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Sample records for emergency abdominal surgery

  1. Emergency abdominal surgery in Zaria, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    high rate of emergency operations could be due to the large number of trauma ... of sanitation, which may trigger lymphoid tissue reaction in the appendix wall and .... future surgical training and help surgeons who practise in our setting to ...

  2. Interhospital transfer delays emergency abdominal surgery and prolongs stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Alexandra M; Edye, Michael B

    2017-11-01

    Interhospital transfer of patients requiring emergency surgery is common practice. It has the potential to delay surgical intervention, increase rate of complications and thus length of hospital stay. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of adult patients who underwent emergency surgery for abdominal pain at a large metropolitan hospital in New South Wales (Hospital A) in 2013. The impact of interhospital transfer on time to surgical intervention, post-operative length of stay and overall length of stay was assessed. Of the 910 adult patients who underwent emergency surgery for abdominal pain at Hospital A in 2013, 31.9% (n = 290) were transferred by road ambulance from a local district hospital (Hospital B). The leading surgical procedures performed were appendicectomy (n = 299, 32.9%), cholecystectomy (n = 174, 19.1%), gastrointestinal endoscopy (n = 95, 10.4%), cystoscopy (n = 86, 9.5%), hernia repair (n = 45, 4.9%), salpingectomy (n = 19, 2.1%) and oversewing of perforated peptic ulcer (n = 13, 1.4%). Overall, interhospital transfer (n = 290, 31.9%) was associated with increases in mean time to surgical intervention (14.2 h, P < 0.001), post-operative length of stay (1.1 days, P = 0.001) and overall length of stay (1.6 days, P < 0.001). Delayed surgical intervention was observed across all procedure types except surgery for perforated peptic ulcer, where transferred patients underwent surgery within a comparable timeframe to direct admissions. Interhospital transfer delays surgical intervention and increases length of hospital stay. This mandates attention due to the implications for patient outcomes and added burden to the healthcare system. The system did, however, show capability to appropriately expedite surgery for acutely life-threatening cases. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Outcome of Emergency Abdominal Surgery at Kigali University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little information regarding the clinical spectrum of disease in these patients ... was a case series study of 229 patients who underwent emergency abdominal ... The most common operative findings were peritonitis (41.5%), intestinal ...

  4. Emergency abdominal surgery in Zaria, Nigeria | Ahmed | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The causes of abdominal surgical emergencies in a particular setting may change because of alterations in demographic, socio-economic or geographical factors. We present the pattern, management and outcome of such emergencies in Zaria, Northern Nigeria. Methods. This is a retrospective review of ...

  5. Patients' experiences of postoperative intermediate care and standard surgical ward care after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Vester-Andersen, Morten; Nielsen, Martin Vedel

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how patie......, intermediate care patients felt hindered in doing so by continuous monitoring of vital signs. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Intermediate care may increase patient perceptions of quality and safety of care.......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To elicit knowledge of patient experiences of postoperative intermediate care in an intensive care unit and standard postoperative care in a surgical ward after emergency abdominal surgery. BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery is common, but little is known about how...... patients experience postoperative care. The patient population is generally older with multiple comorbidities, and the short-term postoperative mortality rate is 15-20%. Thus, vigilant surgeon and nursing attention is essential. The present study is a qualitative sub-study of a randomised trial evaluating...

  6. Laparoscopy in major abdominal emergency surgery seems to be a safe procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liv Bjerre Juul; Tengberg, Line Toft; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopy is well established in the majority of elective procedures in abdominal surgery. In contrast, it is primarily used in minor surgery such as appendectomy or cholecystectomy in the emergent setting. This study aimed to analyze the safety and effectiveness of a laparoscopic...

  7. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, Morten; Waldau, Tina; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery carries a 15% to 20% short-term mortality rate. Postoperative medical complications are strongly associated with increased mortality. Recent research suggests that timely recognition and effective management of complications may reduce mortality....... The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients.Methods and design: The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing emergency...... laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome measure...

  8. Prediction of Outcome After Emergency High-Risk Intra-abdominal Surgery Using the Surgical Apgar Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cihoric, Mirjana; Toft Tengberg, Line; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With current literature quoting mortality rates up to 45%, emergency high-risk abdominal surgery has, compared with elective surgery, a significantly greater risk of death and major complications. The Surgical Apgar Score (SAS) is predictive of outcome in elective surgery, but has nev...... emergency high-risk abdominal surgery. Despite its predictive value, the SAS cannot in its current version be recommended as a standalone prognostic tool in an emergency setting....

  9. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  10. Increased mortality in the elderly after emergency abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Peter; Manoharan, Thukirtha; Foss, Nicolai B

    2014-01-01

    was a retrospective analysis of patient charts and perioperative documentation in an unselected consecutive cohort of 131 patients. Covariates for survival outcomes were evaluated in a multivariate analysis. No external funding and no competing interests were declared. The study was approved by The Danish Data...... within 30 days post-operatively. CONCLUSION: Acute admission and emergency laparotomy is associated with a very high mortality, especially in elderly patients. However, delay in the surgical treatment exceeding six hours is not associated with a higher mortality. There may be a considerable potential...

  11. Type of incision does not predict abdominal wall outcome after emergency surgery for colonic anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Oma, Erling; Harling, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for anastomotic leakage were included with a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Incisional hernia occurred in 41 of 227 (15.3%) patients undergoing midline incision compared with 14 of 81 (14.7%) following transverse incision, P = 1.00. After adjusting for confounders, there was no association between the type...... not predict abdominal wall outcome after emergency surgery for colonic anastomotic leakage....

  12. Sarcopenia increases risk of long-term mortality in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Erika L; Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Cooper, Zara; Olufajo, Olubode A; Salim, Ali; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    Frailty is associated with poor surgical outcomes in elderly patients but is difficult to measure in the emergency setting. Sarcopenia, or the loss of lean muscle mass, is a surrogate for frailty and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. We sought to determine the impact of sarcopenia on 1-year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery in elderly patients. Sarcopenia was assessed in patients 70 years or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at a single hospital from 2006 to 2011. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography. Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was mortality at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days. The association of sarcopenia with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and model performance judged using Harrell's C-statistic. Two hundred ninety-seven of 390 emergency abdominal surgery patients had preoperative imaging and height. The median age was 79 years, and 1-year mortality was 32%. Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients were comparable in age, sex, race, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, procedure urgency and type, operative severity, and need for discharge to a nursing facility. Sarcopenic patients had lower body mass index, greater need for intensive care, and longer hospital length of stay (p Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (risk ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7) and mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4), 90 days (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), 180 days (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.4), and 1 year (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of mortality over 1 year in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Sarcopenia defined by TPI is

  13. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Randomized multicentre feasibility trial of intermediate care versus standard ward care after emergency abdominal surgery (InCare trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester-Andersen, M; Waldau, T; Wetterslev, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emergency abdominal surgery carries a considerable risk of death and postoperative complications. Early detection and timely management of complications may reduce mortality. The aim was to evaluate the effect and feasibility of intermediate care compared with standard ward care...... ward within 24 h of emergency abdominal surgery. Participants were randomized to either intermediate care or standard surgical ward care after surgery. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. RESULTS: In total, 286 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The trial...... was terminated after the interim analysis owing to slow recruitment and a lower than expected mortality rate. Eleven (7·6 per cent) of 144 patients assigned to intermediate care and 12 (8·5 per cent) of 142 patients assigned to ward care died within 30 days of surgery (odds ratio 0·91, 95 per cent c.i. 0·38 to 2...

  15. Abdominal wall surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as liposuction , which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. ... from the middle and lower sections of your abdomen to make it firmer ... removes excess fat and skin (love handles) from the sides of ...

  16. Ostomy-related complications after emergent abdominal surgery: a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Elisabet; Persson, Eva; Carlsson, Eva; Hallén, Anne-Marie; Fingren, Jeanette; Berndtsson, Ina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate ostomy-related complications and describe ostomy configuration in patients undergoing acute abdominal surgery. The study sample comprised 144 patients with a median age of 67 years (IOR: 53.5-78 years) who underwent an intestinal ostomy as part of an acute abdominal surgical procedure. The research setting was the surgical and gynecological clinics at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden. Ostomy configuration, diameter, height, and the presence of stomal and peristomal complications were assessed by a WOC nurse 1 to 2 times while in hospital, once at the ostomy outpatient clinic 2 weeks after discharge, and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following ostomy creation. The types of ostomies evaluated were end colostomy (58%), end ileostomy (18%), loop ileostomy (17%), and loop colostomy (7%). Most stomal or peristomal complications occurred within 1 year after surgery (31 of 57; 54.4%). Necrosis, separation, and stenosis were most common in patients with an end colostomy. Peristomal skin complications occurred in 45% of subjects during the first 6 months after surgery. The ostomy's diameter decreased significantly during the hospital course and over the first 2 weeks following hospital discharge in patients with end colostomy (Postomy had peristomal skin problems ranging between 21% and 57% over this time period. The frequency of using a pouching system that incorporated convexity was highest in the case of loop ileostomy, used in 67% at 6 months. During the first 2 weeks after discharge, the physical configuration of the ostomy evolves and the pouching system must be frequently adjusted by a WOC nurse. Stomal and peristomal complications are prevalent during the first 2 postoperative years and especially during the first 6 months.

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...... patients, 51 (9%) of whom died within the first 48 hours. Of the 502 patients who survived for more than 48 hours, 109 required ICU therapy for more than 48 hours, whereas 393 patients were in the ICU for less than 48 hours. The incidence of preoperative risk factors was similar for the two groups...... combined failed to permit identification of patients in whom the perioperative survival rate was 0%. Even 20% of patients with multiorgan failure survived for 6 months. Of those patients who needed ICU therapy for more than 48 hours, 41 (38%) were alive at the end of 1988. In response to a questionnaire...

  18. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  19. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  1. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Targeted Preoperative Optimization on Clinical Outcome in Emergency Abdominal Surgeries: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ashish; Debbarma, Miltan; Narang, Neeraj; Saxena, Anudeep; Mahobia, Mamta; Tomar, Gaurav Singh

    2018-01-01

    Perforation peritonitis continues to be one of the most common surgical emergencies that need a surgical intervention most of the times. Anesthesiologists are invariably involved in managing such cases efficiently in perioperative period. The assessment and evaluation of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at presentation and 24 h after goal-directed optimization, administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, and definitive source control postoperatively. Outcome assessment in terms of duration of hospital stay and mortality in with or without optimization was also measured. It is a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled study in hospital setting. One hundred and one patients aged ≥18 years, of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical Status I and II (E) with clinical diagnosis of perforation peritonitis posted for surgery were enrolled. Enrolled patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group A is optimized by goal-directed optimization protocol in the preoperative holding room by anesthesiology residents whereas in Group S, managed by surgery residents in the surgical wards without any fixed algorithm. The assessment of APACHE II score was done as a first step on admission and 24 h postoperatively. Duration of hospital stay and mortality in both the groups were also measured and compared. Categorical data are presented as frequency counts (percent) and compared using the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The statistical significance for categorical variables was determined by Chi-square analysis. For continuous variables, a two-sample t -test was applied. The mean APACHE II score on admission in case and control groups was comparable. Significant lowering of serial scores in case group was observed as compared to control group ( P = 0.02). There was a significant lowering of mean duration of hospital stay seen in case group (9.8 ± 1.7 days) as compared to control group ( P = 0

  3. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.

    1985-09-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which faciltated the differential diagnosis to tumor recurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so obvious after gastrointestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolus injection. (orig.).

  4. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.; Hamburg Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which fascilated the differentialdiagnosis to tumorrecurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so abvious after gastro-intestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolusinjection. (orig.) [de

  5. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  6. Chest complication after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, B. H.; Choi, J. Y.; Hahm, C. K.; Kang, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of many advances in medicine, anesthetic technique and surgical managements, pulmonary problems are the most frequent postoperative complications, particularly after abdominal surgery. As postoperative pulmonary complications, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and lung abscess can be occurred. This study include evaluation of chest films of 2006 patients (927 male, 1079 female), who had been operated abdominal surgery from Jan. 1979 to June, 1980 in the Hanyang university hospital. The results were as follows: 1. 70 cases out of total 2006 cases (3.5%) developed postoperative chest complications, 51 cases (5.5%) in male, 19 cases (1.8%) in female. 2. The complication rate was increased according to the increase of age. The incidence of the postoperative complications over 40 years of age was higher than the overall average complications rate. 3. The most common postoperative pulmonary complication was pleural effusion, next pneumonia, atelectasis and pulmonary edema respectively. 4. The complication rate of the group of upper abdominal surgery is much higher than the group of lower abdominal surgery. 5. Complication rate was increased according to increase of the duration of operation. 6. There were significant correlations between the operation site and side of the complicated hemithorax

  7. Effect of intermediate care on mortality following emergency abdominal surgery. The InCare trial: study protocol, rationale and feasibility of a randomised multicentre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vester-Andersen Morten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency abdominal surgery carries a 15% to 20% short-term mortality rate. Postoperative medical complications are strongly associated with increased mortality. Recent research suggests that timely recognition and effective management of complications may reduce mortality. The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the effect of postoperative intermediate care following emergency major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients. Methods and design The InCare trial is a randomised, parallel-group, non-blinded clinical trial with 1:1 allocation. Patients undergoing emergency laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery with a perioperative Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 10 or above, who are ready to be transferred to the surgical ward within 24 h of surgery are allocated to either intermediate care for 48 h, or surgical ward care. The primary outcome measure is all-cause 30-day mortality. We aim to enrol 400 patients in seven Danish hospitals. The sample size allows us to detect or refute a 34% relative risk reduction of mortality with 80% power. Discussion This trial evaluates the benefits and possible harm of intermediate care. The results may potentially influence the survival of many high-risk surgical patients. As a pioneer trial in the area, it will provide important data on the feasibility of future large-scale randomised clinical trials evaluating different levels of postoperative care. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01209663

  8. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEPventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Screening Models for Cardiac Risk Evaluation in Emergency Abdominal Surgery. I. Evaluation of the Intraoperative Period Risk based on Data from the Preoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A classification of intraoperative cardio-vascular complications (CVC was performed, based on data from 466 patients subjected to emergency surgery, due to severe abdominal surgical diseases or traumas, in accordance with the severe criteria of ACC/AHA for CVC in noncardiac surgery. There were 370 intraoperative CVC registered, distributed as follows: groups with low risk (148, moderate risk (200, and high risk (22. Patient groups were formed, according to the CVC risk level, during the intraoperative period, for which the determinant factor for the group distribution of patients was the complication with the highest risk. Individual data was collected for each patient, based on 65 indices: age, physical status, diseases, surgical interventions, anaesthesiological information, intra and postoperative cardio-vascular complications, disease outcome, causes of death, cardiovascular disease anamnesis, anamnesis of all other nonsurgical diseases present, laboratory results, results from all imaging and instrumental examinations, etc. On the basis of these indices, a new distribution of the risk factors was implemented, into groups with different levels of risk of CVC during intraoperative period. This result is a solid argument, substantiating the proposal to introduce these adjustments for determining the severity of CVC in the specific conditions of emergency abdominal surgery.

  10. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivit, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  11. The range of abdominal surgical emergencies in children older than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... survey of all children older than 1 year undergoing an emergency abdominal surgery was carried out. ..... that affect the small bowel leading to perforations are ..... Source of Support: Nil, Con.ict of Interest: None declared.

  12. Methods of patient warming during abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 160 scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. RESULTS: When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. DISCUSSION: The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.

  13. WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sartelli (Massimo); F. Coccolini (Federico); G.H. van Ramshorst (Gabrielle); G. Campanelli (Giampiero); V. Mandala; L. Ansaloni (Luca); E.E. Moore (Ernest); A. Peitzman (Andrew); G.C. Velmahos (George ); F.A. Moore (Fredrick); A. Leppaniemi (Ari); C.C. Burlew (Clay); W.L. Biffl (Walter); K. Koike (Kaoru); Y. Kluger (Yoram); G.P. Fraga (Gustavo); C.A. Ordonez (Carlos); S. Di Saverio (Salomone); F. Agresta; B. Sakakushev (Boris); I. Gerych (Igor); I. Wani (Imtiaz); M.D. Kelly (Michael ); C.A. Gomes (Carlos); M.P. Faro Jr (Mario); K. Taviloglu (Korhan); Z. Demetrashvili (Zaza); J.G. Lee (Jeong ); N. Vettoretto (Nereo); G. Guercioni (Gianluca); C. Tranà (Cristian); Y. Cui (Yijun); K.Y.Y. Kok (Kenneth); W.M. Ghnnam (Wagih); A.E.S. Abbas (Ashraf El-Sayed); N. Sato (Norio); S. Marwah (Sanjay); M. Rangarajan (Muthukumaran); O. Ben-Ishay (Offir); A.R.K. Adesunkanmi (Abdul Rashid); H.A. Segovia Lohse (Helmut); J. Kenig (Jakub); V. Mandalà (Vincenzo); A. Patrizi (Andrea); R. Scibé (Rodolfo); F. Catena (Fausto)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEmergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of

  14. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  16. Laparoscopic surgery in children: abdominal wall complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimal invasive surgery has become the standard of care for operations involving the thoracic and abdominal cavities for all ages. Laparoscopic complications can occur as well as more invasive surgical procedures and we can classify them into non-specific and specific. Our goal is to analyze the most influential available scientific literature and to expose important and recognized advices in order to reduce these complications. We examined the mechanism, risk factors, treatment and tried to outline how to prevent two major abdominal wall complications related to laparoscopy: bleeding and port site herniation .

  17. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  18. [Globalization: challenges in abdominal surgery for migrants and refugees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, T J; Post, S

    2018-03-01

    The increasing number of refugees, migrants and international travelers influences the surgical spectrum of abdominal diseases. The aim of this review is to familiarize surgeons with specific diseases which are endemic in the patients' countries of origin and are likely to be diagnosed with increasing incidence in Germany. Low levels of hygiene in the countries of origin or refugee camps is associated with a high incidence of numerous infections, such as helminth infections, typhoid fever or amoebiasis, which if untreated can cause surgical emergencies. Historically, some of them were common in Germany but have been more or less eradicated because of the high socioeconomic standard. Echinococcosis and Chagas disease are frequently treated surgically while schistosomiasis can mimic intestinal cancer. Abdominal tuberculosis presents in a variety of abdominal pathologies and frequently causes diagnostic uncertainty. Sigmoid volvulus has a very low incidence among Europeans, but is one of the most common abdominal surgical conditions of adults in endemic countries. The number of patients who eventually undergo surgery for these conditions might be relatively low; however, surgeons must be aware of them and consider them as differential diagnoses in refugees and migrants with acute or chronic abdominal symptoms.

  19. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal compartment syndrome in acute general surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sugrue, Michael

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is a harbinger of intra-abdominal mischief, and its measurement is cheap, simple to perform, and reproducible. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), especially grades 3 and 4 (IAP > 18 mmHg), occurs in over a third of patients and is associated with an increase in intra-abdominal sepsis, bleeding, renal failure, and death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Increased IAP reading may provide an objective bedside stimulus for surgeons to expedite diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of critically ill patients. One of the greatest challenges surgeons and intensivists face worldwide is lack of recognition of the known association between IAH, ACS, and intra-abdominal sepsis. This lack of awareness of IAH and its progression to ACS may delay timely intervention and contribute to excessive patient resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: All patients entering the intensive care unit (ICU) after emergency general surgery or massive fluid resuscitation should have an IAP measurement performed every 6 h. Each ICU should have guidelines relating to techniques of IAP measurement and an algorithm for management of IAH.

  20. Emergency CT in blunt abdominal trauma of multiple injury patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Kivioja, A.; Poussa, K.; Laasonen, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Multiple injury patients with blunt abdominal trauma (n = 110) were examined by abdominal CT. An i.v., but not peroral, contrast medium was used, thereby eliminating the delay caused by administering peroral contrast medium and any subsequent delay in making the diagnoses and beginning operative treatment. Eighteen patients underwent emergency laparotomy after the initial CT examination. The preoperative CT findings were compared to the laparotomy findings. CT revealed all but one of the severe parenchymal organ lesions requiring surgery. The one liver laceration that went undetected had caused hemoperitoneum, which was diagnosed by CT. The bowel and mesenteric lesions presented as intra-abdominal blood, and the hemoperitoneum was discovered in every patient with these lesions. Fourteen patients also initially had positive abdominal CT findings; 10 of them underwent an additional abdominal CT within 3 days, but the repeat studies did not reveal any lesions in need of surgery. Omission of the oral contrast medium did not jeopardize making the essential diagnoses, but it did save time. (orig.)

  1. Renal Angiomyolipoma Presenting as Acute Abdominal Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 47-year-old woman presented as an acute abdominal emergency with rapid progression to shock following spontaneous rupture of a left renal angiomyolipoma. The diagnosis was missed clinically and on computerized tomographic scan. At different stages of management based on her pattern of symptoms, signs and ...

  2. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Cleva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior.METHODS:We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique.RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3% had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior. The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L and FVC (2.0±0.7 L with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p= 0.59 for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed.CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  3. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  4. Mesenteric Torsion as a Cause of Late Abdominal Pain after Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Sven G; Ekelund, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) has been the most common surgical way to treat obesity and its comorbidities. Late abdominal pain may occur by gastro-jejunal ulcers, gallstones, internal herniation or, rarely, intussusception. In an area with more than 1000 GBPs performed yearly, three patients with primary small bowel volvulus causing abdominal pain and requiring emergency or semi-urgent surgery were identified. Patients' histories, radiology, and surgery performed are presented. Weight loss followed by mesenteric narrowing of the root and thus relative elongation may make rotation of the small bowel mesentery possible. Such a torsion might be an overlooked differential diagnosis in obscure abdominal pain after GBP.

