intercultural cr...

  12. Emerging Communication Technology and Examination Malpractices in Nigerian Educational Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Sunday Adeoye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The breakthrough in communication technology, especially that of GSM phones, in Nigeria is one of the best things that has happened to the nation in terms of its technological advancement. In Nigeria, GSM means Telecom Explosion. The GSM revolution began in August 2001 and changed the face of Information and Communications Technology in Nigeria. It is much easier to reach anybody that you have his / her number, whether they are in the village or in their closet unless in a place where there is no network of the service provider. As revolutionary as GSM may seem to be, its negative effect on our educational sector is of great concern. The ongoing war against examination malpractice is yet to take its toll on perpetrators as they have devised a new method to continue their game through the cell phone technology. Described as e-cheating, the cell phone technology is providing students a smart way to beat the best effort of stakeholders to stamp out the menace. This paper examines GSM technology, the various ways in which cell phones are employed to cheat and suggestions on how to stop e-cheating through cell phones.

  13. Situation, Background, Assessment, and Recommendation-Guided Huddles Improve Communication and Teamwork in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heather A; Ciurzynski, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Thousands of people die annually in hospitals because of poor communication and teamwork between health care team members. Standardized tools and strategies help increase the amount and quality of communication. Two structured communication methods include implementing huddles and the use of the situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication framework. To improve communication among nurse practitioners and registered nurses within a pediatric emergency department, a performance-improvement project with the structured processes of a joint patient evaluation and huddle was implemented. Data were gathered from 32 nurses and 2 nurse practitioners using structured observation and pre- and post-implementation surveys. The following outcomes were measured: presence or absence of joint patient evaluation and SBAR-guided huddle, verbalization of treatment plan, communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction. Eighty-three percent of patient encounters included a joint evaluation. A huddle structured with SBAR was conducted 86% of the time. Registered nurses and nurse practitioners verbalized patients' treatment plans in 89% of cases and 97% of cases, respectively. Improved teamwork, communication, and nursing satisfaction scores were demonstrated among the nurse practitioners and registered nurses. This project showed the feasibility of a simple and inexpensive joint nurse practitioner-registered nurse patient evaluation followed by a structured huddle, which improved communication, teamwork, and nurse satisfaction scores. This performance-improvement project has the potential to enhance efficiency by reducing redundancy, as well as to improve patient safety through the use of structured communication techniques. Copyright © 2015 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interprofessional communication supporting clinical handover in emergency departments: An observation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Bernice; Botti, Mari; Wood, Beverley; Bucknall, Tracey

    2017-08-01

    Poor interprofessional communication poses a risk to patient safety at change-of-shift in emergency departments (EDs). The purpose of this study was to identify and describe patterns and processes of interprofessional communication impacting quality of ED change-of-shift handovers. Observation of 66 change-of-shift handovers at two acute hospital EDs in Victoria, Australia. Focus groups with 34 nurse participants complemented the observations. Qualitative data analysis involved content and thematic methods. Four structural components of ED handover processes emerged represented by (ABCD): (1) Antecedents; (2) Behaviours and interactions; (3) Content; and (4) Delegation of ongoing care. Infrequent and ad hoc interprofessional communication and discipline-specific handover content and processes emerged as specific risks to patient safety at change-of-shift handovers. Three themes related to risky and effective practices to support interprofessional communications across the four stages of ED handovers emerged: 1) standard processes and practices, 2) teamwork and interactions and 3) communication activities and practices. Unreliable interprofessional communication can impact the quality of change-of-shift handovers in EDs and poses risk to patient safety. Structured reflective analysis of existing practices can identify opportunities for standardisation, enhanced team practices and effective communication across four stages of the handover process to support clinicians to enhance local handover practices. Future research should test and refine models to support analysis of practice, and identify and test strategies to enhance ED interprofessional communication to support clinical handovers. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Globalizing Technical Communication Programs: Visions, Challenges, and Emerging Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia

    Speakers Maylath, Mousten and Vandepitte, co-authors of two chapters on what they call the Trans-Atlantic Project, will describe the programmatic framework for establishing the collaborative partnerships in which students studying technical writing in the U.S. work with students studying...... help achieve common program objectives, particularly in regard to intercultural negotiation and mediation processes. In addition, they will describe how they met course-specific objectives. For the technical writing course, such objectives included broadening students' awareness of the needs of readers...... translation in Europe to create procedural documents in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German and/or Italian. They will provide guidelines for  how international partnerships of this kind can be established between technical communication programs and translation programs anywhere, even in the abscence...

  16. Emerging markets for satellite data communications in the public service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the current and potential markets for satellite data communications as projected by the Public Service Satellite Consortium (PSSC). Organizations in the public service sector are divided into three categories, depending on their expected benefits and organizational changes due to increased satellite telecommunications use: A - modest institutional adjustments are necessary and significant productivity gains are likely; B - institutional requirements picture is promising, but more information is needed to assess benefits and risk; and C - major institutional adjustments are needed, risks are high but possible benefits are high. These criteria are applied to the U.S. health care system, continuing education, equipment maintenance, libraries, environmental monitoring, and other potential markets. The potential revenues are seen to be significant, but what is needed is a cooperative effort by common carriers and major public service institutions to aggregate the market.

  17. Risk-communication capability for public health emergencies varies by community diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanath Kasisomayajula

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health emergencies heighten several challenges in risk-communication: providing trustworthy sources of information, reaching marginalized populations, and minimizing fear and public confusion. In emergencies, however, information may not diffuse equally among all social groups, and gaps in knowledge may increase. Such knowledge gaps vary by social structure and the size, socioeconomic status, and diversity of the population. This study explores the relationship between risk-communication capabilities, as perceived by public officials participating in emergency tabletop exercises, and community size and diversity. Findings For each of the three communication functions tested, risk-communication capabilities are perceived to be greater in communities with fewer then 10% of the population speaking a language other than English at home, decreasing as the percentage grows to 20% (ANOVA P ≤ 0.02. With respect to community size, however, we found an N-shaped relationship between perceived risk communication capabilities and population size. Capabilities are perceived highest in the largest communities and lowest in the smallest, but lower in communities with 20,000–49,999 inhabitants compared to those with 2,500–19,999. Conclusion The results of this study suggest the need to factor population diversity into risk communication plans and the need for improved state or regional risk-communication capabilities, especially for communities with limited local capacity.

  18. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: implications for effective health and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hilyard, Karen; Freimuth, Vicki; Barge, J Kevin; Mindlin, Michele

    2010-06-01

    Recent natural and human-caused disasters have awakened public health officials to the importance of emergency preparedness. Guided by health behavior and media effects theories, the analysis of a statewide survey in Georgia reveals that self-efficacy, subjective norm, and emergency news exposure are positively associated with the respondents' possession of emergency items and their stages of emergency preparedness. Practical implications suggest less focus on demographics as the sole predictor of emergency preparedness and more comprehensive measures of preparedness, including both a person's cognitive stage of preparedness and checklists of emergency items on hand. We highlight the utility of theory-based approaches for understanding and predicting public emergency preparedness as a way to enable more effective health and risk communication.

  19. Method for Developing a Communication Strategy and Plan for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Publication Date: July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide a practical resource for emergency planning in the area of public communication in the development of a radiation emergency communication plan (RECP). The term 'public communication' is defined as any activity that communicates information to the public and the media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. To avoid confusion, the term public communication has been used in this publication rather than public information, which may be used in other IAEA publications and documents to ensure consistency with the terminology used in describing the command and control system. This publication also aims to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(11) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research with regard to the response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. This publication is intended to provide guidance to national and local authorities on developing an RECP which incorporates the specific functions, arrangements and capabilities that will be required for public communication during a nuclear or radiological emergency. The two main features of this publication are the template provided to develop an RECP and detailed guidance on developing a communication strategy for emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The template is consistent with the outline of the national radiation emergency plan proposed in Method for Developing Arrangements for Response to a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency (EPR-Method 2003). This publication is part of the IAEA

  20. Communication between general practitioners and the emergency medical dispatch centre in urgent cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Hanne Beck; Rønnow, Camilla; Jørgensen, Gitte

    2018-01-01

    , and we found that these calls were more likely to contain problematic communication (odds ratio = 5.1). In 18% (n = 236) of the cases, there was not sufficient information to assess if the physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (MECU) should have been dispatched along with the ambulance......INTRODUCTION: When general practitioners (GPs) order an ambulance, their calls are handled by staff at the emergency medical dispatch centre (EMDC) who then select an appropriate response. There are currently no data evaluating this mode of communication between the GPs and the staff at the EMDC....... 
RESULTS: We found problematic communication in less than 2% (n = 25) of the evaluated calls. In 68% of the 25 problematic cases transactional analysis showed that the staff at the EMDC initiated the problematic communication. In 4% (n = 51) of the calls, the GP delegated the call to a secretary or nurse...

  1. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  2. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Chinese Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  3. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  4. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  5. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  6. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  7. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  8. 3rd International Conference on "Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications"

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, NH; Nalini, N

    2015-01-01

    This proceedings volume covers the proceedings of ERCICA 2015. ERCICA provides an interdisciplinary forum for researchers, professional engineers and scientists, educators, and technologists to discuss, debate and promote research and technology in the upcoming areas of  Computing, Information, Communication and their Applications. The contents of this book cover emerging research areas in fields of Computing, Information, Communication and Applications. This will prove useful to both researchers and practicing engineers.

  9. Packaging Patients and Handing Them Over: Communication Context and Persuasion in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugus, Peter; McCarthy, Sally; Holdgate, Anna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Schoenmakers, Anne; Wagner, Cordula

    2017-02-01

    Communication is commonly understood by health professional researchers to consist of relatively isolated exchanges of information. The social and organizational context is given limited credit. This article examines the significance of the environmental complexity of the emergency department (ED) in influencing communication strategies and makes the case for adopting a richer understanding of organizational communication. This study draws on approximately 12 months (1,600 hours) of ethnographic observations, yielding approximately 4,500 interactions across 260 clinicians and staff in the EDs of 2 metropolitan public teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. The study identifies 5 communication competencies of increasing complexity that emergency clinicians need to accomplish. Furthermore, it identifies several factors-hierarchy, formally imposed organizational boundaries and roles, power, and education-that contribute to the collective function of ensuring smooth patient transfer through and out of the ED. These factors are expressed by and shape external communication with clinicians from other hospital departments. This study shows that handoff of patients from the ED to other hospital departments is a complex communication process that involves more than a series of "checklistable" information exchanges. Clinicians must learn to use both negotiation and persuasion to achieve objectives. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, Emily; Sheppard, Lorraine A

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a systematic review using international research to describe the role of teamwork and communication in the emergency department, and its relevance to physiotherapy practice in the emergency department. Searches were conducted of CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Scopus, Cochrane, PEDro, Medline, Embase, Amed and PubMed. Selection criteria included full-text English language research papers related to teamwork and/or communication based directly in the emergency department, involvement of any profession in the emergency department, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and related to adult emergency services. Studies were appraised using a validated critical appraisal tool. Fourteen eligible studies, all of mid-range quality, were identified. They demonstrated high levels of staff satisfaction with teamwork training interventions and positive staff attitudes towards the importance of teamwork and communication. There is moderate evidence that the introduction of multidisciplinary teams to the ED may be successful in reducing access block, and physiotherapists may play a role in this. The need for teamwork and communication in the ED is paramount, and their roles are closely linked, with the common significant purposes of improving patient safety, reducing clinical errors, and reducing waiting times. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing written communication during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Felicity N R; Saucke, Megan C; Greenberg, Caprice C; Ingraham, Angela M

    2017-06-15

    Poor communication causes fragmented care. Studies of transitions of care within a hospital and on discharge suggest significant communication deficits. Communication during transfers between hospitals has not been well studied. We assessed the written communication provided during interhospital transfers of emergency general surgery patients. We hypothesized that patients are transferred with incomplete documentation from referring facilities. We performed a retrospective review of written communication provided during interhospital transfers to our emergency department (ED) from referring EDs for emergency general surgical evaluation between January 1, 2014 and January 1, 2016. Elements of written communication were abstracted from referring facility documents scanned into the medical record using a standardized abstraction protocol. Descriptive statistics summarized the information communicated. A total of 129 patients met inclusion criteria. 87.6% (n = 113) of charts contained referring hospital documents. 42.5% (n = 48) were missing history and physicals. Diagnoses were missing in 9.7% (n = 11). Ninety-one computed tomography scans were performed; among 70 with reads, final reads were absent for 70.0% (n = 49). 45 ultrasounds and x-rays were performed; among 27 with reads, final reads were missing for 80.0% (n = 36). Reasons for transfer were missing in 18.6% (n = 21). Referring hospital physicians outside the ED were consulted in 32.7% (n = 37); consultants' notes were absent in 89.2% (n = 33). In 12.4% (n = 14), referring documents arrived after the patient's ED arrival and were not part of the original documentation provided. This study documents that information important to patient care is often missing in the written communication provided during interhospital transfers. This gap affords a foundation for standardizing provider communication during interhospital transfers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of the Working Group 'Risk Communications for Emergencies and Disasters'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Dombrowsky, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Enhancing crisis communication is important to industry, government and the public. The public is becoming increasingly concerned about technological failures as our reliance on technology increases. Better preparedness and more public awareness can increase public acceptance of and confidence in ability to manage high consequence technologies including ability to manage its failures. Failed communications in emergencies has increased the loss of life and property and public scepticism. Effective communication can a) engender confidence and trust in authorities; b) give rise of acceptance of risks and risk management and c) reduce the consequences of disasters. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Media coverage of Fukushima accident in the Russian press. Lessons for radiation emergency risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, E.; Arutyunyan, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews recent results of content analysis of the Russian press and data of all-Russia public opinion polls on the subject of the Fukushima accident and discusses them in the wider context of challenges in communication of 'no risk' messages to the public in the case of a nuclear accident. Radiation risk regulation base in the low dose range is proposed to be one of the main obstacles for the communication and a new approach to emergency risk communication is proposed. (author)

  14. Emerging zoonoses: responsible communication with the media--lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbaa, D

    2010-11-01

    Emerging zoonotic disease outbreaks are inevitable and often unpredictable events. The environment surrounding an outbreak is unique in public health, and outbreaks are frequently marked by uncertainty, confusion and a sense of urgency. Good communication at this time, generally through the media, is essential, but examples unfortunately abound of communication failures that have delayed outbreak control, undermined public trust and compliance, and unnecessarily prolonged economic, social and political turmoil. With this paper we hope to disseminate the idea that communication expertise has become as essential to outbreak control as epidemiological training and laboratory analysis. The paper presents the best practices for communicating with the public and discusses future aspects of communicating through the mass media during an outbreak. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Physicians' perspectives of managing tensions around dimensions of effective communication in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Marleah; Oetzel, John G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore emergency department (ED) physicians' perspectives of guidelines for effective communication. More specifically, the ways in which physicians manage the tensions among effective communication dimensions framed by relational dialectics theory are examined. This study used in-depth interviews with 17 ED physicians and 70 hours of observations to identify five dimensions of effective communication: efficiency, clarity/accuracy, relevance, comprehension, and rapport. Two communication tensions resulted from these dimensions: efficiency versus rapport and efficiency versus comprehension. In almost all instances, physicians chose efficient communication at the expense of comprehension or rapport. In addition, there was a tension between patient and physician perspectives of clarity and relevance that physicians tended to resolve by emphasizing what was relevant and clear from their own perspective. Implications for managing tensions in terms of efficiency and a physician-centered approach are discussed.

  16. A Method for Analyzing the Communications among Nuclear Power Plant Operators in Emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2006-01-01

    Communications among MCR operators is an important factor for understanding how and how well MCR operators manage abnormal situations in NPPs. As mentioned by Ujita et al., the performance of MCR operators in emergency situations in NPPs is strongly affected by not only the cognitive process for each operator, but also by communications and collaboration among operators. Many researches have been conducted to find out the relation between the communication of human operators and the performance of them. But, it seems that few researches have been conducted on in what way the communication among MCR operators should be performed to enhance the performance of them. In this paper, we propose an analysis method for evaluating the quality of communications among MCR operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

  17. A simulation-based training program improves emergency department staff communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lynn A; Warren, Otis; Gardner, Liz; Rojek, Adam; Lindquist, David G

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Project CLEAR!, a novel simulation-based training program designed to instill Crew Resource Management (CRM) as the communication standard and to create a service-focused environment in the emergency department (ED) by standardizing the patient encounter. A survey-based study compared physicians' and nurses' perceptions of the quality of communication before and after the training program. Surveys were developed to measure ED staff perceptions of the quality of communication between staff members and with patients. Pretraining and posttraining survey results were compared. After the training program, survey scores improved significantly on questions that asked participants to rate the overall communication between staff members and between staff and patients. A simulation-based training program focusing on CRM and standardizing the patient encounter improves communication in the ED, both between staff members and between staff members and patients.

  18. A Retrospective Propensity Score-Matched Early Thromboembolic Event Analysis of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate vs Fresh Frozen Plasma for Warfarin Reversal Prior to Emergency Neurosurgical Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Prateek; Abdullah, Kalil G; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Nayak, Nikhil R; Lucas, Timothy H

    2017-06-29

    Reversal of therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures is required in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage. Multifactor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) promises rapid efficacy but may increase the probability of thrombotic complications compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP). To compare the rate of thrombotic complications in patients treated with PCC or FFP to reverse therapeutic anticoagulation prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage at a level I trauma center. Sixty-three consecutive patients on warfarin therapy presenting with intracranial hemorrhage who received anticoagulation reversal prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures were retrospectively identified between 2007 and 2016. They were divided into 2 cohorts based on reversal agent, either PCC (n = 28) or FFP (n = 35). The thrombotic complications rates within 72 h of reversal were compared using the χ 2 test. A multivariate propensity score matching analysis was used to limit the threat to interval validity from selection bias arising from differences in demographics, laboratory values, history, and clinical status. Thrombotic complications were uncommon in this neurosurgical population, occurring in 1.59% (1/63) of treated patients. There was no significant difference in the thrombotic complication rate between groups, 3.57% (1/28; PCC group) vs 0% (0/35; FFP group). Propensity score matching analysis validated this finding after controlling for any selection bias. In this limited sample, thrombotic complication rates were similar between use of PCC and FFP for anticoagulation reversal in the management of intracranial hemorrhage prior to emergency neurosurgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  19. The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns1

    OpenAIRE

    Kumkale, G. Tarcan; AlbarracÍn, Dolores; Seignourel, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Most theories of persuasion predict that limited ability and motivation to think about communications should increase the impact of source credibility on persuasion. Furthermore, this effect is assumed to occur, regardless of whether or not the recipients have prior attitudes. In this study, the effects of source credibility, ability, and motivation (knowledge, message repetition, relevance) on persuasion were examined meta-analytically across both attitude formation and change conditions. Fi...

  20. Satellite communication system for emergency monitoring within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, C.; Mensa, M.; Kanevsky, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A Satellite Emergency Monitoring system of the Chernobyl Exclusive Zone (SEM CEZ) was designed to provide the Ukraine authorities and the neighbouring countries with updated information when an emergency situation occurs in the Exclusion Zone. This is of particular importance when environment contamination has transboundary effect. SEM system consists of mobile and fixed sensors reporting data via a dedicated satellite communications link. Mobile sensors are fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that determine current coordinates of the sensor. Sensors data are transmitted to the Emergency Monitoring Centre equipped with PC and a satellite terminal. Both sensors data and the current position are visualized on digital maps

  1. A study on emergency preparedness for nuclear power plant/ Establishment of emergency communication network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y. K.; Jung, Y. D.; Kim, S. Y.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an emergency database search system for nuclear power plants during nuclear incidents / accidents. Image data reported from nuclear power plants to the regulatory body and other related data will be stored systematically in the computer. The data will be utilized during nuclear emergency to prevent the accident from spreading out and to minimize its effect. It will also be used in exchanging information on accident or incidents with the foreign countries. The operational documents in the Kori-4 nuclear power plant are used as the major source for the categorization and analysis in performing this research. It was not easy to access the detailed operational data due to its unique characteric for the security. Therefore, we strongly suggest to increase manpower for this project in Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) and archive involvement from Korea Electric Power Company to establish better database retrieval system

  2. A study on emergency preparedness for nuclear power plant/ Establishment of emergency communication network system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y K; Jung, Y D; Kim, S Y [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    The objective of this study was to develop an emergency database search system for nuclear power plants during nuclear incidents / accidents. Image data reported from nuclear power plants to the regulatory body and other related data will be stored systematically in the computer. The data will be utilized during nuclear emergency to prevent the accident from spreading out and to minimize its effect. It will also be used in exchanging information on accident or incidents with the foreign countries. The operational documents in the Kori-4 nuclear power plant are used as the major source for the categorization and analysis in performing this research. It was not easy to access the detailed operational data due to its unique characteric for the security. Therefore, we strongly suggest to increase manpower for this project in Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) and archive involvement from Korea Electric Power Company to establish better database retrieval system.

  3. An Emergency Department Intervention to Increase Parent-Child Tobacco Communication: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…

  4. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria Educational Assessment System--Emerging Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aworanti, Olatunde Awotokun

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Nigeria educational assessment system with its emerging challenges. This is inevitable following the globalisation trend which has brought drastic changes in the world of technology. The essence of the paper is to describe the present status of ICT in the Nigeria educational…

  5. Barriers and opportunities in assessing calls to emergency medical communication centre--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Veronica; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Bohm, Katarina; Castrèn, Maaret; Falk, Ann-Charlotte

    2014-11-11

    Previous studies have described the difficulties and the complexity of assessing an emergency call, and assessment protocols intended to support the emergency medical dispatcher's (EMD) assessment have been developed and evaluated in recent years. At present, the EMD identifies about 50-70 % of patients suffering from cardiac arrest, acute myocardial infarction or stroke. The previous research has primarily been focused on specific conditions, and it is still unclear whether there are any overall factors that may influence the assessment of the call to the emergency medical communication centre (EMCC). The aim of the study was to identify overall factors influencing the registered nurses' (RNs) assessment of calls to the EMCC. A qualitative study design was used; a purposeful selection of calls to the EMCC was analysed by content analysis. One hundred calls to the EMCC were analysed. Barriers and opportunities related to the RN or the caller were identified as the main factors influencing the RN's assessment of calls to the EMCC. The opportunities appeared in the callers' symptom description and the communication strategies used by the RN. The barriers appeared in callers' descriptions of unclear symptoms, paradoxes and the RN's lack of communication strategies during the call. Barriers in assessing the call to the EMCC were associated with contradictory information, the absence of a primary problem, or the structure of the call. Opportunities were associated with a clear symptom description that was also repeated, and the RN's use of different communication strategies such as closed loop communication.

  6. Challenges to effective crisis management: using information and communication technologies to coordinate emergency medical services and emergency department teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Madhu C; Paul, Sharoda A; Abraham, Joanna; McNeese, Michael; DeFlitch, Christopher; Yen, John

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the major challenges to coordination between emergency department (ED) teams and emergency medical services (EMS) teams. We conducted a series of focus groups involving both ED and EMS team members using a crisis scenario as the basis of the focus group discussion. We also collected organizational workflow data. We identified three major challenges to coordination between ED and EMS teams including ineffectiveness of current information and communication technologies, lack of common ground, and breakdowns in information flow. The three challenges highlight the importance of designing systems from socio-technical perspective. In particular, these inter-team coordination systems must support socio-technical issues such as awareness, context, and workflow between the two teams.

  7. Tethered Balloon Technology in Design Solutions for Rescue and Relief Team Emergency Communication Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsamhi, Saeed Hamood; Ansari, Mohd Samar; Ma, Ou; Almalki, Faris; Gupta, Sachin Kumar

    2018-05-23

    The actions taken at the initial times of a disaster are critical. Catastrophe occurs because of terrorist acts or natural hazards which have the potential to disrupt the infrastructure of wireless communication networks. Therefore, essential emergency functions such as search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be disabled. We propose tethered balloon technology to provide efficient emergency communication services and reduce casualty mortality and morbidity for disaster recovery. The tethered balloon is an actively developed research area and a simple solution to support the performance, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication. The most critical requirement for rescue and relief teams is having a higher quality of communication services which enables them to save people's lives. Using our proposed technology, it has been reported that the performance of rescue and relief teams significantly improved. OPNET Modeler 14.5 is used for a network simulated with the help of ad hoc tools (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8).

  8. Implementation and evaluation of health passport communication tools in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Marina; Lunsky, Yona

    2018-01-01

    People with IDD (intellectual or developmental disabilities) and their families consistently report dissatisfaction with their emergency department experience. Clear care plans and communication tools may not only improve the quality of patient care, but also can prevent unnecessary visits and reduce the likelihood of return visits. To evaluate communication tools to be used by people with IDD in psychiatric and general emergency departments in three different regions of Ontario. Health passport communication tools were locally tailored and implemented in each of the three regions. A total of 28 questionnaires and 18 interviews with stakeholders (e.g., hospital staff, community agency representatives, families) were completed across the regions to obtain feedback on the implementation of health passports with people with IDD. Participants felt that the health passport tools provided helpful information, improved communication between patients with IDD and hospital staff, and were user friendly. Continued efforts are needed to work with communities on maintenance of this tool, ensuring all hospital staff are utilizing the information. These findings emphasize the merits of health passport tools being implemented in the health system to support communication between patients with IDD and health care practitioners and the importance of tailoring tools to local settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toll free mobile communication: overcoming barriers in maternal and neonatal emergencies in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Nafisa Lira; Azmi, Asrafi Jahan; Quaiyum, M A; Hossain, Shahed

    2014-07-12

    Toll free mobile telephone intervention to support mothers in pregnancy and delivery period was tested in one sub district of Bangladesh. Qualitative research was conducted to measure the changes of mobile phone use in increasing communication for maternal and neonatal complications. In-depth interviews were conducted among twelve Community Skilled Birth Attendants and fourteen mothers along with their husbands prior to intervention. At intervention end, six Community Skilled Birth Attendants were purposively selected for in-depth interview. Semi structured interviews were conducted among all 27 Community Skilled Birth Attendants engaged in the intervention. One Focus Group Discussion was conducted with 10 recently delivered mothers. Thematic analysis and triangulation of different responses were conducted. Prior to intervention, Community Skilled Birth Attendants reported that mobile communication was not a norm. It was also revealed that poor mothers had poor accessibility to mobile services. Mothers, who communicated through mobile phone with providers noted irritability from Community Skilled Birth Attendants and sometimes found phones switched off. At the end of the project, 85% of mothers who had attended orientation sessions of the intervention communicated with Community Skilled Birth Attendants through mobile phones during maternal health complications. Once a complication is reported or anticipated over phone, Community Skilled Birth Attendants either made a prompt visit to mothers or advised for direct referral. More than 80% Community Skilled Birth Attendants communicated with Solution Linked Group for guidance on maternal health management. Prior to intervention, Solution Linked Group was not used to receive phone call from Community Skilled Birth Attendants. Community Skilled Birth Attendants were valued by the mothers. Mothers viewed that Community Skilled Birth Attendants are becoming confident in managing complication due to communication with

  10. Understanding discharge communication behaviours in a pediatric emergency care context: a mixed methods observation study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Bishop, Andrea; Plint, Amy; MacPhee, Shannon; Zemek, Roger; Chorney, Jill; Jabbour, Mona; Porter, Stephen; Sawyer, Scott

    2017-04-17

    One of the most important transitions in the continuum of care for children is discharge to home. Optimal discharge communication between healthcare providers and caregivers (e.g., parents or other guardians) who present to the emergency department (ED) with their children is not well understood. The lack of policies and considerable variation in practice regarding discharge communication in pediatric EDs pose a quality and safety risk for children and their parents. The aim of this mixed methods study is to better understand the process and structure of discharge communication in a pediatric ED context to contribute to the design and development of discharge communication interventions. We will use surveys, administrative data and real-time video observation to characterize discharge communication for six common illness presentations in a pediatric ED: (1) asthma, (2) bronchiolitis, (3) abdominal pain, (4) fever, (5) diarrhea and vomiting, and (6) minor head injury. Participants will be recruited from one of two urban pediatric EDs in Canada. Video recordings will be analyzed using Observer XT. We will use logistic regression to identify potential demographic and visit characteristic cofounders and multivariate logistic regression to examine association between verbal and non-verbal behaviours and parent recall and comprehension. Video recording of discharge communication will provide an opportunity to capture important data such as temporality, sequence and non-verbal behaviours that might influence the communication process. Given the importance of better characterizing discharge communication to identify potential barriers and enablers, we anticipate that the findings from this study will contribute to the development of more effective discharge communication policies and interventions.

  11. Team communication patterns in emergency resuscitation: a mixed methods qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Lisa Anne; Mastoras, George; Rahimpour, Mitra; Sohmer, Benjamin; Weitzman, Brian; Cwinn, A Adam; Hobin, Tara; Parush, Avi

    2017-12-01

    In order to enhance patient safety during resuscitation of critically ill patients, we need to optimize team communication and enhance team situational awareness but little is known about resuscitation team communication patterns. The objective of this study is to understand how teams communicate during resuscitation; specifically to assess for a shared mental model (organized understanding of a team's relationships) and information needs. We triangulated 3 methods to evaluate resuscitation team communication at a tertiary care academic trauma center: (1) interviews; (2) simulated resuscitation observations; (3) live resuscitation observations. We interviewed 18 resuscitation team members about shared mental models, roles and goals of team members and procedural expectations. We observed 30 simulated resuscitation video recordings and documented the timing, source and destination of communication and the information category. We observed 12 live resuscitations in the emergency department and recorded baseline characteristics of the type of resuscitations, nature of teams present and type and content of information exchanges. The data were analyzed using a qualitative communication analysis method. We found that resuscitation team members described a shared mental model. Respondents understood the roles and goals of each team member in order to provide rapid, efficient and life-saving care with an overall need for situational awareness. The information flow described in the interviews was reflected during the simulated and live resuscitations with the most responsible physician and charting nurse being central to team communication. We consolidated communicated information into six categories: (1) time; (2) patient status; (3) patient history; (4) interventions; (5) assistance and consultations; 6) team members present. Resuscitation team members expressed a shared mental model and prioritized situational awareness. Our findings support a need for cognitive aids to

  12. Implementing standardized, inter-unit communication in an international setting: handoff of patients from emergency medicine to internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhara, Kamna S; Peterson, Susan M; Elabd, Mohamed Moheb; Regan, Linda; Anton, Xavier; Al-Natour, Basil Ali; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Scheulen, James; Stewart de Ramirez, Sarah A

    2018-04-01

    Standardized handoffs may reduce communication errors, but research on handoff in community and international settings is lacking. Our study at a community hospital in the United Arab Emirates characterizes existing handoff practices for admitted patients from emergency medicine (EM) to internal medicine (IM), develops a standardized handoff tool, and assesses its impact on communication and physician perceptions. EM physicians completed a survey regarding handoff practices and expectations. Trained observers utilized a checklist based on the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model to observe 40 handoffs. EM and IM physicians collaboratively developed a written tool encouraging bedside handoff of admitted patients. After the intervention, surveys of EM physicians and 40 observations were subsequently repeated. 77.5% of initial observed handoffs occurred face-to-face, with 42.5% at bedside, and in four different languages. Most survey respondents considered face-to-face handoff ideal. Respondents noted 9-13 patients suffering harm due to handoff in the prior month. After handoff tool implementation, 97.5% of observed handoffs occurred face-to-face (versus 77.5%, p = 0.014), with 82.5% at bedside (versus 42.5%, p face-to-face and bedside handoff, positively impacted workflow, and increased perceptions of safety by EM physicians in an international, non-academic setting. Our three-step approach can be applied towards developing standardized, context-specific inter-specialty handoff in a variety of settings.

  13. Health Communication With Same-Sex and Other-Sex Friends in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian; Mehta, Clare; Alfonso, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Objective We examined health-related communication between same-sex and other-sex friends and how communication was related to health-related behavior. Participants Data from 243 emerging adults attending college ( Mage = 18.96, SD = 1.43; 55.6% male) were analyzed. Methods Participants completed measures assessing the frequency in which they talked about and made plans to engage in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors with friends, as well as how often they engaged in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors. Results In general, participants reported more health-related communication with same-sex friends. Health-related communication with same-sex friends was positively related to health behaviors for men and women. However, the pattern of results differed for men and women depending on the topic of communication and the behavior being examined. Conclusion Our study extends the literature by examining the role of sex of friends in health communication and planning and how interactions with friends relate to health-promoting behavior.

  14. The Impact of Visibility on Teamwork, Collaborative Communication, and Security in Emergency Departments: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaveis, Arsalan; Hamilton, D Kirk; Pati, Debajyoti; Shepley, Mardelle

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of visibility on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security issues in emergency departments (EDs). This research explored whether with high visibility in EDs, teamwork and collaborative communication can be improved while the security issues will be reduced. Visibility has been regarded as a critical design consideration and can be directly and considerably impacted by ED's physical design. Teamwork is one of the major related operational outcomes of visibility and involves nurses, support staff, and physicians. The collaborative communication in an ED is another important factor in the process of care delivery and affects efficiency and safety. Furthermore, security is a behavioral factor in ED designs, which includes all types of safety including staff safety, patient safety, and the safety of visitors and family members. This qualitative study investigated the impact of visibility on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security issues in the ED. One-on-one interviews and on-site observation sessions were conducted in a community hospital. Corresponding data analysis was implemented by using computer plan analysis, observation and interview content, and theme analyses. The findings of this exploratory study provided a framework to identify visibility as an influential factor in ED design. High levels of visibility impact productivity and efficiency of teamwork and communication and improve the chance of lowering security issues. The findings of this study also contribute to the general body of knowledge about the effect of physical design on teamwork, collaborative communication, and security.

  15. The impact of communication barriers on diagnostic confidence and ancillary testing in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garra, Gregory; Albino, Hiram; Chapman, Heather; Singer, Adam J; Thode, Henry C

    2010-06-01

    Communication barriers (CBs) compromise the diagnostic power of the medical interview and may result in increased reliance on diagnostic tests or incorrect test ordering. The prevalence and degree to which these barriers affect diagnosis, testing, and treatment are unknown. To quantify and characterize CBs encountered in the Emergency Department (ED), and assess the effect of CBs on initial diagnosis and perceived reliance on ancillary testing. This was a prospective survey completed by emergency physicians after initial adult patient encounters. CB severity, diagnostic confidence, and reliance on ancillary testing were quantified on a 100-mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) from least (0) to most (100). Data were collected on 417 ED patient encounters. CBs were reported in 46%; with a mean severity of 50 mm on a 100-mm VAS with endpoints of "perfect communication and "no communication." Language was the most commonly reported form of CB (28%). More than one CB was identified in 6%. The 100-mm VAS rating of diagnostic confidence was lower in patients with perceived CBs (64 mm) vs. those without CBs (80 mm), p Communication barriers in our ED setting were common, and resulted in lower diagnostic confidence and increased perception that ancillary tests are needed to narrow the diagnosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Complaints from emergency department patients largely result from treatment and communication problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David McD; Wolfe, Rory; Cameron, Peter A

    2002-03-01

    Emergency department patient complaints are often justified and may lead to apology, remedial action or compensation. The aim of the present study was to analyse emergency department patient complaints in order to identify procedures or practices that require change and to make recommendations for intervention strategies aimed at decreasing complaint rates. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patient complaints from 36 Victorian emergency departments during a 61 month period. Data were obtained from the Health Complaint Information Program (Health Services Commissioner). In all, 2,419 emergency department patients complained about a total of 3,418 separate issues (15.4% of all issues from all hospital departments). Of these, 1,157 complaints (47.80%) were received by telephone and 829 (34.3%) were received by letter; 1,526 (63.1 %) complaints were made by a person other than the patient. Highest complaint rates were received from patients who were female, born in non-English-speaking countries and very young or very old. One thousand one hundred and forty-one issues (33.4%) related to patient treatment, including inadequate treatment (329 issues) and inadequate diagnosis (249 issues); 1079 (31.6%) issues related to communication, including poor staff attitude, discourtesy and rudeness (444 issues); 407 (11.9%) issues related to delay in treatment. Overall, 2516 issues (73.6%) were resolved satisfactorily, usually by explanation or apology. Only 59 issues (1.7%) resulted in a procedure or policy change. Remedial action was taken in 109 issues (3.2%) and compensation was paid to eight patients. Communication remains a significant factor in emergency department patient dissatisfaction. While patient complaints have resulted in major changes to policy and procedure, research and intervention strategies into communication problems are indicated. In the short term, focused staff training is recommended.

  17. "Why Is This Patient Being Sent Here?": Communication from Urgent Care to the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebekah; Choo, Esther K; Gravenstein, Stefan; Baier, Rosa R

    2016-03-01

    Despite patients' increasing use of urgent care centers (UCC), little is known about how urgent care clinicians communicate with the emergency department (ED). To assess ED clinicians' perceptions of the quality and consistency of communication when patients are referred from UCCs to EDs. Emergency medicine department chairs distributed a brief, electronic survey to a statewide sample of ED clinicians via e-mail. The survey included multiple-choice and free-text questions focused on types of communication desired and received from UCCs, types of test results available on transfer, and suggestions for improvement. Of 199 ED clinicians, 102 (51.3%) responded. More than four out of five respondents "somewhat" or "strongly agreed" that each of the following would be helpful: a telephone call, the reason for referral, specific concern, a copy of the chart, and UCC contact information. However, ED clinicians reported not consistently receiving these: only a fifth (21.6%) of clinicians reported receiving the specific concern for their last 5 patients transferred from a UCC, and 34.3% recalled receiving a copy of the chart. Overall, 54.9% reported receiving laboratory test results "often or almost always," 49.0% electrocardiograms, and 44.1% imaging reports. Qualitative analysis revealed several themes: incomplete data when patients are referred; barriers to discussion between ED and urgent care clinicians; and possible solutions to improve communication. Our findings highlight variation in communication from UCCs to EDs, indicating a need to improve communication standards and practices. We identify several potential ways to improve this clinical information hand-off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of working consecutive night shifts on sleep time, prior wakefulness, perceived levels of fatigue and performance on a psychometric test in emergency registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Julia Christine Lydia; Ferguson, Sally Anne; Tilleard, James D; Negus, Paul; Dorrian, Jillian; Thomas, Matthew Jw

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of working consecutive night shifts on sleep time, prior wakefulness, perceived levels of fatigue and psychomotor performance in a group of Australian emergency registrars. A prospective observational study with a repeated within-subjects component was conducted. Sleep time was determined using sleep diaries and activity monitors. Subjective fatigue levels and reciprocal reaction times were evaluated before and after day and night shifts. A total of 11 registrars participated in the study with 120 shifts analysed. Sleep time was found to be similar during consecutive night and day shifts. The mean number of hours spent awake before the end of a night shift was 14.33. Subjective fatigue scores were worst at the end of a night shift. There was no difference in reciprocal reaction time between the end of night shift and the start of day shift. Registrars sleep a similar amount of time surrounding night and day shifts. Despite reporting the highest levels of fatigue at the end of a night shift, there is no significant difference in reaction times at the end of night shift compared with the beginning of day shift. This correlates with the finding that at the end of night shift the registrars have been awake for less than 16 h, which is the point at which psychomotor performance is expected to decline. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Examination of why some community pharmacists do not provide 72-hour emergency prescription drugs to Medicaid patients when prior authorization is not available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Marvin D

    2013-09-01

    Existing federal law requires that a 72-hour emergency supply of a prescription drug be dispensed to Medicaid patients when prior authorization (PA) is not available and the medication is needed without delay. The pharmacist's role is to contact prescribers and inform them that PA is needed. If the prescriber cannot be reached, the pharmacist can dispense a 72-hour emergency supply. To determine (a) the reasons why some community pharmacy owners/managers, staff pharmacists, and technicians are not compliant with the law; (b) how often the decision is made; and (c) estimate how often pharmacies do not dispense the 72-hour emergency supply when PA is not available. A questionnaire was mailed to selected Texas community pharmacies. The instrument was developed by the researcher and reviewed by the Texas Medicaid Vendor Drug Program staff. The University of Texas, Office of Survey Research collected the data in September and October of 2011 by mail and online. The data were forwarded to the researcher for analyses. A total of 788 identified community pharmacies were mailed a packet containing 3 questionnaires to be completed by the pharmacist-in-charge, a staff pharmacist, and a pharmacy technician. There were 2 mailings of the questionnaire packet and follow-up telephone calls to nonrespondents. A total of 653 questionnaires were completed and returned from 288 community pharmacies (36.7%) out of 788 pharmacies that were mailed the questionnaire packets. A total of 368 (57.5%) completed questionnaires came from chain store pharmacy respondents and 272 (42.5%) questionnaires from independent pharmacy respondents. A total of 21.3% (n = 134) of the respondents indicated that they were not aware of the federal and state requirement to dispense a 72-hour emergency supply of a prescription drug to Medicaid patients when prior authorization (PA) is not available. A greater proportion of the chain store respondents (26.6%) were unaware of the requirement compared with the

  20. Information delivery in team communication of MCR operators for an emergency task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Sub; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dae

    2005-01-01

    Team performance is a major measure to evaluate the ability of team when a lot of people perform a task of common purpose such as the main control room operators in the nuclear power plant. A team performance is affected the collaboration and communication among operators under dynamic situation as well as by the cognitive process of each team member. Specially, under the emergency situation, more clear and apparent communication in a team is a critical key for the appropriate response to emergency situation. As a general human factor analysis accesses the operator's behavior, it leads to a resulting action of planning, decision, problem-solving. In order to access the internal information and background information of his/her behavior, the verbal protocol analysis is applied. The impact factors on the team performance are derived from the state of the art for team performance, and it is found that the communication is a common key for all impact factors. And, in turn, the impact factors for the communication are accesses and the more detailed analysis is performed. The recorded data for the operator training for emergency situation of nuclear power plant training center are analyzed according to the verbal protocol analysis that are being generally utilized in cognitive psychology, educational psychology, and cognitive science. Two aspects, external (syntax) and internal (symantic) aspects of communication are reviewed. From the syntax analysis, it is found that the task of each step in EOP is separated according to each corresponding operator and the ordinary training is important, and the weak-points for a sentence presentation can be found team-by-team. And, from the symantic analysis for the diagnostic procedure of EOP is performed and the communication errors due to different situation awareness by operators could be found, and it lead to a diagnosis failure. The factors for different symantic cognition for a situation are analyzed and the affecting

  1. Key performance indicators' assessment to develop best practices in an Emergency Medical Communication Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penverne, Yann; Leclere, Brice; Labady, Julien; Berthier, Frederic; Jenvrin, Joel; Javaudin, Francois; Batard, Eric; Montassier, Emmanuel

    2017-05-17

    Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC) represents a pivotal link in the chain of survival for those requiring rapid response for out-of-hospital medical emergencies. Assessing and grading the performance of EMCCs are warranted as it can affect the health and safety of the served population. The aim of our work was to describe the activity on an EMCC and to explore the associations between different key performance indicators. We carried out our prospective observational study in the EMCC of Nantes, France, from 6 June 2011 to 6 June 2015. The EMCC performance was assessed with the following key performance indicators: answered calls, Quality of Service 20 s (QS20), occupation rate and average call duration. A total of 35 073 h of dispatch activity were analysed. 1 488 998 emergency calls were answered. The emergency call incidence varied slightly from 274 to 284 calls/1000 citizens/year between 2011 and 2015. The median occupation rate was 35% (25-44). QS20 was correlated negatively with the occupation rate (Spearman's ρ: -0.78). The structural equation model confirmed that the occupation rate was highly correlated with the QS20 (standardized coefficient: -0.89). For an occupation rate of 26%, the target value estimated by our polynomial model, the probability of achieving a QS20 superior or equal to 95% varied between 56 and 84%. The occupation rate appeared to be the most important factor contributing towards the QS20. Our data will be useful to develop best practices and guidelines in the field of emergency medicine communication centres.

  2. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  3. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the … prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  4. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  5. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  6. Environmental constraints shaping constituent order in emerging communication systems: Structural iconicity, interactive alignment and conventionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peer; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Tylén, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Where does linguistic structure come from? Recent gesture elicitation studies have indicated that constituent order (corresponding to for instance subject-verb-object, or SVO in English) may be heavily influenced by human cognitive biases constraining gesture production and transmission. Here we explore the alternative hypothesis that syntactic patterns are motivated by multiple environmental and social-interactional constraints that are external to the cognitive domain. In three experiments, we systematically investigate different motivations for structure in the gestural communication of simple transitive events. The first experiment indicates that, if participants communicate about different types of events, manipulation events (e.g. someone throwing a cake) and construction events (e.g. someone baking a cake), they spontaneously and systematically produce different constituent orders, SOV and SVO respectively, thus following the principle of structural iconicity. The second experiment shows that participants' choice of constituent order is also reliably influenced by social-interactional forces of interactive alignment, that is, the tendency to re-use an interlocutor's previous choice of constituent order, thus potentially overriding affordances for iconicity. Lastly, the third experiment finds that the relative frequency distribution of referent event types motivates the stabilization and conventionalization of a single constituent order for the communication of different types of events. Together, our results demonstrate that constituent order in emerging gestural communication systems is shaped and stabilized in response to multiple external environmental and social factors: structural iconicity, interactive alignment and distributional frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Role Allocations and Communications of Operators during Emergency Operation in Advanced Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Seung

    2009-01-01

    The advanced main control room (MCR) in GEN III + nuclear power plants has been designed by adapting modern digital I and C techniques and an advanced man machine interface system (MMIS). Large Display Panels (LDPs) and computer based workstations are installed in the MCR. A Computerized Procedure System (CPS) and Computerized Operation Support System (COSS) with high degrees of automation are supplied to operators. Therefore, it is necessary to set up new operation concepts in advanced MCRs that are different from those applied in conventional MCRs regarding role allocations and communications of operators. The following presents a discussion of the main differences between advanced MCRs and conventional MCRs from the viewpoint of role allocations and communications. Efficient models are then proposed on the basis of a task analysis on a series of emergency operation steps

  8. The limits of public communication coordination in a nuclear emergency: lessons from media reporting on the Fukushima case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Iztok; Perko, Tanja; Cantone, Marie C; Gallego, Eduardo; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah H

    2016-06-01

    Coordination of public communication has become a key issue in management of complex emergencies, and is a matter of debate between nuclear emergency management professionals. A particular problem is when inconsistent information is sent to the media and public by official sources from different levels, which has led to calls for a more coordinated approach. The IAEA created guidelines recommending a one-voice communication approach that provides clear, consistent and coordinated information by relevant stakeholders. The reviewed theory on the emergency communication coordination and the empirical results in this paper demonstrate some challenges regarding the feasibility of the above stated goal. This paper explores the communication process in the two-month period of the Fukushima nuclear emergency by using a quantitative comparative content and discourse analysis of 1340 printed media articles on the Fukushima nuclear disaster from two major newspapers in Spain ('El País' and 'El Mundo'), Italy ('Corriere della Sera' and 'La Repubblica'), Norway ('Aftenposten' and 'Dagsavisen'), Slovenia ('Delo' and 'Večer'), Belgium ('Le Soir' and 'De Standaard') and Russia ('Komsomolskaya Pravda' and 'Izvestiya'). The results show that it will be difficult to achieve a truly coordinated approach and one-voice communication in severe nuclear and radiological emergency due to the communication difficulties created by the dispersion of information sources, a broad and dispersed focus of the reported information, partially subjective and conflicting media reporting. The paper suggests ways to improve public communication coordination in nuclear and radiological disasters.

  9. Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Noh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. Methods Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10], a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. Results A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3% in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7% than in patients with no such history. Conclusions Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis.

  10. Multi-Lingual and Multi-Cultural Aspects of Post-Disaster Emergency Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    recent technological advances and the upcoming of social media as well as intelligent and instant big-data analyses since the reported research was carried out, it is suggested that the original ideas be revisited and re-engineered in view of improving efficiency in cross-frontier post-disaster emergency......LinguaNet® is a system for fast multi-lingual communications between police forces co-operating across frontiers. It has been in operation for more than two decades and proved its worth. From 1995 to 1998, CBS developed a number of add-ons to the system in the framework of an EU project in order...

  11. An Adaptive QoS Routing Solution for MANET Based Multimedia Communications in Emergency Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramrekha, Tipu Arvind; Politis, Christos

    The Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) is a wireless network deprived of any fixed central authoritative routing entity. It relies entirely on collaborating nodes forwarding packets from source to destination. This paper describes the design, implementation and performance evaluation of CHAMELEON, an adaptive Quality of Service (QoS) routing solution, with improved delay and jitter performances, enabling multimedia communication for MANETs in extreme emergency situations such as forest fire and terrorist attacks as defined in the PEACE project. CHAMELEON is designed to adapt its routing behaviour according to the size of a MANET. The reactive Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and proactive Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocols are deemed appropriate for CHAMELEON through their performance evaluation in terms of delay and jitter for different MANET sizes in a building fire emergency scenario. CHAMELEON is then implemented in NS-2 and evaluated similarly. The paper concludes with a summary of findings so far and intended future work.

  12. Investigating the effect of communication characteristics on crew performance under the simulated emergency condition of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea; Yang, Joon-Eon

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the safety of large process control systems could be significantly affected by the communication characteristics of crews that have a responsibility for their operations. Accordingly, many researchers have spent huge amount of effort to grasp the relationship between the characteristics of crew communications and the associated crew performance. Unfortunately, in the case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), it seems that most of existing studies have tried to identify the relationship between the characteristics of crew communications and the associated crew performance using empirical observations without a firm technical underpinning. For these reasons, Park suggested a novel framework that is able to represent the characteristics of crew communications based on social network analysis (SNA) metrics. In order to confirm the appropriateness of the suggested framework, in this study, the characteristics of crew communications that are gathered from the simulated emergency condition of NPPs are additionally compared with the associated crew performance data. As a consequence, it is observed that there are significant relationships between communication characteristics and the associated crew performance. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the characteristics of crew communications can be properly grasped using the suggested framework. - Highlights: ► Communication data of MCR operating crews are collected from a simulated emergency condition. ► Communication characteristics are represented by the associated SNA metrics. ► Identified communication characteristics are compared with the results of existing studies. ► SNA metrics are meaningful for explaining the characteristics of crew communications.

  13. Relationships among communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction in Korean nurses working in the emergency medical center setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min Sook; Jeoung, Yeonok; Lee, Hye Kyung; Sok, Sohyune R

    2015-06-01

    The communication competence of nurses working in emergency medical center settings is essential to establish a therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. Education and strategic development are required to improve the communication competence of emergency room (ER) nurses. This study was conducted to determine the relationships among individual communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction in Korean nurses in the emergency medical center setting. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted. The study sample included 214 nurses at 11 emergency medical centers in Seoul and Kyunggi-Do, Korea. Measures used included the Global Interpersonal Communication Competence, self-efficacy scale, and job satisfaction scale. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS version 18.0 statistical software program and included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, independent t test, analysis of variance, and Pearson's correlation coefficient). The degrees of communication competence and self-efficacy of ER nurses were good, with higher scores than the median values. However, the degree of job satisfaction was poor, indicating a lower score than the median value. Religious affiliation and previous participation in communication education each had a significant impact on communication competence. Religious affiliation and time of worse duty each had a significant impact on self-efficacy. Length of career (year) in the emergency medical center and type of hospital each had a significant impact on job satisfaction. Positive correlations were identified among communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. This study supported the presence of significant correlations among communication competence, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction. Thus, it is necessary to develop training programs that are customized to individual characteristics such as self-efficacy and job satisfaction to improve the communicative competence

  14. An Analysis of WhatsApp Usage for Communication Between Consulting and Emergency Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Polat, Haci

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate WhatsApp messenger usage for communication between consulting and emergency physicians. A retrospective, observational study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary care university hospital between January 2014 and June 2014. A total of 614 consultations requested by using the WhatsApp application were evaluated, and 519 eligible consultations were included in the study. The WhatsApp messages that were transferred to consultant physicians consisted of 510 (98.3%) photographic images, 517 (99.6%) text messages, 59 (11.3%) videos, and 10 (1.9%) voice messages. Consultation was most frequently requested from the orthopedics clinic (n = 160, 30.8%). The majority of requested consultations were terminated only by evaluation via WhatsApp messages. (n = 311, 59.9%). Most of the consulting physicians were outside of the hospital or were mobile at the time of the consultation (n = 292, 56.3%). The outside consultation request rate was significantly higher for night shifts than for day shifts (p = .004), and the majority of outside consultation request were concluded by only WhatsApp application (p WhatsApp is useful a communication tool between physicians, especially for ED consultants who are outside the hospital, because of the ability to transfer large amounts of clinical and radiological data during a short period of time.

  15. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  16. Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored.