  5. Physical performance following acute high-risk abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Line Rokkedal; Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Tengberg, Line Toft

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery is associated with high mortality, multiple postoperative complications and prolonged hospital stay. Further development of strategies for enhanced recovery programs following AHA surgery is needed. The aim of this study was to describe physical...... are primarily fatigue and abdominal pain. Further studies investigating strategies for early mobilization and barriers to mobilization in the immediate postoperative period after AHA surgery are needed.......BACKGROUND: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery is associated with high mortality, multiple postoperative complications and prolonged hospital stay. Further development of strategies for enhanced recovery programs following AHA surgery is needed. The aim of this study was to describe physical...... performance and barriers to independent mobilization among patients who received AHA surgery (postoperative days [POD] 1-7). METHODS: Patients undergoing AHA surgery were consecutively enrolled from a university hospital in Denmark. In the first postoperative week, all patients were evaluated daily...

  6. Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Max P.; Siewert, Bettina; Bromberg, Rebecca; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Sands, Daniel Z.; Edlow, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b) their level of certainty in their diagnosis; (c) if they thought CT would be normal or abnormal; (d) their treatment plan (prior to knowledge of the CT results); and (e) their role in deciding to order CT. This information was correlated with each patient's post-CT diagnosis and subsequent management. Pre- and post-CT diagnoses were concordant in 200 of 536 (37%) patients. The physicians' certainty in the accuracy of their pre-CT diagnosis was less than high in 88% of patients. Prior to CT, the management plan included hospital admission for 402 patients. Following CT, only 312 patients were actually admitted; thus, the net impact of performing CT was to obviate the need for hospital admission in 90 of 536 (17%) of patients with abdominal pain. Prior to CT, 67 of 536 (13%) of all patients would have undergone immediate surgery; however, following CT only 25 (5%) actually required immediate surgery. Among patients with the four most common pre-CT diagnoses (appendicitis, abscess, diverticulitis, and urinary tract stones) CT had the greatest impact on hospital admission and surgical management for patients with suspected appendicitis. For patients with suspected appendicitis, CT reduced the hospital admission rate in 28% (26 of 91) of patients and changed the surgical management in 40% (39 of 91) of patients. Our study demonstrates the advantage of performing abdominal CT in the ED for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  7. Pregnancy outcome following non-obstetric abdominal surgery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-08

    Jan 8, 2016 ... abdominal surgeries in Jos University Teaching Hospital. ... each (2.0%) had a transverse colon injury, postoperative adhesion bands, ruptured uterus and urinary .... Anaesthetic management of intussusception in Pregnancy.

  8. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  9. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.

    2002-01-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  10. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  11. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted...... formation and physical function. RESULTS: A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency...... to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases...

  12. Prospective study of emergency presentation of abdominal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh R. Mishra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developing countries like India, where poverty, malnutrition and overcrowding prevail, tuberculosis continues to be one of the important causes of morbidity, mortality and loss of working man hours. Abdominal tuberculosis (TB can affect the gastrointestinal tract, the peritoneum, lymph nodes of the small bowel mesentery or the solid viscera (e.g. liver, spleen, pancreas etc Patient of abdominal Koch’s can present as those with a chronic undulating course and those with an acute or subacute abdominal catastrophe. In emergency the patient may present with various presentations like stricture causing obstruction or with perforation and require a different management from those routine such cases Aim and Objective: To study the varied presentation of patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis as acute surgical abdomen presenting in emergency setting to those with a subacute course. To evaluate the line of management whether operative or conservative, the operative details, post operative course and the final outcome of the disease. To study the incidence of HIV positivity in patients with abdominal tuberculosis. Methods and material: The study was designed as a prospective observational study conducted during a study period between June 2006 and June 2008 in a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. All patients with a clinical suspicion of abdominal tuberculosis were included in the study with confirmation on histopathological examination. Patient’s written informed valid consent was taken after explaining the nature of study. Result and Conclusion: Age group commonly affected was between 21-30 years with male predominance. Amongst the various complications of abdominal tuberculosis intestinal obstruction was the most common mainly due to stricture and less commonly due to hyperplastic ileocaecal mass. Next common complication observed was free perforation of the intestine which occurs at a site proximal to a tight stricture. All patients were

  13. Emergency surgery for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Malek; Miloudi, Nizar; Hefaiedh, Rania; Zaibi, Rabaa

    2016-03-01

    Surgery has played an essential role in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Emergency can reveal previously unknown complications whose treatment affects prognosis. Indicate the incidence of indications in emergent surgery for Crohn's disease. Specify the types of procedures performed in these cases and assess the Results of emergency surgery for Crohn's disease postoperatively,  in short , medium and long term. Retrospective analysis of collected data of 38 patients, who underwent surgical resection for Crohn's disease during a period of 19 years from 1992 to 2011 at the department of surgery in MONGI SLIM Hospital, and among them 17 patients underwent emergency surgery for Crohn's disease. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of our study population, we evaluated the indications, the type of intervention, duration of evolution preoperative and postoperative complications and overall prognosis of the disease. Of the 38 patients with Crohn's disease requiring surgical intervention, 17/38 patients underwent emergency surgery. Crohn's disease was inaugurated by the complications requiring emergency surgery in 11 patients. The mean duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 1.5 year. The most common indication for emergency surgery was acute intestinal obstruction (n=6) followed by perforation and peritonitis (n=5). A misdiagnosis of appendicitis was found in 4 patients and a complicated severe acute colitis for undiagnosed Crohn's disease was found in 2 cases. The open conventional surgery was performed for 15 patients. Ileocolic resection was the most used intervention. There was one perioperative mortality and 5 postoperative morbidities. The mean of postoperative hospital stay was 14 days (range 4-60 days). Six patients required a second operation during the follow-up period. The incidence of emergency surgery for Crohn's disease in our experience was high (17/38 patients), and is not as rare as the published estimates

  14. Postoperative pleural effusion following upper abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P H; Jepsen, S B; Olsen, A D

    1989-01-01

    amylases, sex, smoking habits, or weight. There was no correlation between the localization of the pleural effusions and that of the abdominal incisions. There was a positive correlation between atelectasis and pleural effusion, but no evidence of a causal relationship. Pleural effusions might be related...

  15. Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central Nigerian centre. ... The causes of PSAEs vary worldwide, and the management is challenging, often with unimaginably poor outcome if not carefully handled. The aim of this ... Keywords: abdominal emergencies, acute abdomen, children, morbidity, mortality ...

  16. Dual antiplatelet treatment in patients candidates for abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.

  17. CT findings of benign omental lesions following abdominal cancer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jin Han; Kwon, Hee Jin; Ha, Dong Ho; Oh, Jong Young [Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The greater omentum is the largest peritoneal fold and can be the origin of primary pathologic conditions, as well as a boundary and conduit for disease processes. Most diseases involving the omentum manifest with nonspecific and overlapping features on computed tomography (CT). In particular, varying benign disease processes of traumatic, inflammatory, vascular, or systemic origin can occur in the omentum during the follow-up period after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy. It can be challenging for radiologists due to various spectrum of CT findings. Thus, we reviewed the CT findings of various benign omental lesions after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy.

  18. Plasma osmotic changes during major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R A; McLeavey, C A; Arens, J F

    1977-12-01

    Fluid balance across the capillary membrane is maintained normally by a balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (COP). In 12 patients having major intra-abdominal procedures, the COP was followed during the operative and immediate postoperative periods. The patients' intraoperative fluid management consisted of replacing shed blood with blood and following Shires' concept of crystalloid replacement. Significant decreases in COP to approximately two thirds of the initial value occurred in patients having intra-abdominal procedures versus only a 10 percent decrease in those having peripheral procedures (greater than .001). As a result of this decrease in COP, the balance between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures is lost and risk of pulmonary intersitial edema is increased.

  19. Emerging technologies in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satava, R.M.; Gaspari, A.; Di Lorenzo, N.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous acceleration and changes in scientific discovery and progress are presently occurring. These important emerging technologies that will affect the practicing surgeon within the next 10 to 20 years are illustrated in detail in this volume. Its purpose is not to review clinical experience of the common surgical practice of the past decade, but to outline and illustrate the future trends. International experts in this field demonstrate emerging procedures and significant advances. (orig.)

  20. Perioperative dexmedetomidine for acute pain after abdominal surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorf, Luise Jessen; Nedergaard, H. K.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2016-01-01

    422 participants in our analysis. Thirteen studies are awaiting classification. For the comparison dexmedetomidine versus placebo (six studies, 402 participants), most studies found a reduction in 'rescue' opioid consumption in the first 24 hours after surgery, together with in general no clinically...... elective abdominal surgery. A potential bias was a considerable quantity of unobtainable data from studies with mixed surgery. To detect and investigate patient-important outcomes, larger studies with longer periods of follow-up are needed.......Background Acute postoperative pain is still an issue in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Postoperative pain and side effects of analgesic treatment, in particular those of opioids, need to be minimized. Opioid-sparing analgesics, possibly including dexmedetomidine, seem a promising avenue...

  1. Wound infiltration with local anesthetic after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.; Ahmad, R.; Haider, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare the effect of analgesia with local wound infiltration with 20ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in post operative wounds with the control group having no infiltration. Patients were mobilized much earlier than in the control group while the demand of analgesics was considerably delayed in the study group. No any complications was noticed during local infiltration of wounds after abdominal surgery and is, therefore, applicable in routine surgery. (author)

  2. Transversus Abdominis Plane Catheter Bolus Analgesia after Major Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been shown to reduce pain and opioid requirements after abdominal surgery. The aim of the present case series was to demonstrate the use of TAP catheter injections of bupivacaine after major abdominal surgery. Methods. Fifteen patients scheduled for open colonic resection surgery were included. After induction of anesthesia, bilateral TAP catheters were placed, and all patients received a bolus dose of 20 mL bupivacaine 2.5 mg/mL with epinephrine 5 μg/mL through each catheter. Additional bolus doses were injected bilaterally 12, 24, and 36 hrs after the first injections. Supplemental pain treatment consisted of paracetamol, ibuprofen, and gabapentin. Intravenous morphine was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative pain was rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS, 0–10 at regular predefined intervals after surgery, and consumption of intravenous morphine was recorded. Results. The TAP catheters were placed without any technical difficulties. NRS scores were ≤3 at rest and ≤5 during cough at 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 36 hrs after surgery. Cumulative consumption of intravenous morphine was 28 (23–48 mg (median, IQR within the first 48 postoperative hours. Conclusion. TAP catheter bolus injections can be used to prolong analgesia after major abdominal surgery.

  3. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  4. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  5. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  6. 2017 update of the WSES guidelines for emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Birindelli, Arianna

    2017-01-01

    Emergency repair of complicated abdominal wall hernias may be associated with worsen outcome and a significant rate of postoperative complications. There is no consensus on management of complicated abdominal hernias. The main matter of debate is about the use of mesh in case of intestinal resection and the type of mesh to be used. Wound infection is the most common complication encountered and represents an immense burden especially in the presence of a mesh. The recurrence rate is an important topic that influences the final outcome. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013 with the aim to define recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel. In 2016, the guidelines have been revised and updated according to the most recent available literature.

  7. Guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal surgery for adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background.Evidence based recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal surgery are prepared to reduce postoperative complications and to reduce inappropriate prophylactic antibiotic prescribing. The original guidline address risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI, benefits and risks of antibiotic profilaxis and  indications for surgical antibiotic profilaxis.Update of recommendations is an opportunity to expand and review the evidence supporting recommendations. Recommendations for common surgical procedures in abdominal surgery in adults are included in this guideline.Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis is and adjunct to, not a substitue for, good surgical tecnique. Antibiotic prophylactic should be regarded as one component of an effective policy for the control of healthcare-associated infection. 

  8. Guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal surgery for adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeja Pintar; Blaž Trotovšek; Bojana Beović

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background.Evidence based recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal surgery are prepared to reduce postoperative complications and to reduce inappropriate prophylactic antibiotic prescribing. The original guidline address risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI), benefits and risks of antibiotic profilaxis and  indications for surgical antibiotic profilaxis.Update of recommendations is an opportunity to expand and review the evidence supporting recommendations. R...

  9. Does previous abdominal surgery affect the course and outcomes of laparoscopic bariatric surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Piotr; Droś, Jakub; Kacprzyk, Artur; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Małczak, Piotr; Wysocki, Michał; Janik, Michał; Walędziak, Maciej; Paśnik, Krzysztof; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Proczko-Stepaniak, Monika; Kaska, Łukasz; Lech, Paweł; Michalik, Maciej; Duchnik, Michał; Kaseja, Krzysztof; Pastuszka, Maciej; Stepuch, Paweł; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2018-03-26

    Global experiences in general surgery suggest that previous abdominal surgery may negatively influence different aspects of perioperative care. As the incidence of bariatric procedures has recently increased, it is essential to assess such correlations in bariatric surgery. To assess whether previous abdominal surgery influences the course and outcomes of laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Seven referral bariatric centers in Poland. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2413 patients; 1706 patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) matched the inclusion criteria. Patients with no history of abdominal surgery were included as group 1, while those who had undergone at least 1 abdominal surgery were included as group 2. Group 2 had a significantly prolonged median operation time for RYGB (P = .012), and the longest operation time was observed in patients who had previously undergone surgeries in both the upper and lower abdomen (P = .002). Such a correlation was not found in SG cases (P = .396). Groups 1 and 2 had similar rates of intraoperative adverse events and postoperative complications (P = .562 and P = .466, respectively). Group 2 had a longer median duration of hospitalization than group 1 (P = .034), while the readmission rate was similar between groups (P = .079). There was no significant difference between groups regarding the influence of the long-term effects of bariatric treatment on weight loss (percentage of follow-up was 55%). Previous abdominal surgery prolongs the operative time of RYGB and the duration of postoperative hospitalization, but does not affect the long-term outcomes of bariatric treatment. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of maintenance, emergence and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and desflurane in pediatric ambulatory surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish B Kotwani

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Desflurane provides faster emergence and recovery in comparison to sevoflurane when used for the maintenance of anesthesia through SGA in children. Both sevoflurane and desflurane can be safely used in children for lower abdominal surgeries.

  11. Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies in a General Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... organized for general surgeons undertaking paediatric surgical emergencies. More paediatric surgeons should be trained and more paediatric surgical units should established in the country. Key Words: Paediatric Abdominal Surgical Emergencies; Paediatric Surgeons, General Surgeons. Journal of College of Medicine ...

  12. TachoSil use in abdominal surgery: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Reale

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Toro, Maurizio Mannino, Giulio Reale, Isidoro Di CarloDepartment of Surgical Sciences, Organ Transplantation, and Advanced Technologies, University of Catania, Cannizzaro Hospital, Catania, ItalyAbstract: The success of any surgical procedure is based on adequate hemostasis. Many different biomaterial products can be used to achieve that aim. The products that can be used during surgery may be classified as topical hemostats, sealants, and adhesives. Hemostats can clot blood. Sealants can create sealing barriers. Adhesives bond tissue together. Collagen, gelatin, and cellulose are hemostat agents. TachoSil® is a development of TachoComb® and TachoComb® H. TachoComb is made with equine collagen, bovine thrombin, bovine aprotinin, and human fibrinogen. The clinical efficacy of TachoSil was shown firstly by a clinical study of hepatic surgery. In the study, TachoSil proved to be superior to argon beamer in obtaining effective and fast intraoperative hemostasis. Following the study, many applications in different fields of surgery have been reported in the literature. The use of TachoSil in open abdominal surgery and its relevant results have encouraged the use of TachoSil in laparoscopic surgery. Unfortunately, its use in laparoscopy has not become as popular as it is in open surgery, due to a lack of efficacious techniques. Immunologic reactions to compounds of TachoSil and the transmission of infectious diseases are two major risks concerning topical hemostasis. Even though the risk of severe immunologic reactions to bovine material is low, TachoSil has gradually replaced all bovine material with material of human origin and has therefore eliminated the associated risks of bovine material. TachoSil has a good satisfaction rate among surgeons and reduces both the operating time for patients and the time spent in intensive care units.Keywords: TachoSil, abdominal surgery, hemostasis

  13. Past and present in abdominal surgery management for Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Zafon, Carles; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Armengol, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Data on specific abdominal surgery and Cushing's syndrome are infrequent and are usually included in the adrenalectomy reports. Current literature suggests the feasibility and reproducibility of the surgical adrenalectomies for patients diagnosed with non-functioning tumours and functioning adrenal tumours including pheochromocytoma, Conn's syndrome and Cushing's syndrome. Medical treatment for Cushing's syndrome is feasible but follow-up or clinical situations force the patient to undergo a surgical procedure. Laparoscopic surgery has become a gold standard nowadays in a broad spectrum of pathologies. Laparoscopic adrenalectomies are also standard procedures nowadays. However, despite the different characteristics and clinical disorders related to the laparoscopically removed adrenal tumours, the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes do not significantly differ in most cases between the different groups of patients, techniques and types of tumours. Tumour size, hormonal type and surgeon's experience could be different factors that predict intraoperative and postoperative complications. Transabdominal and retroperitoneal approaches can be considered. Outcomes for Cushing's syndrome do not differ depending on the surgical approach. Novel technologies and approaches such as single-port surgery or robotic surgery have proven to be safe and feasible. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a safe and feasible approach to adrenal pathology, providing the patients with all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Single-port access and robotic surgery can be performed but more data are required to identify their correct role between the different surgical approaches. Factors such as surgeon's experience, tumour size and optimal technique can affect the outcomes of this surgery.

  14. Virtual modeling of robot-assisted manipulations in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelavichus, Stanislav V; Karmazanovsky, Grigory G; Shirokov, Vadim S; Kubyshkin, Valeriy A; Kriger, Andrey G; Kondratyev, Evgeny V; Zakharova, Olga P

    2012-06-27

    To determine the effectiveness of using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) data in preoperative planning of robot-assisted surgery. Fourteen patients indicated for surgery underwent MDCT using 64 and 256-slice MDCT. Before the examination, a specially constructed navigation net was placed on the patient's anterior abdominal wall. Processing of MDCT data was performed on a Brilliance Workspace 4 (Philips). Virtual vectors that imitate robotic and assistant ports were placed on the anterior abdominal wall of the 3D model of the patient, considering the individual anatomy of the patient and the technical capabilities of robotic arms. Sites for location of the ports were directed by projection on the roentgen-positive tags of the navigation net. There were no complications observed during surgery or in the post-operative period. We were able to reduce robotic arm interference during surgery. The surgical area was optimal for robotic and assistant manipulators without any need for reinstallation of the trocars. This method allows modeling of the main steps in robot-assisted intervention, optimizing operation of the manipulator and lowering the risk of injuries to internal organs.

  15. Pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery in patients with mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim TH

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tae Hoon Kim, Jae Seung Lee, Sei Won Lee, Yeon-Mok Oh Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Abstract: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs are one of the most important causes of postoperative morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery. Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been considered a risk factor for PPCs, it remains unclear whether mild-to-moderate COPD is a risk factor. This retrospective cohort study included 387 subjects who underwent abdominal surgery with general anesthesia in a tertiary referral hospital. PPCs included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, pulmonary thromboembolism, atelectasis, and acute exacerbation of COPD. Among the 387 subjects, PPCs developed in 14 (12.0% of 117 patients with mild-to-moderate COPD and in 13 (15.1% of 86 control patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that mild-to-moderate COPD was not a significant risk factor for PPCs (odds ratio [OR] =0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.31–2.03; P=0.628. However, previous hospitalization for respiratory problems (OR =4.20; 95% CI =1.52–11.59, emergency surgery (OR =3.93; 95% CI =1.75–8.82, increased amount of red blood cell (RBC transfusion (OR =1.09; 95% CI =1.05–1.14 for one pack increase of RBC transfusion, and laparoscopic surgery (OR =0.41; 95% CI =0.18–0.93 were independent predictors of PPCs. These findings suggested that mild-to-moderate COPD may not be a significant risk factor for PPCs after abdominal surgery.Keywords: postoperative pulmonary complications, spirometry, risk factor, abdominal surgery, postoperative complications, postoperative care

  16. The immune response of the human brain to abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Anton; Cervenka, Simon; Jonsson Fagerlund, Malin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery launches a systemic inflammatory reaction that reaches the brain and associates with immune activation and cognitive decline. Although preclinical studies have in part described this systemic-to-brain signaling pathway, we lack information on how these changes appear in humans....... This study examines the short- and long-term impact of abdominal surgery on the human brain immune system by positron emission tomography (PET) in relation to blood immune reactivity, plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function. METHODS: Eight males undergoing prostatectomy under general...... anesthesia were included. Prior to surgery (baseline), at postoperative days 3 to 4, and after 3 months, patients were examined using [11C]PBR28 brain PET imaging to assess brain immune cell activation. Concurrently, systemic inflammatory biomarkers, ex vivo blood tests on immunoreactivity...

  17. Suspected leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm: use of sonography in the emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, W P; Hastrup, W; Kohler, T R; Nyberg, D A; Wang, K Y; Vincent, L M; Mack, L A

    1988-07-01

    To determine the value of sonography in the emergent evaluation of suspected leaking abdominal aortic aneurysms, the authors examined 60 patients in the emergency department using sonography and a protocol involving advance radio notification from the ambulance; arrival of sonographic personnel and equipment in the triage room before patient arrival; and, during other triage activities, rapid sonographic evaluation of the aorta for aneurysm and of the paraaortic region for extraluminal blood. Sonographic findings were correlated with surgical results and clinical outcome. When performed under these circumstances, sonography was accurate in demonstrating presence or absence of aneurysm (98%), but its sensitivity for extraluminal blood was poor (4%). A combination of sonographic confirmation of aneurysm, abdominal pain, and unstable hemodynamic condition resulted in the correct decision to perform emergent surgery in 21 of 22 patients (95%). An abbreviated sonographic examination done in the emergency room can provide accurate, useful information about the presence of aneurysm; this procedure does not significantly delay triage of these patients.

  18. Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R G; Bahlmann, H; Nilsson, L

    2014-11-01

    Assessment of dehydration in the preoperative setting is of potential clinical value. The present study uses urine analysis and plasma volume kinetics, which have both been validated against induced changes in body water in volunteers, to study the incidence and severity of dehydration before open abdominal surgery begins. Thirty patients (mean age 64 years) had their urine analysed before major elective open abdominal surgery for colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine. The results were scored and the mean taken to represent a 'dehydration index'. Thereafter, the patients received an infusion of 5 ml/kg of Ringer's acetate intravenously for over 15 min. Blood was sampled for 70 min and the blood haemoglobin concentration used to estimate the plasma volume kinetics. Distribution of fluid occurred more slowly (P dehydrated as compared with euhydrated patients. The dehydration index indicated that the fluid deficit in these patients corresponded to 2.5% of the body weight, whereas the deficit in the others was 1%. In contrast, the 11 patients who later developed postoperative nausea and vomiting had a very short elimination half-life, only 9 min (median, P dehydration before major surgery was modest as evidenced both by urine sampling and volume kinetic analysis. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mesenteric panniculitis patients requiring emergency surgery: report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Mustafa; Koçak, Osman; Fazli, Olgaç; Koçak, Cengiz; Atici, Ali Emre; Duman, Uğur

    2012-04-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare, benign disease characterized by a chronic non-specific inflammatory process of mesenteric fat tissue with unknown etiology. The small bowel mesentery is affected mostly. This process rarely involves the large intestine mesentery. Mesenteric panniculitis includes symptoms as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and fever. In our cases, we had difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis as the clinical changes imitated an obstruction or ischemia of the small bowel. All the cases required emergency abdominal surgery and partial jejunal resection. The aim of this article was to present three cases of mesenteric panniculitis of the small bowel mesentery requiring emergency surgery together with a short review of the literature.

  20. Lessons from emergency laparotomy for abdominal tuberculosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Committee and the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of the. University of ... A prospective audit of all patients with abdominal TB undergoing emergency laparotomy was conducted. .... support or proceed to a laparotomy with its attendant risks. ... surgical management of intestinal tuberculosis at tertiary care hospital.

  1. Acute Testicular Ischemia following Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Identified in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Finnerty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR is perhaps the most widely utilized surgical procedure for patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms. This procedure is minimally invasive and reduces inpatient hospitalization requirements. The case involves a 72-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with right testicular ischemia two days following EVAR. Given the minimal inpatient hospitalization associated with this procedure, emergency physicians are likely to encounter associated complications. Ischemic and thromboembolic events following EVAR are extremely rare but require prompt vascular surgery intervention to minimize morbidity and mortality.

  2. Open abdominal surgical training differences experienced by integrated vascular and general surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanious, Adam; Wooster, Mathew; Jung, Andrew; Nelson, Peter R; Armstrong, Paul A; Shames, Murray L

    2017-10-01

    As the integrated vascular residency program reaches almost a decade of maturity, a common area of concern among trainees is the adequacy of open abdominal surgical training. It is our belief that although their overall exposure to open abdominal procedures has decreased, integrated vascular residents have an adequate and focused exposure to open aortic surgery during training. National operative case log data supplied by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were compiled for both graduating integrated vascular surgery residents (IVSRs) and graduating categorical general surgery residents (GSRs) for the years 2012 to 2014. Mean total and open abdominal case numbers were compared between the IVSRs and GSRs, with more in-depth exploration into open abdominal procedures by organ system. Overall, the mean total 5-year case volume of IVSRs was 1168 compared with 980 for GSRs during the same time frame (P surgery, representing 57% of all open abdominal cases. GSRs completed an average of 116 open alimentary tract surgeries during their training. Open abdominal surgery represented an average of 7.1% of the total vascular case volume for the vascular residents, whereas open abdominal surgery represented 21% of a GSR's total surgical experience. IVSRs reported almost double the number of total cases during their training, with double chief-level cases. Sixty-five percent of open abdominal surgeries performed by IVSRs involved the aorta or its renovisceral branches. Whereas open abdominal surgery represented 7.1% of an IVSR's surgical training, GSRs had a far broader scope of open abdominal procedures, completing nearly double those of IVSRs. The differences in open abdominal procedures pertain to the differing diseases treated by GSRs and IVSRs. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Lie, C; Bernhard, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are common during the postoperative period and may be associated with hypoxemia and tachycardia. Preliminary studies in high-risk patients after operation have shown a possible beneficial effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate....... METHODS: The authors studied the effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in 100 consecutive unselected patients randomly and double blindly allocated to receive air or oxygen therapy between the first and fourth day after major abdominal surgery. RESULTS: The median arterial...... oxygen saturation rate increased significantly from 96% to 99% (P heart rate decreased significantly from 85 beats/min to 81 beats/min (P heart rate occurred...

  4. A novel robotic platform for single-port abdominal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satwinder; Cheung, Jo L. K.; Sreedhar, Biji; Hoa, Xuyen Dai; Ng, Hoi Pang; Yeung, Chung Kwong

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a novel robot-assisted platform for single-port minimally invasive surgery is presented. A miniaturized seven degrees of freedom (dof) fully internalized in-vivo actuated robotic arm is designed. Due to in-vivo actuation, the system has a smaller footprint and can generate 20 N of gripping force. The complete work envelop of the robotic arms is 252 mm × 192 mm × 322 m. With the assistance of the cannula-swivel system, the robotic arms can also be re-positioned and have multi-quadrant reachability without any additional incision. Surgical tasks, such as lifting, gripping suturing and knot tying that are commonly used in a standard surgical procedure, were performed to verify the dexterity of the robotic arms. A single-port trans-abdominal cholecystectomy in a porcine model was successfully performed to further validate its functionality.

  5. Endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to adrenaline after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte; Birch, K

    1990-01-01

    Adrenaline-induced changes in heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, insulin, cAMP, glucose lactate, glycerol and beta-hydroxybutyrate were studied preoperatively and 4 and 24 h after skin incision in 8 patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. Late...... postoperative responses of blood glucose, plasma cAMP, lactate and glycerol to adrenaline infusion were reduced, whereas other responses were unaffected. Blood glucose appearance and disappearance rate as assessed by [3H]3-glucose infusion was unchanged pre- and postoperatively. The increase in glucose...... appearance rate following adrenaline was similar pre- and postoperatively. These findings suggest that several beta-receptor-mediated responses to adrenaline are reduced after abdominal surgery....

  6. Race and acute abdominal pain in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperell, Kerry; Pitetti, Raymond; Cross, Keith P

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the demographic and clinical factors of children who present to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain and their outcomes. A review of the electronic medical record of patients 1 to 18 years old, who presented to the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh ED with a complaint of abdominal pain over the course of 2 years, was conducted. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as visit outcomes, were reviewed. Subjects were grouped by age, race, and gender. Results of evaluation, treatment, and clinical outcomes were compared between groups by using multivariate analysis and recursive partitioning. There were 9424 patient visits during the study period that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Female gender comprised 61% of African American children compared with 52% of white children. Insurance was characterized as private for 75% of white and 37% of African American children. A diagnosis of appendicitis was present in 1.9% of African American children and 5.1% of white children. Older children were more likely to be admitted and have an operation associated with their ED visit. Appendicitis was uncommon in younger children. Constipation was commonly diagnosed. Multivariate analysis by diagnosis as well as recursive partitioning analysis did not reflect any racial differences in evaluation, treatment, or outcome. Constipation is the most common diagnosis in children presenting with abdominal pain. Our data demonstrate that no racial differences exist in the evaluation, treatment, and disposition of children with abdominal pain.

  7. Routine clinical application of virtual reality in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, Gianluca; Pugliese, Raffaele; Elli, Marco; Vanzulli, Angelo; Forgione, Antonello

    2017-06-01

    The advantages of 3D reconstruction, immersive virtual reality (VR) and 3D printing in abdominal surgery have been enunciated for many years, but still today their application in routine clinical practice is almost nil. We investigate their feasibility, user appreciation and clinical impact. Fifteen patients undergoing pancreatic, hepatic or renal surgery were studied realizing a 3D reconstruction of target anatomy. Then, an immersive VR environment was developed to import 3D models, and some details of the 3D scene were printed. All the phases of our workflow employed open-source software and low-cost hardware, easily implementable by other surgical services. A qualitative evaluation of the three approaches was performed by 20 surgeons, who filled in a specific questionnaire regarding a clinical case for each organ considered. Preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance was feasible for all patients included in the study. The vast majority of surgeons interviewed scored their quality and usefulness as very good. Despite extra time, costs and efforts necessary to implement these systems, the benefits shown by the analysis of questionnaires recommend to invest more resources to train physicians to adopt these technologies routinely, even if further and larger studies are still mandatory.

  8. Evaluation of aesthetic abdominal surgery using a new clinical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Ferreira, Marcus Castro; do Nascimento Remigio, Adelina Fatima; Gemperli, Rolf

    2012-02-01

    Evaluation of outcomes after aesthetic surgery still is a challenge in plastic surgery. The evaluation frequently is based on subjective criteria. This study used a new clinical grading scale to evaluate aesthetic results for plastic surgeries to the abdomen. The method scores each of the following five parameters: volume of subcutaneous tissue, contour, excess of skin, aspect of the navel, and quality of the scar on the abdominal wall. The scale options are 0 (poor), 1 (fair), and 2 (good), and the total rate can range from 0 to 10. The study included 40 women ages 18-53 years. Of these 40 women, 20 underwent traditional abdominoplasty, and 20 had liposuction alone. Preoperatively and at least 1 year later, photographic results were analyzed and scored by three independent plastic surgeons. In the abdominoplasty group, the average grade rose from 2.9±0.4 to 6.8±0.4 postoperatively. In the liposuction group, the average grade was 5.3±0.5 preoperatively and 7.7±0.4 postoperatively. In both groups, the average postoperative grade was significantly higher than the preoperative grade. The mean scores for groups A and L were significantly different, demonstrating that the scale was sensitive in identifying different anatomic abnormalities in the abdomen. The rating scale used for the aesthetic evaluation of the abdomen was effective in the analysis of two different procedures: conventional abdominoplasty and liposuction. Abdominoplasty provided the greater gain according to a comparison of the pre- and postoperative scores.

  9. Nontrauma emergency surgery: optimal case mix for general surgery and acute care surgery training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Miller, Barbra S; Doherty, Gerard M; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hemmila, Mark R; Park, Pauline K; Raghavendran, Krishnan; Sihler, Kristen C; Wahl, Wendy L; Wang, Stewart C; Napolitano, Lena M

    2011-11-01

    To examine the case mix and patient characteristics and outcomes of the nontrauma emergency (NTE) service in an academic Division of Acute Care Surgery. An NTE service (attending, chief resident, postgraduate year-3 and postgraduate year-2 residents, and two physician assistants) was created in July 2005 for all urgent and emergent inpatient and emergency department general surgery patient consults and admissions. An NTE database was created with prospective data collection of all NTE admissions initiated from November 1, 2007. Prospective data were collected by a dedicated trauma registrar and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-intensive care unit (ICU) coordinator daily. NTE case mix and ICU characteristics were reviewed for the 2-year time period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2009. During the same time period, trauma operative cases and procedures were examined and compared with the NTE case mix. Thousand seven hundred eight patients were admitted to the NTE service during this time period (789 in 2008 and 910 in 2009). Surgical intervention was required in 70% of patients admitted to the NTE service. Exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopy was performed in 449 NTE patients, comprising 37% of all surgical procedures. In comparison, only 118 trauma patients (5.9% of admissions) required a major laparotomy or thoracotomy during the same time period. Acuity of illness of NTE patients was high, with a significant portion (13%) of NTE patients requiring ICU admission. NTE patients had higher admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III scores [61.2 vs. 58.8 (2008); 58.2 vs. 55.8 (2009)], increased mortality [(9.71% vs. 4.89% (2008); 6.78% vs. 5.16% (2009)], and increased readmission rates (15.5% vs. 7.4%) compared with the total surgical ICU (SICU) admissions. In an era of declining operative caseload in trauma, the NTE service provides ample opportunity for complex general surgery decision making and operative procedures for

  10. Heated insufflation with or without humidification for laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Daniel W; Dang, Jerry T; Switzer, Noah J; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2016-10-19

    Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times. To determine the effect of heated gas insufflation compared to cold gas insufflation on maintaining intraoperative normothermia as well as patient outcomes following laparoscopic abdominal surgery. We searched Cochrane Colorectal Cancer Specialised Register (September 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to September 2016), Ovid Embase (1974 to September 2016), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA) (September 2016), Web of Science (1985 to September 2016), Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the National Research Register (1956 to September 2016). We also searched grey literature and cross references. Searches were limited to human studies without language restriction. Only randomised controlled trials comparing heated (with or without humidification) with cold gas insufflation in adult and paediatric populations undergoing laparoscopic abdominal procedures were included. We assessed study quality in regards to relevance, design, sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, possibility of incomplete data and selective reporting. Two review authors independently selected studies for the review, with any disagreement resolved in consensus with a third co-author. Two review authors independently performed screening of eligible studies, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the trials. We classified a study as low-risk of bias if all of the first six main

  11. Preemptive Analgesia with Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen in Pediatric Lower Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kashefi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pain is a significant problem in pediatrics. Preemptive administration of analgesics has recently emerged as a method to enhance pain management associated with surgery. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of a single-dose of preoperative oral ibuprofen versus acetaminophen in preventing pain after lower abdominal surgery in pediatrics. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind study, following lower abdominal surgery, 75 children, aging 3 to 12 years, were assigned to receive either ibuprofen 20 mg /kg (n=25 or acetaminophen 35 mg/kg (n=25 or placebo (n=25 2 hours before surgery. Agitation in recovery was measured and postoperative pain was quantified 3 and 24 hours after surgery by Oucher’s scale. The amount of postoperative analgesic needed in the ward was also assessed. Results: It was found that preoperative administration of ibuprofen and acetaminophen can reduce agitation in recovery but there was no difference in the agitation score between ibuprofen and acetaminophen groups (P=0.145. Agitation score was significantly lower in ibuprofen group compared to placebo (P>0.005. Similarly, patients in the acetaminophen group were considerably less agitated than those in the placebo group (P=0.002. No significant difference was observed in pain intensity 3 and 24 hours after operation between the three groups [(P=0.495 and (P=0.582 respectively]. The amount of postoperative analgesic needed during ward hospitalization was not significantly different among the three groups (P>0.005. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that preemptive acetaminophen and ibuprofen may reduce agitation during recovery but they neither improve the postoperative pain nor reduce analgesics consumption in ward Key words: Postoperative analgesia, Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, Preemptive analgesia

  12. Computerized monitoring of physical activity and sleep in postoperative abdominal surgery patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, T; Kjaersgaard, M; Bernhard, A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of early postoperative activity is important in the documentation of improvements of peri-operative care. This study was designed to validate computerized activity-based monitoring of physical activity and sleep (actigraphy) in patients after abdominal surgery. METHODS...... physical activity and sleep-wake cycles after major abdominal surgery.......: The study included twelve hospitalized patients after major abdominal surgery studied on day 2 to 4 after operation and twelve unhospitalized healthy volunteers. Measurements were performed for 24 consecutive hours. The actigraphy measurements were compared with self-reported activity- and sleep...

  13. Abdominal emergencies after liver transplantation: Presentation and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Manuela; Dioguardi Burgio, Marco; Zarzavadjian Le Bian, Alban

    2017-11-01

    With an increasing number of liver transplantation (LT) and an enhanced overall survival, LT recipients are more likely to be admitted in emergency departments of general hospitals. Yet, in LT recipients, common but also benign symptoms may reveal a LT-related (or not) severe condition. To improve management of LT recipients by emergency physicians and general surgeons and potentially improve long-term outcomes, a clinical review was performed. Overall, CT scan and blood tests should be systematically performed. Immunosuppressive side effects should be excluded using blood tests. LT-related complications are more likely to occur during the first three months after LT, including mainly bile leak, arterial aneurysm, and pseudoaneurysm. Patients should be referred in emergency to tertiary centers. Non-LT-related complications and common abdominal conditions may also be diagnosed in LT recipients. Except in case of diffuse peritonitis or in hemodynamically unstable patients when surgical procedure should be performed, most conditions should be reassessed regarding the immunosuppressive treatment and the adhesive abdominal cavity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hemorrhagic episodes in hemophiliacs stimulating abdominal surgical emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, Mohammad E.; Al-Tayeb, Abdul-Rehman E.; Zafer, Mubarak H.; Seikha, Anwar A.

    2004-01-01

    Hemophiliacs are subjected to develop episodes of spontaneous bleeding at different sites of the body, primarily the knees. On occasions such episodes affect the abdomen. The picture engendered in such cases may mimic that of an abdominal emergency requiring surgical intervention.Such ill advised and unwarranted intervention may end with the patient's death.With the proper emloyment of radiology, the correct diagonosis may be reached and consequently, conservative treatment, in which factor VIII plays the major role, instituted. Here we describe the clinical course of two patients with hemophilia A who suffered bleeding in the abdomen and were treated conservatively with a successfull outcome. (author)

  15. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amany M; Sayd, Heba A; Hamza, Hesham M; Salem, Mohamed A

    2011-03-29

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  16. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI, Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15. Thirty patients (86% presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66% presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34% presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%. The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively. Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%. Ten (28.5% stage II (group A and 25 (71.5% stage III (group B. Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%, debulking in 6 (17% and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%. A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months. The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  17. Acute abdominal emergencies: What radiologist have to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedevska, M.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Acute abdominal pathology is an important cause of emergency admissions, generally putting pressure to obtain a quick and correct diagnosis. This may lead to the simultaneous use of concurrent imaging techniques, where the diagnostic accuracy may be operator dependent. It is important to the radiologist to understand how, when and why medical imaging should be used for each clinical context under appreciation. Imaging protocols should be optimally set in order not to miss the most important, bur subtle diagnostic signs. Radiologist should be conversant in all aspects of this emergency situation including the ability to provide minimally invasive treatment option, such as access drainage or vascular embolization. Although multidetector computed tomography is considered the workhorse in the diagnostic management, imaging alternatives must be kept in mind, especially tailored to the available equipment and the experience of the investigator team. Learning objectives: to describe the advantages and shortcomings of the different imaging techniques; to understand the value of the diagnostic information and the way this can change patient management; to describe and propose an effective diagnostic imaging strategy for the assessment of acute abdominal pain

  18. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  19. Health outcomes in US children with abdominal pain at major emergency departments associated with race and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K T

    2015-01-01

    Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children's hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 - 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery.

  20. Protective mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery improves postoperative pulmonary function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severgnini, Paolo; Selmo, Gabriele; Lanza, Christian; Chiesa, Alessandro; Frigerio, Alice; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Novario, Raffaele; Gregoretti, Cesare; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Schultz, Marcus J.; Jaber, Samir; Futier, Emmanuel; Chiaranda, Maurizio; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The impact of intraoperative ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications is not defined. The authors aimed at determining the effectiveness of protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery on a modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score as primary outcome and

  1. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery (PROVAR): a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieth, P. M.; Güldner, A.; Uhlig, C.; Bluth, T.; Kiss, T.; Conrad, C.; Bischlager, K.; Braune, A.; Huhle, R.; Insorsi, A.; Tarantino, F.; Ball, L.; Schultz, M. J.; Abolmaali, N.; Koch, T.; Pelosi, P.; Gama de Abreu, M.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery.

  2. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  3. The comparative study of epidural levobupivacaine and bupivacaine in major abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Uzuner

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of our study suggest that same concentration of epidural levobupivacaine and bupivacaine with fentanyl provide stable postoperative analgesia and both were found safe for the patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

  4. Decreasing candidaemia rate in abdominal surgery patients after introduction of fluconazole prophylaxis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, Barbara; Thorup, Jens Frederik; Arendrup, M C

    2011-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although abdominal surgery is an established risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the precise role of antifungal prophylaxis in these patients is not agreed upon. In 2007, fluconazole was added to the prophylactic antibiotic treatment for patients...

  5. Thoracic spinal anesthesia is safe for patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ellakany, Mohamed Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A double-blinded randomized controlled study to compare discharge time and patient satisfaction between two groups of patients submitted to open surgeries for abdominal malignancies using segmental thoracic spinal or general anesthesia. Background: Open surgeries for abdominal malignancy are usually done under general anesthesia, but many patients with major medical problems sometimes can’t tolerate such anesthesia. Regional anesthesia namely segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia may be b...

  6. Decreasing candidaemia rate in abdominal surgery patients after introduction of fluconazole prophylaxis*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzknecht, B J; Thorup, J; Arendrup, M C

    2011-01-01

    Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although abdominal surgery is an established risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the precise role of antifungal prophylaxis in these patients is not agreed upon. In 2007, fluconazole was added to the prophylactic antibiotic treatment for patients with gastrointes......Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although abdominal surgery is an established risk factor for invasive candidiasis, the precise role of antifungal prophylaxis in these patients is not agreed upon. In 2007, fluconazole was added to the prophylactic antibiotic treatment for patients...