  17. Palliative and end of life care communication as emerging priorities in postgraduate medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze des Ordons, Amanda; Ajjawi, Rola; Macdonald, John; Sarti, Aimee; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Reliance on surveys and qualitative studies of trainees to guide postgraduate education about palliative and end of life (EOL) communication may lead to gaps in the curriculum. We aimed to develop a deeper understanding of internal medicine trainees’ educational needs for a palliative and EOL communication curriculum and how these needs could be met. Methods Mixed methods, including a survey and focus groups with trainees, and interviews with clinical faculty and medical educators, were applied to develop a broader perspective on current experiences and needs for further education. Quantitative descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Surveyed trainees were least confident and least satisfied with teaching in counseling about the emotional impact of emergencies and discussing organ donation. Direct observation with feedback, small group discussion, and viewing videos of personal consultations were perceived as effective, yet infrequently identified as instructional methods. Focus groups and interviews identified goals of care conversations as the highest educational priority, with education adapted to learner needs and accompanied by feedback and concurrent clinical and organizational support. Conclusions Our work expands on previous research describing needs for postgraduate education in palliative and EOL communication to include the importance of support, culture change, and faculty development, and provides insight into why such needs exist. PMID:27103952

  18. Learning, innovation and communication: evolving dynamics of a nuclear emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, Andre Luiz Lopes

    2014-01-01

    The technological development inherent to modern societies has placed human beings in situations of choice from a wide variety of possible risks. As a way to protect people and the environment, actions need to be developed in order to reduce possible consequences of the materialisation of these risks. The thermonuclear power generation demand planning in order to prepare answers to possible emergency situations, as even being considered of low probability of occurrence, when they happen have a significant impact on populations and regions of its surroundings. Considering the relevance of this issue, this thesis aimed to identify and analyze the dynamics of preparedness and response to emergency situations in a Nuclear Power Plant, trying to understand its evolution over the time and systematizing it, considering the actors involved, processes of organizational learning, innovation and risk communication, considered as crucial for the development and improvement of emergency plans. Concerning preparedness and response to possible emergency situations in this nuclear plant, it was possible not only to confirm the importance of the three processes studied, but also observe that they can be treated and evaluated in an integrated and systematic way. So, it was presented a model that aims to facilitate the understanding of this perspective and enhance the importance of participation and cooperation between all stakeholders (organizations and the local population) within a socio-participatory perspective. To this end, this exploratory research sought for evidences in documents, participation in planning meetings, direct observation of the general exercises of the CNAAA External Emergency Plan of 2013, interviews with some of the actors involved and through the application of a questionnaire among the population of the Praia Vermelha, in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  19. Structured Communication: Teaching Delivery of Difficult News with Simulated Resuscitations in an Emergency Medicine Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Nagurka, Roxanne; Offin, Michael; Scott, Sandra R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective is to describe the implementation and outcomes of a structured communication module used to supplement case-based simulated resuscitation training in an emergency medicine (EM) clerkship. Methods We supplemented two case-based simulated resuscitation scenarios (cardiac arrest and blunt trauma) with role-play in order to teach medical students how to deliver news of death and poor prognosis to family of the critically ill or injured simulated patient. Quantitative outcomes were assessed with pre and post-clerkship surveys. Secondarily, students completed a written self-reflection (things that went well and why; things that did not go well and why) to further explore learner experiences with communication around resuscitation. Qualitative analysis identified themes from written self-reflections. Results A total of 120 medical students completed the pre and post-clerkship surveys. Majority of respondents reported that they had witnessed or role-played the delivery of difficult news, but only few had real-life experience of delivering news of death (20/120, 17%) and poor prognosis (34/120, 29%). This communication module led to statistically significant increased scores for comfort, confidence, and knowledge with communicating difficult news of death and poor prognosis. Pre-post scores increased for those agreeing with statements (somewhat/very much) for delivery of news of poor prognosis: comfort 69% to 81%, confidence 66% to 81% and knowledge 76% to 90% as well as for statements regarding delivery of news of death: comfort 52% to 68%, confidence 57% to 76% and knowledge 76% to 90%. Respondents report that patient resuscitations (simulated and/or real) generated a variety of strong emotional responses such as anxiety, stress, grief and feelings of loss and failure. Conclusion A structured communication module supplements simulated resuscitation training in an EM clerkship and leads to a self-reported increase in knowledge, comfort, and

  20. Physics collaboration and communication through emerging media: *odcasts, blogs and wikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charles W.; Williams, Jamie

    2006-05-01

    The entertainment and news industries are being transformed by the emergence of innovative, internet-based media tools. Audio and video downloads are beginning to compete with traditional entertainment distribution channels, and the blogosphere has become an alternative press with demonstrated news-making power of its own. The scientific community, and physics in particular, is just beginning to experiment with these tools. We believe that they have great potential for enhancing the quality and effectiveness of collaboration and communication, and that the coming generation of physicists will expect them to be used creatively. We will report on our experience in producing seminar podcasts (google ``QIBEC'' or search ``quantum'' on Apple iTunes), and on operating a distributed research institute using a group-based blog.

  1. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker-Dippmann, Angela S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  2. The 5Cs of Consultation: Training Medical Students to Communicate Effectively in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Chad S; Tadisina, Kashyap Komarraju; Saks, Mark; Franzen, Doug; Woods, Rob; Banh, Kenny V; Bounds, Richard; Smith, Michael; Deiorio, Nicole; Schwartz, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Effective communication is critical for health care professionals, particularly in the Emergency Department (ED). However, currently, there is no standardized consultation model that is consistently practiced by physicians or used for training medical graduates. Recently, the 5Cs of Consultation model (Contact, Communicate, Core Question, Collaborate, and Close the Loop) has been studied in Emergency Medicine residents using simulated consultation scenarios. Using an experimental design, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the 5Cs consultation model in a novel learner population (medical students) and in a "real time and real world" clinical setting. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted at eight large, academic, urban, tertiary-care medical centers (U.S. and Canada). Intervention involved two experimental groups (asynchronous and live training) compared to a baseline control group. All participants placed up to four consult phone calls. A senior physician observed and assessed each call using a preapproved 5Cs checklist and a Global Rating Scale (GRS). Participants who received training (asynchronous or live) scored significantly higher on the 5Cs checklist total and GRS than the control group. Both training methods (asynchronous and live) were equally effective. Importantly, learning gains were sustained as students' 5Cs checklist total and GRS scores remained consistently higher at their second, third, and fourth consult (relative to their first consult). At posttest, all participants reported feeling more confident and competent in relaying patient information. Medical students can be trained to use the 5Cs model in a timely, inexpensive, and convenient manner and increase effectiveness of physician consultations originating from the ED. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Trial of Labor After One Cesarean: Role of the Order and Number of Prior Vaginal Births on the Risk of Emergency Cesarean Delivery and Neonatal Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chiong Tan

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.

  4. Necessities of the Development of a Database for the Communications Between Nuclear Power Plant Operators in Simulated Emergency Situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2007-01-01

    Communications among main control room (MCR) operators is an important factor for understanding how and how well MCR operators manage abnormal or emergency situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). As mentioned by many researchers, the performance of MCR operators in emergency situations in NPPs is strongly affected by not only the cognitive process of each operator, but also by communications and collaboration among operators. Despite of the importance of correct communications among NPP operators, the possibilities of human errors in communications have not received much attention. A representative example for the lack of interests in communication-related problems is the lack of considering communication-related human errors in human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. HRA methods are used, in general, to provide human error probabilities to probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of NPPs. In THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction), which was developed by Swain and Guttmann and currently is one of the most widely used HRA method, the human errors in communications are not directly considered. The human error probability (HEP) and error factor (EF) data that we could find as the most related ones to communication-related human errors are the estimated probabilities of errors in recalling oral instruction items which are not written down. But, it is obvious that the failure in recalling oral instruction items and misunderstanding oral instruction items are different error types

  5. The Public Sphere in Emerging Infectious Disease Communication: Recipient or Active and Vocal Partner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa; Walter, Nathan; Mordini, Emilio; Dimitriou, Dimitris; James, James J; Green, Manfred S

    2015-08-01

    Recent years have seen advances in theories and models of risk and crisis communication, with a focus on emerging epidemic infection. Nevertheless, information flow remains unilateral in many countries and does not take into account the public's polyvocality and the fact that its opinions and knowledge often "compete" with those of health authorities. This article addresses the challenges organizations face in communicating with the public sphere. Our theoretical approach is conceptualized through a framework that focuses on the public sphere and that builds upon existing guidelines and studies in the context of health and pandemics. We examine how health organizations cope with the public's transformation from recipients to an active and vocal entity, ie, how and to what extent health organizations address the public's anxiety and concerns arising in the social media during outbreaks. Although international organizations have aspired to relate to the public as a partner, this article identifies notable gaps. Organizations must involve the public throughout the crisis and conduct dialogues free of prejudices, paternalism, and preconceptions. Thereby, they can impart precise and updated information reflecting uncertainty and considering cultural differences to build trust and facilitate cooperation with the public sphere.

  6. Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-08-01

    More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  8. Emergence of new info-communicational practices between rupture and continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela PATRASCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The « information society is characterized inter alia by the multimedia convergence. This phenomenon is accompanied by numerous innovations of " techne "and " logos", machinery and practices, systems and services. In this context of multimedia convergence, television also turn to nomadism: it has become "mobile". Our research focuses on the practices of television on the mobile phone in France (in Rennes and Romania (in Timisoara. The aim of this paper is to initiate discussions about a renewal of emerging practices approaches. The approach we propose is centered on the organization of social practices in the public space. The organizational dimension is a major anthropological dimension (Ch. Le Moënne, where, in the context of globalization, multiple forms of rationalization and standardization take place. In the European Economic Area, the technical standards of mobile TV are spread through the market, by the political and legislative framework. At the same time, the anthropological and cultural norms are also changing. Consciously but mostly unconsciously, users categorize and normalize constantly bringing out new social forms. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, we will examine the link between innovation and anticipation. In the second part, we present our organizational approach of emerging information and communication practices.

  9. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Failure of a wireless voice communication system to facilitate recording of physician-patient assignment in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Peter J

    2008-11-06

    A pilot study was done to assess the feasibility of using a LAN-based voice communication system to convey physician-patient assignment in the emergency department (ED). Via their communicators, physicians were expected to notify registration staff in real-time upon care assumption of each new patient. Over a two month trial, compliance went from poor to dismal, and this method of notification was abandoned.

  11. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@gmail.com, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Celso Sucknow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim, E-mail: geowass@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  12. Evaluation of management of communication in the actions of preparedness and response to nuclear and radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Beserra, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Wasserman, Maria Angelica Vergara; Wasserman, Julio Cesar de Faria Alvim

    2013-01-01

    The use of practices involving the use of ionizing radiation in diverse areas of knowledge increases every day. This growth warning about the increased probability of accidents, radiological and nuclear emergencies, with possible consequences for the public, workers and the environment. Within this scenario, it is clear that studies and reassessments of the emergency response actions, receive proposals for continuous improvement. The achievement of the objectives of the response must be sustained by tactical, operation and logistics optimized processes. The articulation through communication between the teams involved in the response must be adaptable to each accident or emergency, respecting its size. The objectives of this study is to perform an assessment on the management of communication in the actions of Preparedness and Response to Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. This assessment is supported by best practices of the Incident Command System (ICS) and the Institute of Project Management (Project Management Institute-PMI). For this purpose, based on models referred were established performance indicators supported by the BSC (Balanced Scorecard). These indicators allowed to evaluate more objectively the performance of the communication processes associated with each phase of the response. The study resulted in the proposed model documents aiming to assist planning of communications exercises in preparation and response actions, supported and adapted the best practices of PMI. These methodologies were evaluated by real cases selected from radiological and nuclear emergencies published by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  13. Emergency Risk Communication: Lessons Learned from a Rapid Review of Recent Gray Literature on Ebola, Zika, and Yellow Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppenberg-Pejcic, Deborah; Noyes, Jane; Allen, Tomas; Alexander, Nyka; Vanderford, Marsha; Gamhewage, Gaya

    2018-03-20

    A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media. Documents were evaluated for credibility using an Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance (AACODS) checklist? and if the document contained a study, a method-specific tool was applied. A rapid content analysis of included sources was undertaken with relevant text either extracted verbatim or summarized and mapped against the questions. A database subset was created for each question and citations were assigned to the subset(s) for which they contained relevant information. Multiple designations per document were common. Database subsets were used to synthesize the results into a coherent narrative. The gray literature strongly underlines the central importance of local communities. A one-size-fits-all approach does not work. For maximum effectiveness, local communities need to be involved with and own emergency risk communication processes, preferably well before an emergency occurs. Social media can open new avenues for communication, but is not a general panacea and should not be viewed as a replacement for traditional modes of communication. In general, the gray literature indicates movement toward greater recognition of emergency risk communication as a vitally important element of public health.

  14. Conceptual design of emergency communication system to cope with severe accidents in NPPs and its performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Kwang Seop; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The emergency communication system requires the performances of the throughput of 1 Mbps, BER of 10 −6 and network configuration of 1:12 communication. • The emergency communication system consists of the terrestrial communication and satellite communication system. • In the terrestrial communication system, at least two wireless repeaters are needed to secure LOS and the throughput and delay time are 16 Mbps and 16 ms, respectively. • In the satellite communication system, DSSS and FDMA are used and the fade margin range is from 1.3 to 16 dB. - Abstract: The Fukushima accident induced by the great earthquake and tsunami reveals the vulnerability of I and C System. In the severe environment, the normal I and C system did not work properly and results in false information about the internal situation in NPP. Eventually the accident was not properly handled at the early stage. Therefore advanced emergency response system using a wireless channel is necessary to cope with the severe accident. In this paper, we introduce the ERS consisting of the HMS and MCS the ECS linking the HMS with MCS and the performance requirement of the ECS is analyzed. The ECS satisfying the requirement is designed conceptually and the performance of the ECS is evaluated through analysis and simulator. To secure a reliable and diverse configuration, the ECS is configured as the dual system which consists of the terrestrial communication and satellite communication. The terrestrial communication system is designed based on the IEEE 802.11. Analyzed performance results prove that the performance requirement can be sufficiently achieved. But if the scalability of data capacity is considered later, use of the advanced 802.11 standard such as 802.11n and multiple signal paths between the HMS and MCS are necessary. In the satellite communication system, the FDMA is used in the status link and the DSSS is used in the control link. The network supporting various data rates is

  15. The Association of Harsh Parenting, Parent-Child Communication, and Parental Alcohol Use With Male Alcohol Use Into Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Olivia N; Neppl, Tricia K; Jeon, Shinyoung; Lohman, Brenda J

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the association between mother and father harsh parenting, and parent-child communication, and parental alcohol use on males' alcohol use from early adolescence into emerging adulthood. Data come from the Iowa Youth and Families Project, a prospective 28-year longitudinal study of rural Midwestern youth and their families. Mother and father harsh parenting, parent-child communication, and alcohol use were assessed at time 1 when males were in early adolescence (13 years old, n = 215). Target male alcohol use was assessed at time 2 during late adolescence (18 and 19 years old, n = 206, 96% follow-up rate), and at time 3 in emerging adulthood (23 and 25 years old, n = 197, 92% follow-up rate). Results obtained from structural equation modeling using Mplus, version 7, statistical software indicated that father harsh parenting in early adolescence was directly associated with alcohol use in emerging adulthood. Mother communication was negatively associated while father alcohol use was positively associated with adolescent alcohol use in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Alcohol use in late adolescence was significantly related to alcohol use in emerging adulthood. This study offers unique insights into how mother- and father-son dyads differ in communication and parenting styles, as well as how these associations influence adolescent male alcohol use continuing into emerging adulthood. Multiple informants utilized in the current study provide a more complex understanding of how each parent uniquely contributes to the role of their adolescent's alcohol use in late adolescence into emerging adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [The emergence of expressive communication in the child with Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rosangela Viana; Limongi, Suelly Cecília Olivan

    2007-01-01

    expressive communication in the child with Down syndrome (DS). this study had as a purpose the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the different forms of communication in children with DS; the emergence of oral expression and its relationship with the use of gestures; the development of gestures and their qualification; the effectiveness of the dialectic-didactic method, based on the clinical method proposed by Piaget, as a form of speech-language intervention. participants of this study were eight children with DS (ages between 33 and 52 months at the beginning of the research) - four composing the research group (RG) and four composing the control group one (CG1); and four children with normal development ND (ages between 14 and 16 months at the beginning of the research) - control group number two (CG2). All children presented cognitive development classified between the final sensory motor stage and the beginning of the pre-operational stage, and were assessed three times during a period of 12 months: initial, after six months and after twelve months. All assessments were recorded and transcribed. Toys, appropriate to the cognitive stage of the children, were used as materials during the assessments. The therapeutic process, exclusively for the RG, consisted of 40 therapy sessions, using similar materials to those used at during the assessments. children in the RG developed better than children in CG1. Children who expressed themselves better were those who presented a better cognitive development. it was possible to confirm the effectiveness of the dialectic-didactic method as a therapy method, shown through the language development of the RG when compared to GC1.

  17. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Renata; May Leung, May; Brown, Mason

    2014-03-01

    This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention's impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the review identified several promising

  18. Exploring the Relation between Memory, Gestural Communication, and the Emergence of Language in Infancy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Mikael; Strid, Karin; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between recall memory, visual recognition memory, social communication, and the emergence of language skills was measured in a longitudinal study. Thirty typically developing Swedish children were tested at 6, 9 and 14 months. The result showed that, in combination, visual recognition memory at 6 months, deferred imitation at 9…

  19. The GRS Emergency Centre during the Fukushima NPS Accident: Communicating Radiological Information to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sentuc, F.N.; Dokter, S.

    2012-01-01

    During Fukushima 2011, the GRS Emergency Centre continuously analysed the situation and provided detailed information on the current plant status and the radiological consequences, not only for the German government but also for the worried public. The expert team primarily informed the competent authority about on-going developments in Japan via status reports. The status reports provided technical and radiological information promptly and were updated several times a day at the beginning and towards the end twice a week until July 1 2011. Additionally, these reports were translated into English and published on the web-site. In the course of the event, approximately 200 reports were issued by the GRS-EC. It became clear through media and public enquires that information, even at a very basic level, was needed in the field of nuclear technology and radiation protection. Therefore, technical experts and public relation team members worked together to prepare explanatory and background material. Owing to this strong interest, GRS established a special Fukushima portal on its web-site, to meet the need for information. As well as the technical aspects, which dominated the expert's work in the GRS Emergency Centre, one challenge was communicating the radiological information to the public in a comprehensible yet professional way. The media and the public appear to be very interested in getting information about the exposure of workers at the plant, the dose limits, the release of radioactive material in the atmosphere and the long-term effects of the contamination. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  20. Keep Them Engaged: Romanian County Inspectorates for Emergency Situations’ Facebook Usage for Disaster Risk Communication and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Meltzer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of social media by public institutions involved in disaster management is starting to become common practice. However, despite scientific interest in the effect of social media on disaster risk and crisis communication, data exploring emergency management agencies’ round-the-clock Facebook usage and the impact of their content and media choices on stakeholder engagement is limited. This study set out to investigate Romanian local emergency agencies’ Facebook usage patterns and stakeholders’ engagement with their content. The data is comprised of 7810 messages posted between the 1st January and 25th October 2017 by 32 County Inspectorates for Emergency Situations. First, using content analysis techniques, the topics of the posts were summarized to illustrate how these agencies use Facebook. Second, stakeholder engagement was investigated using social media marketing techniques. Third, messages related to natural hazards were analyzed in greater depth to reveal disaster risk communication patterns. The results suggest that Romanian emergency agencies mainly promote transparency and their institutional image on Facebook. Stakeholders were most likely to engage with brand-oriented posts, especially if these also offered rich multimedia feature. Meanwhile, stakeholders were less likely to interact with messages about natural hazards, particularly if they incorporated educational content. These observations suggest that, while at the moment Romanian local emergency management agencies take advantage of Facebook to create and maintain relationships with their stakeholders, they bypass opportunities to implement communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction.

  1. Psycho-education's impact on communication skills, self-esteem and anger expression status of emergency medical technical student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc Mersin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Emergency medical students are first persons that encountered and make medical aids to patients or traumatized people. It is stated that having adequate facilities about the communication of each health workers to deal with emergency patient and wounded persons is as important as immediate treatment. This research was conducted as quasi-experimental in order to determine the education of emotion recognition and expression's impact on communication skills, self-esteem and anger expression status of emergency medical technical students. Methods: The research was made with 7 students in first year of education in emergency department at a university in Turkey in 2013-2014 academic years. Total 12-session education of emotion recognition and expression was given to student within research for 2 hours in a week during 12 weeks. Information Form including socio-demographic characteristics, Communication Skills Inventory (CSI, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES and Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS were applied to students before and after psycho-education. Results: It was determined that CSI mean scores of students within research were high before and after psycho-education but there is no statistically difference between them. It was determined that also there is no significantly difference between students' RSES and STAS mean scores before and after psycho-education. Conclusion: It was determined in the research that education of emotion recognition and expression has no impact on communication skills, self-esteem and anger expression status of students and students' communication skills levels were high before and after psycho-education. It has been concluded that especially empathy from communication skills is the mode of existence and therefore cannot be taught. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 489-495

  2. Risk Communication Emergency Response Preparedness: Contextual Assessment of the Protective Action Decision Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub; Palenchar, Michael J; Lemon, Laura L

    2018-02-01

    Studies are continuously performed to improve risk communication campaign designs to better prepare residents to act in the safest manner during an emergency. To that end, this article investigates the predictive ability of the protective action decision model (PADM), which links environmental and social cues, predecision processes (attention, exposure, and comprehension), and risk decision perceptions (threat, alternative protective actions, and stakeholder norms) with protective action decision making. This current quasi-longitudinal study of residents (N = 400 for each year) in a high-risk (chemical release) petrochemical manufacturing community investigated whether PADM core risk perceptions predict protective action decision making. Telephone survey data collected at four intervals (1995, 1998, 2002, 2012) reveal that perceptions of protective actions and stakeholder norms, but not of threat, currently predict protective action decision making (intention to shelter in place). Of significance, rather than threat perceptions, perception of Wally Wise Guy (a spokes-character who advocates shelter in place) correlates with perceptions of protective action, stakeholder norms, and protective action decision making. Wally's response-efficacy advice predicts residents' behavioral intentions to shelter in place, thereby offering contextually sensitive support and refinement for PADM. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Computerized Attendance Accounting and Emergency Assistance Communications: Viable Tools in Secondary School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vasel W.

    1971-01-01

    In the late 1968, the Space Technology Application Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) initiated a pilot study to determine whether technological aids could be developed that would help secondary school administrators cope with the volatile and chaotic situations that often accompany student activism, disorders, and riots. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Sacramento City Unified School District (SCUSD) and at the John F. Kennedy Senior High School (JFK) in Sacramento, California. The problems at JFK and in the SCUSD were identified and described to the JPL team by members of the Kennedy staff and personnel at various levels and departments within the school district. The JPL team of engineers restricted their scope to problems that appeared solvable, or at least partially solvable, through the use of technological systems. Thus far, two hardware systems have been developed for use in the school. The first, a personal emergency assistance communication system, has already been tested operationally at JFK and has met the objectives established for it. The second technological aid developed was a computerized attendance accounting system. This system has been fabricated, tested, and installed at JFK. Full-scale operational testing began in April 1971. While studies and hardware tests were in progress at JFK, contacts were made with several other schools in order that, insofar as practicable, hardware designs could allow for possible adaptation to schools other than JFK.

  4. Examining emergency department communication through a staff-based participatory research method: identifying barriers and solutions to meaningful change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenzie A; Engel, Kirsten G; McCarthy, Danielle M; Buckley, Barbara A; Mercer Kollar, Laura Min; Donlan, Sarah M; Pang, Peter S; Makoul, Gregory; Tanabe, Paula; Gisondi, Michael A; Adams, James G

    2010-12-01

    We test an initiative with the staff-based participatory research (SBPR) method to elicit communication barriers and engage staff in identifying strategies to improve communication within our emergency department (ED). ED staff at an urban hospital with 85,000 ED visits per year participated in a 3.5-hour multidisciplinary workshop. The workshop was offered 6 times and involved: (1) large group discussion to review the importance of communication within the ED and discuss findings from a recent survey of patient perceptions of ED-team communication; (2) small group discussions eliciting staff perceptions of communication barriers and best practices/strategies to address these challenges; and (3) large group discussions sharing and refining emergent themes and suggested strategies. Three coders analyzed summaries from group discussions by using latent content and constant comparative analysis to identify focal themes. A total of 127 staff members, including attending physicians, residents, nurses, ED assistants, and secretaries, participated in the workshop (overall participation rate 59.6%; range 46.7% to 73.3% by staff type). Coders identified a framework of 4 themes describing barriers and proposed interventions: (1) greeting and initial interaction, (2) setting realistic expectations, (3) team communication and respect, and (4) information provision and delivery. The majority of participants (81.4%) reported that their participation would cause them to make changes in their clinical practice. Involving staff in discussing barriers and facilitators to communication within the ED can result in a meaningful process of empowerment, as well as the identification of feasible strategies and solutions at both the individual and system levels. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effective communication during an influenza pandemic: the value of using a crisis and emergency risk communication framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara; Quinn Crouse, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    During a crisis, an open and empathetic style of communication that engenders the public's trust is the most effective when officials are attempting to galvanize the population to take a positive action or refrain from a harmful act. Although trust is imperative in a crisis, public suspicions of scientific experts and government are increasing for a variety of reasons, including access to more sources of conflicting information, a reduction in the use of scientific reasoning in decision making, and political infighting. Trust and credibility--which are demonstrated through empathy and caring, competence and expertise, honesty and openness, and dedication and commitment--are essential elements of persuasive communication.

  6. Emergence of Organizational Change and Organizational Learning through Development of a Communications Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Beverly D.; Ledford, Alice T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to create an organizational communications plan to enhance a Department of Defense (DOD) adult education institution's capability to communicate with its course writers and others internal and external to the organization. It sought to answer the question: how will an organizational communications plan…

  7. Adoptees' contact with birth parents in emerging adulthood: the role of adoption communication and attachment to adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Rachel H; Grant-Marsney, Holly A; Grotevant, Harold D

    2014-12-01

    As adoptees transition to adulthood, their roles in the family may shift, providing them with opportunities to have increasing autonomy in their decisions about contact and initiating conversations about adoption. Research has often focused more on adoptees as children, yet in emerging adulthood, there are important shifts in the life roles and relationships of adoptees during which adoptive parents continue to be meaningful. This study examined associations among attachment and communication within the adoptive family during adulthood with emerging adult adoptees' experience of birth family contact (frequency of and satisfaction with birth family contact), in a sample of 167 emerging adults with varied contact with birth family (from no contact to frequent contact). Results suggest that perceptions of secure parent-child attachment relationships, as well as sensitive and open communication with adoptive parents about adoption, continue to be important for emerging adult adoptees and lead to greater satisfaction for adoptees with birth parent contact-regardless of whether adoptees actually have birth family contact. In particular, positive family communication about adoption during adulthood was predictive of satisfaction with birth parent contact. Limitations and implications are discussed. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  8. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part II: moving from resuscitative to end-of-life or palliative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-11-01

    The model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events addresses decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps. Part II concerns communications moving from resuscitative to palliative and end-of-life treatments. After completing the steps involved in determining decision-making, emergency physicians (EPs) should consider starting palliative measures versus continuing resuscitative treatment. As communications related to these end-of-life decisions increasingly fall within the scope of emergency medicine (EM) practice, we need to become educated about and comfortable with them. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Crisis and emergency risk communication in a pandemic: a model for building capacity and resilience of minority communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    As public health agencies prepare for pandemic influenza, it is evident from our experience with Hurricane Katrina that these events will occur in the same social, historical, and cultural milieu in which marked distrust of government and health disparities already exist. This article grapples with the challenges of crisis and emergency risk communication with special populations during a pandemic. Recognizing that targeting messages to specific groups poses significant difficulties at that time, this article proposes a model of community engagement, disaster risk education, and crisis and emergency risk communication to prepare minority communities and government agencies to work effectively in a pandemic, build the capacity of each to respond, and strengthen the trust that is critical at such moments. Examples of such engagement and potential strategies to enhance trust include tools familiar to many health educators.

  10. Communicating with the workforce during emergencies: developing an employee text messaging program in a local public health setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasz, Hilary N; Bogan, Sharon; Bosslet, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Short message service (SMS) text messaging can be useful for communicating information to public health employees and improving workforce situational awareness during emergencies. We sought to understand how the 1,500 employees at Public Health--Seattle & King County, Washington, perceived barriers to and benefits of participation in a voluntary, employer-based SMS program. Based on employee feedback, we developed the system, marketed it, and invited employees to opt in. The system was tested during an ice storm in January 2012. Employee concerns about opting into an SMS program included possible work encroachment during non-work time and receiving excessive irrelevant messages. Employees who received messages during the weather event reported high levels of satisfaction and perceived utility from the program. We conclude that text messaging is a feasible form of communication with employees during emergencies. Care should be taken to design and deploy a program that maximizes employee satisfaction.

  11. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  12. The effect of anger management levels and communication skills of Emergency Department staff on being exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Das, Gozde; Aydin Avci, Ilknur

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers' ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel's working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence). In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way

  13. The effect of anger management levels and communication skills of Emergency Department staff on being exposed to violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GozdeYildiz Das

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine the effect of anger management levels and communication skills of emergency department staff on their frequency of being exposed to violence. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey between 11 April and 15 October 2013 by using a questionnaire including descriptive features, anger management scale, and communication skills scale applied to 283 health personnel working in children and adult emergency department clinics. Results Statistically significant differences were found between the health workers’ ages and their anger control levels, marital status and anger-in and anger control levels, working position and anger-in levels, and between anger-in, anger-out and anger control levels based on their level of education. Statistically significant differences were also found between age and communication levels based on the personnel’s working position. Statistically significant difference between the anger-in subscale of health personnel based on their state of being exposed to violence was found (78.4% of the health workers had been exposed to violence. Conclusion In the in-service programs of institutions, there should be trainings conducted about anger management and effective communication techniques so that the health personnel can be aware of their own feelings and express anger in a suitable way.

  14. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Silence Speaks Volumes: Parental Sexual Communication among Asian American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2007-01-01

    Although parents greatly influence children's early understandings of sexuality, little is known about how sexual communication transpires in Asian American families. Accordingly, the authors examined the amount and type of parental sexual communication recalled by 165 Asian American college students. Parents were perceived as providing very…

  16. From SARS to H7N9: the mechanism of responding to emerging communicable diseases has made great progress in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linong; Chen, Enfu; Chen, Zhiping; Gong, Zhenyu

    2013-12-01

    The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 indicated that China's existing former mechanism for emergency management was very vulnerable. The Chinese Government has since established a new mechanism for responding to emerging communicable diseases. This paper examined the current status of and developments in China's response to emerging communicable diseases from the outbreak of SARS in 2003 to the outbreak of H7N9 virus infection in 2013. Results indicated that the current mechanism for emergency responses to emerging communicable diseases in China has made great achievements in terms of command and decision-making, organization and collaboration, monitoring and early warning systems, protection, and international communication and cooperation. This mechanism for responding to emerging communicable diseases allowed China to successfully deal with outbreaks of the H5N1 bird flu, H1N1 flu, and H7N9 bird flu. However, a better coordination system, a more complete Office of Responses to Public Health Emergencies, administrative responsibility and error correction, better personnel training, and government responsibility may help to improve the response to emerging communicable diseases. Such improvements are eagerly anticipated.

  17. The art of communication: strategies to improve efficiency, quality of care and patient safety in the emergency department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The practice of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) has been supported by wonderful advancements in diagnostic testing, particularly in medical imaging. One of the most remarkable has been CT, which has arguably become our most valuable diagnostic tool in the emergency department (ED). PEM specialists have grown increasingly aware of quality and safety concerns in the care of children in emergency medical settings, spurred in part by a rapid growth in ED utilization and significant overcrowding. In the midst of this comes the revelation that one of our most valued diagnostic tools might place our youngest patients at a significant risk for the development of fatal cancer. This article reinforces the fundamental importance of communication and teamwork as a means to promote patient care quality and safety in the ED, and it offers partnership strategies for PEM and pediatric radiology specialists to consider as they address these important concerns. (orig.)

  18. The art of communication: strategies to improve efficiency, quality of care and patient safety in the emergency department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krug, Steven E. [Northwestern University, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The practice of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) has been supported by wonderful advancements in diagnostic testing, particularly in medical imaging. One of the most remarkable has been CT, which has arguably become our most valuable diagnostic tool in the emergency department (ED). PEM specialists have grown increasingly aware of quality and safety concerns in the care of children in emergency medical settings, spurred in part by a rapid growth in ED utilization and significant overcrowding. In the midst of this comes the revelation that one of our most valued diagnostic tools might place our youngest patients at a significant risk for the development of fatal cancer. This article reinforces the fundamental importance of communication and teamwork as a means to promote patient care quality and safety in the ED, and it offers partnership strategies for PEM and pediatric radiology specialists to consider as they address these important concerns. (orig.)

  19. Emergency Medicine Myths: Computed Tomography of the Head Prior to Lumbar Puncture in Adults with Suspected Bacterial Meningitis - Due Diligence or Antiquated Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2017-09-01

    Various sources purport an association between lumbar puncture and brainstem herniation in patients with intracranial mass effect lesions. Several organizations and texts recommend head computed tomography (CT) prior to lumbar puncture in selected patients. To review the evidence regarding the utility of obtaining head CT prior to lumbar puncture in adults with suspected bacterial meningitis. Observational studies report a risk of post-lumbar puncture brainstem herniation in the presence of intracranial mass effect (1.5%) that is significantly lower than that reported among all patients with bacterial meningitis (up to 13.3%). It is unclear from existing literature whether identifying patients with intracranial mass effect decreases herniation risk. Up to 80% of patients with bacterial meningitis experiencing herniation have no CT abnormalities, and approximately half of patients with intracranial mass effect not undergoing lumbar puncture herniate. Decision rules to selectively perform CT on only those individuals most likely to have intracranial mass effect lesions have not undergone validation. Despite recommendations for immediate antimicrobial therapy prior to imaging, data indicate an association between pre-lumbar puncture CT and antibiotic delays. Recent data demonstrate shortened door-to-antibiotic times and lower mortality from bacterial meningitis after implementation of new national guidelines, which restricted generally accepted CT indications by removing impaired mental status as imaging criterion. Data supporting routine head CT prior to lumbar puncture are limited. Physicians should consider selective CT for those patients at risk for intracranial mass effect lesions based on decision rules or clinical gestalt. Patients undergoing head CT must receive immediate antibiotic therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Evaluation and improvement of doctor–patient communication competence for emergency neurosurgeons: a standardized family model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Xi Wu,1 Zhinong Wang,2 Bo Hong,1 Shengjuan Shen,3 Yan Guo,4 Qinghai Huang,1 Jianmin Liu1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Surgical Education, Changhai Hospital, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Education, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Disease treatments have been significantly influenced by the communications between patients, their families, and doctors the lack of which may lead to malpractice allegations and complaints. In particular, inadequate communication may delay diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, for doctors communication and interpersonal skills, are as important as clinical skills and medical knowledge. In this study we intended to develop two detailed communication content checklists and a modified interpersonal skills inventory, aiming to evaluate their integrity in the midst of communication skills assessments, to provide feedback for some participants, and to observe their communication competence in both aspects Keywords: standardized patient, communication skill, training, medical education, neurosurgeon

  1. Palliative and end of life care communication as emerging priorities in postgraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Roze des Ordons

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Our work expands on previous research describing needs for postgraduate education in palliative and EOL communication to include the importance of support, culture change, and faculty development, and provides insight into why such needs exist.

  2. Analysis of Jordan's Proposed Emergency Communication Interoperability Plan (JECIP) for Disaster Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alzaghal, Mohamad H

    2008-01-01

    ... country. It is essential to build a robust and interoperable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure before the disaster, which will facilitate patch/restore/reconstruct it when and after the disaster hits...

  3. When seconds count : A study of communication variables in the opening segment of emergency calls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, Claire; Koole, Tom; Natrass, Rhona

    2017-01-01

    The opening sequence of an emergency call influences the efficiency of the ambulance dispatch time. The greeting sequences in 105 calls to a South African emergency service were analysed. Initial results suggested the advantage of a specific two-part opening sequence. An on-site experiment aimed at

  4. Organizational Communication in Emergencies: Using Multiple Channels and Sources to Combat Noise and Capture Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Keri K.; Barrett, Ashley K.; Mahometa, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This study relies on information theory, social presence, and source credibility to uncover what best helps people grasp the urgency of an emergency. We surveyed a random sample of 1,318 organizational members who received multiple notifications about a large-scale emergency. We found that people who received 3 redundant messages coming through at…

  5. Sales of oseltamivir in Norway prior to the emergence of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1 viruses in 2007–08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungnes Olav

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An unprecedented high proportion of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1 viruses emerged in the 2007–08 influenza season. In Norway, two thirds of all tested A(H1N1 viruses were resistant to the antiviral drug. In order to see if this emergence could be explained by a drug induced selection pressure, we analysed data on the sales of oseltamivir in Norway for the years 2002–07. Methods We used data from two sources; the Norwegian Drug Wholesales Statistics Database and the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD, for the years 2002–2007. We calculated courses sold of oseltamivir (Tamiflu® per 1000 inhabitants per year. Results Our data showed that, except for the years 2005 and 2006, sales of oseltamivir were low in Norway; courses sold per 1000 inhabitants varied between 0.17–1.64. The higher sales in 2005 and 2006 we believe were caused by private stockpiling in fear of a pandemic, and do not represent actual usage. Conclusion A drug induced selection pressure was probably not the cause of the emergence of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1 viruses in 2007–08 in Norway.

  6. Closing the circle of care: implementation of a web-based communication tool to improve emergency department discharge communication with family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunchak, Cheryl; Tannenbaum, David; Roberts, Michael; Shah, Thrushar; Tisma, Predrag; Ovens, Howard; Borgundvaag, Bjug

    2015-03-01

    Postdischarge emergency department (ED) communication with family physicians is often suboptimal and negatively impacts patient care. We designed and piloted an online notification system that electronically alerts family physicians of patient ED visits and provides access to visitspecific laboratory and diagnostic information. Nine (of 10 invited) high-referring family physicians participated in this single ED pilot. A prepilot chart audit (30 patients from each family physician) determined the baseline rate of paper-based record transmission. A webbased communication portal was designed and piloted by the nine family physicians over 1 year. Participants provided usability feedback via focus groups and written surveys. Review of 270 patient charts in the prepilot phase revealed a 13% baseline rate of handwritten chart and a 44% rate of any information transfer between the ED and family physician offices following discharge. During the pilot, participant family physicians accrued 880 patient visits. Seven and two family physicians accessed online records for 74% and 12% of visits, respectively, an overall 60.7% of visits, corresponding to an overall absolute increase in receipt of patient ED visit information of 17%. The postpilot survey found that 100% of family physicians reported that they were ''often'' or ''always'' aware of patient ED visits, used the portal ''always'' or ''regularly'' to access patients' health records online, and felt that the web portal contributed to improved actual and perceived continuity of patient care. Introduction of a web-based ED visit communication tool improved ED-family physician communication. The impact of this system on improved continuity of care, timeliness of follow-up, and reduced duplication of investigations and referrals requires additional study.

  7. System-Level Process Change Improves Communication and Follow-Up for Emergency Department Patients With Incidental Radiology Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccei, Steven J; Chinai, Sneha A; Reznek, Martin; Henderson, Scott; Reynolds, Kevin; Brush, D Eric

    2018-04-01

    The appropriate communication and management of incidental findings on emergency department (ED) radiology studies is an important component of patient safety. Guidelines have been issued by the ACR and other medical associations that best define incidental findings across various modalities and imaging studies. However, there are few examples of health care facilities designing ways to manage incidental findings. Our institution aimed to improve communication and follow-up of incidental radiology findings in ED patients through the collaborative development and implementation of system-level process changes including a standardized loop-closure method. We assembled a multidisciplinary team to address the nature of these incidental findings and designed new workflows and operational pathways for both radiology and ED staff to properly communicate incidental findings. Our results are based on all incidental findings received and acknowledged between November 1, 2016, and May 30, 2017. The total number of incidental findings discovered was 1,409. Our systematic compliance fluctuated between 45% and 95% initially after implementation. However, after overcoming various challenges through optimization, our system reached a compliance rate of 93% to 95%. Through the implementation of our new, standardized communication system, a high degree of compliance with loop closure for ED incidental radiology findings was achieved at our institution. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of smartphone digital photography, email, and media communication on emergency room visits post-hypospadias repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael E; Saunders, Megan A; Bowlin, Paul R; Ming, Jessica M; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Farhat, Walid A; Dos Santos, Joana

    2017-01-01

    Advances in communication technology are shaping our medical practice. To date, there is no clear evidence that this mode of communication will have any effect on unnecessary postoperative emergency room (ER) visits. We aim to evaluate the effect of email and media communication with application of smartphone digital photography on post-hypospadias repair ER visit rates. This prospective cohort study included all patients who underwent hypospadias repair performed by a single surgeon from October 2014 to November 2015. Patients were categorized into two groups: Group A consented for smartphone photography and email communication and Group B declined. Reason for ER visits within 30 days postoperatively was assessed by another physician, who was blinded of patient group assignment. The reasons were categorized as: unnecessary ER visit, indicated ER visit, or visit unrelated to hypospadias surgery. Chi-square test and T-test were used for statistical analysis. Relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were also calculated. Statistical significance was set at pcommunication with the use of smartphone digital photography significantly reduced the number of unnecessary ER visits for post-hypospadias wound checks.

  9. "Bill is now singing": joint engagement and the emergence of social communication of three young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J

    2015-01-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the children's performance through three phases of intervention: focus on faces, response to joint attention, and initiation of joint attention. A complimentary qualitative analysis of teacher and parent experiences allowed for an in-depth understanding of the role of social environment in supporting emerging social communication skills among three children. As all children showed improvement in joint attention and actions of social engagement, this study bears evidence on the potential of music therapy as a promising intervention for promoting social skills of young children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 14. Appendix I: Communicating with Deaf and Hearing Impaired Patients. Appendix II: Medical Terminology. Appendix III: EMS Organizations. Appendix IV: Legislation (Ohio). Glossary of Terms. Index. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, contains appendixes, a glossary, and an index. The first appendix is an article on communicating with deaf and hearing-impaired patients. Appendix 2, the largest section in this manual, is an introduction to medical…

  11. Mass media communication of emergency issues and countermeasures in a nuclear accident: Fukushima reporting in European newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H.; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. (authors)

  12. Visible Lasers and Emerging Color Converters for Lighting and Visible Light Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-10-30

    GaN-based lasers are promising for white lighting and visible-light communication (VLC). The advances of III-nitride photonic integration, and the application of YAG crystal and perovskite-based phosphors to lighting and VLC will be discussed.

  13. The impact of macro news and central bank communication on emerging European forex markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Kočenda, Evžen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-88 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP403/11/0020 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : exchange rate * macroeconomic news * central bank communication Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.649, year: 2014

  14. The Emergence of Marketing and Communications Strategy in South African Further Education and Training Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Simon; Akoojee, Salim

    2007-01-01

    South African further education and training (FET) colleges have been enjoined to become more responsive to their external environment, in keeping with international trends in public vocational education and training (VET) reform. One mechanism for achieving this goal is to market colleges and communicate more effectively to future students,…

  15. Emergence of Virtual Communities as Means of Communication: A Case Study on Virtual Health Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argan, Mehpare Tokay; Argan, Metin; Suher, Idil K.

    2011-01-01

    Like in all areas, virtual communities make their presence felt in the area of healthcare too. Virtual communities play an important role in healthcare in terms of gathering information on healthcare, sharing of personal interests and providing social support. Virtual communities provide a way for a group of peers to communicate with each other.…

  16. Emergent team roles in organizational meetings: Identifying communication patterns via cluster analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Beck, S.J.; Kauffeld, S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous team role taxonomies have largely relied on self-report data, have focused on functional roles and have described individual predispositions or personality traits. Instead, this study takes a communicative approach and proposes that team roles are produced, shaped and sustained in

  17. 77 FR 40779 - Assignment of National Security and Emergency Preparedness Communications Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ..., territorial, and tribal governments, as appropriate, to establish situational awareness, priority setting recommendations, and a common operating picture for NS/EP communications information; (e) satisfy priority... Federal Government; and (f) administer a system of radio spectrum priorities for those spectrum-dependent...

  18. Females' Perspectives on Emergence to Adulthood: The Role of Information Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Young women ages 18-29 are the highest users of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the United States. As a group, they curate and create more online content than any other adult user group (Duggan, 2014). Throughout the research literature, scholars claim that the high rate of technology use among young people is related to their…

  19. Visible Lasers and Emerging Color Converters for Lighting and Visible Light Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-01

    GaN-based lasers are promising for white lighting and visible-light communication (VLC). The advances of III-nitride photonic integration, and the application of YAG crystal and perovskite-based phosphors to lighting and VLC will be discussed.

  20. 'The words will pass with the blowing wind': staff and parent views of the deferred consent process, with prior assent, used in an emergency fluids trial in two African hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassy Molyneux

    Full Text Available To document and explore the views and experiences of key stakeholders regarding the consent procedures of an emergency research clinical trial examining immediate fluid resuscitation strategies, and to discuss the implications for similar trials in future.A social science sub-study of the FEAST (Fluid Expansion As Supportive Therapy trial. Interviews were held with trial team members (n = 30, health workers (n = 15 and parents (n = 51 from two purposively selected hospitals in Soroti, Uganda, and Kilifi, Kenya.Overall, deferred consent with prior assent was seen by staff and parents as having the potential to protect the interests of both patients and researchers, and to avoid delays in starting treatment. An important challenge is that the validity of verbal assent is undermined when inadequate initial information is poorly understood. This concern needs to be balanced against the possibility that full prior consent on admission potentially causes harm through introducing delays. Full prior consent also potentially imposes worries on parents that clinicians are uncertain about how to proceed and that clinicians want to absolve themselves of any responsibility for the child's outcome (some parents' interpretation of the need for signed consent. Voluntariness is clearly compromised for both verbal assent and full prior consent in a context of such vulnerability and stress. Further challenges in obtaining verbal assent were: what to do in the absence of the household decision-maker (often the father; and how medical staff handle parents not giving a clear agreement or refusal.While the challenges identified are faced in all research in low-income settings, they are magnified for emergency trials by the urgency of decision making and treatment needs. Consent options will need to be tailored to particular studies and settings, and might best be informed by consultation with staff members and community representatives using a deliberative

  1. When seconds count: A study of communication variables in the opening segment of emergency calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Claire; Koole, Tom; Nattrass, Rhona

    2017-09-01

    The opening sequence of an emergency call influences the efficiency of the ambulance dispatch time. The greeting sequences in 105 calls to a South African emergency service were analysed. Initial results suggested the advantage of a specific two-part opening sequence. An on-site experiment aimed at improving call efficiency was conducted during one shift (1100 calls). Results indicated reduced conversational repairs and a significant reduction of 4 seconds in mean call length. Implications for systems and training are derived.

  2. Pediatric emergency transport: communication and coordination are key to improving outcomes [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Abraham; Prasad, Vijay; Lowe, Calvin G; Wormley, Molly

    2018-04-01

    Pediatric patients who are critically ill or who require urgent subspecialty evaluation or specialized imaging, equipment, or procedures must often be transferred to tertiary care centers. The safe execution of interfacility transfer requires the coordination between the facility healthcare teams at each end of the transfer as well as the transport team. This issue discusses the process of interfacility transfer, the required services, the role of the emergency clinician, the role of the pediatric transport team, and the commonly used diagnostic studies and treatment needed during interfacility transfers of pediatric patients. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice].

  3. Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the Japan's domestic communication satellite CS-2 for the case of disasters and emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsu, Y; Choh, T; Yamazaki, I; Kosaka, K; Iguchi, M; Nakajima, I

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on the quick-relief medical communications via the CS-2 satellite were carried out by using two types of 30/20 GHz small transportable earth stations whose antenna diameters are 1 and 2 m. As the terminal equipments, FM-SCPC systems with a one-telephone-equivalent channel were prepared for the transmission of voice, color freezed picture (9.6 kbps), supersonic echo signal and heart sound from a electrocardiograph. Signals from various medical equipments were transmitted by an FM-SCPC system from Simizu harbour (1 m station) to Tokyo transportable station (2 m), assuming that a person was injured in the ship and the ship came alongside the pier. Transmitted materials are mainly various kinds of pictures of affected parts, X-ray films and electrocardiograph with breathing sounds. It was found possible to send various medical information mentioned above via CS-2 by the 30/20 GHz simple communication systems with one-telephone-equivalent channel. Doctors suggested it would be possible to judge very well about the patients' emergency conditions and to give quick consult with inevitable treatment procedures for them. However, a few problems were found in the Hi-Fi reproduction of original colors and in the transmission of heart sounds in the very low frequency band less than 300 Hz.

  4. Mexican immigrant mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerer, Sharon E; Lopez-Reyna, Norma A; Hughes, Marie Tejero

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative study explored mothers' perceptions of their children's communication disabilities, emergent literacy development, and speech-language therapy programs. Participants were 14 Mexican immigrant mothers and their children (age 17-47 months) who were receiving center-based services from an early childhood intervention program, located in a large urban city in the Midwestern United States. Mother interviews composed the primary source of data. A secondary source of data included children's therapy files and log notes. Following the analysis of interviews through the constant comparative method, grounded theory was generated. The majority of mothers perceived their children as exhibiting a communication delay. Causal attributions were diverse and generally medical in nature (i.e., ear infections, seizures) or due to familial factors (i.e., family history and heredity, lack of extended family). Overall, mothers seemed more focused on their children's speech intelligibility and/or expressive language in comparison to emergent literacy abilities. To promote culturally responsive intervention, mothers recommended that professionals speak Spanish, provide information about the therapy process, and use existing techniques with Mexican immigrant families.

  5. A Strategy of Dialogue for Communicating Hazard and Risk Information Between the Science and Emergency Management Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will describe a collaborative dialogue process between earth scientists and emergency management officials that focused on translation of science into policy, building long term trust based relationships between sectors and unified presentation of hazards, risks and consequence management to public officials and the general public. The author will describe the structure and process of the California Earthquake Prediction Evaluation Council (CEPEC) in assessing the credibility of long and short term earthquake predictions, assessment of risk, and the formulation of public communication strategies and preparatory actions by government agencies. For nearly 4 decades, earth scientists, politically appointed state officials and emergency managers have engaged in ongoing discussions of the policy implications of research on potential seismic risk. Some discussions were scheduled and occurred over months, and others were ad hoc and occurred in the minutes between potential precursory incidents and possible large events. The effectiveness of this process was dependent on building respect for ones counterparts expertise, bias and responsibilities, clear communication of data, uncertainty and knowledge of the physical models assumed, history and probabilities; and the physical and political consequences of possible events; and the costs and economic and social disruption of alternative preparedness actions. But, the dialogue included political and social scientists, representatives of the print and broadcast media, political and management officials from federal, state and local governments. The presentation will provide an assessment of the effectiveness of the collaborative dialogue process and lessons on sustaining a long term partnership among the participating federal, state and local officials.

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Japan. Risk management and communication regarding nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Severe accidents at nuclear plants can result in long-standing and large-scale disasters encompassing wide areas. The public may have special concerns regarding these plants and radiation-related health risks. It has therefore been argued that risk communications efforts, along with rigid safety management of nuclear plants, are imperative to prevent such accidents, mitigate their impacts, and alleviate public concerns. This article introduces a set of laws, acts, codes, and guidelines concerning nuclear safety in Japan. In addition, the preparedness and mitigation plans and programs for dealing with nuclear accidents and possible disasters are also discussed. Furthermore, the ongoing accidents at the Fukushima nuclear power plants following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, and the government response to them are presented. A set of points regarding the management and communications of power plant accidents are discussed. (author)

  7. Expert Game experiment predicts emergence of trust in professional communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Uekermann, Florian; Haerter, Jan O

    2016-10-25

    Strong social capital is increasingly recognized as an organizational advantage. Better knowledge sharing and reduced transaction costs increase work efficiency. To mimic the formation of the associated communication network, we propose the Expert Game, where each individual must find a specific expert and receive her help. Participants act in an impersonal environment and under time constraints that provide short-term incentives for noncooperative behavior. Despite these constraints, we observe cooperation between individuals and the self-organization of a sustained trust network, which facilitates efficient communication channels with increased information flow. We build a behavioral model that explains the experimental dynamics. Analysis of the model reveals an exploitation protection mechanism and measurable social capital, which quantitatively describe the economic utility of trust.

  8. Emerging tuberculosis pathogen hijacks social communication behavior in the group-living banded mongoose (Mungos mungo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium mungi, a novel M. tuberculosis complex pathogen (MtbC), has emerged in wild banded mongoose (Mungos mungo) in Northern Botswana, causing significant mortality. Unlike other members of the MtbC, M. mungi is not transmitted through a primary aerosol route. Rather, pathogen invasion occur...