  7. Incidence of Postoperative Acid-Base Disturbances in Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Gilani M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory and blood pressure changes as well as fluid administration alter the acid-base balance during the perioperative period which may cause consciousness disturbance and additional hemodynamic disorders. The aim of this study was to identify frequent postoperative acid-base disturbances in order to control postoperative complications. Materials and Methods:This prospective, observational study design was used on patients who underwent abdominal surgery during a six-month period. Gasometry was performed immediately after the patients’ admittion to ICU and six and 12 hours postoperatively. SPSS v13 software was used, and PResults: 213 patients (123 male and 90 female aged 14-85 years (51.7± 22.4 were evaluated. During admission, PH and PaCO2 were (7.29±0.13 and (38.3±11.9, respectively; however, although PH increased gradually (P=0.001, PaCO2 was reduced (P=0.03. Bicarbonate and base excess had opposite effects; bicarbonate initially decreased but increased after 12 hours (P=0.001, whereas base excess initially increased (-6.3±11.6 and then decreased gradually (P=0.003. The arterial oxygen pressure was reduced for 22.5% of the patients throughout the admission period, and this did not significantly change (P=0.57. Conclusion: According to the results, in admission, 65.7% had metabolic acidosis, but metabolic alkalosis was the least. Gradually, metabolic acidosis was modified, but metabolic alkalosis increased. Intraoperative hypotension and fluid infusion may be the main factors of early metabolic acidosis and control of hypotension, or correction of acidosis may increase metabolic alkalosis.

  8. Emergency general surgery in the geriatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desserud, K F; Veen, T; Søreide, K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency general surgery in the elderly is a particular challenge to the surgeon in charge of their care. The aim was to review contemporary aspects of managing elderly patients needing emergency general surgery and possible alterations to their pathways of care. This was a narrative review based on a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search up until 15 September 2015 for publications relevant to emergency general surgery in the geriatric patient. The number of patients presenting as an emergency with a general surgical condition increases with age. Up to one-quarter of all emergency admissions to hospital may be for general surgical conditions. Elderly patients are a particular challenge owing to added co-morbidity, use of drugs and risk of poor outcome. Frailty is an important potential risk factor, but difficult to monitor or manage in the emergency setting. Risk scores are not available universally. Outcomes are usually severalfold worse than after elective surgery, in terms of both higher morbidity and increased mortality. A care bundle including early diagnosis, resuscitation and organ system monitoring may benefit the elderly in particular. Communication with the patient and relatives throughout the care pathway is essential, as indications for surgery, level of care and likely outcomes may evolve. Ethical issues should also be addressed at every step on the pathway of care. Emergency general surgery in the geriatric patient needs a tailored approach to improve outcomes and avoid futile care. Although some high-quality studies exist in related fields, the overall evidence base informing perioperative acute care for the elderly remains limited. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Emergency Surgery and Treatments for Pneumothorax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Masatoshi

    2015-07-01

    The primary care in terms of emergency for pneumothorax is chest drainage in almost cases. The following cases of pneumothorax and the complications need something of surgery and treatments. Pneumothorax with subcutaneous emphysema often needs small skin incisions around the drainage tube. Tension pneumothorax often needs urgent chest drainage. Pneumothorax with intractable air leakage often needs interventional treatments like endobroncheal occlusion (EBO) or thoracographic fibrin glue sealing method (TGF) as well as urgent thoracoscopic surgery. Pneumothorax with acute empyema also often needs urgent thoracoscopic surgery within 2 weeks if chest drainage or drug therapy are unsuccessful. It will probably become chronic empyema of thorax after then. Pneumothorax with bleeding needs urgent thoracoscopic surgery in case of continuous bleeding over 200 ml/2 hours. In any cases of emergency for pneumothorax, respiratory physicians should collaborate with respiratory surgeons at the 1st stage because it is important to timely judge conversion of surgical treatments from medical treatments.

  10. Non-emergency small bowel obstruction: assessment of CT findings that predict need for surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Swati D.; Shin, David S.; Willmann, Juergen K.; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Shin, Lewis; Jeffrey, R.B. [Stanford University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To identify CT findings predictive of surgical management in non-emergency small bowel obstruction (SBO). Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT of 129 patients with non-emergency SBO were evaluated for small bowel luminal diameter, wall thickness, presence of the small bowel faeces sign (intraluminal particulate matter in a dilated small bowel) and length, transition point, submucosal oedema, mesenteric stranding, ascites and degree of obstruction (low grade partial, high grade partial and complete obstruction). Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, management and history of abdominal surgery, abdominal malignancy, or SBO. Statistical analyses were performed with Stata Release 9.2. Degree of obstruction was the only predictor of need for surgery. Whereas 18.0% of patients with low-grade partial obstruction (n = 50) underwent surgery, 32.5% of patients with high-grade partial obstruction (n = 77) and 100% of patients with complete obstruction (n = 2) required surgery (P = 0.004). The small bowel faeces sign was inversely predictive of surgery (P = 0.018). In non-emergency SBO patients with contrast-enhanced CT imaging, grade of obstruction predicts surgery, while the small bowel faeces sign inversely predicts need for surgery. (orig.)

  11. Emergency ultrasound-based algorithms for diagnosing blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Dirk; Rademacher, Grit; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Güthoff, Claas; Mutze, Sven

    2015-09-14

    Ultrasonography (performed by means of a four-quadrant, focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST)) is regarded as a key instrument for the initial assessment of patients with suspected blunt abdominal and thoraco-abdominal trauma in the emergency department setting. FAST has a high specificity but low sensitivity in detecting and excluding visceral injuries. Proponents of FAST argue that ultrasound-based clinical pathways enhance the speed of primary trauma assessment, reduce the number of unnecessary multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scans, and enable quicker triage to surgical and non-surgical care. Given the proven accuracy, increasing availability of, and indication for, MDCT among patients with blunt abdominal and multiple injuries, we aimed to compile the best available evidence of the use of FAST-based assessment compared with other primary trauma assessment protocols. To assess the effects of diagnostic algorithms using ultrasonography including in FAST examinations in the emergency department in relation to the early, late, and overall mortality of patients with suspected blunt abdominal trauma. The most recent search was run on 30th June 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registers, and screened reference lists. Trial authors were contacted for further information and individual patient data. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were patients with blunt torso, abdominal, or multiple trauma undergoing diagnostic investigations for abdominal organ injury. The intervention was diagnostic algorithms comprising emergency ultrasonography (US). The control was diagnostic algorithms without US examinations (for example, primary computed tomography (CT) or diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL)). Outcomes were mortality, use of CT or invasive procedures (DPL

  12. Laparoscopic surgery compared to traditional abdominal surgery in the management of early stage cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, T; Ozekinci, M; Saruhan, Z; Sever, B; Pestereli, E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare laparoscopic total radical hysterectomy with classic radical hysterectomy regarding parametrial, and vaginal resection, and lymphadenectomy. Laparoscopic or laparotomic total radical hysterectomy with advantages and disadvantages was offered to the patients diagnosed as having operable cervical cancer between 2007 and 2010. Lymph node status, resection of the parametria and vagina, and margin positivity were recorded for both groups. Data were collected prospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS statistical software program. Totally, 53 cases had classical abdominal radical hysterectomy and 35 laparoscopic radical hysterectomy, respectively. Parametrial involvement was detected in four (11.4%) cases in laparoscopic radical surgery versus nine (16.9%) in laparatomic surgery. All the cases with parametrial involvement had free surgical margins of tumor. Also there were no significant statistical differences in lymph node number and metastasis between the two groups. There is no difference in anatomical considerations between laparoscopic and laparatomic radical surgery in the surgical management of cervical cancer.

  13. [Physical therapy performance in respiratory and motor involvement during postoperative in children submitted to abdominal surgeries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Caroline C; Gonçalves, Marcela T; Piccolo, Mariana M; Lima, Simone; Rosa, George J da; Paulin, Elaine; Schivinski, Camila S

    2011-01-01

    to verify the physiotherapy performance in the respiratory and motor affections during postoperative period in pediatric patients undergoing abdominal surgery. was a literature review of articles published in the databases Lilacs, Medline and SciELO in the period 1983 to 2010 as well as books, papers presented at scientific meetings and journals of the area, who approached the post-therapy of abdominal surgery in children. The keywords used were: abdominal surgery, children and physiotherapy. 28 articles, one book chapter and one dissertation had been selected that examined the question and proposed that contained all, or at least two of the descriptors listed. Most of the material included covers the incidence of respiratory complications after surgery for pediatric abdominal surgery due to immaturity of the respiratory system of this population, abdominal manipulation of surgical period, the prolonged time in bed, pain at the incision site and waste anesthetic. Some authors also discuss the musculoskeletal and connective tissue arising from the inaction and delay of psychomotor development consequent to periods of hospitalization in early childhood, taking on the role of physiotherapy to prevent motor and respiratory involvement. there are few publications addressing this topic, but the positive aspects of physiotherapy have been described, especially in relation to the prevention of respiratory complications and motor, recognized the constraints and consequences of hospitalizations and surgeries cause in children.

  14. Effect of Previous Abdominal Surgery on Laparoscopic Liver Resection: Analysis of Feasibility and Risk Factors for Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriani, Federica; Ratti, Francesca; Fiorentini, Guido; Catena, Marco; Paganelli, Michele; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2018-03-28

    Previous abdominal surgery has traditionally been considered an additional element of difficulty to later laparoscopic procedures. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of previous surgery on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), and its role as a risk factor for conversion. After matching, 349 LLR in patients known for previous abdominal surgery (PS group) were compared with 349 LLR on patients with a virgin abdomen (NPS group). Subgroup analysis included 161 patients with previous upper abdominal surgery (UPS subgroup). Feasibility and safety were evaluated in terms of conversion rate, reasons for conversion and outcomes, and risk factors for conversion assessed via uni/multivariable analysis. Conversion rate was 9.4%, and higher for PS patients compared with NPS patients (13.7% versus 5.1%, P = .021). Difficult adhesiolysis resulted the commonest reason for conversion in PS group (5.7%). However, operative time (P = .840), blood loss (P = .270), transfusion (P = .650), morbidity rate (P = .578), hospital stay (P = .780), and R1 rate (P = .130) were comparable between PS and NPS group. Subgroup analysis confirmed higher conversion rates for UPS patients (23%) compared with both NPS (P = .015) and PS patients (P = .041). Previous surgery emerged as independent risk factor for conversion (P = .033), alongside the postero-superior location and major hepatectomy. LLR are feasible in case of previous surgery and proved to be safe and maintain the benefits of LLR carried out in standard settings. However, a history of surgery should be considered a risk factor for conversion.

  15. Emergency thoracic surgery in elderly patients

    OpenAIRE

    Limmer, Stefan; Unger, Lena; Czymek, Ralf; Kujath, Peter; Hoffmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Emergency thoracic surgery in the elderly represents an extreme situation for both the surgeon and patient. The lack of an adequate patient history as well as the inability to optimize any co-morbidities, which are the result of the emergent situation, are the cause of increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the outcome and prognostic factors for this selected group of patients. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic tertiary care referral center. Participants ...

  16. Emergency Surgery for Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botre, Abhijeet; Udani, Vrajesh; Desai, Neelu; Jagadish, Spoorthy; Sankhe, Milind

    2017-08-15

    Management of refractory status epilepticus in children is extremely challenging. Two children with medically refractory status epilepticus, both of whom had lesional pathology on MRI and concordant data on EEG and PET scan. Emergency hemispherotomy performed in both patients. A complete, sustained seizure freedom obtained postoperatively. Emergency surgery is a treatment option in selected cases of drug refractory status epilepticus with lesional pathology and concordant data.

  17. Pleural Effusion Resultant after Upper Abdominal Surgery: Analysis of 47 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative pulmonary complications, following upper abdominal surgery, occur at a rate which is higher, than lower abdominal surgery. One of these complications is pleural effusion. In this study, the frequency and causes of pleural effusions and the changes of the blood gas values and pulmonary functions of the patients with pleural effusions, occured after upper abdominal surgery are discussed in the accompaniment of the literature. Material and Methods:148 patients to whom upper adominal surgery is performed and in 47 of these patients pleural effusion is developed (31.75% , were examined restrospectivitely. Preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function tests (PFT and arterial blood gas (ABG results and the blood proteins, albumin values were recorded. The anesthesia type, the surgery properties, involving type of surgery and the surgical incision were determined. Results:Pleural effusion is detected bilaterally in 8 patients (17:02, at the rightside in 21 patients (44.69% ,and at the left side in 18 patients (38.29%.The 40.42% (19 cases of the patients who has pleural effusion in the postoperative period, had liver and gallbladder surgery, the %23.41 (11 Cases had spleen and pancreas surgery and the %36.17 (17 cases had the  other surgical procedures.Conclusions: While the upper abdominal surgery, impairment of the integrity of the diaphragm‘s peritoneum that covers the abdominal cavity where there is a highliquid pressure, may cause the liquid transition to the pleural space that has a negative pressure. Hypoalbuminemia and hipoproteinemia, that will occur due to the changes of oral intake and diet regulation in the postoperative period, may cause a reason for the pleural effusion. For this reason, doctors who performed these surgery procedures, should not ignore this complication, in the period of postoperative follow-ups of the patients.

  18. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Feasibility and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagana, Domenico; Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Mangini, Monica; Fontana, Federico; Caronno, Roberto; Castelli, Patrizio; Cuffari, Salvatore; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Methods. During 36 months we treated, on an emergency basis, 30 AAAs with endovascular exclusion. In 21 hemodynamically stable patients preoperative CT angiography (CTA) was performed to confirm the diagnosis and to plan the treatment; 9 patients with hemorrhagic shock were evaluated with angiography performed in the operating room. Twenty-two Excluder (Gore) and 8 Zenith (Cook) stent-grafts (25 bifurcated and 5 aorto-uni-iliac) were used. The follow-up was performed by CTA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Results. Technical success was achieved in 100% of cases with a 10% mortality rate. The total complication rate was 23% (5 increases in serum creatinine level and 2 wound infections). During the follow-up, performed in 27 patients (1-36 months, mean 15.2 months), 4 secondary endoleaks (15%) (3 type II, 2 spontaneously thrombosed and 1 under observation, and 1 type III treated by iliac extender insertion) and 1 iliac leg occlusion (treated with femoro-femoral bypass) occurred. We observed a shrinkage of the aneurysmal sac in 8 of 27 cases and stability in 19 of 27 cases; we did not observe any endotension. Conclusions. Endovascular repair is a good option for emergency treatment of AAAs. The team's experience allows correct planning of the procedure in emergency situations also, with technical results comparable with elective repair. In our experience the bifurcated stent-graft is the device of choice in patients with suitable anatomy because the procedure is less time-consuming than aorto-uni-iliac stent-grafting with surgical crossover, allowing faster aneurysm exclusion. However, further studies are required to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of endovascular repair compared with surgical treatment

  19. Multidisciplinary perioperative protocol in patients undergoing acute high-risk abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, L. T.; Bay-Nielsen, M.; Bisgaard, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery carries a very high risk of morbidity and mortality and represents a massive healthcare burden. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a standardized multidisciplinary perioperative protocol in patients undergoing AHA surgery...... = 0·004). Conclusion: The introduction of a multidisciplinary perioperative protocol was associated with a significant reduction in postoperative mortality in patients undergoing AHA surgery. NCT01899885 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)....

  20. Vertical compared with transverse incisions in abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Rosenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    , and late complications (incisional hernia). RESULTS: Eleven randomised controlled trials and seven retrospective studies were identified. The transverse incision offers as good an access to most intra-abdominal structures as a vertical incision. The transverse incision results in significantly less......OBJECTIVE: To reach an evidence-based consensus on the relative merits of vertical and transverse laparotomy incisions. DESIGN: Review of all published randomised controlled trials that compared the postoperative complications after the two main types of abdominal incisions, vertical and transverse....... SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing open abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: For some of the variables (burst abdomen and incisional hernia) it was considered adequate to include retrospective studies. Studies were identified through Medline, Cochrane library, Embase...

  1. Imaging of small bowel-related complications following major abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Maglinte, Dean D.T.

    2005-01-01

    To recognize and document the small bowel reactions following major abdominal surgery is an important key for a correct diagnosis. Usually, plain abdominal radiography is the initial imaging examination requested in the immediate postoperative period, whereas gastrointestinal contrast studies are used to look for specific complications. In some countries, especially in Europe, sonography is widely employed to evaluate any acute affection of the abdomen. CT is commonly used to assess postoperative abdominal complications; in our institution also CT enteroclysis is often performed, to provide additional important informations. Radiologist should be able to diagnose less common types of obstruction, such as afferent loop, closed loop, strangulating obstruction as well as internal hernia. This knowledge may assume a critical importance for surgeons to decide on therapy. In this article, we focus our attention on the imaging (particularly CT) in small bowel complications following abdominal surgery

  2. Functional residual capacity increase during laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ueda

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: The number of laparoscopic surgeries performed is increasing every year and in most cases the pneumoperitoneum method is used. One alternative is the abdominal wall lifting method and this study was undertaken to evaluate changes of functional residual capacity during the abdominal wall lift procedure. Methods: From January to April 2013, 20 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a single institution. All patients were anesthetized using propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. FRC was measured automatically by Engstrom Carestation before the abdominal wall lift and again 15 minutes after the start of the procedure. Results: After abdominal wall lift, there was a significant increase in functional residual capacity values (before abdominal wall lift 1.48 × 103 mL, after abdominal wall lift 1.64 × 103 mL (p < 0.0001. No complications such as desaturation were observed in any patient during this study. Conclusions: Laparoscopic surgery with abdominal wall lift may be appropriate for patients who have risk factors such as obesity and respiratory disease.

  3. Critical differences between elective and emergency surgery: identifying domains for quality improvement in emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbus, Alexandra B; Morris, Megan A; Lilley, Elizabeth J; Harlow, Alyssa F; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Havens, Joaquim M

    2018-04-01

    The objective of our study was to characterize providers' impressions of factors contributing to disproportionate rates of morbidity and mortality in emergency general surgery to identify targets for care quality improvement. Emergency general surgery is characterized by a high-cost burden and disproportionate morbidity and mortality. Factors contributing to these observed disparities are not comprehensively understood and targets for quality improvement have not been formally developed. Using a grounded theory approach, emergency general surgery providers were recruited through purposive-criterion-based sampling to participate in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Participants were asked to identify contributors to emergency general surgery outcomes, to define effective care for EGS patients, and to describe operating room team structure. Interviews were performed to thematic saturation. Transcripts were iteratively coded and analyzed within and across cases to identify emergent themes. Member checking was performed to establish credibility of the findings. A total of 40 participants from 5 academic hospitals participated in either individual interviews (n = 25 [9 anesthesia, 12 surgery, 4 nursing]) or focus groups (n = 2 [15 nursing]). Emergency general surgery was characterized by an exceptionally high level of variability, which can be subcategorized as patient-variability (acute physiology and comorbidities) and system-variability (operating room resources and workforce). Multidisciplinary communication is identified as a modifier to variability in emergency general surgery; however, nursing is often left out of early communication exchanges. Critical variability in emergency general surgery may impact outcomes. Patient-variability and system-variability, with focus on multidisciplinary communication, represent potential domains for quality improvement in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saussure, Wassila Oulhaci; Andereggen, Elisabeth; Sarasin, François

    2010-08-25

    When should a patient with abdominal pain be referred to the emergency ward? The following goals must be achieved upon managing patients with acute abdominal pain: 1) identify vital emergency situations; 2) detect surgical conditions that require emergency referral without further diagnostic procedures; 3) in "non surgical acute abdomen patients" perform appropriate diagnostic procedures, or in selected cases delay tests and reevaluate the patient after an observation period, after which a referral decision is made. Clues from the history and physical examination are critical to perform this evaluation. A good knowledge of the most frequent acute abdominal conditions, and identifying potential severity criteria allow an appropriate management and decision about emergency referral.

  5. Association of splenic and renal infarctions in acute abdominal emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano; Gatta, Gianluca; Lombardo, Patrizia; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Introduction: Splenic and renal infarctions are usually related to vascular disease or haematologic abnormalities. Their association is infrequent and rarely observed in trauma. In this study, we analyze our data to look at the occurrence of renal and splenic infarctions based on CT findings in a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 84 patients admitted to our Department of Diagnostic Imaging from June 1998 to December 2002, who underwent emergency abdominal spiral CT examination and in whom there was evidence of splenic and/or renal infarction. Results: We found 40 cases of splenic infarction and 54 cases of renal infarction, associated in 10 patients. In 26 patients, there was also evidence of intestinal infarction. A traumatic origin was found in 19 cases; non-traumatic causes were found in 65 patients. Association between renal and splenic infarction in the same patient was related to trauma in two cases. Conclusions: Although renal and splenic infarctions are a common manifestation of cardiac thromboembolism, other systemic pathologies, infections or trauma may lead to this occurrence. Renal infarction may be clinically and/or surgically managed with success in most cases. There are potential complications in splenic infarction, such as development of pseudocysts, abscesses, hemorrhage, subcapsular haematoma or splenic rupture; splenectomy in these cases may be necessary. Some patients with splenic and/or renal infarction may be clinically asymptomatic. The high accuracy of CT examination is needed to allow a correct evaluation of infarcted organs.

  6. Association of splenic and renal infarctions in acute abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Scaglione, Mariano; Gatta, Gianluca; Lombardo, Patrizia; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Splenic and renal infarctions are usually related to vascular disease or haematologic abnormalities. Their association is infrequent and rarely observed in trauma. In this study, we analyze our data to look at the occurrence of renal and splenic infarctions based on CT findings in a period of 4 years. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging findings of 84 patients admitted to our Department of Diagnostic Imaging from June 1998 to December 2002, who underwent emergency abdominal spiral CT examination and in whom there was evidence of splenic and/or renal infarction. Results: We found 40 cases of splenic infarction and 54 cases of renal infarction, associated in 10 patients. In 26 patients, there was also evidence of intestinal infarction. A traumatic origin was found in 19 cases; non-traumatic causes were found in 65 patients. Association between renal and splenic infarction in the same patient was related to trauma in two cases. Conclusions: Although renal and splenic infarctions are a common manifestation of cardiac thromboembolism, other systemic pathologies, infections or trauma may lead to this occurrence. Renal infarction may be clinically and/or surgically managed with success in most cases. There are potential complications in splenic infarction, such as development of pseudocysts, abscesses, hemorrhage, subcapsular haematoma or splenic rupture; splenectomy in these cases may be necessary. Some patients with splenic and/or renal infarction may be clinically asymptomatic. The high accuracy of CT examination is needed to allow a correct evaluation of infarcted organs

  7. Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) in penetrating abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programmes employed in elective surgery have provided strong evidence for decreased lengths of hospital stay without increase in postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to explore the role and benefits of ERAS implemented in patients undergoing ...