  9. Emerging pervasive information and communication technologies (PICT) ethical challenges, opportunities and safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Pimple, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a wide and deep perspective on the ethical issues raised by pervasive information and communication technology (PICT) - small, powerful, and often inexpensive Internet-connected computing devices and systems. It describes complex and unfamiliar technologies and their implications, including the transformative potential of augmented reality, the power of location-linked information, and the uses of ""big data,"" and explains potential threats, including privacy invaded, security violated, and independence compromised, often through widespread and lucrative manipulation.PICT i

  10. EMERGENCE OF VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AS MEANS OF COMMUNICATION: A Case Study On Virtual Health Care Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpare Tokay ARGAN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, like in all areas, the Internet has had an important effect in the area of health as well. With the development of the Internet many new and different applications have developed and one of the most important of these are probably virtual communities. Virtual communities, which are used as a tool for providing information and word of mouth communication, have become a widely used marketing tool in the area of healthcare services in recent years. A virtual community is a group that does not depend on space and time to maintain ties or participation in the group whose members share the same interest and to maintain closeness, that is based on internet communications and whose membership is based on free will. In these kinds of communities whose services are provided on a membership basis, health services of various kinds are offered to the members. In virtual communities, virtual interactive communications established between the members can be an important determining factor when choosing a product, service or doctor.

  11. Mind the (knowledge) gap: the effect of a communication instrument on emergency department patients' comprehension of and satisfaction with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Stefanie; Sharp, Brian; Fowler, Jennifer; Fowkes, Hope; Paz-Arabo, Patricia; Dilt-Skaggs, Mary Kate; Singal, Bonita; Carter, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We developed a communication instrument to be used in the Emergency Department (ED) and hypothesized that use of this guide would increase patient comprehension of and satisfaction with care. This multi-site trial enrolled 643 patients in treatment and control groups. Comprehension of care was assessed by chart review and satisfaction measured via validated survey. Use of the instrument was not associated with improvements in patient knowledge about their care, with a mean of 4.6 (95% CI: 4.8-5.8) comprehension defects in the control group and 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-4.9) in the treatment group. There was no significant effect on patient satisfaction 76.4% versus 76.9%, p=0.34. Elderly patients in both groups were found to have 1.1 (ppatients. Patients frequently misunderstand medical care in the ED. Comprehension decreases with increasing age. An isolated communication instrument does not improve satisfaction with or understanding of the care received. Providing a structured place for providers and patients to record details of care does not seem to improve satisfaction with or comprehension of care. Interventions that focus on communication skills and face time with patients may prove more effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system based on CDMA-1X EVDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Keon Ho; Jung, Haijo; Kang, Won-Suk; Jang, Bong Mun; Kim, Joong Il; Han, Dong Hoon; Yoo, Sun-Kook; Yoo, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2006-03-01

    The wireless mobile service with a high bit rate using CDMA-1X EVDO is now widely used in Korea. Mobile devices are also increasingly being used as the conventional communication mechanism. We have developed a web-based mobile system that communicates patient information and images, using CDMA-1X EVDO for emergency diagnosis. It is composed of a Mobile web application system using the Microsoft Windows 2003 server and an internet information service. Also, a mobile web PACS used for a database managing patient information and images was developed by using Microsoft access 2003. A wireless mobile emergency patient information and imaging communication system is developed by using Microsoft Visual Studio.NET, and JPEG 2000 ActiveX control for PDA phone was developed by using the Microsoft Embedded Visual C++. Also, the CDMA-1X EVDO is used for connections between mobile web servers and the PDA phone. This system allows fast access to the patient information database, storing both medical images and patient information anytime and anywhere. Especially, images were compressed into a JPEG2000 format and transmitted from a mobile web PACS inside the hospital to the radiologist using a PDA phone located outside the hospital. Also, this system shows radiological images as well as physiological signal data, including blood pressure, vital signs and so on, in the web browser of the PDA phone so radiologists can diagnose more effectively. Also, we acquired good results using an RW-6100 PDA phone used in the university hospital system of the Sinchon Severance Hospital in Korea.

  13. Emergency Support Function 15: Communication Synchronization during Defense Support of Civil Authorities Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    for the future. I would like to thank my parents Juan and Helen for their love, support, and guidance; your hard work and sacrifices have given me...required support to civil authortities during emergency relief operations.9 Once civil authorites are capable of resuming responsibility for the...Freeman posit the researcher has an understanding of the cognitive styles of the program stakeholders which will increase access and comprehension of

  14. Personal Emergency Response Systems--Communication Technology Aids Elderly and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibner, Andrew S.

    Personal response systems (PRS) bring immediate help to aged and disabled persons at home at the touch of a button. The PRS user wears a tiny radio transmitter as a pendant or a bracelet and can send a telephone signal from any part of the home to a 24-hour emergency center when help is needed. This study examined research on the Lifeline system,…

  15. Connecting with patients and instilling realism in an era of emerging communication possibilities: a review on palliative care communication heading to telecare practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gurp, J.; Hasselaar, J.; van Leeuwen, E.; Hoek, P.; Vissers, K.; van Selm, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Appropriate palliative care communication is pivotal to optimizing the quality of life in dying patients and their families. This review aims at describing communication patterns in palliative care and discussing potential relations between communication patterns and upcoming telecare in

  16. Communicating Emerging Issues in Ocean Hypoxia (or Suffocating in Your Own Home)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, F. A.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Diaz, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Some large regions of our interior oceans are losing oxygen both from the impacts of human uses of coastal margins and the impacts that climate change is having on ocean circulation. As oxygen minimum zones expand, impacts are especially noticed along the edges of continents. Ecosystems are being affected in ways that result in habitat compression or forced migrations. Looking into the future, we foresee large scale disruptions to habitat that, in some cases, will dramatically impact fish productivity. As waters become more hypoxic, energy fixed by marine plants will be less available to support higher trophic levels (e.g. fish and marine mammals). Communicating concern about hypoxia has its challenges: the word itself is poorly know to those on land who live in an oxygen-rich world. Thus, crucial factors in effective communication include illustrating: i) how many ocean animals live “on the edge”, ii) how ocean organisms respond to hypoxia iii) the long-term effects on ocean ecosystems and iv) causes and mitigation. For media that respond to visual stimulation, good graphics, evocative analogies and focussed examples are important.

  17. Emergence of consensus as a modular-to-nested transition in communication dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Baños, Raquel A.; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks have transformed the way in which humans communicate and interact, leading to a new information ecosystem where people send and receive information through multiple channels, including traditional communication media. Despite many attempts to characterize the structure and dynamics of these techno-social systems, little is known about fundamental aspects such as how collective attention arises and what determines the information life-cycle. Current approaches to these problems either focus on human temporal dynamics or on semiotic dynamics. In addition, as recently shown, information ecosystems are highly competitive, with humans and memes striving for scarce resources -visibility and attention, respectively. Inspired by similar problems in ecology, here we develop a methodology that allows to cast all the previous aspects into a compact framework and to characterize, using microblogging data, information-driven systems as mutualistic networks. Our results show that collective attention around a topic is reached when the user-meme network self-adapts from a modular to a nested structure, which ultimately allows minimizing competition and attaining consensus. Beyond a sociological interpretation, we explore such resemblance to natural mutualistic communities via well-known dynamics of ecological systems.

  18. Mobile phone-based biosensing: An emerging "diagnostic and communication" technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-González, Daniel; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-06-15

    In this review we discuss recent developments on the use of mobile phones and similar devices for biosensing applications in which diagnostics and communications are coupled. Owing to the capabilities of mobile phones (their cameras, connectivity, portability, etc.) and to advances in biosensing, the coupling of these two technologies is enabling portable and user-friendly analytical devices. Any user can now perform quick, robust and easy (bio)assays anywhere and at any time. Among the most widely reported of such devices are paper-based platforms. Herein we provide an overview of a broad range of biosensing possibilities, from optical to electrochemical measurements; explore the various reported designs for adapters; and consider future opportunities for this technology in fields such as health diagnostics, safety & security, and environment monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Emotional and interactional prosody across animal communication systems: A comparative approach to the emergence of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Filippi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a wide range of animal taxa, prosodic modulation of the voice can express emotional information and is used to coordinate vocal interactions between multiple individuals. Within a comparative approach to animal communication systems, I hypothesize that the ability for emotional and interactional prosody (EIP paved the way for the evolution of linguistic prosody - and perhaps also of music, continuing to play a vital role in the acquisition of language. In support of this hypothesis, I review three research fields: i empirical studies on the adaptive value of EIP in nonhuman primates, mammals, songbirds, anurans and insects; ii the beneficial effects of EIP in scaffolding language learning and social development in human infants; iii the cognitive relationship between linguistic prosody and the ability for music, which has often been identified as the evolutionary precursor of language.

  1. Emergent dynamics of Cucker-Smale particles under the effects of random communication and incompressible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiongtao

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamics of infinitely many Cucker-Smale (C-S) flocking particles under the interplay of random communication and incompressible fluids. For the dynamics of an ensemble of flocking particles, we use the kinetic Cucker-Smale-Fokker-Planck (CS-FP) equation with a degenerate diffusion, whereas for the fluid component, we use the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations. These two subsystems are coupled via the drag force. For this coupled model, we present the global existence of weak and strong solutions in Rd (d = 2 , 3). Under the extra regularity assumptions of the initial data, the unique solvability of strong solutions is also established in R2. In a large coupling regime and periodic spatial domain T2 : =R2 /Z2, we show that the velocities of C-S particles and fluids are asymptotically aligned to two constant velocities which may be different.

  2. Industrial Leadership that Inspires Managerial Communication as an Emerging Pedagogical Focus in Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Helena Lappalainen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the characteristics of effective industrial leadership, this work embarked on a quantitative effort to investigate requirements posed on leaders. Contrary to previous competence-based studies, the present work examined leader qualities more broadly through substantive knowledge, personality traits, socio-emotive skills, cultural awareness, and ethics and values. A particular aim was to conceptualize and operationalize effective leader behavior in industries to identify relevant and targeted foci for engineering pedagogy. Statistical analysis and factor analysis of the data from 503 respondents on 81 leader traits or skills shows that leadership that elicits positive organizational outcomes is founded on such leader personality dimensions as reliability, and such socio-emotive skills as self-leadership, emotional stability, inspiration and assertive communication.

  3. Post-adoption contact, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact as predictors of externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotevant, Harold D; Rueter, Martha; Von Korff, Lynn; Gonzalez, Christopher

    2011-05-01

    This study examined the relation between three variables related to adoptive family relationships (post-adoption contact between adoptive and birth family members, adoption communicative openness, and satisfaction with contact) and adoptee externalizing behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood. The study included 190 families of infant-placed, domestic adoptees during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze predictors of externalizing behavior from contact (adoptive parents and adolescent reports), adoption communicative openness (adoptive mothers), and satisfaction with contact (adoptive parents and adolescent). Externalizing behavior showed moderate stability across childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. Contact and adoption communicative openness were related to each other, but not to externalizing behaviors in adolescence or emerging adulthood. Controlling for the effect of Childhood Externalizing, adoptive families most satisfied with contact reported relative declines in adoptee externalizing behavior during adolescence compared to those in less satisfied families. Satisfaction was also indirectly associated with Emerging Adult Externalizing, through its effect on Adolescent Externalizing. Although contact and adoption communicative openness were highly correlated with each other, neither was related to adoptees' externalizing behavior in adolescence or emerging adulthood. Family-level satisfaction with contact was more predictive of externalizing outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  5. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications – US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  6. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hanrahan

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN, regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1 context, (2 process, (3 content and (4 translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level, and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh, syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent; and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several

  7. MASS MEDIA COMMUNICATION OF EMERGENCY ISSUES AND COUNTERMEASURES IN A NUCLEAR ACCIDENT: FUKUSHIMA REPORTING IN EUROPEAN NEWSPAPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Eduardo; Cantone, Marie Claire; Oughton, Deborah H; Perko, Tanja; Prezelj, Iztok; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a large study of 1340 articles published by two major newspapers in six European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Russia) in the first 2 months after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The focus of the analysis is on the application and overall impact of protective actions, both during the emergency phase and later, how the newspapers describe those actions, which differences were apparent between countries and what recommendations can be extracted in order to improve general communication about these issues. A clear lesson is that, even under uncertainty and recognising limitations, responsible authorities need to provide transparent, clear and understandable information to the public and the mass media right from the beginning of the early phase of any nuclear emergency. Clear, concise messages should be given. Mass media could play a key role in reassuring the public if the countermeasures are clearly explained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Communication and the Emergence of Collective Behavior in Living Organisms: A Quantum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Marco; Del Giudice, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions within living organisms have been found to occur not as individual independent events but as a part of a collective array of interconnected events. The problem of the emergence of this collective dynamics and of the correlated biocommunication therefore arises. In the present paper we review the proposals given within the paradigm of modern molecular biology and those given by some holistic approaches to biology. In recent times, the collective behavior of ensembles of microscopic units (atoms/molecules) has been addressed in the conceptual framework of Quantum Field Theory. The possibility of producing physical states where all the components of the ensemble move in unison has been recognized. In such cases, electromagnetic fields trapped within the ensemble appear. In the present paper we present a scheme based on Quantum Field Theory where molecules are able to move in phase-correlated unison among them and with a self-produced electromagnetic field. Experimental corroboration of this scheme is presented. Some consequences for future biological developments are discussed. PMID:24288611

  9. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  11. Mobile videoconferencing for enhanced emergency medical communication - a shot in the dark or a walk in the park? ‒‒ A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Sigurd; Hotvedt, Martin; Bolle, Stein Roald

    2014-06-02

    Videoconferencing on mobile phones may enhance communication, but knowledge on its quality in various situations is needed before it can be used in medical emergencies. Mobile phones automatically activate loudspeaker functionality during videoconferencing, making calls particularly vulnerable to background noise. The aim of this study was to investigate if videoconferencing can be used between lay bystanders and Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) operators for initial emergency calls during medical emergencies, under suboptimal sound and light conditions. Videoconferencing was tested between 90 volunteers and an emergency medical dispatcher in a standardized scenario of a medical emergency. Three different environments were used for the trials: indoors with moderate background noise, outdoors with daylight and much background noise, and outdoors during nighttime with little background noise. Thirty participants were recruited for each of the three locations. After informed consent, each participant was asked to use a video mobile phone to communicate with an EMD operator. During the video call the EMD operator gave instructions for tasks to be performed by the participant. The video quality from the caller to the EMD was evaluated by the EMD operator and rated on a five step scale ranging from "not able to see" to "good video quality". Sound quality between participants and EMD operators was assessed by a method developed for this trial. Kruskal - Wallis and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Video quality was significantly different between the groups (p mobile phones can be used for the initial emergency call during medical emergencies also in suboptimal conditions.

  12. Factors Influencing Postsecondary STEM Students' Views of the Public Communication of an Emergent Technology: a Cross-National Study from Five Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Grant E.; Jones, M. Gail; Albe, Virginie; Blonder, Ron; Laherto, Antti; Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-10-01

    Recent efforts in the science education community have highlighted the need to integrate research and theory from science communication research into more general science education scholarship. These synthesized research perspectives are relatively novel but serve an important need to better understand the impacts that the advent of rapidly emerging technologies will have on a new generation of scientists and engineers including their formal communication with engaged citizenry. This cross-national study examined postsecondary science and engineering students' ( n = 254 from five countries: Austria, Finland, France, Israel, and USA) perspectives on the role of science communication in their own formal science and engineering education. More broadly, we examined participants' understanding of their perceived responsibilities of communicating science and engineering to the general public when an issue contains complex social and ethical implications (SEI). The study is contextualized in the emergent technology of nanotechnology for which SEI are of particular concern and for which the general public often perceives conflicting risks and benefits. Findings indicate that student participants' hold similar views on the need for their own training in communication as future scientists and engineers. When asked about the role that ethics and risk perception plays in research, development, and public communication of nanotechnology, participants demonstrate similar trajectories of perspectives that are, however, often anchored in very different levels of beginning concern. Results are discussed in the context of considerations for science communication training within formal science education curricula globally.

  13. Application of 4G-based Emergency Communication System in Anhui Electric Power Communication%基于4G的应急通信在安徽电力的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小军; 梁本仁

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the ability in responding to emergent hazards, Anhui Electric Power Company establishes an emergency communication system based on 4G communication technology. Multiple communication modes are proposed, including 3G public network and microwave self-organized network, thus to realize no-blind-area coverage in emergency zone. Meanwhile, a variety of voice network interconnection modules based on IP soft switch technology and DSP signal processing technology are designed, and the network communication problems in complex environment solved. Thus different types of speech communication terminal are integrated to achieve inter connectivity; while in video transmission, microwave communication technology is utilized to achieve real-time speech and video transmission when the public network breaks off. The system could provide a new communication means for emergency rescue personnel.%  为提高应对突发事件的能力,安徽省电力公司建设了基于4G通信技术的应急通信系统。提出了3G 公网,微波自组网多种通信模式互补通信的方案,实现应急区域无盲区覆盖;设计开发了基于 IP软交换技术及 DSP 信号处理技术的多种语音网络互连模块,可以将不同类型的语音通信终端融合起来,实现互连互通,在视频传输方面,利用微波通信技术,解决了公网中断的应急情况下语音视频的实时传输。为应急救援人员提供了新的通信手段。

  14. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradeon SB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Susan B Aradeon,1 Henry V Doctor2 1Freelance International Consultant (Social and Behavioral Change Communication, Aventura, FL, USA; 2Department of Information, Evidence and Research, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, World Health Organization, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and

  15. Technology-Aided Leisure and Communication Opportunities for Two Post-Coma Persons Emerged from a Minimally Conscious State and Affected by Multiple Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Oliva, Doretta

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed technology-aided programs for helping two post-coma persons, who had emerged from a minimally conscious state and were affected by multiple disabilities, to (a) engage with leisure stimuli and request caregiver's procedures, (b) send out and listen to text messages for communication with distant partners, and (c) combine…

  16. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  17. Pitfalls in communication that lead to nonbeneficial emergency surgery in elderly patients with serious illness: description of the problem and elements of a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zara; Courtwright, Andrew; Karlage, Ami; Gawande, Atul; Block, Susan

    2014-12-01

    To provide a description of communication breakdowns and to identify interventions to improve surgical decision making for elderly patients with serious illness and acute, life-threatening surgical conditions. Communication between surgeons, patients, and surrogates about goals of treatment plays an important and understudied role in determining the surgical interventions elderly patients with serious illness receive. Communication breakdowns may lead to nonbeneficial procedures in acute events near the end of life. We review the available literature on factors that lead to communication challenges and nonbeneficial surgery at the end of life. We use this review to identify solutions for navigating surgical decision making for seriously ill elderly patients with acute surgical conditions. Surgeon, patient, surrogate, and systemic factors-including time constraints, inadequate provider communication skills and training, uncertainty about prognosis, patient and surrogate anxiety and fear of inaction, and limitations in advance care planning-contribute to communication challenges and nonbeneficial surgery at the end of life. Surgeons could accomplish more effective communication with seriously ill elderly patients if they had a structured, standardized approach to exploring patients' preferences and to integrating those preferences into surgical decisions in the acute setting. Improved communication among surgeons, patients, and surrogates is necessary to ensure that patients receive the care that they want and to avoid nonbeneficial treatment. Further research is needed to learn how to best structure these conversations in the emergency surgical setting.

  18. Not all suffering is pain: sources of patients' suffering in the emergency department call for improvements in communication from practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Richard; Kaide, Ergul; Kendal, Sarah; Foex, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of prompt, effective analgesia is rightly considered as a standard of care in the emergency department (ED). However, much suffering is not 'painful' and may be under-recognised. We sought to describe the burden of suffering in the ED and explore how this may be best addressed from a patient centred perspective. In a prospective cohort study, we included undifferentiated patients presenting to the ED. We undertook two face to face questionnaires with the first immediately following triage. We asked patients: (a) if they were 'suffering'; (b) how they were suffering; and (c) what they hoped would be done to ease this. Prior to leaving the ED, we asked patients what had been done to ease their suffering. Data were analysed thematically. Of 125 patients included, 77 (61.6%) reported suffering on direct questioning and 92 (73.6%) listed at least one way in which they were suffering. 90 (72.0%) patients had a pain score >0/10 but only 37 (29.6%) reported that pain was causing suffering. Patients reported suffering from both physical symptoms (especially pain, nausea, vomiting and dizziness) and emotional distress (notably anxiety). Treatment (to ease physical and emotional symptoms), information (particularly diagnosis, reassurance and explanation), care (notably friendly staff) and closure (being seen, resolving the problem and going home) were the key themes identified as important for relief of suffering. In seeking to ease suffering in the ED, clinicians must focus not only on providing analgesia but on treating Emotional distress, Physical symptoms, providing Information, Care and Closure (EPICC). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. How Do the First Days Count? A Case Study of Qatar Experience in Emergency Risk Communication during the MERS-CoV Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Mohamed; Alhajri, Mohd; Farag, Elmoubasher A B A; Al-Romaihi, Hamad E; Al-Thani, Mohamed; Al-Marri, Salih; Savoia, Elena

    2017-12-19

    This case study is the first to be developed in the Middle East region to document what happened during the response to the 2013 MERS outbreak in Qatar. It provides a description of key epidemiologic events and news released from a prime daily newspaper and main Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) actions that were undertaken by public health authorities. Using the Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) theoretical framework, the study analyzes how the performed ERC strategies during the first days of the outbreak might have contributed to the outbreak management. MERS-CoV related events were chronologically tracked, together with the relevant stories that were published in a major newspaper over the course of three distinct phases of the epidemic. The collected media stories were then assessed against the practiced emergency risk communication (ERC) activities during the same time frame. The Crisis & Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) framework was partially followed during the early days of the MERS-CoV epidemic, which were characterized by overwhelming uncertainty. The SCH's commitment to a proactive and open risk communication strategy since day one, contributed to creating the SCH's image as a credible source of information and allowed for the quick initiation of the overall response efforts. Yet, conflicting messages and over reassurance were among the observed pitfalls of the implemented ERC strategy. The adoption of CERC principles can help restore and maintain the credibility of responding agencies. Further work is needed to develop more rigorous and comprehensive research strategies that address sharing of information by mainstream as well as social media for a more accurate assessment of the impact of the ERC strategy.

  20. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries.   Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search.

  1. Development of a novel information and communication technology system to compensate for a sudden shortage of emergency department physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kumiko; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Fukuma, Hiroshi; Nakao, Shota; Masunaga, Naohisa; Tomita, Keisuke; Matsumura, Yosuke; Mizushima, Yasuaki; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2017-01-23

    A sudden shortage of physician resources due to overwhelming patient needs can affect the quality of care in the emergency department (ED). Developing effective response strategies remains a challenging research area. We created a novel system using information and communication technology (ICT) to respond to a sudden shortage, and tested the system to determine whether it would compensate for a shortage. Patients (n = 4890) transferred to a level I trauma center in Japan during 2012-2015 were studied. We assessed whether the system secured the necessary physicians without using other means such as phone or pager, and calculated fulfillment rate by the system as a primary outcome variable. We tested for the difference in probability of multiple casualties among total casualties transferred to the ED as an indicator of ability to respond to excessive patient needs, in a secondary analysis before and after system introduction. The system was activated 24 times (stand-by request [n = 12], attendance request [n = 12]) in 24 months, and secured the necessary physicians without using other means; fulfillment rate was 100%. There was no significant difference in the probability of multiple casualties during daytime weekdays hours before and after system introduction, while the probability of multiple casualties during night or weekend hours after system introduction significantly increased compared to before system introduction (4.8% vs. 12.9%, P improvement in the ability to respond to sudden excessive patient needs in multiple causalities. A novel system using ICT successfully secured immediate responses from needed physicians outside the hospital without increasing user workload, and increased the ability to respond to excessive patient needs. The system appears to be able to compensate for a shortage of physician in the ED due to excessive patient transfers, particularly during off-hours.

  2. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  3. The challenges of emerging HISs in bridging the communication gaps among physicians and nurses in China: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Wan, Jie; Fu, Jing; Lei, Jianbo

    2017-06-12

    To explore the current situation, existing problems and possible causes of said problems with regards to physician-nurse communication under an environment of increasingly widespread usage of Hospital Information Systems and to seek out new potential strategies in information technology to improve physician-nurse communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 physicians and nurses in five leading tertiary grade A hospitals in Beijing, China (two physicians and two nurses in each hospital). The interviews primarily included three aspects comprising the current situation and problems of clinical physician-nurse communication, the application and problems of Hospital Information Systems, and assessments on the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. The inductive conventional content analysis approach was employed. (1) Physicians and nurses are generally quite satisfied with the current situation of communication. However, the information needs of nurses are prone to being overlooked, and the communication methods are primarily synchronous communication such as face-to-face and phone communication. (2) Hospital Information Systems are gradually being used for physician-nurse communication; in the meantime, physicians and nurses face challenges with regards to the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. Challenges differ based on the different stages of using the system and the different levels of understanding of physicians and nurses towards information technology. Their dissatisfaction mainly deals with system errors and the level of convenience in using the system. (3) In-depth interviews found that in general, physicians and nurses have a strong interest and trust in improving physician-nurse communication through appropriate information technology, e.g., communication methods such as information reminders for physicians and nurses through mobile

  4. Like an extended family: Relationships that emerge when older caregivers use written messages to communicate in an ICT-based healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Hilde; Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Hvalvik, Sigrun; Hellesø, Ragnhild

    2018-03-01

    To explore the relationships that emerge amongst caregivers of persons with dementia and stroke when caregivers use written messages as their communication tool in a closed information and communication technology (ICT)-based support group. An explorative design with a qualitative approach was used that applied systematic text condensation (STC) to analyse 173 written messages extracted from a web forum. Empathetic, empowering and familiar relationships emerged amongst peers of older caregivers when the caregivers used written messages as their communication tool. The empathetic relationship was characterised by sincerity and openness when the caregivers shared emotions related to caregiving. The empowering relationship reflected a fellowship based on solidarity influenced by a sense of optimism and a willingness to share knowledge to support one another in overcoming challenges. In the familiar relationship, the caregivers were thoughtful and good-humoured with one another and displayed an attitude of consideration towards one another, as in an extended family. The use of computer-mediated communication in health care service will change the context of establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Therefore, greater knowledge regarding how the peers of caregivers interact with one another is vital so nurses may better support and educate ICT-based support groups.

  5. Constrained noninformative priors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given

  6. A comparison between digital images viewed on a picture archiving and communication system diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based remote viewing system by emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyn, A; Hanson, R M; Peat, J K; De Silva, M

    1998-02-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) make possible the viewing of radiographic images on computer workstations located where clinical care is delivered. By the nature of their work this feature is particularly useful for emergency physicians who view radiographic studies for information and use them to explain results to patients and their families. However, the high cost of PACS diagnostic workstations with fuller functionality places limits on the number of and therefore the accessibility to workstations in the emergency department. This study was undertaken to establish how well less expensive personal computer-based workstations would work to support these needs of emergency physicians. The study compared the outcome of observations by 5 emergency physicians on a series of radiographic studies containing subtle abnormalities displayed on both a PACS diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based workstation. The 73 digitized radiographic studies were randomly arranged on both types of workstation over four separate viewing sessions for each emergency physician. There was no statistical difference between a PACS diagnostic workstation and a PC-based workstation in this trial. The mean correct ratings were 59% on the PACS diagnostic workstations and 61% on the PC-based workstations. These findings also emphasize the need for prompt reporting by a radiologist.

  7. Short communication: Evaluation of a model for predicting Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia seed emergence in winter rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aboutalebian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Avena fatua and Descurainia sophia are two important annual weeds throughout winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. production systems in the semiarid region of Iran. Timely and more accurate control of both species may be developed if there is a better understanding of its emergence patterns. Non-linear regression techniques are usually unable to accurately predict field emergence under such environmental conditions. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the emergence patterns of A. fatua and D. sophia and determine if emergence could be predicted using cumulative soil thermal time in degree days (CTT. In the present work, cumulative seedling emergence from a winter rapeseed field during 3 years data set was fitted to cumulative soil CTT using Weibull and Gompertz functions. The Weibull model provided a better fit, based on coefficient of determination (R2sqr, root mean square of error (RMSE and Akaike index (AICd, compared to the Gompertz model between 2013 and 2016 seasons for both species. Maximum emergence of A. fatua occured 70-119 days after sowing or after equals 329-426 °Cd, while in D. sophia it occurred 119-134 days after sowing rapeseed equals 373-470 °Cd. Both models can aid in the future study of A. fatua and D. sophia emergence and assist growers and agricultural professionals with planning timely and more accurate A. fatua and D. sophia control.

  8. Assessing physician-parent communication during emergency medical procedures in children: an observational study in a low-literacy Latino patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Aaron; Sinha, Madhumita; Rosenberg, David I; Tran, Melissa; Valdez, André

    2015-05-01

    Effective physician-patient communication is critical to the clinical decision-making process. We studied parental recall of information provided during an informed consent discussion process before performance of emergency medical procedures in a pediatric emergency department of an inner-city hospital with a large bilingual population. Fifty-five parent/child dyads undergoing emergency medical procedures were surveyed prospectively in English/Spanish postprocedure for recall of informed consent information. Exact logistic regression was used to predict the ability to name a risk, benefit, and alternative to the procedure based on a parent's language, education, and acculturation. Among English-speaking parents, there tended to be higher proportions that could name a risk, benefit, or alternative. Our regression models showed overall that the parents with more than a high school education tended to have nearly 5 times higher odds of being able to name a risk. A gap in communication may exist between physicians and patients (or parents of patients) during the consent-taking process, and this gap may be impacted by socio-demographic factors such as language and education level.

  9. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : R.E.S.C.U.M.E. prototype system design document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This report documents the System Design Document (SDD) for the prototype development and demonstration of the : Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) application : bundle, with a focus on the...

  10. Communicating and managing change during extreme weather events: promising practices for responding to urgent and emergent climate threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Tim L

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale weather events in the USA such as hurricanes Sandy, Isaac and Katrina challenge traditional approaches to change communication and management (CCM) before during and after crises. A major challenge (as well as opportunity) is addressing change from the 'whole-community' perspective affecting a spectrum of people, policies, processes, behaviours and outcomes. When CCM is used effectively, one of its fundamental advantages is creating a sense of urgency. This paper looks at optimising communication during extreme weather events, engaging stakeholders, harnessing the power of social media and change, and correlating organisational and individual behaviours and actions. The strategic blend of change management and crisis communication strategies and tactics in CCM is a central feature in the response to the full range of extreme weather scenarios.

  11. Media use and communication inequalities in a public health emergency: a case study of 2009-2010 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Jung, Minsoo; McCloud, Rachel F; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that differences among individuals and social groups in accessing and using information on health and specific threats have an impact on their knowledge and behaviors. These differences, characterized as communication inequalities, may hamper the strength of a society's response to a public health emergency. Such inequalities not only make vulnerable populations subject to a disproportionate burden of adversity, but also compromise the public health system's efforts to prevent and respond to pandemic influenza outbreaks. We investigated the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and health communication behaviors (including barriers) on people's knowledge and misconceptions about pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) and adoption of prevention behaviors. The data for this study came from a survey of 1,569 respondents drawn from a nationally representative sample of American adults during pH1N1. We conducted logistic regression analyses when appropriate. We found that (1) SES has a significant association with barriers to information access and processing, levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, and misconceptions; (2) levels of pH1N1-related knowledge are associated positively with the adoption of recommended prevention measures and negatively with the adoption of incorrect protective behaviors; and (3) people with higher SES, higher news exposure, and higher levels of pH1N1-related knowledge, as well as those who actively seek information, are less likely than their counterparts to adopt incorrect prevention behaviors. Strategic public health communication efforts in public health preparedness and during emergencies should take into account potential communication inequalities and develop campaigns that reach across different social groups.

  12. "Bill Is Now Singing": Joint Engagement and the Emergence of Social Communication of Three Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the children's…

  13. Academic College of Emergency Experts in India′s INDO-US Joint Working Group (JWG White Paper on the Integrated Emergency Communication Response Service in India: Much more than just a number!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal for an integrated national emergency number for India is garnering a lot of enthusiasm and stimulating debate. This ambitious project has a two-part paradigm shift to set in; the first being the integration into a single number and the infrastructure required for setting up and operating this number such that a call can be received and identified. The second is the submerged part of the iceberg: That of the ability to respond to a call and deliver the appropriate emergency service. The first part is more technical and has potential precedents like the 911 phone hotline, for example, to emulate. The main premise of this paper is that the second part is a rather subjective exercise largely determined by the realities of existing public infrastructure in a specific geographical area with respect to emergency services management, especially medical care. Consequently, we highlight the key areas of both precall preparedness and postcall execution that need to be reviewed prior to going live with an integrated number on a national scale.

  14. The Prior-project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette; Albretsen, Jørgen

    digitisation of Arthur Prior’s Nachlass kept in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The DH infrastructure in question is the Prior Virtual Lab (PVL). PVL was established in 2011 in order to provide researchers in the field of temporal logic easy access to the papers of Arthur Norman Prior (1914-1969), and officially......In this paper, we present a DH research infrastructure which relies heavily on a combination of domain knowledge with information technology. The general goal is to develop tools to aid scholars in their interpretations and understanding of temporal logic. This in turn is based on an extensive...

  15. EPPM and willingness to respond: the role of risk and efficacy communication in strengthening public health emergency response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Daniel J; Thompson, Carol B; Semon, Natalie L; Errett, Nicole A; Harrison, Krista L; Anderson, Marilyn K; Ferrell, Justin L; Freiheit, Jennifer M; Hudson, Robert; McKee, Mary; Mejia-Echeverry, Alvaro; Spitzer, James; Balicer, Ran D; Links, Jonathan M; Storey, J Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudinal impact of an Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM)-based training curriculum on local public health department (LHD) workers' willingness to respond to representative public health emergency scenarios. Data are from 71 U.S. LHDs in urban and rural settings across nine states. The study explores changes in response willingness and EPPM threat and efficacy appraisals between randomly assigned control versus intervention health departments, at baseline and 1 week post curriculum, through an EPPM-based survey/resurvey design. Levels of response willingness and emergency response-related attitudes/beliefs are measured. Analyses focus on two scenario categories that have appeared on a U.S. government list of scenarios of significant concern: a weather-related emergency and a radiological "dirty" bomb event (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2007). The greatest impact from the training intervention on response willingness was observed among LHD workers who had low levels of EPPM-related threat and efficacy perceptions at baseline. Self-efficacy and response efficacy and response willingness increased in intervention LHDs for both scenarios, with greater response willingness increases observed for the radiological "dirty" bomb terrorism scenario. Findings indicate the importance of building efficacy versus enhancing threat perceptions as a path toward greater response willingness, and suggest the potential applicability of such curricular interventions for boosting emergency response willingness among other cadres of health providers.

  16. Creating a Culture: A Longitudinal Examination of the Influence of Management and Employee Values on Communication Rule Stability and Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley-Zalabak, Pamela; Morley, Donald Dean

    1994-01-01

    Provides an examination of management and employee values as influential for organizational rule formation. Demonstrates that management values are directly related to employee values but indirectly influence the evolution of organization rules. Supports a view of rule emergence based on management and employee values. (HB)

  17. An Experiment on the Impact of Communication Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun; Ha, Jun Su

    2015-01-01

    Korean government won a contract of nuclear power plants to UAE government in 2010 and nuclear power plants are now under construction in Barakah, UAE. However, with technology transfer and international cooperation, there needs to consider several potential problems due to the differences between two culture of the countries such as language, technical culture and expectation. It is unknown how potential problems can lead to an unsafe plant operation as well. We got to know language problem is the main issue from analyzing the OERs. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and they will operate the NPPs with other countries' operators and managers. Therefore they will have to use English when they communicate each other. The purpose of this paper is to confirm how much operators get stress and how much accuracy is declined when operators communicate together in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safety. As mental workload of human operator is increased, operators get more stress, then the probability of occurring human error may be increased. It will affect bad influence to nuclear power plants safety. There are many factors to make mental workload increased. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of the increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and they may work together with UAE operators. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To find the impact of how much English affects the operators' workload, we did two cases of experiments; one is experiment for diagnosis and the other is experiment for execution

  18. An Experiment on the Impact of Communication Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    Korean government won a contract of nuclear power plants to UAE government in 2010 and nuclear power plants are now under construction in Barakah, UAE. However, with technology transfer and international cooperation, there needs to consider several potential problems due to the differences between two culture of the countries such as language, technical culture and expectation. It is unknown how potential problems can lead to an unsafe plant operation as well. We got to know language problem is the main issue from analyzing the OERs. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and they will operate the NPPs with other countries' operators and managers. Therefore they will have to use English when they communicate each other. The purpose of this paper is to confirm how much operators get stress and how much accuracy is declined when operators communicate together in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safety. As mental workload of human operator is increased, operators get more stress, then the probability of occurring human error may be increased. It will affect bad influence to nuclear power plants safety. There are many factors to make mental workload increased. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of the increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and they may work together with UAE operators. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To find the impact of how much English affects the operators' workload, we did two cases of experiments; one is experiment for diagnosis and the other is experiment for execution.

  19. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    ’s search led him through the work of Castañeda, and back to his own work on hybrid logic: the first made temporal reference philosophically respectable, the second made it technically feasible in a modal framework. With the aid of hybrid logic, Prior built a bridge from a two-dimensional UT calculus...

  20. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  1. Learning, innovation and communication: evolving dynamics of a nuclear emergency plan; Aprendizagem, inovacao e comunicacao: a dinamica evolutica de um plano de emergencia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadros, Andre Luiz Lopes

    2014-07-01

    The technological development inherent to modern societies has placed human beings in situations of choice from a wide variety of possible risks. As a way to protect people and the environment, actions need to be developed in order to reduce possible consequences of the materialisation of these risks. The thermonuclear power generation demand planning in order to prepare answers to possible emergency situations, as even being considered of low probability of occurrence, when they happen have a significant impact on populations and regions of its surroundings. Considering the relevance of this issue, this thesis aimed to identify and analyze the dynamics of preparedness and response to emergency situations in a Nuclear Power Plant, trying to understand its evolution over the time and systematizing it, considering the actors involved, processes of organizational learning, innovation and risk communication, considered as crucial for the development and improvement of emergency plans. Concerning preparedness and response to possible emergency situations in this nuclear plant, it was possible not only to confirm the importance of the three processes studied, but also observe that they can be treated and evaluated in an integrated and systematic way. So, it was presented a model that aims to facilitate the understanding of this perspective and enhance the importance of participation and cooperation between all stakeholders (organizations and the local population) within a socio-participatory perspective. To this end, this exploratory research sought for evidences in documents, participation in planning meetings, direct observation of the general exercises of the CNAAA External Emergency Plan of 2013, interviews with some of the actors involved and through the application of a questionnaire among the population of the Praia Vermelha, in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  2. Measuring risk/benefit perceptions of emerging technologies and their potential impact on communication of public opinion toward science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Andrew R; Cacciatore, Michael A; Scheufele, Dietram A; Shaw, Bret R; Corley, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a systematic comparison of two alternative measures of citizens' perceptions of risks and benefits of emerging technologies. By focusing on two specific issues (nanotechnology and biofuels), we derive several insights for the measurement of public views of science. Most importantly, our analyses reveal that relying on global, single-item measures may lead to invalid inferences regarding external influences on public perceptions, particularly those related to cognitive schema and media use. Beyond these methodological implications, this analysis suggests several reasons why researchers in the area of public attitudes toward science must revisit notions of measurement in order to accurately inform the general public, policymakers, scientists, and journalists about trends in public opinion toward emerging technologies.

  3. Ubiquitous Emergency Medical Service System Based on Wireless Biosensors, Traffic Information, and Wireless Communication Technologies: Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan-Hsu Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a new ubiquitous emergency medical service system (UEMS that consists of a ubiquitous tele-diagnosis interface and a traffic guiding subsystem. The UEMS addresses unresolved issues of emergency medical services by managing the sensor wires for eliminating inconvenience for both patients and paramedics in an ambulance, providing ubiquitous accessibility of patients’ biosignals in remote areas where the ambulance cannot arrive directly, and offering availability of real-time traffic information which can make the ambulance reach the destination within the shortest time. In the proposed system, patient’s biosignals and real-time video, acquired by wireless biosensors and a webcam, can be simultaneously transmitted to an emergency room for pre-hospital treatment via WiMax/3.5 G networks. Performances of WiMax and 3.5 G, in terms of initialization time, data rate, and average end-to-end delay are evaluated and compared. A driver can choose the route of the shortest time among the suggested routes by Google Maps after inspecting the current traffic conditions based on real-time CCTV camera streams and traffic information. The destination address can be inputted vocally for easiness and safety in driving. A series of field test results validates the feasibility of the proposed system for application in real-life scenarios.

  4. Older Adults and Emerging Digital Service Delivery: A Mixed Methods Study on Information and Communications Technology Use, Skills, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Anu; Knudsen, Sine Grønborg

    2017-01-01

    Based on data from a survey (n = 3291) and 14 qualitative interviews among Danish older adults, this study investigated the use of, and attitudes toward, information communications technology (ICT) and the digital delivery of public services. While age, gender, and socioeconomic status were associated with use of ICT, these determinants lost their explanatory power when we controlled for attitudes and experiences. We identified three segments that differed in their use of ICT and attitudes toward digital service delivery. As nonuse of ICT often results from the lack of willingness to use it rather than from material or cognitive deficiencies, policy measures for bridging the digital divide should focus on skills and confidence rather than on access or ability.

  5. Harnessing complex emergent metaphors for effective communication in palliative care: a multimodal perceptual analysis of hospice patients' reports of transcendence experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Bruce L; Lloyd, Linda S

    2014-05-01

    Terminally ill patients can have unexpected, enigmatic, and profound cognitive shifts that significantly alter their perception of themselves, thereby eliminating their fear of death and dying. However, there are no systematic studies into these remarkable yet ineffable transcendence experiences. They therefore remain easily overlooked or viewed as isolated anomalies and therefore excluded from quality-of-life patient considerations. We use a multimodal methodology for identifying the prevalence and thematic properties of complex emergent metaphors patients use to report these experiences. Although previous research has pioneered the importance of understanding conventional or primary metaphors at the end of life, our findings indicate the considerable potential of more complex metaphors for reducing barriers to effective communication in palliative care.

  6. Sets of priors reflecting prior-data conflict and agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.M.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Carvalho, J.P.; Lesot, M.-J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian inference enables combination of observations with prior knowledge in the reasoning process. The choice of a particular prior distribution to represent the available prior knowledge is, however, often debatable, especially when prior knowledge is limited or data are scarce, as then

  7. Inter-organisational communication in civil-military cooperation during complex emergencies: a case study in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietjens, Sebastiaan J H; Verlaan, Kirsten; Zaalberg, Thijs W Brocades; de Boer, Sirp J

    2009-07-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to an improved information management and exchange between humanitarian organisations and military agents in complex emergencies. To do so, a theoretical information management process model was developed and applied to the case of information management between International Security Assistance Force troops and humanitarian organisations such as Cordaid, DACAAR and the International Office for Migration in Kabul, Afghanistan. Based on this analysis the main shortcomings and problems in each stage of the information management process were identified. These include a lack of structured information databases, the absence of identification of information needs, and an over-classification of documents by the military. Using a logical framework analysis, six major improvement tactics were developed, including the creation of more overlap in rotations of personnel, the specification of aims and tasks regarding information management, the improvement of skills and competences of personnel involved, and the introduction of regular joint civil-military evaluations.

  8. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  9. Understanding communication between emergency and consulting physicians: a qualitative study that describes and defines the essential elements of the emergency department consultation-referral process for the junior learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Teresa; Orlich, Donika; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    To define the important elements of an emergency department (ED) consultation request and to develop a simple model of the process. From March to September 2010, 61 physicians (21 emergency medicine [EM], 20 general surgery [GS], 20 internal medicine [IM]; 31 residents, 30 attending staff) were questioned about how junior learners should be taught about ED consultation. Two investigators independently reviewed focus group and interview transcripts using grounded theory to generate an index of themes until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. All transcripts were coded using this index of themes; 30% of transcripts were coded in duplicate to determine the agreement. A total of 245 themes and subthemes were identified. The agreement between reviewers was 77%. Important themes in the process were as follows: initial preparation and review of investigations by EM physician (overall endorsement 87% [range 70-100% in different groups]); identification of involved parties (patient and involved physicians) (100%); hypothesis of patient's diagnosis (75% [range 62-83%]) or question for the consulting physician (70% [range 55-95%]); urgency (100%) and stability (74% [range 62-80%]); questions from the consultant (100%); discussion/communication (98% [range 95-100%]); and feedback (98% [range 95-100%]). These components were reorganized into a simple framework (PIQUED). Each clinical specialty significantly contributed to the model (χ2  =  7.9; p value  =  0.019). Each group contributed uniquely to the final list of important elements (percent contributions: EM, 57%; GS, 41%; IM, 64%). We define important elements of an ED consultation with input from emergency and consulting physicians. We propose a model that organizes these elements into a simple framework (PIQUED) that may be valuable for junior learners.

  10. Linking Indigenous Peoplesr Health-Related Decision Making to Information Communication Technology: Insights from an Emerging Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jahir Uddin Palas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples are being marginalised globally from a socioeconomic perspective and are often excluded from mainstream communities for social and/or geographic reasons. Historically, they tend to have lower living standards, including poor health conditions as compared to the rest of the population. Literature suggests that information and communication technologies (ICTs have the potential to improve awareness about how to improve health and wellbeing. In order to both deepen and broaden the understanding of how ICTs can influence Indigenous peoplesr health-related decision-making, this study has developed a conceptual framework based on the capability approach, focusing on the five dimensions of freedoms suggested by Amartya Sen. Data collected from a sample of members of an Indigenous community in Bangladesh, using a purposive sampling method, were analysed through qualitative techniques to identify ways in which a mobile-based health system have influenced the lives of indigenous people. The findings revealed that the mobile healthcare system explored in this study addressed a number of factors pertaining to indigenous peoplesr quality of life. These findings are useful for policy formulation related to the design and implementation of healthcare strategies in Bangladesh. The conceptual framework, following further validation, could serve as a platform for the advancement of research towards understanding how mobile healthcare systems can improve the wellbeing of individuals in indigenous communities.

  11. Communications in case of radiological emergency: expertise exchange between IPSN and two agricultural branches of the region Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthier, Laure; Pupin, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    A patrimonial audit organized by the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN) has mobilized the expertise of specialists in the nuclear sector and two sensible agricultural branches (salads and sheep) in Province-Alpes-Cote d'Azur (PACA) on the topic of communications among them in case of contamination of region (radiological emergency situation). Having in view their offers and requests of information we have identified the common fields of action involving the four concerned high-ranking actors of different culture: agricultural Administration, agricultural professionals, nuclear sector authorities and elected persons. We have analyzed the actions already completed in this field and established that the Chernobyl accident was a graveyard from the point of view of mobilization and awareness of actors. A project in the future allowed the determination of the stake implied in the relation between IPSN and the two branches and thus to establish the conditions of reaction in case of radiological emergency. Hence, we were able to make propositions to IPSN for building a French agro-nuclear expertise based upon a relation network covering (and even surpassing) the studied agricultural branches

  12. Public radiotelevision Corporations in European Union and the emerging use of Web 2.0 to communicate CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania FERNÁNDEZ LOMBAO FERNÁNDEZ LOMBAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept that defines the model of corporate governance based on responsible, horizontal and interactive accountability as opposed to closed and rail control systems. This type of management has been associated, at an initial moment, with private enterprise in the context of globalization, although gradually being implemented in the public, and consequently in the state-owned broadcasting corporations of the European Union. The three first corporations who have introduced CSR in their management are the BBC in the UK, RTÉ in Ireland, and ZDF in Germany. They develop their strategies in the fields of governance, working conditions, human rights, consumer, good practices in the activity, environment and community involvement. Annually these three corporations publish memories to evaluate the success or failure of their CSR activities, in order to provide detailed information to its stakeholders or interest groups: managers, suppliers, employees, partners, local communities and international communities. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the way in which the three corporations use Web 2.0 through their corporate websites in order to spread their CSR activities. Thus, detail the peculiarities and possibilities offered by each of the spaces 2.0 and how it encourages interaction, understood as a pillar of the `social media 'against excessive elite control prevailing in the traditional media. Also, check if the three public broadcasting corporations use Web 2.0 share CSR as a management philosophy or whether, on the contrary, does not go beyond simple social marketing. To do this, we will identify the spaces dedicated to Corporate Social Responsibility, specify the category in which it is included and the importance given to it in the middle of other content contained in the corporate websites. Overall, we aim to find out if the web 2.0. is the method of choice for corporations to communicate their CSR

  13. A Qualitative Exploration of Oral Communication Apprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Flood, Barbara; Shanahan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has identified communication apprehension (CA), or fear of communicating, as a major factor which inhibits an individual's willingness to communicate and his/her capability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have measured oral communication apprehension of students, there has been little qualitative…

  14. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah

    2013-03-15

    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  15. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modifications not requiring prior authorization. 25.118 Section 25.118 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses General Application Filing Requirements § 25...

  16. Electronic medication complete communication strategy for opioid prescriptions in the emergency department: Rationale and design for a three-arm provider randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Danielle M; Courtney, D Mark; Lank, Patrick M; Cameron, Kenzie A; Russell, Andrea M; Curtis, Laura M; Kim, Kwang-Youn A; Walton, Surrey M; Montague, Enid; Lyden, Abbie L; Gravenor, Stephanie J; Wolf, Michael S

    2017-08-01

    Thousands of people die annually from prescription opioid overdoses; however there are few strategies to ensure patients receive medication risk information at the time of prescribing. To compare the effectiveness of the Emergency Department (ED) Electronic Medication Complete Communication (EMC 2 ) Opioid Strategy (with and without text messaging) to promote safe medication use and improved patient knowledge as compared to usual care. The ED EMC 2 Opioid Strategy consists of 5 automated components to promote safe medication use: 1) physician reminder to counsel, 2) inbox message sent on to the patient's primary care physician, 3) pharmacist message on the prescription to counsel, 4) MedSheet supporting prescription information, and 5) patient-centered Take-Wait-Stop wording of prescription instructions. This strategy will be assessed both with and without the addition of text messages via a three-arm randomized trial. The study will take place at an urban academic ED (annual volume>85,000) in Chicago, IL. Patients being discharged with a new prescription for hydrocodone-acetaminophen will be enrolled and randomized (based on their prescribing physician). The primary outcome of the study is medication safe use as measured by a demonstrated dosing task. Additionally actual safe use, patient knowledge and provider counseling will be measured. Implementation fidelity as well as costs will be reported. The ED EMC 2 Opioid Strategy embeds a risk communication strategy into the electronic health record and promotes medication counseling with minimal workflow disruption. This trial will evaluate the strategy's effectiveness and implementation fidelity as compared to usual care. This trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov with identifier NCT02431793. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prototype development and demonstration for response, emergency staging, communications, uniform management, and evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) : technical report on prototype development and field testing of R.E.S.C.U.M.E. applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This document is the final project technical report for the development and field testing of the Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.) application bundle, with a focus on the Incident Zone (I...