  8. THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN ABDOMINAL SURGERY AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of new approaches to the prevention of infectious complications of bacterial nature after the high-technology operations in the abdominal surgery, first of all, after liver transplantation. At- tention is drawn to the first positive results of randomized studies on the use of biological preparations - probi- otics, prebiotics and synbiotics in patients after liver transplantation. The authors prove the prospects of further development of this subject based on successful model experiments on animals and various operational interven- tions in abdominal surgery

  9. An Experimental Animal Model for Abdominal Fascia Healing after Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H-C; Klein, M

    2013-01-01

    be used to evaluate the actively healing fascia. Such an animal model may promote future research in the prevention of IH. Methods: 86 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a model involving six experiments (experiments A-F). Mechanical testing of the breaking strength of the healed fascia......Background: Incisional hernia (IH) is a well-known complication after abdominal surgical procedures. The exact etiology of IH is still unknown even though many risk factors have been suggested. The aim of this study was to create an animal model of a weakly healed abdominal fascia that could...... was performed by testing tissue strips from the healed fascia versus the unincised control fascia 7 and 28 days postoperatively. Results: During the six experiments a healing model was created that produced significantly weaker coherent fascia when compared with the control tissue measured in terms...

  10. Comparison of caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for major upper abdominal surgery in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Makoto; Iida, Takafumi; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    The caudal epidural block is one of the most commonly used regional anesthetic techniques in children. Administration of morphine via caudal injection enables analgesia, even for upper abdominal surgery. The thoracic paravertebral block has also been successfully used to treat perioperative pain during upper abdominal procedures in pediatric patients. In the current study, we compared the two regional techniques for upper abdominal surgery in infants to determine whether one of them was preferable to the other. Consecutive patients under 12 months of age who underwent upper abdominal surgery were retrospectively divided according to the chosen postoperative analgesia: Group C, caudal ropivacaine-morphine; Group P, paravertebral catheter. We analyzed the following outcomes: requirement for additional analgesics, pain scores, need for mechanical ventilation and oxygen dosage, postoperative blood pressure and heart rate, time to pass first stool, time until first full meal, and complications. Twenty-one consecutive patients were included: 10 in Group C and 11 in Group P. Median age at surgery was 80 (47.5-270.0) and 84.5 (34.3-287.5) days, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups in requirement for additional analgesics at 24 h after surgery (median 1 in Group C vs 1 in Group P, P = 0.288, 95% CI: -2 to 1). BOPS pain scores were only lower in Group P when compared to Group C at 24 h after surgery (median 1 vs 2, P = 0.041, 95% CI: -2 to 0). None of the patients had perioperative complications. In this small series, there was no significant difference between caudal ropivacaine-morphine and paravertebral catheter for postoperative care in infants undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Further prospective studies are needed to compare the efficacy and incidence of complications of caudal block and paravertebral catheter for postoperative analgesia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Chest physiotherapy with positive expiratory pressure breathing after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, J; Westerdahl, E

    2010-03-01

    A variety of chest physiotherapy techniques are used following abdominal and thoracic surgery to prevent or reduce post-operative complications. Breathing techniques with a positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to increase airway pressure and improve pulmonary function. No systematic review of the effects of PEP in surgery patients has been performed previously. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of PEP breathing after an open upper abdominal or thoracic surgery. A literature search of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) was performed in five databases. The trials included were systematically reviewed by two independent observers and critically assessed for methodological quality. We selected six RCT evaluating the PEP technique performed with a mechanical device in spontaneously breathing adult patients after abdominal or thoracic surgery via thoracotomy. The methodological quality score varied between 4 and 6 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database score. The studies were published between 1979 and 1993. Only one of the included trials showed any positive effects of PEP compared to other breathing techniques. Today, there is scarce scientific evidence that PEP treatment is better than other physiotherapy breathing techniques in patients undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery. There is a lack of studies investigating the effect of PEP over placebo or no physiotherapy treatment.

  12. Ring down artefacts on abdominal sonography to predict pulmonary abnormalities in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C-L; Wang, H-P; Lien, W-C; Chen, C-C; Lai, T-I; Chen, W-J

    2005-10-01

    Ring down artefacts are sometimes found when emergency physicians perform abdominal ultrasound to differentiate between various abdominal problems. We describe a patient who presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and whose ultrasound examination showed ring down artefacts posterior to the right hemidiaphragm, which led to the eventual diagnosis of pneumonia. Ring down artefacts on ultrasound may be used to predict pulmonary abnormalities. Awareness of this sonographic finding may assist in accurate diagnosis and administration of appropriate treatment without delay.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial Study in Abdominal Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    , and finally, greatly improved postoperative recovery 5-7. In recent years, FTS has been applied to several surgical diseases including radical prostatectomy 8, cardiac surgery 9, total knee replacement 10, cesarean section11, coronary artery ...

  14. Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Pseudoaneurysm: Is It a Real Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Mafalda; Prunella, Roberto; Gerardi, Pasquale; Lillo, Antonio; De Caridi, Giovanni; Serra, Raffaele; Notarstefano, Stefano; Impedovo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm is a rare but life-threatening condition that occurs due to penetrating or blunt trauma. Clinical manifestations are variable, and the time interval from the initial trauma to diagnosis is variable. A prompt diagnosis and an aggressive management approach are required to avoid catastrophic complications. Possible treatment options are open surgical repair, endovascular repair, pseudoanerysmal sac thrombosis induction through direct thrombin injection, and coil embolization. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man affected by an infrarenal abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting with abdominal and lumbar pain for 3 days, who was successfully treated with an endograft. PMID:29515707

  15. Evidence or eminence in abdominal surgery: Recent improvements in perioperative care

    OpenAIRE

    Segelman, Josefin; Nygren, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Repeated surveys from Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand have shown that adherence to an evidence-based perioperative care protocol, such as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS), has been generally low. It is of great importance to support the implementation of the ERAS protocol as it has been shown to improve outcomes after a number of surgical procedures, including major abdominal surgery. However, despite an increasing awareness of the importance of structured perioper...

  16. Early oral feeding after elective abdominal surgery--what are the issues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thue; Kehlet, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdomin...... surgical programs in abdominal surgery provide a rational basis for future studies to investigate and facilitate enforced oral feeding after major abdominal procedures.......This review analyzes the literature and the historical concerns (restrictions, traditions, nasogastric tube) and pathophysiologic factors (postoperative ileus, risk of anastomotic dehiscence, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite) invoked for not instituting early oral feeding after major abdominal...... procedures. It appears that several factors may promote postoperative oral feeding such as thoracic epidural analgesia, multimodal anti-emetic treatment, opioid-sparing analgesia, selective peripheral opioid antagonists, and enforced oral nutrition. Recent data from multimodal fast-track rehabilitation...

  17. Nutrition management in enhanced recovery after abdominal pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Mesa, Elena; Baz Figueroa, Caleb; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Sanz Pereda, Pablo; Barrera Gómez, Manuel Ángel

    Multimodal rehabilitation programs are perioperative standardized strategies with the objective of improving patient recovery, and decreasing morbidity, hospital stay and health cost. The nutritional aspect is an essential component of multimodal rehabilitation programs and therefore nutritional screening is recommended prior to hospital admission, avoiding pre-surgical fasting, with oral carbohydrate overload and early initiation of oral intake after surgery. However, there are no standardized protocols of diet progression after pancreatic surgery. A systematic review was been performed of papers published between 2006 and 2016, describing different nutritional strategies after pancreatic surgery and its possible implications in postoperative outcome. The studies evaluated are very heterogeneous, so conclusive results could not be drawn on the diet protocol to be implemented, its influence on clinical variables, or the need for concomitant artificial nutrition. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Circadian distribution of sleep phases after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gogenur, I.; Wildschiotz, G.; Rosenberg, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. It is believed that the severely disturbed night-time sleep architecture after surgery is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity with rebound of rapid eye movement (REM). The daytime sleep pattern of patients after major general surgery has not been investigated before. We...... nights after operation. Sleep was scored independently by two blinded observers and the recordings were reported as awake, light sleep (LS, stages I and II), slow wave sleep (SWS, stages III and IV), and REM sleep. Results. There was significantly increased REM sleep (P=0.046), LS (P=0.020), and reduced...... time awake (P=0.016) in the postoperative daytime period compared with the preoperative daytime period. Five patients had REM sleep during the daytime after surgery. Three of these patients did not have REM sleep during the preceding postoperative night. There was significantly reduced night-time REM...

  19. Emergency thoracic surgery in elderly patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Stefan; Unger, Lena; Czymek, Ralf; Kujath, Peter; Hoffmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Emergency thoracic surgery in the elderly represents an extreme situation for both the surgeon and patient. The lack of an adequate patient history as well as the inability to optimize any co-morbidities, which are the result of the emergent situation, are the cause of increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the outcome and prognostic factors for this selected group of patients. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic tertiary care referral center. Participants Emergency patients treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Luebeck, Germany. Main outcome measures Co-morbidities, mortality, risk factors and hospital length of stay. Results A total of 124 thoracic procedures were performed on 114 patients. There were 79 men and 36 women (average age 72.5 ±6.4 years, range 65–94). The overall operative mortality was 25.4%. The most frequent indication was thoracic/mediastinal infection, followed by peri- or postoperative thoracic complications. Risk factors for hospital mortality were a high ASA score, pre-existing diabetes mellitus and renal insufficiency. Conclusions Our study documents a perioperative mortality rate of 25% in patients over 65 who required emergency thoracic surgery. The main indication for a surgical intervention was sepsis with a thoracic/mediastinal focus. Co-morbidities and the resulting perioperative complications were found to have a significant effect on both inpatient length of stay and outcome. Long-term systemic co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus are difficult to equalize with respect to certain organ dysfunctions and significantly increase mortality. PMID:21369531

  20. Surgical robot setup simulation with consistent kinematics and haptics for abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Konishi, Kozo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Preoperative simulation and planning of surgical robot setup should accompany advanced robotic surgery if their advantages are to be further pursued. Feedback from the planning system will plays an essential role in computer-aided robotic surgery in addition to preoperative detailed geometric information from patient CT/MRI images. Surgical robot setup simulation systems for appropriate trocar site placement have been developed especially for abdominal surgery. The motion of the surgical robot can be simulated and rehearsed with kinematic constraints at the trocar site, and the inverse-kinematics of the robot. Results from simulation using clinical patient data verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  1. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Schnack; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major abdominal and pelvic surgery carries a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administered during the in-hospital period is well documented, but the optimal duration of thromboprophylaxis after surgery...... evaluating prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH as compared to control or placebo. 133 studies were found in the searches, of which only 4 were found eligible for inclusion, and 129 were excluded. The incidence of overall VTE after major abdominal or pelvic surgery was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 11...... significant reduction of even the incidence of symptomatic VTE from 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% - 3.4%) in the control group to 0.2 % (95% CI 0.0% - 1.2%) in patients receiving prolonged thromboprophylaxis, Peto Odds ratio 0.22 (95% CI 0.06 -0.80), P = 0.02. The respective incidence of bleeding in the control and LMWH...

  2. [Mortality and morbidity in surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, A.B.; Andersen, Jakob Steen; Heslet, L.

    2008-01-01

    Care Unit's (ICU) Critical Information System, a blood bank and the database of a vascular surgery unit. RESULTS: The perioperative mortality was 8%, ICU mortality 22%, postoperative mortality 33% and 30-day mortality 39%. The ICU mortality for patients with renal failure and septic shock...... was significantly higher than the overall ICU mortality. The ICU mortality and morbidity increased with the amount of postoperative blood loss. Patients with an initial serum creatinine concentration of

  3. Paediatric surgical abdominal emergencies in a north central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 days of onset of symptoms with abdominal pain/distension and/or vomiting as chief complaint. Fourteen (63.7%) of .... one was a duodenal perforation (in addition to rib and femoral fracture), one was an ileal perforation and one was a right ...

  4. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, in particular CT, has become the main method of detecting abdominal collections. Indium-labelled white-cell scintigraphy and gallium scintigraphy are reserved for patients in whom there is a high clinical suspicion of abdominal sepsis but CT has not revealed a source of sepsis. Scintigraphy is also used in patients with suspected vascular graft infections or suspected infected hip prostheses. Percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) has revolutionised the treatment of abdominal abscesses over the past 20 years, with repeat laparotomy for postoperative abscesses becoming a rare event. Ultrasound or CT can be used to guide PAD. Choosing an access route that does not cross intervening organs is of crucial importance to the safe performance of PAD. The Trocar or Seldinger techniques can be used with equal success. The cavity should be aspirated until dry and irrigated with saline. Repeat imaging after drainage is helpful to detect any undrained locules. PAD endpoints include patient defervescence, reduction in white blood cell count and catheter drainage of less than 10 ml per day. Details regarding PAD in specific abdominal regions are discussed. Success rates for PAD are high (close to 90%) in most abdominal organs. Slightly lower success rates are seen with PAD of pancreatic abscesses and abscesses associated with fistulas (60-85% success rates). Complication rates lie between 0% and 10%. Complications can be minimised by ensuring that the patient has broad spectrum antibiotic coverage before drainage, by carefully planning the access route and by ensuring diligent post-procedure care by radiology staff. (orig.)

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt before Abdominal Surgery in Cirrhotic Patients: A Retrospective, Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Vinet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgery in cirrhotic patients is associated with high morbidity and mortality related to portal hypertension and liver insufficiency. Therefore, preoperative portal decompression is a logical approach to facilitate abdominal surgery and hopefully to improve postoperative survival. The present study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 18 patients (mean age 58 years with cirrhosis (seven alcoholics and 11 nonalcoholics who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS placement before antrectomy (n=5, colectomy (n=10, small-bowel resection (n=1, pancreatectomy (n=1 and nephrectomy (n=1. TIPS was performed a mean (± SD of 72±21 days before surgery and induced a marked mean decrease in portohepatic gradient from 21.4±3.9 mmHg to 8.4±3.4 mmHg. Cirrhotic patients (n=17 who underwent elective abdominal surgery without preoperative TIPS placement were used as the control group. Both groups were matched for age, etiology of cirrhosis, indications for surgery, type of surgery and coagulation parameters. The mean Pugh score was significantly higher in the TIPS group (7.7 versus 6.2. No significant differences were observed for operative blood loss, postoperative complications, duration of hospitalization and one-month (83% versus 88% or one-year (54% versus 63% cumulative survival rate. Analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model showed that neither TIPS placement nor preoperative Pugh score were independent predictors for survival. The present study suggests that preoperative TIPS placement does not improve postoperative evolution after abdominal surgery in cirrhotic patients with good or moderately impaired liver function.

  6. The Zelnorm epidemiologic study (ZEST: a cohort study evaluating incidence of abdominal and pelvic surgery related to tegaserod treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeger John D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-marketing clinical studies of tegaserod suggested an increased risk of abdominal surgery, particularly cholecystectomy. We sought to quantify the association between tegaserod use and the occurrence of abdominal or pelvic surgery, including cholecystectomy. Methods This cohort study was conducted within an insured population. Tegaserod initiators and similar persons who did not initiate tegaserod were followed for up to six months for the occurrence of abdominal or pelvic surgery. Surgical procedures were identified from health insurance claims validated by review of medical records. The incidence of confirmed outcomes was compared using both as-matched and as-treated analyses. Results Among 2,762 tegaserod initiators, there were 94 abdominal or pelvic surgeries (36 gallbladder: among 2,762 comparators there were 134 abdominal or pelvic surgeries (37 gallbladder (hazard ratio HR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 0.54-0.91 overall, HR = 0.98, 95% C.I. = 0.62-1.55 for gallbladder. Current tegaserod exposure compared to nonexposure was associated with a rate ratio [RR] of 0.68 (95% C.I. = 0.48-0.95 overall, while the RR was 0.99 (95% C.I. = 0.56-1.77 for gallbladder surgery. Conclusions In this study, tegaserod use was not found to increase the risk of abdominal or pelvic surgery nor the specific subset of gallbladder surgery.

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ...

  9. Heated CO(2) with or without humidification for minimally invasive abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Daniel W; Manouchehri, Namdar; Shi, Xinzhe; Hadi, Ghassan; Karmali, Shahzeer

    2011-01-19

    Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times. To determine the effect of heated gas insufflation on patient outcomes following minimally invasive abdominal surgery. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), Web of Science, Scopus, www.clinicaltrials.gov and the National Research Register were searched (1956 to 14 June 2010). Grey literature and cross-references were also searched. Searches were limited to human studies without language restriction. All included studies were randomized trials comparing heated (with or without humidification) gas insufflation with cold gas insufflation in adult and pediatric populations undergoing minimally invasive abdominal procedures. Study quality was assessed in regards to relevance, design, sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, possibility of incomplete data and selective reporting. The selection of studies for the review was done independently by two authors, with any disagreement resolved in consensus with a third co-author. Screening of eligible studies, data extraction and methodological quality assessment of the trials were performed by the authors. Data from eligible studies were collected using data sheets. Results were presented using mean differences for continuous outcomes and relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous outcomes. The estimated effects were calculated using the latest version of RevMan software. Publication bias was taken into

  10. Administration of platelets to ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm patients before open surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunen, T B; Johansson, P I; Jensen, L P

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing open surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA), survivors demonstrate a high platelet count, and proactive administration of platelets (and fresh frozen plasma) appears to influence mortality. OBJECTIVES: This trial investigated the effect of plate......BACKGROUND: In patients undergoing open surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA), survivors demonstrate a high platelet count, and proactive administration of platelets (and fresh frozen plasma) appears to influence mortality. OBJECTIVES: This trial investigated the effect...... vs 39; P = 0·15) were similar in the two groups of patients. No adverse reactions to platelet administration were observed. In addition, length of stay in the intensive care unit was unaffected by intervention. CONCLUSIONS: For patients planned for open repair of a rAAA, we observed no significant...... effect of early administration of platelets with regard to post-operative complications and stay in the ICU or in hospital and also no significant effect on mortality....

  11. Emergency surgery for complicated colorectal cancer in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Caetano dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to report clinical and pathological features of patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed during emergency abdominal surgery. Methods: records of 107 patients operated between 2006 and 2010 were reviewed. Results: there were 58 women and 49 men with mean age of 59.8 years. The most frequent symptoms were: abdominal pain (97.2%, no bowel movements (81.3%, vomiting (76.6%, and anorexia (40.2%. Patients were divided into five groups: obstructive acute abdomen (n = 68, obstructive acute perforation (n = 21, obstructive acute inflammation (n = 13, abdominal sepsis (n = 3, and severe gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 2. Tumors were located in the rectosigmoid (51.4%, transverse colon (19.6%, ascendent colon (12.1%, descendent colon (11.2%, and 5.6% of the cases presented association of two colon tumors (synchronic tumors. The surgical treatment was: tumor resection with colostomy (85%, tumor resection with primary anastomosis (10.3%, and colostomy without tumor resection (4.7%. Immediate mortality occurred in 33.4% of the patients. Bivariate analysis of sex, tumor location and stage showed no relation to death (p > 0.05%. Conclusions: colorectal cancer may be the cause of colon obstruction or perfuration in patients with nonspecific colonic complaints. Despite the high mortality rate, resection of tumor is feasible in most patients. Resumo: Objetivo: analisar os aspectos clinicos e patológicos de pacientes operados de cancer colorretal diagnosticados durante operações abdominais de urgencia. Métodos: foram estudados os prontuários de 107 pacientes operados entre 2006 e 2010. Resultados: Foram incluidos 58 mulheres e 49 homens com idade media de 59,8 anos. Os sintomas mais frequentes foram: dor abdominal (97,2%, parade de eliminação de gases e fezes (81,3%, vomitos (76,6% e anorexia (40,2%. Os pacientes foram divididos em cinco grupos: abdomen agudo obstrutivo (68, abdomen agudo perfurativo (21, abdomen agudo inflamatorio (13

  12. Development and validation of a risk stratification score for ventral incisional hernia after abdominal surgery: hernia expectation rates in intra-abdominal surgery (the HERNIA Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Christopher J; Ko, Tien C; Kao, Lillian S; Nguyen, Mylan T; Holihan, Julie L; Alawadi, Zeinab; Nguyen, Duyen H; Flores, Juan R; Arita, Nestor T; Roth, J Scott; Liang, Mike K

    2015-04-01

    Ventral incisional hernias (VIH) develop in up to 20% of patients after abdominal surgery. No widely applicable preoperative risk-assessment tool exists. We aimed to develop and validate a risk-assessment tool to predict VIH after abdominal surgery. A prospective study of all patients undergoing abdominal surgery was conducted at a single institution from 2008 to 2010. Variables were defined in accordance with the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project, and VIH was determined through clinical and radiographic evaluation. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was built from a development cohort (2008 to 2009) to identify predictors of VIH. The HERNIAscore was created by converting the hazards ratios (HR) to points. The predictive accuracy was assessed on the validation cohort (2010) using a receiver operator characteristic curve and calculating the area under the curve (AUC). Of 625 patients followed for a median of 41 months (range 0.3 to 64 months), 93 (13.9%) developed a VIH. The training cohort (n = 428, VIH = 70, 16.4%) identified 4 independent predictors: laparotomy (HR 4.77, 95% CI 2.61 to 8.70) or hand-assisted laparoscopy (HAL, HR 4.00, 95% CI 2.08 to 7.70), COPD (HR 2.35; 95% CI 1.44 to 3.83), and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (HR1.74; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.91). Factors that were not predictive included age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, albumin, immunosuppression, previous surgery, and suture material or technique. The predictive score had an AUC = 0.77 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.86) using the validation cohort (n = 197, VIH = 23, 11.6%). Using the HERNIAscore: HERNIAscore = 4(∗)Laparotomy+3(∗)HAL+1(∗)COPD+1(∗) BMI ≥ 25, 3 classes stratified the risk of VIH: class I (0 to 3 points),5.2%; class II (4 to 5 points),19.6%; and class III (6 points), 55.0%. The HERNIAscore accurately identifies patients at increased risk for VIH. Although external validation is needed, this provides a starting point to counsel patients and guide

  13. Post-operative analgesia for major abdominal surgery and its effectiveness in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Epidural, PCIA and opioid infusions are used for pain relief after major abdominal surgeries at our hospital. Although there is limited drug availability, regular assessments and appropriate dose adjustments by acute pain management service (APMS and use of multimodal analgesia led to a high level of patient satisfaction. We recommend that feedback to the primary anesthesiologists by APMS is of utmost importance to enable improvement in practice.