  18. S. 335, the Emerging Telecommunications Technologies Act of 1993. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    A hearing was held on Senate Bill 335, the Emerging Telecommunications Technologies Act of 1993, a bill that requires the federal government to transfer 200 megahertz of spectrum to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for new technologies. Integral to this measure, a bipartisan effort, is a provision that will allow the FCC to use…

  19. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  20. Emergency planning and risk communications in the event of a dam failure : a case study of the Lievre River watershed in Quebec; Planification des interventions et communication des risques en cas de rupture de barrages : cas du bassin de la Riviere du Lievre au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassi, T [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Expertise Hydrique

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided an outline of risk management and communications strategies used by the Centre d'Expertise Hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ) in its dam safety program. The CEHQ manages, monitors and maintains dams in Quebec. Dam monitoring occurs on a yearly basis for high capacity dams. The Quebec Dam Safety Act (DSA) requires that each dam owner whose consequence category is assessed at moderate or higher to draw up an emergency action plan which is then supplied to the municipality where the dam is located. If an emergency occurs, a communication process is established between the CEHQ, the Municipal Civil Security Organization (OMSC) and the Quebec Ministry of Public Security (MSP). The emergency communications procedure was adopted by CEHG to clarify to the roles and responsibilities of each organization involved. CEHG's emergency planning committee is comprised of municipal agencies, dam officials, and a range of other partners. The committee was formed after a study conducted in 1997 which investigated the effects of flooding in the La Lievre watershed. Emergency planning for the municipalities involved has taken place in 6 steps, 5 of which have been put in place. The committee is currently preparing its risk communication strategy as the final stage in its emergency planning strategy. The purpose of the strategy is to both inform and create a greater sense of responsibility among members of the public. Several campaigns have been launched to inform citizens of the potential risks involved if any of the 17 dams which form part of the Lievre basin are breached. Dam officials are also planning to hold public meetings to inform citizens of the municipal zones and buildings at greater risk of flooding. It was concluded that the risk communication strategy adopted by the CEHQ will help municipalities, individuals, and communities to prepare adequate and informed emergency plans. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  2. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  3. Relationship between implementing interpersonal communication and mass education campaigns in emergency settings and use of reproductive healthcare services: evidence from Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Izzeldin Fadl; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Al Rifai, Rami; Vanching, Urnaa

    2015-09-15

    (1) To examine changes in women's awareness and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services in emergency settings following provision of interpersonal communication (IPC) and mass education campaigns, and (2) to describe factors associated with reproductive healthcare service use in internally displaced person (IDP) camps. Three camps containing 88 984 IDPs in Darfur, Sudan. 640 women aged 15-49 who had experienced pregnancy in the camp during the previous 2 years were enrolled in each of two independent cross-sectional surveys 26 months apart. IPC and mass education campaigns where community health workers disseminated information by home/shelter visits, clinic sessions, public meetings and other means to raise awareness and promote reproductive healthcare service use. Awareness of the existence of antenatal care (ANC) and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination services, reception of ANC and TT vaccination, place of delivery and use of postnatal care (PNC). The percentage of women who received home visits, and attended in-clinic sessions and public meetings increased from 61.6% to 86.7%, from 43.0% to 68.8%, and from 3.8% to 39.8%, respectively, between the initial and follow-up surveys. More women were aware of ANC (OR 18.6, 95% CI 13.1 to 26.5) and TT vaccination (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.4 to 4.4) in the follow-up than the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. More women received ≥3 ANC visits (OR 8.8, 95% CI 6.4 to 12.0) and ≥3 doses of TT (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.3), delivered at a healthcare facility (OR 5.4, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.4) and received a PNC visit (OR 5.5, 95% CI 4.0 to 7.7) in the follow-up than in the initial survey, after multivariable adjustment. Awareness about and utilisation of reproductive healthcare services were higher in the follow-up survey. An integrated IPC and mass education campaign is effective for improving women's reproductive health in emergency settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  4. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  5. Infodemiology and infoveillance: framework for an emerging set of public health informatics methods to analyze search, communication and publication behavior on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2009-03-27

    Infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. Infodemiology data can be collected and analyzed in near real time. Examples for infodemiology applications include the analysis of queries from Internet search engines to predict disease outbreaks (eg. influenza), monitoring peoples' status updates on microblogs such as Twitter for syndromic surveillance, detecting and quantifying disparities in health information availability, identifying and monitoring of public health relevant publications on the Internet (eg. anti-vaccination sites, but also news articles or expert-curated outbreak reports), automated tools to measure information diffusion and knowledge translation, and tracking the effectiveness of health marketing campaigns. Moreover, analyzing how people search and navigate the Internet for health-related information, as well as how they communicate and share this information, can provide valuable insights into health-related behavior of populations. Seven years after the infodemiology concept was first introduced, this paper revisits the emerging fields of infodemiology and infoveillance and proposes an expanded framework, introducing some basic metrics such as information prevalence, concept occurrence ratios, and information incidence. The framework distinguishes supply-based applications (analyzing what is being published on the Internet, eg. on Web sites, newsgroups, blogs, microblogs and social media) from demand-based methods (search and navigation behavior), and further distinguishes passive from active infoveillance methods. Infodemiology metrics follow population health relevant events or predict them. Thus, these metrics and methods are potentially useful for public health practice and research, and should be further developed and standardized.

  6. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...

  7. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  8. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  9. Flexible Communication Platform for Crisis Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jiří Barta; Tomáš Ludík; Jiří Urbánek

    2013-01-01

    Topics Disaster and Emergency Management are highly debated among experts. Fast communication will help to deal with emergencies. Problem is with the network connection and data exchange. The paper suggests a solution, which allows possibilities and perspectives of new flexible communication platform to the protection of communication systems for crisis management. This platform is used for everyday communication and communication in crisis situations too.

  10. Mayday system infiniti communicator; Kinkyu tsuho system Infiniti Communicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, Y.; Ito, T.; Isono, Y.; Sekiya, M.; Koizumi, H.; Miyazaki, S.; Kishore, A.; Lawor, D. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    To respond to emergency situations associated with vehicle accidents and mechanical problems on the road, a novel emergency communication system, which combines vehicle electronics, GPS and communication systems, has been developed and is contributing to safety in the U.S. In addition to emergency communication, other features including theft protection, security, convenience features, etc. are to be added to this system in the future. An emergency communication system, `The Infiniti Communicator`, which began its service in March 1998 under such a market trend, is explained in this report. (author)

  11. Riesgo de aparición del efecto boomerang en las comunicaciones contra la violencia The Risk of Emergence of Boomerang Effect in Communication against Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ruiz San Román

    2011-10-01

    some of the actions used by policy makers. But some of the literature and data have shown that its effectiveness is not always exactly as expected. And even some anti-violence messages, can have the opposite effect and reinforce the attitudes of those who thought that violence is necessary. The hypothesis is that most people assume with no problem the core message of anti-violence campaigns. But, and this is the key issue and most problematic, individuals who are more likely to be violent (precisely those who should address such communications could react to anti-violence message in a violent way. There is a tragic paradox: the anti-violence message could increase the predisposition to violent behavior. This would be a case of what some literature called boomerang effect. This article highlights the need for detailed empirical studies on certain effects of media (desensitization, imitation, accessibility and reactance, which could help explain the emergence of the boomerang effect.

  12. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  13. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  14. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  15. Recognising Health Care Assistants' Prior Learning through a Caring Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This article critically appraises a process of recognising prior learning (RPL) using analytical tools from Habermas' theory of communicative action. The RPL process is part of an in-service training program for health care assistants where the goal is to become a licensed practical nurse. Data about the RPL process were collected using interviews…

  16. Using Students' Prior Knowledge to Teach Social Penetration Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chornet-Roses, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Bransford, Brown, and Cocking argue that acknowledging students' prior ideas and beliefs about a subject and incorporating them into the classroom enhances student learning. This article presents an activity which serves to hone three student learning outcomes: analysis of communication, inductive reasoning, and self-reflection. The goal of this…

  17. Speak no evil: The promotional heritage of nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, L.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Gwin addresses the critically important problem of nuclear risk communication. His research suggests that while an orderly evacuation of the population actually at risk may be workable in theory, the more likely occurrence is widespread panic and gridlock. Gwin's research suggests that existing programs of nuclear risk communication actually make this problem worse. He found that those who had received no prior information on what to do in an emergency were significantly more likely to do the right thing (e.g., await further instructions) than those who had received instructions. With utilities themselves retaining the ultimate responsibility for developing communication programs, it is not surprising that they have been reluctant; to issue instructions on what to do in the event of a nuclear accident is to acknowledge that such accidents can and do occur. Gwin makes no attempt to protray the nuclear industry as purposefully dishonest or evil. The bottom line is that programs that combine the communication of emergency plans with a latent desire to reassure the public fail in their primary purpose. As Gwin observes the key issue is one of trust. People see such communications as little more than propaganda put out by industry for its own purposes and do not trust the utilities to tell them what to do in the event of an accident. It will be every man for himself, with potentially disastrous consequences. How do we restore trust in nuclear risk communications? Gwin offers a number of valuable suggestions such as placing communication responsibility in state or local agencies or in FEMA, and to ensure some form of public participation in the development and communication of emergency plans. This is an excellent study of an important and timely subject. It provides a much needed picture of just how badly our plans are likely to work in the next nuclear emergency. Gwin's warning should be heeded by policymakers now, while there is still time

  18. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Spanish Edition); Manual de Operaciones para la Comunicacion de Incidentes y Emergencias. Fecha de Validez: 1 Junio de 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  19. Testing Proficiency in Interpersonal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Burton H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses several hypotheses about the measurement of speech-communication proficiency which are being tested at the University of Hawaii and a testing instrument entitled Dy Comm'' (dyadic communication) which emerged from this research. (DD)

  20. Communication with the Public in a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Emergency Preparedness and Response (Spanish Edition); Comunicacion con el publico en caso de emergencia nuclear o radiologica. Preparacion y respuesta en caso de emergenicia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this publication is to provide practical guidance for public information officers on the preparation for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency, and to fulfil in part functions assigned to the IAEA in the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (Assistance Convention), as well as meeting requirements stated in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SF-1, Fundamental Safety Principles, and in IAEA Safety Standards No. GS-R-2, Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency. Under Article 5(a)(ii) of the Assistance Convention, one function of the IAEA is to collect and disseminate to States Parties and Member States information concerning methodologies, techniques and results of research relating to response to nuclear or radiological emergencies. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-2 establishes the requirements for an adequate level of preparedness for and response to a nuclear or radiological emergency in any State, and specifies that 'All practicable steps shall be taken to provide the public with useful, timely, truthful, consistent and appropriate information throughout a nuclear or radiological emergency' in the response phase. It also requires 'responding to incorrect information and rumours; and responding to requests for information from the public and from the news and information media'. This publication provides guidance in the form of action guides and information sheets that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency. This guidance should be adapted to fit the user State's organizational arrangements, language, terminology, concept of operation and capabilities. This publication is published as part of the IAEA's Emergency Preparedness and Response series and complements the Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency in the parts related to the tasks of public information officers. It takes

  1. The Frontlines of Medicine Project: a proposal for the standardized communication of emergency department data for public health uses including syndromic surveillance for biological and chemical terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthell, Edward N; Cordell, William H; Moorhead, John C; Handler, Jonathan; Feied, Craig; Smith, Mark S; Cochrane, Dennis G; Felton, Christopher W; Collins, Michael A

    2002-04-01

    The Frontlines of Medicine Project is a collaborative effort of emergency medicine (including emergency medical services and clinical toxicology), public health, emergency government, law enforcement, and informatics. This collaboration proposes to develop a nonproprietary, "open systems" approach for reporting emergency department patient data. The common element is a standard approach to sending messages from individual EDs to regional oversight entities that could then analyze the data received. ED encounter data could be used for various public health initiatives, including syndromic surveillance for chemical and biological terrorism. The interlinking of these regional systems could also permit public health surveillance at a national level based on ED patient encounter data. Advancements in the Internet and Web-based technologies could allow the deployment of these standardized tools in a rapid time frame.

  2. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Marty; Frank, Loreeta Leer; Tipton, Stacia; Tinker, Tim L; Vaughan, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    In the event that terrorists use air, water, or food to deliver destructive agents to civilian populations, some groups and populations may be disproportionately at risk and have unique communications needs. Bioterrorism represents an even greater national public health threat if the nation's preparedness and readiness plans do not address the needs and perspectives of, for example, low-income residents, racially and ethnically diverse communities, and other "special populations". The objective of this study was to develop communications strategies to reach special populations in North Dakota before, during, and after a bioterrorism attack or other crisis. To achieve the study objectives, the investigators used telephone interviews and telephone focus groups with organizations that represented special populations. Areas of inquiry included attitudes and concerns about crises, sources of information used and those identified as most credible, methods to reach people during a crisis event, and awareness of and attitudes about the agencies and organizations that affect risk communications.

  3. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  4. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  5. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  6. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  7. Crisis Communication in Public Health Emergencies: The Limits of 'Legal Control' and the Risks for Harmful Outcomes in a Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul

    2018-02-06

    Communication by public authorities during a crisis situation is an essential and indispensable part of any response to a situation that may threaten both life and property. In the online connected world possibilities for such communication have grown further, in particular with the opportunity that social media presents. As a consequence, communication strategies have become a key plank of responses to crises ranging from epidemics to terrorism to natural disaster. Such strategies involve a range of innovative practices on social media. Whilst being able to bring about positive effects, they can also bring about a range of harmful unintended side effects. This include economic harms produced by incorrect information and a range of social harms that can be fuelled by myths and rumours, worsening negative phenomena such as stigmatisation and discrimination. Given the potential for such harms, one might expect that affected or potentially affected individuals would be able to challenge such measures before courts or administrative tribunals. As this paper demonstrates however this is not the case. More often than not seemingly applicable legal approaches are unlikely to be able to engage such methods. This is often because such measures represent activities that are purely expressive in nature and therefore not capable of imposing any binding legal or corporeal changes on individuals. Whilst some forms of soft law may pose requirements for public officials involved in such activities (e.g. codes of conduct or of professional ethics), they are not likely to offer potentially harmed individuals the chance to to challenge particular communication strategies before courts or legal tribunals. The result is that public authorities largely have a free reign to communicate how they wish and do not have to have to comply with a range of requirements (e.g. relating to form and substantive) content) that would in general apply to most forms of official administrative act.

  8. WE-H-201-02: Emerging Models and Opportunities in Global Health for Medical Physicists Powered by Information and Communication Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngwa, W. [Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The desperate need for radiotherapy in low and mid-income countries (LMICs) has been well documented. Roughly 60 % of the worldwide incidence of cancer occurs in these resource-limited settings and the international community alongside governmental and non-profit agencies have begun publishing reports and seeking help from qualified volunteers. However, the focus of several reports has been on how dire the situation is and the magnitude of the problem, leaving most to feel overwhelmed and unsure as to how to help and why to get involved. This session will help to explain the specific ways that Medical Physicists can uniquely assist in this grand effort to help bring radiotherapy to grossly-underserved areas. Not only can these experts fulfill an important purpose, they also can benefit professionally, academically, emotionally and socially from the endeavor. By assisting others worldwide with their skillset, Medical Physicists can end up helping themselves. Learning Objectives: Understand the need for radiotherapy in LMICs. Understand which agencies are seeking Medical Physicists for help in LMICs. Understand the potential research funding mechanisms are available to establish academic collaborations with LMIC researchers/physicians. Understand the potential social and emotional benefits for both the physicist and the LMIC partners when collaborations are made. Understand the potential for collaboration with other high-income scientists that can develop as the physicist partners with other large institutions to assist LMICs. Wil Ngwa - A recent United Nations Study reports that in developing countries more people have access to cell phones than toilets. In Africa, only 63% of the population has access to piped water, yet, 93% of Africans have cell phone service. Today, these cell phones, Skype, WhatsApp and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) connect us in unprecedented ways and are increasingly recognized as powerful, indispensable to global

  9. WE-H-201-02: Emerging Models and Opportunities in Global Health for Medical Physicists Powered by Information and Communication Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngwa, W.

    2016-01-01

    The desperate need for radiotherapy in low and mid-income countries (LMICs) has been well documented. Roughly 60 % of the worldwide incidence of cancer occurs in these resource-limited settings and the international community alongside governmental and non-profit agencies have begun publishing reports and seeking help from qualified volunteers. However, the focus of several reports has been on how dire the situation is and the magnitude of the problem, leaving most to feel overwhelmed and unsure as to how to help and why to get involved. This session will help to explain the specific ways that Medical Physicists can uniquely assist in this grand effort to help bring radiotherapy to grossly-underserved areas. Not only can these experts fulfill an important purpose, they also can benefit professionally, academically, emotionally and socially from the endeavor. By assisting others worldwide with their skillset, Medical Physicists can end up helping themselves. Learning Objectives: Understand the need for radiotherapy in LMICs. Understand which agencies are seeking Medical Physicists for help in LMICs. Understand the potential research funding mechanisms are available to establish academic collaborations with LMIC researchers/physicians. Understand the potential social and emotional benefits for both the physicist and the LMIC partners when collaborations are made. Understand the potential for collaboration with other high-income scientists that can develop as the physicist partners with other large institutions to assist LMICs. Wil Ngwa - A recent United Nations Study reports that in developing countries more people have access to cell phones than toilets. In Africa, only 63% of the population has access to piped water, yet, 93% of Africans have cell phone service. Today, these cell phones, Skype, WhatsApp and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) connect us in unprecedented ways and are increasingly recognized as powerful, indispensable to global

  10. Selecting Communication Channels for Substance Misuse Prevention with At-Risk African-American Emerging Adults Living in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jalie A.; Cheong, JeeWon; Chandler, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Natural health information sources used by African-American emerging adults were investigated to identify sources associated with high and low substance-related risk. Participants (110 males, 234 females; M age = 18.9 years) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling, and structured interviews assessed substance use, sources of health…

  11. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  12. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Diabetic Emergencies Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  13. Risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, Wolf R.; Kiel Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The study on risk communication identifies the deficiencies concerning empirical and theoretical knowledge on objective radiation hazards of the acting personnel (managers, politicians, jurists, etc.) in administrations, governmental agencies, and business management. This is especially problematic with respect to emergency planning and estimations concerning the public behavior. The incident/accident information in Germany is discussed based on the legislative regulations revealing the controversial perception between industry, legislative and public interest. Further topics include the meandering of the modern safety semantics and the public opinion concerning catastrophic risk.

  14. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  15. Patient expectations of emergency dental services: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R

    2004-09-25

    To describe the expectations of walk-in patients seeking emergency dental care out-of-hours. Consecutive patients attending two emergency dental clinics at weekends were interviewed prior to seeing the dentist. The audio-recorded interview transcripts were analysed using the "framework" method of applied qualitative data analysis. Forty-four walk-in emergency dental patients at a community-based dental clinic and a dental hospital emergency clinic at the weekend. In addition to symptom relief, the main desired outcome for emergency dental patients may be informational and psychological--especially reassurance that the problem is not serious, and reduced uncertainty about the cause of the pain. In general, patients' stated expectations for specific treatments (such as antibiotics, or tooth extraction) were not absolute: rather, they implied these expectations were conditional upon the dentist deciding they were necessary. Emergency dental services, some of which are still dominantly treatment-focused, should reflect that many emergency dental attenders want advice and reassurance as much as relief from symptoms. This reinforces the importance of effective and sympathetic dentist-patient communication within emergency or out-of-hours consultations. It also implies that dentists' skills in listening, explaining and reassuring should be captured in any patient satisfaction or outcome measure designed for this patient group.

  16. Communication Apprehension Among Business and Accounting Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shanahan, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In light of the importance of effective communication in today‟s global, dynamic business world, accounting and business education programmes place considerable emphasis on the development of communication competencies among students. However, not all students appear to benefit as desired from communication skills development. Prior research has identified communication apprehension, or fear of communicating, as a major factor which inhibits an individual‟s willingness to communicate and his/...

  17. Oral Communication Apprehension among International Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fatemeh; Puteh, Marlia

    2018-01-01

    Communication apprehension has been identified as a major factor which inhibits an individual's willingness to communicate and his/her ability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have investigated oral communication apprehension among undergraduate students, there has been little research exploring this phenomenon…

  18. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  19. Emergency department performance measures updates: proceedings of the 2014 emergency department benchmarking alliance consensus summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiler, Jennifer L; Welch, Shari; Pines, Jesse; Schuur, Jeremiah; Jouriles, Nick; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to review and update key definitions and metrics for emergency department (ED) performance and operations. Forty-five emergency medicine leaders convened for the Third Performance Measures and Benchmarking Summit held in Las Vegas, February 21-22, 2014. Prior to arrival, attendees were assigned to workgroups to review, revise, and update the definitions and vocabulary being used to communicate about ED performance and operations. They were provided with the prior definitions of those consensus summits that were published in 2006 and 2010. Other published definitions from key stakeholders in emergency medicine and health care were also reviewed and circulated. At the summit, key terminology and metrics were discussed and debated. Workgroups communicated online, via teleconference, and finally in a face-to-face meeting to reach consensus regarding their recommendations. Recommendations were then posted and open to a 30-day comment period. Participants then reanalyzed the recommendations, and modifications were made based on consensus. A comprehensive dictionary of ED terminology related to ED performance and operation was developed. This article includes definitions of operating characteristics and internal and external factors relevant to the stratification and categorization of EDs. Time stamps, time intervals, and measures of utilization were defined. Definitions of processes and staffing measures are also presented. Definitions were harmonized with performance measures put forth by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) for consistency. Standardized definitions are necessary to improve the comparability of EDs nationally for operations research and practice. More importantly, clear precise definitions describing ED operations are needed for incentive-based pay-for-performance models like those developed by CMS. This document provides a common language for front-line practitioners, managers, health policymakers, and researchers.

  20. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Coskun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  1. The Survey on Near Field Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-06-05

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  2. Emerging chronic non-communicable diseases in rural communities of Northern Ethiopia: evidence using population-based verbal autopsy method in Kilite Awlaelo surveillance site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldearegawi, Berhe; Ashebir, Yemane; Gebeye, Ejigu; Gebregziabiher, Tesfay; Yohannes, Mekonnen; Mussa, Seid; Berhe, Haftu; Abebe, Zerihun

    2013-12-01

    In countries where most deaths are outside health institutions and medical certification of death is absent, verbal autopsy (VA) method is used to estimate population level causes of death. VA data were collected by trained lay interviewers for 409 deaths in the surveillance site. Two physicians independently assigned cause of death using the International Classification of Diseases manual. In general, infectious and parasitic diseases accounted for 35.9% of death, external causes 15.9%, diseases of the circulatory system 13.4% and perinatal causes 12.5% of total deaths. Mortalities attributed to maternal causes and malnutrition were low, 0.2 and 1.5%, respectively. Causes of death varied by age category. About 22.1, 12.6 and 8.4% of all deaths of under 5-year-old children were due to bacterial sepsis of the newborn, acute lower respiratory infections such as neonatal pneumonia and prematurity including respiratory distress, respectively. For 5-15-year-old children, accidental drowning and submersion, accounting for 34.4% of all deaths in this age category, and accidental fall, accounting for 18.8%, were leading causes of death. Among 15-49-year-old adults, HIV/AIDS (16.3%) and tuberculosis (12.8%) were commonest causes of death, whereas tuberculosis and cerebrovascular diseases were major killers of those aged 50 years and above. In the rural district, mortality due to chronic non-communicable diseases was very high. The observed magnitude of death from chronic non-communicable disease is unlikely to be unique to this district. Thus, formulation of chronic disease prevention and control strategies is recommended.

  3. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  4. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  5. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  6. Astronauts Parise and Jernigan check helmets prior to training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in training versions of the Shuttle partial-pressure launch and entry suits, payload specialist Dr. Ronald A Parise (left) and astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, payload commander, check over their helmets prior to a training session. Holding the helmets is suit expert Alan M. Rochford, of NASA. The two were about to join their crew mates in a session of emergency bailout training at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF).

  7. Exercise physiologists emerge as allied healthcare professionals in the era of non-communicable disease pandemics: a report from Australia, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Birinder S; Robergs, Robert A; Askew, Christopher D

    2014-07-01

    Exercise can be prescribed to prevent, manage, and treat many leading non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and underlying risk factors. However, surprisingly, Australia is one of only a few countries where allied healthcare professionals with specialized university education and training in exercise prescription and delivery provide services within a government-run healthcare system (Medicare). This article presents data on Medicare-funded services provided by accredited exercise physiologists (AEPs) from the inclusion of the profession in the allied healthcare model (January, 2006) to the end of 2012. We conceptualize these data in relation to current NCD trends, and outline recommendations that can potentially help curtail the current chronic disease burden through the further integration of exercise professionals into the healthcare system in Australia, and internationally. From 2006 to 2012, the number of AEPs in Australia has increased 563 %. This rise in AEPs has been paralleled by increased delivery of services for eligible patients with a chronic medical condition (+614 %), type 2 diabetes mellitus (+211 to 230 %), and of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent (+343 %). These trends, which were developed through the "early years" of the profession, are encouraging and suggest that AEPs have taken up a vital position within the healthcare system. However, the total number of services provided by AEPs currently remains very low in relation to the prevalence of overweight-obesity and type 2 diabetes in Australia. Furthermore, services for Aboriginal Australians are very low considering the extreme burden of chronic diseases in these vulnerable populations. We provide some recommendations that may help the exercise physiology profession play a greater role in tackling the NCD burden and shift the healthcare model in a direction that is more proactive and focused on disease prevention and health, including the early identification and treatment of major

  8. Divergent Priors and well Behaved Bayes Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDivergent priors are improper when defined on unbounded supports. Bartlett's paradox has been taken to imply that using improper priors results in ill-defined Bayes factors, preventing model comparison by posterior probabilities. However many improper priors have attractive properties

  9. Short communication: Emergence of a new race of leaf rust with combined virulence to Lr14a and Lr72 genes on durum wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleiman, N.H; Solis, I.; Soliman, M.H.; Sillero, J.C.; Villegas, D.; Alvaro, F.; Royo, C.; Serra, J.; Ammar, K.; Martínez-Moreno, F.

    2016-11-01

    Leaf rust is a foliar disease caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina that may severely reduce durum wheat yield. Resistance to this pathogen is common in modern durum germplasm but is frequently based on Lr72 and Lr14a. After accounts of races with virulence to Lr14a gene in France in 2000, the present study reports the detection in 2013 for the first time of a new race with virulence to Lr14a and Lr72. The aim of this work was to characterize the virulence pattern of four Spanish isolates with virulence to Lr14a, and to discuss the consequences of this presence. Rusted leaves from cultivars ‘Don Jaime’ (Lr14a) and ‘Gallareta’ (Lr72) were collected in 2013 in the field at two Spanish sites, one in the south (near Cadiz) and another in the north (near Girona). Spores from single pustule for each cultivar and site were multiplied on susceptible cultivar ‘Don Rafael’. Then, the four isolates were inoculated on a set of 19 isogenic lines Thatcher to characterize their virulence spectrum. All isolates presented the same virulence pattern. They were virulent on both Lr14a and Lr72 and the race was named DBB/BS. This race was very similar to those reported in 2009-11, but with added virulence to Lr14a. The resistance based on Lr14a has therefore been overcome in Spain, by a new race that has likely emerged via stepwise mutation from the local predominating races. This information is important to guide breeders in their breeding programmes and gene deployment strategies. (Author)

  10. A Unified Electronic Tool for CPR and Emergency Treatment Escalation Plans Improves Communication and Early Collaborative Decision Making for Acute Hospital Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mae; Whyte, Martin; Loveridge, Robert; Yorke, Richard; Naleem, Shairana

    2017-01-01

    The National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcomes and Death (NCEPOD) report 'Time to Intervene' (2012) stated that in a substantial number of cases, resuscitation is attempted when it was thought a 'do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation' (DNACPR) decision should have been in place. Early decisions about CPR status and advance planning about limits of care now form part of national recommendations by the UK Resuscitation Council (2016). Treatment escalation plans (TEP) document what level of treatment intervention would be appropriate if a patient were to become acutely unwell and were not previously formally in place at King's College Hospital. A unifying paper based form was successfully piloted in the Acute Medical Unit, introducing the TEP and bringing together decision making around both treatment escalation and CPR status. Subsequently an electronic order-set for CPR status and treatment escalation was launched in April 2015 which led to a highly visible CPR and escalation status banner on the main screen at the top of the patient's electronic record. Ultimately due to further iterations in the electronic process by December 2016, all escalation decisions for acutely admitted patients now have high quality supporting, explanatory documentation with 100% having TEPs in place. There is now widespread multidisciplinary engagement in the process of defining limits of care for acutely admitted medical patients within the first 14 hours of admission and a strategy for rolling this process out across all the divisions of the hospital through our Deteriorating Patient Group (DPG). The collaborative design with acute medical, palliative and intensive care teams and the high visibility provided by the electronic process in the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) has enhanced communication with these teams, patients, nursing staff and the multidisciplinary team by ensuring clarity through a universally understood process about escalation and CPR. Clarity and

  11. Iterated random walks with shape prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    the parametric probability density function. Then, random walks is performed iteratively aligning the prior with the current segmentation in every iteration. We tested the proposed approach with natural and medical images and compared it with the latest techniques with random walks and shape priors......We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate....... The experiments suggest that this method gives promising results for medical and natural images....