  14. Thoracic spinal anesthesia is safe for patients undergoing abdominal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellakany, Mohamed Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    A double-blinded randomized controlled study to compare discharge time and patient satisfaction between two groups of patients submitted to open surgeries for abdominal malignancies using segmental thoracic spinal or general anesthesia. Open surgeries for abdominal malignancy are usually done under general anesthesia, but many patients with major medical problems sometimes can't tolerate such anesthesia. Regional anesthesia namely segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia may be beneficial in such patients. A total of 60 patients classified according to American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) as class II or III undergoing surgeries for abdominal malignancy, like colonic or gastric carcinoma, divided into two groups, 30 patients each. Group G, received general anesthesia, Group S received a segmental (T9-T10 injection) thoracic spinal anesthesia with intrathecal injection of 2 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10 mg) and 20 ug fentanyl citrate. Intraoperative monitoring, postoperative pain, complications, recovery time, and patient satisfaction at follow-up were compared between the two groups. Spinal anesthesia was performed easily in all 30 patients, although two patients complained of paraesthesiae, which responded to slight needle withdrawal. No patient required conversion to general anesthesia, six patients required midazolam for anxiety and six patients required phenylephrine and atropine for hypotension and bradycardia, recovery was uneventful and without sequelae. The two groups were comparable with respect to gender, age, weight, height, body mass index, ASA classification, preoperative oxygen saturation and preoperative respiratory rate and operative time. This preliminary study has shown that segmental thoracic spinal anesthesia can be used successfully and effectively for open surgeries for abdominal malignancies by experienced anesthetists. It showed shorter postanesthesia care unit stay, better postoperative pain relief and patient satisfaction than

  15. Predictive value of C-reactive protein in critically ill patients after abdominal surgery

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    Frédéric Sapin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The development of sepsis after abdominal surgery is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to inflammation, it may be difficult to diagnose infection when it occurs, but measurement of C-reactive protein could facilitate this diagnosis. In the present study, we evaluated the predictive value and time course of C-reactive protein in relation to outcome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU after abdominal surgery. METHODS: We included patients admitted to the ICU after abdominal surgery over a period of two years. The patients were divided into two groups according to their outcome: favorable (F; left the ICU alive, without modification of the antibiotic regimen and unfavorable (D; death in the ICU, surgical revision with or without modification of the antibiotic regimen or just modification of the regimen. We then compared the highest C-reactive protein level on the first day of admission between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 308 patients were included: 86 patients had an unfavorable outcome (group D and 222 had a favorable outcome (group F. The groups were similar in terms of leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and platelet count. C-reactive protein was significantly higher at admission in group D and was the best predictor of an unfavorable outcome, with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 72% for a threshold of 41 mg/L. No changes in C-reactive protein, as assessed based on the delta C-reactive protein, especially at days 4 and 5, were associated with a poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: A C-reactive protein cut-off of 41 mg/L during the first day of ICU admission after abdominal surgery was a predictor of an adverse outcome. However, no changes in the C-reactive protein concentration, especially by day 4 or 5, could identify patients at risk of death.

  16. Orthostatic hypotension during postoperative continuous thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine in patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crawford, M E; Møiniche, S; Orbæk, Janne

    1996-01-01

    Fifty patients undergoing colonic surgery received combined thoracic epidural and general anesthesia followed by continuous epidural bupivacaine 0.25% and morphine 0.05 mg/mL, 4 mL/h, for 96 h postoperatively plus oral tenoxicam 20 mg daily. Heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP) were...... hypotension. The results suggest that patients undergoing abdominal surgery and treated with continuous small-dose thoracic epidural bupivacaine-morphine are subjected to a decrease of BP at rest and during mobilization, but not to an extent that seriously impairs ambulation in most patients....

  17. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction and neuroinflammation; Cardiac surgery and abdominal surgery are not the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Iris B.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a debilitating surgical complication, with cardiac surgery patients at particular risk. To gain insight in the mechanisms underlying the higher incidence of POCD after cardiac versus non-cardiac surgery, systemic and central inflammatory changes,

  18. A Description of Deaths Following Emergency Abdominal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsted, Henrik; Møller, Ann Merete; Tolstrup, Mai-Britt

    2017-01-01

    .5% in the population. Four percent (5 of 138) of the patients died unexpectedly without any prior signs of deterioration and 46% (65 of 138) experienced a complicated treatment course, 67% of which was treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). The remaining 50% (68 of 138) had treatment limitations, applied pre...... as a viable alternative for these patients, securing a sufficient level of treatment without taking up scarce beds in the intensive care unit, remains an important question for future studies. Furthermore, five patients died unexpectedly, without any clear cause of death, proving that continual strides toward...

  19. Level of evidence of abdominal surgery clinical research in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Maghrabi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To quantify and evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi publications in abdominal surgery and correlate the obtained results with that of other similar national and international studies. Methods: Study design was a systemic review. Literature search strategy was developed to retrieve available articles between January 2000 and December 2016 that are related to abdominal surgery utilizing PubMed and Google Scholar. Retrieved articles were analyzed in depth with several parameters, then evaluated using (OEBM level of evidence scale. Results: One hundred and ninety-eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 50.5% were level III evidence studies. The most common study design was case reports (47%, and academic institutions had the highest rate of publications (47%. Conclusion: Saudi research in abdominal surgery published between 2000-2016 are of lower quality and of III and IV LOE, which is in the consistency with other specialties. We emphasize the need for promotion of a national and institutional research studies of I and II LOE with collaboration between different health care institutions.

  20. An investigation on influential factors of patient-controlled epidural analgesic requirement over time for upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-Hua Hu

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Our analyses provided valuable information about the factors associated with PCEA consumption over time after upper abdominal surgery. However, the mechanism of how these factors interact over the course of time awaits further investigation.

  1. Differential Effects of Intraoperative Positive End-expiratory Pressure (PEEP) on Respiratory Outcome in Major Abdominal Surgery Versus Craniotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Myrthe A C; Ladha, Karim S; Melo, Marcos F Vidal

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined whether (1) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has a protective effect on the risk of major postoperative respiratory complications in a cohort of patients undergoing major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies, and (2) the effect of PEEP is differed......: Within the entire study population (major abdominal surgeries and craniotomies), we found an association between application of PEEP ≥5 cmH2O and a decreased risk of postoperative respiratory complications compared with PEEP 5 cmH2O was associated with a significant lower...... undergoing major abdominal surgery. Our data suggest that default mechanical ventilator settings should include PEEP of 5-10 cmH2O during major abdominal surgery....

  2. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  3. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia, Lígia de A.; Samary, Cynthia S.; Oliveira, Milena V.; Santos, Cintia L.; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L.; Morales, Marcelo M.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Abreu, Marcelo G.; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L.; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-01-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation

  4. Intraperitoneal And Incisional Bupivacaine Analgesia For Major Abdominal/Gynecologic Surgery: A Placebocontrolled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Azarfarin

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Postoperative pain is an important surgical problem. Recent studies in pain pathophysiology have led to the hypothesis that with perioperative administration of analgesics (pre-emptive analgesia it may be possible to prevent or reduce postoperative pain. This study was planned to investigate the efficacy of pre-emptive analgesia on postoperative pain after major gynecologic abdominal surgeries. Methods: In this prospective, double-blinded, randomized, and placebocontrolled trial, 60 ASA physical status I and II patients undergoing major abdominal gynecologic surgeries were randomized to receive 45 mL of bupivacaine 0.375% or 45mL of normal saline; 30 mL and 15 mL of the treatment solution was administered into the peritoneal cavity and incision, respectively, before wound closure. The pain score of the patients was evaluated by the visual analogue scale (VAS on awakening, and at 6, 12, and 24h after surgery. Time to first analgesia request and total analgesic requirements in the first 24h were recorded. Results: Pain scores were significantly higher in the placebo group than in the bupivacaine group on awakening (5.98±1.01 v.s 1.05±1.05; p<0.001, and at 6h after surgery (5.37±0.85 vs. 2.51±1.02; p<0.001. First request to analgesia was significantly longer in the bupivacaine patients than in the placebo group (5.87±3.04 h vs.1.35±0.36; p<0.001.Meperidine consumption over 24h was 96.00 ±17.53 mg in the placebo group compared with 23.28 ±14.89 mg in the bupivacaine patients (p<0.001.Conclusion:A combination of intraperitoneal and incisional bupivacaine infiltration at the end of abdominal gynecologic surgeries reduces postoperative pain on awakening and for 6 hours after surgery, and provides significant opioidsparing analgesia for 24 h after gynecologic abdominal surgeries.

  5. Protective mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery improves postoperative pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severgnini, Paolo; Selmo, Gabriele; Lanza, Christian; Chiesa, Alessandro; Frigerio, Alice; Bacuzzi, Alessandro; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Novario, Raffaele; Gregoretti, Cesare; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Schultz, Marcus J; Jaber, Samir; Futier, Emmanuel; Chiaranda, Maurizio; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The impact of intraoperative ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications is not defined. The authors aimed at determining the effectiveness of protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery on a modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score as primary outcome and postoperative pulmonary function. Prospective randomized, open-label, clinical trial performed in 56 patients scheduled to undergo elective open abdominal surgery lasting more than 2 h. Patients were assigned by envelopes to mechanical ventilation with tidal volume of 9 ml/kg ideal body weight and zero-positive end-expiratory pressure (standard ventilation strategy) or tidal volumes of 7 ml/kg ideal body weight, 10 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure, and recruitment maneuvers (protective ventilation strategy). Modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score, gas exchange, and pulmonary functional tests were measured preoperatively, as well as at days 1, 3, and 5 after surgery. Patients ventilated protectively showed better pulmonary functional tests up to day 5, fewer alterations on chest x-ray up to day 3 and higher arterial oxygenation in air at days 1, 3, and 5 (mmHg; mean ± SD): 77.1 ± 13.0 versus 64.9 ± 11.3 (P = 0.0006), 80.5 ± 10.1 versus 69.7 ± 9.3 (P = 0.0002), and 82.1 ± 10.7 versus 78.5 ± 21.7 (P = 0.44) respectively. The modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was lower in the protective ventilation strategy at days 1 and 3. The percentage of patients in hospital at day 28 after surgery was not different between groups (7 vs. 15% respectively, P = 0.42). A protective ventilation strategy during abdominal surgery lasting more than 2 h improved respiratory function and reduced the modified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score without affecting length of hospital stay.

  6. The Impact of Two Different Transfusion Strategies on Patient Immune Response during Major Abdominal Surgery: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoraki, Kassiani; Markatou, Maria; Rizos, Demetrios; Fassoulaki, Argyro

    2014-01-01

    Blood transfusion is associated with well-known risks. We investigated the difference between a restrictive versus a liberal transfusion strategy on the immune response, as expressed by the production of inflammatory mediators, in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery procedures. Fifty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomized preoperatively to either a restrictive transfusion protocol or a liberal transfusion protocol (with transfusion if hemoglobin dropped be...

  7. Evaluation and management of acute abdominal pain in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macaluso CR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher R Macaluso, Robert M McNamaraDepartment of Emergency Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Evaluation of the emergency department patient with acute abdominal pain is sometimes difficult. Various factors can obscure the presentation, delaying or preventing the correct diagnosis, with subsequent adverse patient outcomes. Clinicians must consider multiple diagnoses, especially those life-threatening conditions that require timely intervention to limit morbidity and mortality. This article will review general information on abdominal pain and discuss the clinical approach by review of the history and the physical examination. Additionally, this article will discuss the approach to unstable patients with abdominal pain.Keywords: acute abdomen, emergency medicine, peritonitis

  8. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane block as a sole anesthetic technique in emergency surgery for perforative peritonitis in a high risk patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is an effective way of providing analgesia in post-operative abdominal surgery patients; however, it can be considered as an anesthetic technique in high-risk cases for surgery. We report a case of a geriatric female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the respiratory failure, hypotension, posted in an emergency with old perforation leading to peritonitis. The surgery was successfully conducted under bilateral TAP block, which was used as a sole anesthetic technique. TAP block can be considered as an anesthetic technique for abdominal surgery in moribund patients.

  9. Computed tomography use among children presenting to emergency departments with abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Jahan; Herring, Andrew; Harries, Aaron; Gonzales, Ralph; Alter, Harrison

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate trends in and factors associated with computed tomography (CT) use among children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. This study was a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data from 1998 to 2008. We identified ED patients aged abdominal pain and collected patient demographic and hospital characteristics, and outcomes related to imaging, hospital admission, and diagnosis of appendicitis. Trend analysis was performed over the study period for the outcomes of interest, and a multivariate regression model was used to identify factors associated with CT use. Of all pediatric ED visits, 6.0% were for abdominal pain. We noted a rise in the proportion of these patients with CT use, from 0.9% in 1998 to 15.4% in 2008 (P pediatric patients with abdominal pain. Some groups of children may have a differential likelihood of receiving CT scans.

  10. Umbilical Microflora, Antiseptic Skin Preparation, and Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeff, Jörg; Erkan, Mert; Jäger, Carsten; Menacher, Maximilian; Gebhardt, Friedemann; Hartel, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Surgical site infections (SSI) following abdominal surgery are frequent and a major cause of postoperative morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Besides antibiotic prophylaxis, antiseptic skin preparation is an important measure to prevent SSI. Here we prospectively analyzed the effectiveness of antiseptic skin preparation in a cohort of 93 patients undergoing laparotomy, with special emphasis on the umbilical region. The microflora of the umbilicus contained a large number of resident (mostly staphylococci species and corynebacteria) and transient germs (including enterococci species). Following antiseptic skin preparation, bacteria could still be cultured from 24.7% of the patients' umbilici. In case of postoperative SSI, only one of seven SSI was caused by the microorganism that was present in the umbilicus before and after skin preparation. Antiseptic skin preparation fails to completely eradicate the microflora of the umbilical region in one quarter of the patients. However, at least in abdominal surgery, the vast majority of SSI are caused by intra-abdominal contamination rather than the skin microflora.

  11. Using PROMIS for measuring recovery after abdominal surgery: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva van der Meij

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the construct validity and responsiveness of the PROMIS Physical Function v1.2 short form 8b (PROMIS-PF, and the PROMIS Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities v2.0 short form 8a (PROMIS-APS in postoperative recovery. Methods An observational pilot study was conducted in which 30 patients participated, undergoing various forms of abdominal surgery. Patients completed the PROMIS-PF and PROMIS-APS, the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36 and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS at several time points before and after surgery. The construct validity and responsiveness of the two PROMIS short forms were evaluated by testing pre-defined hypotheses and were considered adequate when at least 75% of the data was consistent with the hypotheses. Construct validity was evaluated by calculating Spearman correlations and the responsiveness by calculating effect sizes. Results 6/7 (85.7% of the results were consistent with the hypotheses supporting the construct validity of the PROMIS-PF. For the PROMIS-APS this was the case in 7/15 (46.7% of the results. For the PROMIS-PF, 6/7 (85.7% of the results were consistent with the hypotheses, supporting responsiveness. Regarding the responsiveness of the PROMIS-APS, only 7 out of 13 (53.8% of these results were consistent with the hypotheses. Conclusions This study supported the construct validity and the responsiveness of the PROMIS-PF v1.2 short form 8b for measuring recovery in abdominal surgery. Considering the major advantages of PROMIS, we recommend the use of the PROMIS-PF in abdominal surgery.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of reflexology massage on pain severity after abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimi Zarchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain caused by surgery is one of the major problems of the patients. Therefore, pain reduction through using noninvasive and simple methods is one of the nursing priorities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of reflexology massage on pain intensity in the patients following the abdominal surgery. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients undergoing abdominal surgery, referring to the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, in 2016. The participants were selected using the purposive sampling technique, and then randomly divided into three groups of 30 cases. The a 30-minute session of reflexology and simple massage were applied by the researcher for the first and second groups, respectively, after transferring the patients to the ward and regaining full consciousness. The pain was measured immediately, 10 min, and 24 h after the massage (30 min after the pre-test using the visual analogue scale. The data analysis was performed in the SPSS version 19, using the one-way and repeated measures ANOVA as well as Chi-square test. Results: According to the results of this study, 24 h after the intervention, the foot reflexology group had lower mean score of pain intensity (1.9±1.6, compared to the simple massage (3.3±1.64 and control groups (3.8±02 (P<0.001. The decrease in the pain score was significant between the groups only 10 min and 24 h after the intervention (P<0.001 Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, the reflexology massage could alleviate the pain in the patients after abdominal surgery. Given the simple and non-invasive nature of this method, it could be used to reduce the pain in the patients along with other healthcare measures.

  13. New Insight in Loss of Gut Barrier during Major Non-Abdominal Surgery.

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    Joep P M Derikx

    Full Text Available Gut barrier loss has been implicated as a critical event in the occurrence of postoperative complications. We aimed to study the development of gut barrier loss in patients undergoing major non-abdominal surgery.Twenty consecutive children undergoing spinal fusion surgery were included. This kind of surgery is characterized by long operation time, significant blood loss, prolonged systemic hypotension, without directly leading to compromise of the intestines by intestinal manipulation or use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood was collected preoperatively, every two hours during surgery and 2, 4, 15 and 24 hours postoperatively. Gut mucosal barrier was assessed by plasma markers for enterocyte damage (I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary presence of tight junction protein claudin-3. Intestinal mucosal perfusion was measured by gastric tonometry (P(rCO2, P(r-aCO2-gap. Plasma concentration of I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary expression of claudin-3 increased rapidly and significantly after the onset of surgery in most children. Postoperatively, all markers decreased promptly towards baseline values together with normalisation of MAP. Plasma levels of I-FABP, I-BABP were significantly negatively correlated with MAP at (1/2 hour before blood sampling (-0.726 (p<0.001, -0.483 (P<0.001, respectively. Furthermore, circulating I-FABP correlated with gastric mucosal P(rCO2, P(r-aCO2-gap measured at the same time points (0.553 (p = 0.040, 0.585 (p = 0.028, respectively.This study shows the development of gut barrier loss in children undergoing major non-abdominal surgery, which is related to preceding hypotension and mesenterial hypoperfusion. These data shed new light on the potential role of peroperative circulatory perturbation and intestinal barrier loss.

  14. New Insight in Loss of Gut Barrier during Major Non-Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Waardenburg, Dick A.; Thuijls, Geertje; Willigers, Henriëtte M.; Koenraads, Marianne; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Poeze, Martijn; Ambergen, Ton; van Ooij, André; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; Buurman, Wim A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Gut barrier loss has been implicated as a critical event in the occurrence of postoperative complications. We aimed to study the development of gut barrier loss in patients undergoing major non-abdominal surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty consecutive children undergoing spinal fusion surgery were included. This kind of surgery is characterized by long operation time, significant blood loss, prolonged systemic hypotension, without directly leading to compromise of the intestines by intestinal manipulation or use of extracorporeal circulation. Blood was collected preoperatively, every two hours during surgery and 2, 4, 15 and 24 hours postoperatively. Gut mucosal barrier was assessed by plasma markers for enterocyte damage (I-FABP, I-BABP) and urinary presence of tight junction protein claudin-3. Intestinal mucosal perfusion was measured by gastric tonometry (PrCO2, Pr-aCO2-gap). Plasma concentration of I-FABP, I-BABP and urinary expression of claudin-3 increased rapidly and significantly after the onset of surgery in most children. Postoperatively, all markers decreased promptly towards baseline values together with normalisation of MAP. Plasma levels of I-FABP, I-BABP were significantly negatively correlated with MAP at ½ hour before blood sampling (−0.726 (p<0.001), −0.483 (P<0.001), respectively). Furthermore, circulating I-FABP correlated with gastric mucosal PrCO2, Pr-aCO2-gap measured at the same time points (0.553 (p = 0.040), 0.585 (p = 0.028), respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study shows the development of gut barrier loss in children undergoing major non-abdominal surgery, which is related to preceding hypotension and mesenterial hypoperfusion. These data shed new light on the potential role of peroperative circulatory perturbation and intestinal barrier loss. PMID:19088854

  15. Role of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy After Surgery for Abdominal Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atallah, Vincent [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Honore, Charles [Department of Digestive Surgery, Gustave-Roussy Institute, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel; Helfre, Sylvie [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Curie Institute, Paris (France); Ducassou, Anne [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitary Cancer Institute, Toulouse (France); Thomas, Laurence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Levitchi, Mihai-Barbu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Alexis-Vautrin Center, Nancy (France); Mervoyer, Augustin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancerologie de l' ouest Institute, Nantes (France); Naji, Salem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Paoli-Calmette Institute, Marseille (France); Dupin, Charles [Department of Radiation Oncology, Universitary Hospital, Bordeaux (France); Bosco-Levy, Pauline J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Philippe-Chomette, Pascale [Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Hôpital Robert Debré, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Kantor, Guy; Henriques de Figueiredo, Benedicte [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France); Sunyach, Marie-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leon-Berard Center, Lyon (France); Sargos, Paul, E-mail: p.sargos@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bergonie Institute, Bordeaux (France)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic role of adjuvant abdominal radiation therapy (RT) on oncologic outcomes as a part of multimodal treatment in the management of desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) and to determine its impact according to the quality of surgical resection. Methods and Materials: All patients treated for primary abdominal DSRCT in 8 French centers from 1991 to 2014 were included. Patients were retrospectively staged into 3 groups: group A treated with adjuvant RT after cytoreductive surgery, group B without RT after cytoreductive surgery, and group C by exclusive chemotherapy. Peritoneal progression-free survival (PPFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. We also performed a direct comparison between groups A and B to evaluate RT after cytoreductive surgery. Radiation therapy was also evaluated according to completeness of surgery: complete cytoreductive surgery (CCS) or incomplete cytoreductive surgery (ICS). Results: Thirty-seven (35.9%), thirty-six (34.9%), and thirty (28.0%) patients were included in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Three-year OS was 61.2% (range, 41.0%-76.0%), 37.6% (22.0%-53.1%), and 17.3% (6.3%-32.8%) for groups A, B, and C, respectively. Overall survival, PPFS, and PFS differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<.001, P<.001, and P<.001, respectively). Overall survival and PPFS were higher in group A (RT group) compared with group B (no RT group) (P=.045 and P=.006, respectively). Three-year PPFS was 23.8% (10.3%-40.4%) for group A and 12.51% (4.0%-26.2%) for group B. After CCS, RT improved PPFS (P=.024), but differences in OS and PFS were not significant (P=.40 and P=.30, respectively). After ICS, RT improved OS (P=.044). A trend of PPFS and PFS increase was observed, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=.073 and P=.076). Conclusions: Adjuvant RT as part of multimodal treatment seems to confer oncologic benefits for patients treated for abdominal DSRCT

  16. The ongoing emergence of robotics in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, S; Qassemyar, Q; Leymarie, N; Honart, J-F; Alkhashnam, H; De Fremicourt, K; Conversano, A; Schaff, J-B; Rimareix, F; Kolb, F; Sarfati, B

    2018-04-01

    Robot-assisted surgery is more and more widely used in urology, general surgery and gynecological surgery. The interest of robotics in plastic and reconstructive surgery, a discipline that operates primarily on surfaces, has yet to be conclusively proved. However, the initial applications of robotic surgery in plastic and reconstructive surgery have been emerging in a number of fields including transoral reconstruction of posterior oropharyngeal defects, nipple-sparing mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction, microsurgery, muscle harvesting for pelvic reconstruction and coverage of the scalp or the extremities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS PREDICTED TO MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY AT THE GENERAL HOSPITAL CELJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Novak

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Malnutrition has serious implications for recovery after surgery. Early detection of malnutrition with nutritional support minimizes postoperative complications. Nutritional assessment tools need to be simple and suitable for use in everyday practice. In our study we wanted to determine, how many patients might benefit from nutritional support.Methods. From April to August 1999 fifty consecutively admitted patients predicted to major abdominal surgery have been examined. We used Mini nutritional assessment (MNA, Buzby’s nutrition risk index (NRI, blood albumin level and weight loss in the last 3 months period prior to the examination, to assess nutritional status.Results. We examined 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age 76.5 ± 16.5 and confirmed malnutrition in 40% of patients with MNA and serum albumin level. The increased risk for nutrition-associated complications was confirmed by NRI and weight loss in 44%.Conclusions. A confident diagnosis of malnutrition and increased risk for nutrition-associated complications can be established by using a combination of simple methods like MNA, NRI, weight loss and serum albumin level. Almost half of the patients admitted for major abdominal surgery in General hospital Celje suffer from malnutrition and they may benefit with early nutritional intervention.

  18. Fat necrosis after abdominal surgery: A pitfall in interpretation of FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tima; Lotan, Eyal; Klang, Eyal; Nissan, Johnatan; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Goshen, Elinor; Ben-Haim, Simona; Apter, Sara; Chikman, Bar

    2018-06-01

    We describe FDG-PET/CT findings of postoperative fat necrosis in patients following abdominal surgery, and evaluate their changes in size and FDG uptake over time. FDG-PET/CT scans from January 2007-January 2016 containing the term 'fat necrosis' were reviewed. Lesions meeting radiological criteria of fat necrosis in patients with prior abdominal surgery were included. Forty-four patients, 30 males, mean age 68.4 ± 11.0 years. Surgeries: laparotomy (n=37; 84.1 %), laparoscopy (n=3; 6.8 %), unknown (n=4; 9.1 %). CTs of all lesions included hyperdense well-defined rims surrounding a heterogeneous fatty core. Sites: peritoneum (n=34; 77 %), omental fat (n=19; 43 %), subcutaneous fat (n=8; 18 %), retroperitoneum (n=2; 5 %). Mean lesion long axis: 33.6±24.9 mm (range: 13.0-140.0). Mean SUVmax: 2.6±1.1 (range: 0.6-5.1). On serial CTs (n=34), lesions decreased in size (p=0.022). Serial FDG-PET/CT (n=24) showed no significant change in FDG-avidity (p=0.110). Mean SUVmax did not correlate with time from surgery (p=0.558) or lesion size (p=0.259). Postsurgical fat necrosis demonstrated characteristic CT features and may demonstrate increased FDG uptake. However, follow-up of subsequent imaging scans showed no increases in size or FDG-avidity. Awareness of this entity is important to avoid misinterpretation of findings as recurrent cancer. • Postsurgical fat necrosis may mimic cancer in FDG-PET/CT. • Follow-up of fat necrosis showed no increase in FDG intensity. • CT follow-up showed a decrease in lesion size. • FDG uptake did not correlate with time lapsed from surgery.

  19. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery (PROVAR): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, P M; Güldner, A; Uhlig, C; Bluth, T; Kiss, T; Conrad, C; Bischlager, K; Braune, A; Huhle, R; Insorsi, A; Tarantino, F; Ball, L; Schultz, M J; Abolmaali, N; Koch, T; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2018-03-01

    Experimental studies showed that controlled variable ventilation (CVV) yielded better pulmonary function compared to non-variable ventilation (CNV) in injured lungs. We hypothesized that CVV improves intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Fifty patients planned for open abdominal surgery lasting >3 h were randomly assigned to receive either CVV or CNV. Mean tidal volumes and PEEP were set at 8 ml kg -1 (predicted body weight) and 5 cm H 2 O, respectively. In CVV, tidal volumes varied randomly, following a normal distribution, on a breath-by-breath basis. The primary endpoint was the forced vital capacity (FVC) on postoperative Day 1. Secondary endpoints were oxygenation, non-aerated lung volume, distribution of ventilation, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications until postoperative Day 5. FVC did not differ significantly between CVV and CNV on postoperative Day 1, 61.5 (standard deviation 22.1) % vs 61.9 (23.6) %, respectively; mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] difference, -0.4 (-13.2-14.0), P=0.95. Intraoperatively, CVV did not result in improved respiratory function, haemodynamics, or redistribution of ventilation compared to CNV. Postoperatively, FVC, forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV 1 ), and FEV 1 /FVC deteriorated, while atelectasis volume and plasma levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 increased, but values did not differ between groups. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications was comparable in CVV and CNV. In patients undergoing open abdominal surgery, CVV did not improve intraoperative and postoperative respiratory function compared with CNV. NCT 01683578. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic factors for perioperative pulmonary events among patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luis Sakai

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The significant relationship between upper abdominal surgery and early (perioperative pulmonary events was investigated among patients with preoperative pulmonary conditions undergoing general anesthesia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study for which data were obtained prospectively from 1999 to 2004, at a tertiary university hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 3107 patients over 11 years old presenting American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA status I, II or III who underwent upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia and were discharged to the recovery room. The preoperative conditions analyzed using logistic regression were: age, sex, ASA physical status, congestive heart failure, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, respiratory failure and smoking. The outcomes or dependent variables included intraoperative and postoperative events: bronchospasm, hypoxemia, hypercapnia, prolonged intubation and airway secretion. RESULTS: Among these patients (1500 males, 1607 females, mean age 48 years, 1088 ASA I, 1402 ASA II and 617 ASA III, there were 80 congestive heart failures, 82 asthmatics, 122 with COPD, 21 respiratory failures and 428 smokers. Logistic regression analysis showed that female sex (p < 0.001, age over 70 years (p < 0.01, smoking (p < 0.001 and COPD (p < 0.02 significantly influenced pulmonary event development, particularly hypoxemia and bronchospasm, at both times but not in the same patients. Asthma and congestive heart failure cases did not present pulmonary events in the recovery room. CONCLUSION: In upper abdominal surgery under general anesthesia, female sex, age over 70, smoking and COPD were independent risk factors for intra and postoperative pulmonary events.

  1. Emergency abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with a preferential endovascular strategy : Mortality and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapma, Marten R.; Groen, Henk; Oranen, Bjorn I.; van der Hilst, Christian S.; Tielliu, Ignace F.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Prins, Ted R.; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Verhoeven, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess mortality and treatment costs of a new management protocol with preferential use of emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (eEVAR) for acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods: From September 2003 until February 2005, 49 consecutive patients (45 men; mean age 71 years) with

  2. Longitudinal trends in the treatment of abdominal pain in an academic emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Orhan; Jay, Loni; Fosnocht, David; Carey, Jessica; Rogers, LeGrand; Carey, Adrienne; Horne, Benjamin; Madsen, Troy

    2013-09-01

    Abdominal pain is a top chief complaint of patients presenting to Emergency Departments (ED). Historically, uncertainty surrounded correct management. Evidence has shown adequate analgesia does not obscure the diagnosis, making it the standard of care. We sought to evaluate trends in treatment of abdominal pain in an academic ED during a 10-year period. We prospectively evaluated a convenience sample of patients in an urban academic tertiary care hospital ED from September 2000 through April 2010. Adult patients presenting with a chief complaint of abdominal pain were included in this study. Analgesic administration rates and times, pain scores, and patient satisfaction at discharge were analyzed to evaluate trends by year. There were 2,646 patients presenting with abdominal pain who were enrolled during the study period. Rates of analgesic administration generally increased each year from 39.9% in 2000 to 65.5% in 2010 (p value for trend trend of increase in analgesic administration. In patients presenting to the ED with abdominal pain, analgesia administration increased and time to medication decreased during the 10-year period. Despite overall improvements in satisfaction, significant numbers of patients presenting with abdominal pain still reported moderate to severe pain at discharge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Efficacy of Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Postdischarge Nausea in Patients Undergoing Outpatient Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcilvoy, Laura; Richmer, Linda; Kramer, Deborah; Jackson, Rita; Shaffer, Leslee; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Inman, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of the aromatherapy product QueaseEASE (QE) for decreasing postdischarge nausea (PDN) in patients undergoing outpatient abdominal surgery. Prospective exploratory study. Informed Consent was obtained preoperatively from a convenience sample of adult patients scheduled for outpatient abdominal surgery procedures. Prior to discharge, subjects were instructed in the use of QE and given instructions on how to rate their nausea on a 0-10 scale. They recorded nausea scales > 0 any time they occurred for the next 24 hours, used the QE, and recorded their nausea scales 3 minutes later. A study nurse called subjects the next day to collect the information. The sample included 70 outpatients who underwent abdominal surgery. Twenty-five participants (36%) reported experiencing PDN and their concomitant use of QE. There was a significant difference in mean age of those reporting PDN (37 years) versus those without nausea (48 years, P = .004) as well as a significant difference in mean intravenous fluid intake during hospitalization of those reporting PDN (1,310 mL) versus those without nausea (1,511 mL, P = .04). The PDN group had more female participants (72% vs 42%, P = .02), more participants that were less than 50 years of age (84% vs 53%, P = .02), and received more opioids (100% vs 76%, P = .006) than the no nausea group. The 25 PDN participants reported 47 episodes of PDN in which they used QE. For all of the 47 PDN episodes experienced, participants reported a decrease in nausea scale (0 to 10) after the use of QE; for 22 (47%) of the PDN episodes experienced, a nausea scale of 0 after using QE was reported. The mean decrease in nausea scale for all 25 participants was 4.78 (±2.12) after using QE. This study found that the aromatherapy QE was an effective treatment of PDN in select same-day abdominal surgery patients. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc

  4. Health-related quality-of-life in patients after elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Lars; Laursen, Kathrine Bang; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2011-01-01

    for measuring health-related QoL. Multiple regression analysis was used to study the association between QoL and number of years since AAA surgery. Results: A significantly poorer QoL was found in patients having had AAA surgery compared to the normal population as measured with the SF-12 and the EQ......-VAS, but not with EQ-5D. A negative association between QoL and years following surgery was found with EQ-VAS and SF-12 (PCS), but not with the other instruments. Discussion: Factors such as selection bias because of mortality and non-response may have resulted in an over-estimate of the QoL in patients having had AAA......Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the health-related quality-of-life (QoL) in patients after elective surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) compared to a normal population and to study the association between QoL and number of years since surgery. Methods: All Danish men who...

  5. Effects of weight reduction surgery on the abdominal wall fascial wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpata, David M; Criss, Cory N; Gao, Yue; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Anderson, James M; Novitsky, Yuri W; Rosen, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Bariatric surgery patients enter into a catabolic state postoperatively, which can lead to an aberrant wound healing process. To improve the future treatment of morbidly obese patients, the aim of our study was to understand the link between bariatric surgery and alterations in the wound healing processes. A total of 18 morbidly obese Zucker rats were separated into three groups and underwent one of three surgical procedures: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 6); sleeve gastrectomy (GS; n = 6); or midline laparotomy only (n = 6). The rats were weighed on postoperative day 0, 3, 7, and 14. On day 14, the abdominal wall was harvested and underwent histologic and biomechanical evaluation. A significant difference was found in the weight gain between the laparotomy control group (LC) and bariatric surgical groups at 7 and 14 d. By postoperative day 7, the GS and RYGB rats weighed significantly less than the LC group, losing, on average, 7% and 6% of their initial body weight, respectively, and the LC gained 4% of their weight (P gained 20% of their original weight, and the two bariatric groups both weighed significantly less (P bariatric surgery negatively affects wound healing both histologically and biomechanically compared with nonbariatric models. Although obesity remains a significant factor in the wound healing process, understanding the link between bariatric surgery and alterations in wound healing is imperative before advocating simultaneous repair of ventral hernias during concomitant bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. X-ray radiography of abdominal emergencies in clinical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencur, J.M.; Svoboda, M.

    1987-01-01

    The book explains in detail the procedure in X-ray examination and how to get the maximum of diagnostic information out of it. Part one is devoted to the organization, technology and methodology of X-ray examinations, the equipment of X-ray units and to radiation protection. Part two presents the anatomy of the abdomen and of the thorax, and the pathological manifestations of emergencies in the X-ray picture. Part three presents an analysis of the individual types of diseases and injuries illustrated with many pictures. (M.D.). 96 figs., 7 tabs., 400 refs

  7. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) - The Evidence in Geriatric Emergency Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paduraru, Mihai; Ponchietti, Luca; Casas, Isidro Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Background: Geriatric surgery is rising and projected to continue at a greater rate. There is already concern about the poor outcomes for the emergency surgery in elderly. How to manage the available resources to improve outcomes in this group of patients is an important object of debate...... to conventional care. Emergency surgical patients also had fewer postoperative complications with ERAS compared to conventional care. Hospital stay was reduced in 2 out of 3 studies for emergency surgery.Conclusions:ERAS can be safely applied to elderly and emergency patients with a reduction in postoperative....... OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the feasibility and safety of applying ERAS pathways to emergency elderly surgical patients. METHOD: Two searches were undertaken for ERAS protocols in elderly patients and emergency surgery, in order to gather evidence in relation to ERAS in geriatric emergency patients...

  8. Abdominal compartment syndrome with acute reperfusion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized clinically in the 19th century when Marey and Burt observed its association with declines in respiratory function. Abdominal compartment syndrome is first used as a medical terminology from Fietsman in a case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A condition caused by abnormally increased pressure within the abdomen. Causes of abdominal compartment syndrome include trauma, surgery, or infection. Common symptoms: abdominal distension, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, or low blood pressure Medical procedure: nasogastric intubation Surgery: laparotomy Specialists: radiologist, primary care provider (PCP), surgeon, and emergency medicine doctor [6, 10]. Keywords: Stomach. Gastroparesis . Diabetes Mellitus [bg

  9. Continuous transversus abdominis plane block vs intermittent bolus for analgesia after abdominal surgery: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Kadam V

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasanth Rao Kadam,1 Roelof M Van Wijk,1 John L Moran,2 Shantan Ganesh,3 A Kumar,1 Rajesh Sethi,1 Patricia Williams2,4 1Department of Anaesthesia, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 2Intensive Care Unit, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 3Department of Surgery, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 4Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Continuous and intermittent bolus techniques of transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks have been used for analgesia after abdominal surgery. Although both are effective, there are no studies comparing them. The aim of this study is to compare analgesia and cost-effectiveness between these groups.Methods: After obtaining ethical approval, 20 American Society of Anesthesiologists ASA grade I to III patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery were recruited with 10 patients allocated to each arm. Bilateral ultrasound-guided TAP blocks were performed with an initial bolus of 0.5% ropivacaine 20 mL per side, followed by catheter insertion. After surgery, the continuous infusion group received 0.2% ropivacaine 8 mL/hour on each side and the intermittent bolus group received doses of 0.2% ropivacaine 20 mL per side every 8 hours for 48 hours. Both groups received intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia and regular oral paracetamol. Parameters recorded included numerical rating scores for pain and post-operative analgesic consumption at baseline (time 0 and at 1 hour, 1 day and 2 days post-operatively. The duration of catheter insertion, complications, patient satisfaction and information regarding costs were also recorded. Patient satisfaction was assessed utilizing a 4-point

  10. [Spleen-preserving surgery after blunt abdominal trauma with splenic hilum involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Cuéllar, José Aurelio; Cañete-Gómez, Jesús; López-Bernal, Francisco; García-Rivera, Carla; Pareja-Ciuró, Felipe; Padillo-Ruiz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Splenic involvement secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is often treated by performing a splenectomy. The severity of the post-splenectomy syndrome is currently well known (blood loss, sepsis), so there is an increasing tendency to preserve the spleen. The case is presented of splenic preservation after blunt abdominal trauma with hilum involvement, emphasising the role of Floseal as a haemostatic agent, as well as the use of resorbable meshes to preserve the spleen. A 22-year-old woman presenting with a grade IV splenic lesion secondary to a blunt abdominal trauma after a traffic accident. Partial splenic resection was performed and bleeding was controlled with Floseal and use of a reinforcing polyglycolic acid mesh. No postoperative complications occurred, being discharged on day 5. The long-term follow-up has been uneventful. The use of haemostatic agents such as thrombin and the gelatine gel (FloSeal) and the use of polyglycolic acid meshes enable spleen-preserving surgery, making it a feasible and reproducible procedure and an alternative to classical splenectomy. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear cardiac ejection fraction and cardiac index in abdominal aortic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiser, W.P.; Thompson, B.W.; Thompson, A.R.; Eason, C.; Read, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    Since atherosclerotic heart disease results in more than half of the perioperative deaths that follow abdominal aortic surgery, a prospective protocol was designed for preoperative evaluation and intraoperative hemodynamic monitoring. Twenty men who were prepared to undergo elective operation for aortoiliac occlusive disease (12 patients) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (eight patients) were evaluated with a cardiac scan and right heart catheterization. The night prior to operation, each patient received volume loading with crystalloid based upon ventricular performance curves. At the time of the operation, all patients were anesthetized with narcotics and nitrous oxide, and hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the operation. Aortic crossclamping resulted in a marked depression in CI in all patients. CI remained depressed after unclamping in the majority of patients. There were two perioperative deaths, both from myocardial infarction or failure. Both patients had ejection fractions less than 30% and initial CIs less than 2 L/M2, while the survivors' mean ejection fraction was 63% +/- 1 and their mean CI was 3.2 L/M2 +/- 0.6. The authors conclude that preoperative evaluation of ejection fraction can select those patients at a high risk of cardiac death from abdominal aortic operation. These patients should receive intensive preoperative monitoring with enhancement of ventricular performance

  12. Comparison of Total Calcium Level during General and Spinal Anesthesia in Gynecologic Abdominal Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Haryalchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Calcium (Ca+2 plays an important role in many biophysiological mechanisms .The present study was carried out to assess alterations in total serum calcium level before and after operations in consider to the type of anesthesia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 74 women who candidate for gynecological abdominal operations during one year at Al-zahra maternity Hospital in Rasht, Iran. The patients underwent General Anesthesia (GA (N=37 or Spinal Anesthesia (SA (N=37 randomly. Blood samples (2 cc, were obtained an hour before the anesthesia and two hours after that. The blood samples had been sent to the laboratory for analyzing .Total serum calcium level, magnesium (Mg and albumin level were measured by photometric methods. Inferential statistic was analyzed with the Vilkson non-parametric and Pearson's correlation test. P-values less than 0.05 have been considered as significant different. Results: There was a significant trend to decrease in calcium levels after all gynecological abdominal operations, but there was a significant correlation between General anesthesia (GA and reduction of serum calcium level (p=0.026 . Therefore, General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal Anesthesia (SA. Conclusion: Serum Calcium levels tend to decrease after all gynecological abdominal surgeries, but General Anesthesia (GA is accompanied by more calcium reduction than Spinal one. It needs to further specific studies, to illustrate association between different methods of anesthesia and Ca+2 changes.