  12. Theophylline toxicity leading to suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kapoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior is a common psychiatric emergency and is associated with psychiatric illness and history of prior suicide attempts. Neuropsychiatric manifestations related to theophylline toxicity are well described in literature. We report a case of theophylline toxicity manifesting as suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness.

  13. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  14. Health communication in primary health care -a case study of ICT development for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Amina Jama; Olander, Ewy; Eriksén, Sara; Haglund, Bo Ja

    2013-01-30

    Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate

  15. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  16. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  17. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  18. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  19. Incorporating priors for EEG source imaging and connectivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu eLei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography source imaging (ESI is a useful technique to localize the generators from a given scalp electric measurement and to investigate the temporal dynamics of the large-scale neural circuits. By introducing reasonable priors from other modalities, ESI reveals the most probable sources and communication structures at every moment in time. Here, we review the available priors from such techniques as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, functional MRI (fMRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. The modality's specific contribution is analyzed from the perspective of source reconstruction. For spatial priors, such as EEG-correlated fMRI, temporally coherent networks and resting-state fMRI are systematically introduced in the ESI. Moreover, the fiber tracking (diffusion tensor imaging, DTI and neuro-stimulation techniques (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS are also introduced as the potential priors, which can help to draw inferences about the neuroelectric connectivity in the source space. We conclude that combining EEG source imaging with other complementary modalities is a promising approach towards the study of brain networks in cognitive and clinical neurosciences.

  20. The Comprehensive Emergent Literacy Model

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh Rohde

    2015-01-01

    The early skills of Emergent Literacy include the knowledge and abilities related to the alphabet, phonological awareness, symbolic representation, and communication. However, existing models of emergent literacy focus on discrete skills and miss the perspective of the surrounding environment. Early literacy skills, including their relationship to one another, and the substantial impact of the setting and context, are ...

  1. Tactile Communications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communication with the crew is vital and must be maintained regardless of environmental conditions and crew activity. Current spacecraft communication systems depend...

  2. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  3. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-05-25

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users\\' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  4. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  5. Win-Win Development Strategy of Emergency Communication to Balance Social Responsibility and Economic Beneift for Enterprise%兼顾企业社会责任与经济效益双赢的应急通信发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓坤南

    2015-01-01

    In order to explore the development of emergency communication in market environment, countermeasures of emergency communication’s mobile networking, service productization, “O2O” marketing business, volunteer service system were analyzed. In addition, the developmental strategy of emergency communication to reduce cost, increase efifcacy and cultivate talents was researched.%为摸索市场化环境下应急通信发展,分析了应急通信网组网移动化、应急通信服务产品化、“O2O”营销应急通信服务、应急通信队伍志愿服务制等应对方法,研究了降本增效、注重培养人才的应急通信发展策略。

  6. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  7. Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of Gaussian priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, van der A.W.; Zanten, van J.H.; Clarke, B.; Ghosal, S.

    2008-01-01

    We review definitions and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces attached to Gaussian variables and processes, with a view to applications in nonparametric Bayesian statistics using Gaussian priors. The rate of contraction of posterior distributions based on Gaussian priors can be described

  8. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  9. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322847796

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior

  10. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  11. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  12. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor

  13. Theoretical Approaches to Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.

    Political communication appears to be emerging as a theoretical and methodological academic area of research within both speech-communication and political science. Five complimentary approaches to political science (Machiavellian, iconic, ritualistic, confirmational, and dramatistic) may be viewed as a series of variations which emphasize the…

  14. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  15. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  16. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  17. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  18. Emergency preparedness: a comprehensive plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company (ARHCO) has developed comprehensive plans for coping with emergencies ranging from criticality to civil disturbance. A unique notification system provides for immediate contact with key personnel by using a central communications center, crash alarm warning networks, and a continuing telephone cascade notification system. There is also the capability of immediately contacting other contractor key personnel. Certain jobs have been predetermined as necessary for coping with an emergency. An emergency staff consisting of responsible management, with alternates, has been preselected to automatically fill these jobs when notified. Control centers for headquarters and ''field'' are established with telephone and radio communication capabilities and are also supplied with some source materials to assist initiating plans for containing an emergency for recovery. A comprehensive emergency procedures manual has been developed, which contains information of company-wide application and procedures for specific facilities covering almost all accident situations

  19. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  20. Social networks: communication and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual social networks have brought about the possibility for open and plural debate, where all those with the necessary literacy skills and means are able to participate in the creation and dissemination of information. By pressing political agents and determining the “agenda” of a lot of the media, users demonstrate that we stand at an ideal platform for creating both real social movements and more or less fleeting events, as manifestos or virtual campaigns. Nonetheless, in order to understand the role of virtual social networks in today’s world, we need to answer some prior questions. Are we facing a new communication model, whereby the product of “disinterested” interactivity creates an aura of confidence in disseminated information, often quite higher that that seen in the “old media”? Will that interactivity be a chance to fight-off citizens’ growing detachment with regard to the “res publica”? Will we find in citizen-made journalism, transmitted through virtual social networks, the consecration of a true fourth power? On the other hand, can we call the distinct collective movements we have seen emerging true “social movements”?The present article aims to examine this and other issues that come to the fore in the intricate social world of cyberspace.

  1. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers...

  2. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  3. Prior Authorization of PMDs Demonstration - Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS implemented a Prior Authorization process for scooters and power wheelchairs for people with Fee-For-Service Medicare who reside in seven states with high...

  4. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  5. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  6. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)

  7. ISEM: Europe's ESPRIT support for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.

    1991-01-01

    The CEC-supported ISEM project to develop Information technology Support for Emergency Management was started in 1989. Two specific applications to demonstrate the ISEM system were selected; a NPP accident and a chemical plant emergency. An Emergency Management System provides user-friendly facilities for communication between the numerous local, regional and national organizations

  8. Risk communication importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: raqueldalledonesiqueira@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  9. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  10. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability

  11. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  12. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  13. Fiber Optic Communications Technology. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph A.

    Fiber optic communications (communications over very pure glass transmission channels of diameter comparable to a human hair) is an emerging technology which promises most improvements in communications capacity at reasonable cost. The fiber transmission system offers many desirable characteristics representing improvements over conventional…

  14. The Impact of Technology on Superintendent Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Victoria L.

    2009-01-01

    Technological advances have revolutionized the communication patterns and behaviors of district leaders. In this information-based society, the ability of the leader to select the form of communication most appropriate to the context and situation qualifies his or her effectiveness at communication. The findings emerging from this study highlight…

  15. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  16. Stereotypes Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  17. Communication Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Robin Lynn

    2010-01-01

    When the author recently turned her attention to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards," she was startled to see communication as key. She adjusted her teaching to meet the NCTM Communication Standard and promote communication in her classroom by providing a safe environment, developing discourse and…

  18. Ripple Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  19. Quantifying Information Flow During Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Song, Chaoming; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P.; Wang, Dashun

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics.

  20. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  1. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  2. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  3. Tuning in and catching on? Examining the relationship between pandemic communication and awareness and knowledge of MERS in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; McCloud, Rachel F; Bigman, Cabral A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale influenza outbreaks over the last decade, such as SARS and H1N1, have brought to global attention the importance of emergency risk communication and prompted the international community to develop communication responses. Since pandemic outbreaks are relatively infrequent, there is a dearth of evidence addressing the following questions: (i) Have the resources invested in strategic and routine communication for past pandemic outbreaks yielded public health preparedness benefits? (ii) Have past efforts sensitized people to pay attention to new pandemic threats? The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) that was followed closely by major media outlets in the USA provides an opportunity to examine the relationship between exposure to public communication about epidemics and public awareness and knowledge about new risks. In December, 2013, we surveyed a nationally representative sample of 627 American adults and examined the associations between people's awareness to prior pandemics and their awareness of and knowledge about MERS. Awareness of prior pandemics was significantly associated with awareness and knowledge of MERS. The most common sources from which people first heard about MERS were also identified. Communication inequalities were observed between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic positions, suggesting a need for more effective pandemic communication. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  6. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  7. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  8. GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA PURAN (DASCĂLU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disciplinary research is the first phase of the disciplinary action. According to art. 251 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code no disciplinary sanction may be ordered before performing the prior disciplinary research.These regulations provide an exception: the sanction of written warning. The current regulations in question, kept from the old regulation, provides a protection for employees against abuses made by employers, since sanctions are affecting the salary or the position held, or even the development of individual employment contract. Thus, prior research of the fact that is a misconduct, before a disciplinary sanction is applied, is an essential condition for the validity of the measure ordered. Through this study we try to highlight some general issues concerning the characteristics, processes and effects of prior disciplinary research.

  9. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  10. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, Byeong Ho; Baek, Jeong Hun

    1998-01-01

    The contents of this book are notion of data communications : summary on data communication, data transmission, data communications system, data transmission technology, data conversion, data link control and control over error of data transmission and exchange of data communications network in the first part, computer communications network architecture : data communications architecture, OSI model, lower layer of OSI model, upper layer of OSI model and distributed surroundings in the second part, data information networking : LAN, FDDI, 100 Base T, DQDB and Frame Relay in the third part, Public Network : PSDN, N-ISDN, B-ISDN in the fourth part, internet and PC communication : emulator program, Binary file, BBS, E-mail service and user on-line service in the last part.

  11. Can natural selection encode Bayesian priors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Marshall, James A R

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly. Each individual should evolve to behave as if updating a prior estimate of the unknown environment variable to a posterior estimate as it collects evidence. The prior estimate represents the decision-maker's default belief regarding the environment variable, i.e., the individual's default 'worldview' of the environment. This default belief has been hypothesised to be shaped by natural selection and represent the environment experienced by the individual's ancestors. We present an evolutionary model to explore how accurately Bayesian prior estimates can be encoded genetically and shaped by natural selection when decision-makers learn from uncertain information. The model simulates the evolution of a population of individuals that are required to estimate the probability of an event. Every individual has a prior estimate of this probability and collects noisy cues from the environment in order to update its prior belief to a Bayesian posterior estimate with the evidence gained. The prior is inherited and passed on to offspring. Fitness increases with the accuracy of the posterior estimates produced. Simulations show that prior estimates become accurate over evolutionary time. In addition to these 'Bayesian' individuals, we also

  12. The relation between prior knowledge and students' collaborative discovery learning processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijlers, Aaltje H.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we investigate how prior knowledge influences knowledge development during collaborative discovery learning. Fifteen dyads of students (pre-university education, 15-16 years old) worked on a discovery learning task in the physics field of kinematics. The (face-to-face) communication

  13. Communication that heals: mindful communication practices from palliative care leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omilion-Hodges, Leah M; Swords, Nathan M

    2016-01-01

    Though research has begun to highlight the centrality of communication in palliative care, studies have yet to focus on the use of mindful communication. Mindful communication is associated with increases in patient care and decreases in physician burnout. Through in-depth, semi-structured interviews the authors sought mindful communication practices from palliative care leaders in American Hospital Association Circle of Life® award-wining units. Four key mindful communication practices emerged: Know your audience, ask questions, discard scripts, and recognize your role. The discussion articulates how key mindful communication practices may be used as a stage model, where key practices may be used individually or in concert, by sole practitioners or within interdisciplinary teams and by new and seasoned clinicians. Theoretical contributions and areas for future inquiry are also discussed.

  14. Health professional-patient communication practices in East Asia: An integrative review of an emerging field of research and practice in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, and Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Jack K H; Chan, E Angela; Wang, Sophie; Slade, Diana

    2018-01-31

    To provide an integrative review of literature on health communication in East Asia and detail culturally-specific influences. Using PRISMA model, search of PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, ERIC and CINAHL databases were conducted for studies between January 2000 and March 2017, using the terms 'clinician/health professional-patient', 'nurse/doctor-patient, 'communication' and 'Asia'. 38 studies were included: Mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. The existing body of research on clinician patient communication in East Asia can be classified: 1) understanding the roles and expectations of the nurse, clinician, patient, and family in clinician-patient consultations: a) nurse-patient communication; b) doctor-patient communication; c) the role of family member; and 2) factors affecting quality of care: d) cultural attitudes towards death and terminal illnesses; e) communication preferences affecting trust, decision-making and patient satisfaction; f) the extent to which patient centred care is being implemented in practice; and g) communication practices in multilingual/multi-disciplinary environments. The review detailed the complexity and heterogeneity of clinician-patient communication across East Asia. The studies reviewed indicate that research in East Asia is starting to move beyond a preference for Western-based communication practices. There is a need to consider local culture in understanding and interpreting medical encounters in East Asia. The paper highlights the need for a specific culturally-appropriate model of health communication in East Asia which may significantly improve relationships between clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recognition of Prior Learning: The Participants' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.

    2016-01-01

    The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…

  16. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  17. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  18. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an ...

  19. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available behavioural invariances in the domain, by identifying actions to be prioritised in local contexts, invariant to task details. This information has the effect of greatly increasing the speed of solving new problems. We formalise this notion as action priors...

  20. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  1. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  2. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  3. 44 CFR 1.6 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ex parte communications. 1.6 Section 1.6 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.6 Ex parte communications. In...

  4. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  5. Quantum communication with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)

  6. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  7. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  8. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...... is presented as a postcultural prism composed by practice theory (Schatzki 1996, Reckwitz 2002, Nicolini 2012, Kemmis 2012), Intersectionality (Brah, Phoenix, Collins Rahsack) and positioning theory (Harre & Langenhove 1998)....

  9. Emergency control centers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidance is provided for the development and implementation of emergency control centers for nuclear power plants, including nuclear plant control room, nuclear plant company headquarters, emergency control center, and nuclear plant alternate emergency control center. Requirements and recommendations are presented for the mission, communications, instrumentation and equipment associated with each type of control center. Decisional aids, manning requirements and resources are also given; the decision aids cover both the accident assessment and protective action areas. Both normal and alternate means of communications are considered. Off-site emergency control centers, although not covered in the strict sense by this standard, are considered in an appendix

  10. The Student Volunteer Army: a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Sally; Mills, Colleen E

    2017-10-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to understanding of the factors associated with an effective emergent emergency response organisation and to provide new insights into this understudied area. It examines, through an analysis of a range of textual resources, the emergence and re-emergence of the Student Volunteer Army (SVA) during the devastating earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010-11. This evaluation is conducted in relation to the four key features of an effective emergency response organisation: adaptability; direction; leadership; and communication. In addition, the paper aims to further understanding of 'emergency entrepreneurship' and thus of the values and strategies that underpin social entrepreneur organisations in times of normalcy. The paper concludes that the unique position of the SVA as a 'repeat emergent' emergency response organisation enabled it to innovate continually and to improve repeatedly its systems, relationships, and image, such that it exhibited features common to emergent and established emergency response organisations. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Information and Communication Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaila, Heidi Kristiina

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and development of the information and communication sector has been rapid in rural Viet Nam over 2006–14, and a true information and communication technology (ICT) revolution has taken place. This chapter examines household ownership and use of ICT. It studies the geographic and de...... wealthier and more educated than households with phones on average, the adoption patterns of these two technologies are very similar. ICT adoption is driven by education and income, as well as wealth and ownership of other technology.......The emergence and development of the information and communication sector has been rapid in rural Viet Nam over 2006–14, and a true information and communication technology (ICT) revolution has taken place. This chapter examines household ownership and use of ICT. It studies the geographic...... and demographic differences across ownership of technology, especially phones and the Internet, and the determinants of ICT adoption. First, it finds that expansion of telephones has been much more rapid than the expansion of the Internet. Second, it finds that even though in 2014 internet users were relatively...

  12. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  13. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  14. Transcending transmission Towards a constitutive perspective on CSR communication

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeneborn Dennis; Trittin Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Extant research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication primarily relies on a transmission model of communication that treats organizations and communication as distinct phenomena. This approach has been criticized for neglecting the formative role of communication in the emergence of organizations. This paper seeks to propose to reconceptualize CSR communication by drawing on the “communication constitutes organizations” (CCO) perspective. Design/methodology/approach...

  15. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  16. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  17. Emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogensen, A.C. [Demand Data Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    This paper addressed the issue of how the petroleum industry can prepare itself with regards to the imminent changes in communication mechanisms as the Internet and World-Wide-Web are being accepted as the norm for all technical and scientific information services. In particular, the paper focused on new technologies for data acquisition, well site monitoring and data analysis where information is gathered from a remote site to the office. The paper also reviewed modeling concepts which show that secure and dependable data communications can disseminate information to personnel within an organization to make informed decisions and reduce response time. The topic is particularly relevant to the petroleum industry as fluctuations in oil and gas pricing, global competition, environmental policy, and government monetary and fiscal policy have forced companies to change the way they conduct business. Security issues associated with data communication were also addressed. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  18. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  19. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  20. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  1. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  2. Bridging cultures: Nonprofit, church, and emergency management agency collaboration after the May 2013 Oklahoma tornado outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Haley; Pudlo, Jason

    Community-based organizations, such as nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and churches, play an important role in helping individuals and communities bounce back after a disaster. The nature of disasters requires organizations across sectors to partner together to provide recovery services; however, collaboration is difficult even in times of stability and requires trust and communication to be built through prior collaborative relationships. These prior relationships rarely exist between the majority of the nonprofit sector, churches, and existing emergency management structures. Furthermore, these organizations often have very different cultures, values, and norms that can further hinder successful postdisaster collaboration. The authors use data collected from interviews with nonprofit and church leaders involved in recovery efforts after a series of devastating storms impacted central Oklahoma in 2013 to understand how well nonprofit and church leaders perceive their organizations collaborated with each other and with government and emergency management agencies in response and recovery efforts. Interview data suggest that NPOs and churches without a primary or secondary mission of disaster response and recovery have a difficult time collaborating with organizations involved in existing emergency management structures. The authors suggest that nonprofits with a primary or secondary purpose in disaster response are a potential bridge between other nonprofits and emergency management agencies.

  3. Mind wandering during film comprehension: The role of prior knowledge and situational interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Kristopher; Mills, Caitlin; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the occurrence and factors that influence mind wandering (MW) in the domain of film comprehension. The cascading model of inattention assumes that a stronger mental representation (i.e., a situation model) during comprehension results in less MW. Accordingly, a suppression hypothesis suggests that MW would decrease as a function of having the knowledge of the plot of a film prior to viewing, because the prior-knowledge would help to strengthen the situation model during comprehension. Furthermore, an interest-moderation hypothesis would predict that the suppression effect of prior-knowledge would only emerge when there was interest in viewing the film. In the current experiment, 108 participants either read a short story that depicted the plot (i.e., prior-knowledge condition) or read an unrelated story of equal length (control condition) prior to viewing the short film (32.5 minutes) entitled The Red Balloon. Participants self-reported their interest in viewing the film immediately before the film was presented. MW was tracked using a self-report method targeting instances of MW with metacognitive awareness. Participants in the prior-knowledge condition reported less MW compared with the control condition, thereby supporting the suppression hypothesis. MW also decreased over the duration of the film, but only for those with prior-knowledge of the film. Finally, prior-knowledge effects on MW were only observed when interest was average or high, but not when interest was low.

  4. Plasmonics for emerging quantum technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2017-01-01

    to exponentially increase computing power, quantum computing opens up possibilities to carry out calculations that ordinary computers could not finish in the lifetime of the Universe, while optical communications based on quantum cryptography become completely secure. At the same time, the emergence of Big Data...

  5. Electronic Whiteboards in Emergency Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    As more and more Emergency Departments replace the manual dry-erase whiteboards used for coordination of patient care and communication among clinicians with IT-based electronic whiteboards a need to clarify the effects of implementing these systems arises. This paper seeks to answer this questio...

  6. Championship Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerveer, Beth; Butterick, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses team development and focuses specifically on championship communication and team-building activities. Team development takes time and the process typically occurs in stages. Regardless of the sport or what the competitive field may look like, communication is an often overlooked, yet vital element in cultivating a…

  7. Effective communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) the responsibilities assigned to public affairs (PA) include communications to two main groups: institutional representatives and the general public. Research data indicates that these two populations perceive risk in different fashions. This paper discusses these distinct perceptions and how the communication programs at WIPP have been designed to accommodate these two differences

  8. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  9. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  10. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  11. Support for Resilient Communications in Future Disaster Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Gelenbe, Erol; Lent, Ricardo; Sakellari, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Disasters are often accompanied by damage to critical infrastructure, including (wireless) communications infrastructure. Our solution for emergency communications is based on advanced networks: Generalized Access Networks (GANs), Body Area Networks (BANs) and Vehicular Networks, to support dynamic,

  12. Expressive Communication and Human Development in the New Broadband Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, John

    2004-01-01

    An understanding of the structure and functions of expressive communication in face-to-face communication and audiovisual media can inform the development of new educational services for human development across cultures in the emerging broadband environment.

  13. Optical Communications Channel Combiner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.

  14. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent

  15. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-07

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

  16. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  17. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 44 CFR 206.225 - Emergency work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... communications. Emergency communications necessary for the purpose of carrying out disaster relief functions may... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Public Assistance Eligibility § 206.225... economically eliminates the need for temporary housing. The work will be limited to that necessary for the...

  19. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  20. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  1. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  2. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  3. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  4. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  5. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  6. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  7. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  8. State planning for winter energy emergencies: workshop materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Workshops were conducted in 5 cities to improve communications between the states and the Federal government so that both might be better prepared to avoid or mitigate the impacts of energy emergencies during the winter; to provide a forum for the exchange of technical information regarding selected energy demand restraint measures which could be implemented by individual states or regions in an energy emergency; and to promote the concept of pre-crisis contingency planning and strategy development, with particuliar emphasis on the need for interstate coordination of emergency plans. The major topics addressed by the discussion guide involved net energy use impact, implementation procedures and problems, and social and economic effects. The Task Force performed extensive research into the technical considerations and prior experience in implementing each of the demand restraint measures selected for discussion. Results and conclusions are summarized for reduction of thermostat setting for space conditioning and water heating; reduction in hours of operation and lighting in commercial establishments; reduction in hours of operation in school, and industrial fuel substitution. (MCW)

  9. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  10. New Freedom through Medical Devices Based on the Global System for Mobile Communications: A Prospective Survey of 620 Users of the Swiss Limmex Emergency Wristwatch-An Original Study from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Malek; Ozgüler, Onur S; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2013-01-01

    About 500,000 elderly people in Switzerland suffer a fall each year. Thus medical attention and help are essential for these people, who mostly live alone without a caregiver. Only 3% of people aged over 65 in Switzerland use an emergency system. Personal telehealth devices allow patients to receive enough information about the appropriate treatment, as well as followup with their doctors and reports of any emergency, in the absence of any caregiver. This increases their quality of life in a cost-effective fashion. "Limmex"-a new medical emergency watch-was launched in Switzerland in 2011 and has been a great commercial success. In this paper, we give a brief review of this watch technology, along with the results of a survey of 620 users conducted by the Department of Emergency Medicine in Bern.

  11. New Freedom through Medical Devices Based on the Global System for Mobile Communications: A Prospective Survey of 620 Users of the Swiss Limmex Emergency Wristwatch—An Original Study from Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Tabbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available About 500,000 elderly people in Switzerland suffer a fall each year. Thus medical attention and help are essential for these people, who mostly live alone without a caregiver. Only 3% of people aged over 65 in Switzerland use an emergency system. Personal telehealth devices allow patients to receive enough information about the appropriate treatment, as well as followup with their doctors and reports of any emergency, in the absence of any caregiver. This increases their quality of life in a cost-effective fashion. “Limmex”—a new medical emergency watch—was launched in Switzerland in 2011 and has been a great commercial success. In this paper, we give a brief review of this watch technology, along with the results of a survey of 620 users conducted by the Department of Emergency Medicine in Bern.

  12. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able...... a general yet self-contained description of every model in terms of generative assumptions, interpretability goals, probabilistic formulation and target applications. Case studies, benchmark results and practical details are also provided as appendices published elsewhere, containing reprints of peer...

  13. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    casual mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects...... for the target population. The model was tested using dairy cattle populations of different breeds: 540 Australian Jersey bulls, 2297 Australian Holstein bulls and 5214 Nordic Holstein bulls. The traits studied were protein-, fat- and milk yield. Genotypic data was Illumina 777K SNPs, real or imputed Results...

  14. Models for Validation of Prior Learning (VPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Søren

    The national policies for the education/training of adults are in the 21st century highly influenced by proposals which are formulated and promoted by The European Union (EU) as well as other transnational players and this shift in policy making has consequences. One is that ideas which in the past...... would have been categorized as utopian can become realpolitik. Validation of Prior Learning (VPL) was in Europe mainly regarded as utopian while universities in the United States of America (USA) were developing ways to obtain credits to those students which was coming with experiences from working life....

  15. Communication models in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action.

  16. Power line communications theory and applications for narrowband and broadband communications over power lines

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Hendrik C; Newbury, John; Swart, Theo G

    2010-01-01

    Power Line Communications (PLC) is a promising emerging technology, which has attracted much attention due to the wide availability of power distribution lines. This book provides a thorough introduction to the use of power lines for communication purposes, ranging from channel characterization, communications on the physical layer and electromagnetic interference, through to protocols, networks, standards and up to systems and implementations. With contributions from many of the most prominent international PLC experts from academia and industry, Power Line Communications brings togeth

  17. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  18. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  19. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  20. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…