  13. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CUMULATIVE WATER BALANCE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY COMPLICATIONS AFTER MAJOR ABDOMINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaeva, T S; Karipidi, M K; Zabolotskikh, I B

    2016-11-01

    a comprehensive assessment of the water balance on the basis of daily, cumulative balance and 10% of the body weight gain and their role in the development of early complications after major abdominal surgery. A retrospective study of the perioperative period in 150 patients who underwent major abdomi- nal surgery was performed. The physical condition of the patients corresponded to ASA 3 class. The average age was 46 (38-62) years. The following stages ofresearch: an analysis of daily balance and cumulative balance in complicated and uncomplicated group and their role in the development of complications; the timing of development ofcomplications and possible relationship with fluid overload and the development of complications; changes in the level of albumin within 10 days of the postoperative period. The analysis of complications didn't show significant differences between complicated and uncomplicated groups according to the water balance during the surgery and by the end of the first day. When constructing the area under the ROC curve (A UROC) low resolution ofthe balance in intraoperative period and the first day and the balance on the second day to predict complications was shown. Significant diferences according to the cumulative balance was observed from the third day of the postoperative period Also with the third day of the postoperative period there is a good resolution for prediction ofpostoperative complications according to the cumulative balance with the cut-offpoint > of 50,7 ml/kg. the excessive infusion therapy is a predictor of adverse outcome in patients after major abdominal surgery. Therefore, after 3 days of postoperative period it is important to maintain mechanisms for the excretion of excess fluid or limitations of infusion therapy.

  14. Outcomes of implementation of enhanced goal directed therapy in high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Advanced monitoring targeting haemodynamic and oxygenation variables can improve outcomes of surgery in high-risk patients. We aimed to assess the impact of goal directed therapy (GDT targeting cardiac index (CI and oxygen extraction ratio (O 2 ER on outcomes of high-risk patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods: In a prospective randomised trial, forty patients (American Society of Anaesthesiologists II and III undergoing major abdominal surgeries were randomised into two groups. In-Group A mean arterial pressure ≥ 65 mmHg, central venous pressure ≥ 8-10 mmHg, urine output ≥ 0.5 mL/kg/h and central venous oxygen saturation ≥ 70% were targeted intra-operatively and 12 h postoperatively. In-Group-B (enhanced GDT, in addition to the monitoring in-Group-A, CI ≥ 2.5 L/min/m 2 and O 2 ER ≤ 27% were targeted. The end-points were lactate levels and base deficit during and after surgery. The secondary end points were length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital stay and postoperative complications. Wilcoxon Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used for statistical assessment. Results: Lactate levels postoperatively at 4 and 8 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. The mean base deficit at 3, 4, 5 and 6 h intra-operatively and postoperatively after 4, 8 and 12 h were lower in-Group-B (P < 0.05. There were no significant differences in ICU stay (2.10 ± 1.52 vs. 2.90 ± 2.51 days or hospital stay (10.85 + 4.39 vs. 13.35 + 6.77 days between Group A and B. Conclusions: Implementation of enhanced GDT targeting CI and OER was associated with improved tissue oxygenation.

  15. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-12-01

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  16. Impact of perioperative nutritional status on the outcome of abdominal surgery in a sub-Saharan Africa setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambou Tebou, Christian Gael; Temgoua, Mazou N; Esiene, Agnès; Nana, Blondel Oumarou; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Sobngwi, Eugène

    2017-09-18

    Malnutrition is a clinical condition of multifactorial etiologies and it is associated with several adverse outcomes. In high-income countries, malnutrition has been described as a determinant of delayed wound healing, surgical site infections and mortality in the postoperative period. There is limited information available regarding the outcome of surgery in malnourished patients in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional analytic study was carried out between March and August 2014 in the visceral surgery and the emergency departments of the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. All consecutive consenting preoperative and postoperative patients of abdominal surgical procedures were enrolled. Variables studied were: socio-demographic characteristics, medical and surgical past histories, nutritional survey, anthropometric parameters and serum albumin level in order to determine the nutritional risk index (or Buzby score). A total of 85 patients aged from 19 to 50 years with mean age of 34.4 ± 8 years were included. The most performed abdominal surgical procedure was appendectomy (30.6%). The prevalence of preoperative malnutrition according to the Buzby score was 39.1%. Mean postoperative weight lost was 2.9 ± 1.2 kg and mean decrease in postoperative serum albumin was 4.2 ± 0.2 g. A normal postoperative serum albumin was associated with a favorable outcome [OR (95% CI) = 55 (13.4-224.3), p nutritional assessment and management of surgical patients in Cameroon.

  17. The laparoscopic approach in emergency surgery: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Negoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of laparoscopy in the acute care surgery had significantly increased during the latest years, both as a diagnostic and treatment method of all the upper or lower gastrointestinal pathologies. The objective of the present research is to review the current indications for laparoscopy in bdominal emergencies and to detail the benefits and complications associated with this approach. We have reviewed the relevant literature about this topic published between January 2005 and December 2017, using the PubMed/Medline and Web of Science Core Collection databases. According to the current evidence, we may conclude that the laparoscopic approach is an integral part of the emergency surgery for all the abdominal pathologies. Although laparoscopy requires specialized training and curricula, it brings all the benefits of minimal access in acute care arena.

  18. Does the emergency surgery score accurately predict outcomes in emergent laparotomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peponis, Thomas; Bohnen, Jordan D; Sangji, Naveen F; Nandan, Anirudh R; Han, Kelsey; Lee, Jarone; Yeh, D Dante; de Moya, Marc A; Velmahos, George C; Chang, David C; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2017-08-01

    The emergency surgery score is a mortality-risk calculator for emergency general operation patients. We sought to examine whether the emergency surgery score predicts 30-day morbidity and mortality in a high-risk group of patients undergoing emergent laparotomy. Using the 2011-2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified all patients who underwent emergent laparotomy using (1) the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program definition of "emergent," and (2) all Current Procedural Terminology codes denoting a laparotomy, excluding aortic aneurysm rupture. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to measure the correlation (c-statistic) between the emergency surgery score and (1) 30-day mortality, and (2) 30-day morbidity after emergent laparotomy. As sensitivity analyses, the correlation between the emergency surgery score and 30-day mortality was also evaluated in prespecified subgroups based on Current Procedural Terminology codes. A total of 26,410 emergent laparotomy patients were included. Thirty-day mortality and morbidity were 10.2% and 43.8%, respectively. The emergency surgery score correlated well with mortality (c-statistic = 0.84); scores of 1, 11, and 22 correlated with mortalities of 0.4%, 39%, and 100%, respectively. Similarly, the emergency surgery score correlated well with morbidity (c-statistic = 0.74); scores of 0, 7, and 11 correlated with complication rates of 13%, 58%, and 79%, respectively. The morbidity rates plateaued for scores higher than 11. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the emergency surgery score effectively predicts mortality in patients undergoing emergent (1) splenic, (2) gastroduodenal, (3) intestinal, (4) hepatobiliary, or (5) incarcerated ventral hernia operation. The emergency surgery score accurately predicts outcomes in all types of emergent laparotomy patients and may prove valuable as a bedside decision

  19. Preemptive Analgesic Effect of Ketamine in Children with Lower Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preemptive analgesic effect of low dose ketamine has been supported by clinical studies in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of ketamine applied at different times in children who underwent lower abdominal surgery.Material and Methods: A total of 90 children having ASAI-II physical status between 3 and 12 was randomly divided into three groups as pre, int and post groups. Ketamine were given to these groups in the following manner respectively; 1mg/kg intravenous ketamine before incision (pre-incisional; the same dose ketamine 10 minutes following the first incision (intraoperative; and ketamine at the end of the surgical operation (postoperative. The pain of patients was assessed by postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS in children and infants; the sedation status of children was assessed by Ramsey’s sedation scale. The first analgesic requirement time was recorded.Results: No significant difference was found in demographic characteristics of the three groups (p>0.05. Lower CHIPPS scores were found in Group Post throughout all measurement periods (p<0.05. Group Post was found to have significantly higher sedation levels compared with the other two groups (p=0.003. Conclusion: No analgesic effect was obtained using by pre-incisional and intraoperative i.v.1mg/kg ketamine, during lower abdominal surgery in children. Further studies with different drugs are needed to clarify this topic.

  20. Effectiveness of Ginger Essential Oil on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Ri; Shin, Hye Sook

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of aromatherapy with ginger essential oil on nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients. This was a quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group and repeated measures. The experimental group (n = 30) received ginger essential oil inhalation. The placebo control group (n = 30) received normal saline inhalation. The level of postoperative nausea and vomiting was measured using a Korean version of the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 h after aromatherapy administration. The data were collected from July 23 to August 22, 2012. Nausea and vomiting scores were significantly lower in the experimental group with ginger essential oil inhalation than those in the placebo control group with normal saline. In the experimental group, the nausea and vomiting scores decreased considerably in the first 6 h after inhaled aromatherapy with ginger essential oil. Findings indicate that ginger essential oil inhalation has implications for alleviating postoperative nausea and vomiting in abdominal surgery patients.

  1. Crimped braided sleeves for soft, actuating arm in robotic abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Yahya; Lekakou, Constantina; Ranzani, Tommaso; Cianchetti, Matteo; Morino, Mario; Arezzo, Alberto; Menciassi, Arianna; Geng, Tao; Saaj, Chakravarthini M

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates different types of crimped, braided sleeve used for a soft arm for robotic abdominal surgery, with the sleeve required to contain balloon expansion in the pneumatically actuating arm while it follows the required bending, elongation and diameter reduction of the arm. Three types of crimped, braided sleeves from PET (BraidPET) or nylon (BraidGreyNylon and BraidNylon, with different monofilament diameters) were fabricated and tested including geometrical and microstructural characterisation of the crimp and braid, mechanical tests and medical scratching tests for organ damage of domestic pigs. BraidPET caused some organ damage, sliding under normal force of 2-5 N; this was attributed to the high roughness of the braid pattern, the higher friction coefficient of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) compared to nylon, and the high frequency of the crimp peaks for this sleeve. No organ damage was observed for the BraidNylon, attributed to both the lower roughness of the braid pattern and the low friction coefficient of nylon. BraidNylon also required the lowest tensile force during its elongation to similar maximum strain as that of BraidPET, translating to low power requirements. BraidNylon is recommended for the crimped sleeve of the arm designed for robotic abdominal surgery.

  2. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane block as a sole anesthetic technique in emergency surgery for perforative peritonitis in a high risk patient

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Lipi; Pani, Nibedita; Mishra, Debasis; Patel, Nupur

    2013-01-01

    Although transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective way of providing analgesia in post-operative abdominal surgery patients; however, it can be considered as an anesthetic technique in high-risk cases for surgery. We report a case of a geriatric female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the respiratory failure, hypotension, posted in an emergency with old perforation leading to peritonitis. The surgery was successfully conducted under bilateral TAP block, which was use...

  3. A randomized-clinical trial examining a neoprene abdominal binder in gynecologic surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szender, J.B.; Hall, K.L.; Kost, E.R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose of Investigation Pain control and early ambulation are two important postoperative goals. Strategies that decrease morphine use while increasing ambulation have the potential to decrease postoperative complications. In this study the authors sought to determine the effect of an abdominopelvic binder on postoperative morphine use, pain, and ambulation in the first day after surgery. Materials and Methods The authors randomly assigned 75 patients undergoing abdominal gynecologic surgery to either binder or not after surgery. Demographic data and surgical characteristics were collected. Outcome variables included morphine use, pain score, time to ambulation, and number of ambulations. Results A group at high risk for decreased mobility was identified and the binder increased the number of ambulatory events by 300%, 260%, and 240% in patients with vertical incisions, age over 50 years, and complex surgeries, respectively. Morphine use and pain scores were not significantly different. Conclusion The binder increased ambulations in the subset of patients at the highest risk for postoperative complications: elderly, cancer patients, and vertical incisions. Routine use of the binder may benefit particularly high-risk gynecologic surgical patients. PMID:25864252

  4. Time perspective as a predictor of acute postsurgical pain and coping with pain following abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol-Kwapinska, M; Plotek, W; Bąbel, P; Cybulski, M; Kluzik, A; Krystianc, J; Mandecki, M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to predict acute postsurgical pain and coping with pain following surgery based on preoperative time perspectives. Time perspective is a basic dimension of psychological time. It is a tendency to focus on a particular time area: the past, the present and the future. Seventy-six patients completed measures of time perspective and pain 24 h before abdominal surgery. During the 3 days after surgery, measures of pain and coping with pain were completed. We performed hierarchical regression analyses to identify predictors of acute postsurgical pain and how patients cope with it. These analyses suggested that a preoperative past-negative time perspective can be a predictor of postoperative pain level and catastrophizing after surgery. The findings of our study indicate the importance of time perspective, especially the past perspective, in dealing with postoperative pain. Our research indicates that a preoperative past-negative time perspective is a significant predictor of acute postsurgical pain intensity and the strongest predictor of pain catastrophizing. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  5. Lead toxicity as an etiology for abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarity, Risa S; Harris, James T; Cox, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal pain is an uncommon presentation of lead toxicity in the emergency department (ED). However, making the diagnosis is important in avoiding unnecessary testing and the long-term sequelae of lead toxicity. To illustrate possible presentations of abdominal pain secondary to lead toxicity and highlight the importance of taking a thorough patient history. We report 2 patients who presented to the ED with abdominal pain and underwent extensive evaluations that did not reveal an etiology. At follow-up visits, their occupational histories revealed possible lead exposures from working for a bullet-recycling company. Tests revealed that each patient had extremely high lead levels and they were both treated for lead toxicity. Their abdominal pain resolved as their lead levels decreased. These cases demonstrate a rare but significant cause of abdominal pain in the ED. Although history-taking in the ED is necessarily brief, these cases underscore the importance of obtaining an occupational history. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thoracic epidural analgesia reduces myocardial injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad MF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Farouk Mohamad,1 Montaser A Mohammad,1 Diab F Hetta,1 Eman Hasan Ahmed,2 Ahmed A Obiedallah,3 Alaa Ali M Elzohry1 1Department of Anesthesia, ICU and Pain Relief, 2Department of Clinical Pathology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Arab Republic of Egypt Background and objectives: Major abdominal cancer surgeries are associated with significant perioperative mortality and morbidity due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. This study examined the effect of perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA on occurrence of ischemic cardiac injury in ischemic patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade II and III of either sex were scheduled for elective upper gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups (60 patients each to receive, besides general anesthesia: continuous intra and postoperative intravenous (IV infusion with fentanyl for 72 h postoperatively (patient controlled intravenous analgesia [PCIA] group or continuous intra and postoperative epidural infusion with bupivacaine 0.125% and fentanyl (PCEA group for 72 h postoperatively. Perioperative hemodynamics were recorded. Postoperative pain was assessed over 72 h using visual analog scale (VAS. All patients were screened for occurrence of myocardial injury (MI by electrocardiography, echocardiography, and cardiac troponin I serum level. Other postoperative complications as arrhythmia, deep venous thrombosis (DVT, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and death were recorded.Results: There was a significant reduction in overall adverse cardiac events (myocardial injury, arrhythmias, angina, heart failure and nonfatal cardiac arrest in PCEA group in comparison to PCIA group. Also, there was a significant reduction in dynamic VAS pain score in group PCEA in comparison

  7. Patterns of Brain Activation and Meal Reduction Induced by Abdominal Surgery in Mice and Modulation by Rikkunshito.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Wang

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery inhibits food intake and induces c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic and medullary nuclei in rats. Rikkunshito (RKT, a Kampo medicine improves anorexia. We assessed the alterations in meal microstructure and c-Fos expression in brain nuclei induced by abdominal surgery and the modulation by RKT in mice. RKT or vehicle was gavaged daily for 1 week. On day 8 mice had no access to food for 6-7 h and were treated twice with RKT or vehicle. Abdominal surgery (laparotomy-cecum palpation was performed 1-2 h before the dark phase. The food intake and meal structures were monitored using an automated monitoring system for mice. Brain sections were processed for c-Fos immunoreactivity (ir 2-h after abdominal surgery. Abdominal surgery significantly reduced bouts, meal frequency, size and duration, and time spent on meals, and increased inter-meal interval and satiety ratio resulting in 92-86% suppression of food intake at 2-24 h post-surgery compared with control group (no surgery. RKT significantly increased bouts, meal duration and the cumulative 12-h food intake by 11%. Abdominal surgery increased c-Fos in the prelimbic, cingulate and insular cortexes, and autonomic nuclei, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, hypothalamic supraoptic (SON, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei, Edinger-Westphal nucleus (E-W, lateral periaqueduct gray (PAG, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral medulla and nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. RKT induced a small increase in c-Fos-ir neurons in the SON and E-W of control mice, and in mice with surgery there was an increase in the lateral PAG and a decrease in the NTS. These findings indicate that abdominal surgery inhibits food intake by increasing both satiation (meal duration and satiety (meal interval and activates brain circuits involved in pain, feeding behavior and stress that may underlie the alterations of meal pattern and food intake inhibition

  8. The effects of intravenous aminoacid infusion on myocardial functions and postoperative analgesia during abdominal aortic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Turhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effects of intravenous aminoacid infusion onmyocardial functions and postoperative analgesia in abdominalaortic surgery were investigated.Materials and methods: Forty patients were randomlydivided into groups of general anaesthesia with or withoutaminoacid infusion (Group 1 and 2, n=10, combinedgeneral+epidural with or without amino acid infusion (Group3 and 4, n=10. Cardiac risk was evaluated using 2007 AHA/ACC and modified Goldman classifications. Intravenousaminoacid solution of 80 g/L was infused at 2.5 ml/kg/h for atotal of 8 hours. General anaesthesia included intravenousremifentanil, rocuronium, sevoflurane. The lumbar epiduralinclude; 10 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine; bolus dose, an infusionof 0.25% bupivacaine; 4 ml/h for 24 hours. Heart rate,arterial blood pressures were collected intraoperative every10 minute, 1, 24 hour postoperatively. Plasma creatinekinase MB fraction, troponin levels, pain assessment withnumeric analog scale were collected preoperatively, 1, 24hour postoperatively. Postoperative 24 hour analgesic usage,complications were recorded.Results: Patients with mild and severe cardiac risk werehigher in 2007 AHA/ACC classification (26/40, 65% thanmodified Goldman risk classification (5/40, 12.5% (p=0.04.In comparison between groups, myocardial enzyme levelsand complications showed no difference (p>0.05. The useof analgesics were lower in group 3 and 4 in comparison togroup 1 and 2 (p=0.002.Conclusion: During abdominal aortic surgery, intravenousinfusion of amino acid did not show significant changes onintraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic parametersand myocardial enzymes. The patients received combinedgeneral plus epidural anaesthesia showed more successfulpostoperative analgesia.Key words: Amino acid, abdominal aorta, vascular surgery,epidural anesthesia, general anesthesia, keratin kinase,troponin, postoperative analgesia

  9. Computed Tomography of the complications of prosthetic surgery of the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovagnorio, Francesco; Andreoli, Chiara; De Cicco, Maria Luisa

    1997-01-01

    Computerized Tomography has gained an important role in the diagnosis of the complications of prosthetic surgery of the abdominal aorta: the importance of such complications come from their frequency, which is proportional to the increasing number of interventions, and their severity. The authors investigated the CT patterns of the most frequent complications. 24 patients referred for strongly suspected postoperative complications were examined in 2 years: fever and leukocytosis (20 cases) and progressive anemia (4 cases) were the most frequent findings. The operation had been performed 7± 12 weeks before (2 patients were excluded because surgery dated less than 3 weeks. 14 patients had infective complications: thickening (57%) and inhomogeneity (43%) of the periprosthetic wrap and ectopic gas bubble (78%) were the most frequent Computerized Tomography findings. The authors also observed 2 periprosthetic hematomas, 1 aneurysm relapse and 1 prosthetic graft rupture. In conclusion, CT confirmed its important role in the study of the complications of prosthetic aortic surgery, despite its know poor specificity in the demonstration of the aorta in the first 2-3 months postoperatively, in the initial stages of infection and in the diagnosis of aorta-enteric fistulas

  10. The Utility of Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Post-Bariatric Surgery Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain of Unknown Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulaimy, Mohammad; Punchai, Suriya; Ali, Fouzeyah A; Kroh, Matthew; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Chronic abdominal pain after bariatric surgery is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain who had negative imaging and endoscopic studies. A retrospective analysis was performed on post-bariatric surgery patients who underwent laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of chronic abdominal pain at a single academic center. Only patients with both negative preoperative CT scan and upper endoscopy were included. Total of 35 post-bariatric surgery patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Twenty out of 35 patients (57%) had positive findings on diagnostic laparoscopy including presence of adhesions (n = 12), chronic cholecystitis (n = 4), mesenteric defect (n = 2), internal hernia (n = 1), and necrotic omentum (n = 1). Two patients developed post-operative complications including a pelvic abscess and an abdominal wall abscess. Overall, 15 patients (43%) had symptomatic improvement after laparoscopy; 14 of these patients had positive laparoscopic findings requiring intervention (70% of the patients with positive laparoscopy). Conversely, 20 (57%) patients required long-term medical treatment for management of chronic abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy, which is a safe procedure, can detect pathological findings in more than half of post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain of unknown etiology. About 40% of patients who undergo diagnostic laparoscopy and 70% of patients with positive findings on laparoscopy experience significant symptom improvement. Patients should be informed that diagnostic laparoscopy is associated with no symptom improvement in about half of cases.

  11. Myocardial injury after surgery is a risk factor for weaning failure from mechanical ventilation in critical patients undergoing major abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Li

    Full Text Available Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS is a newly proposed concept that is common among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery and associated with substantial mortality. We analyzed whether MINS was a risk factor for weaning failure in critical patients who underwent major abdominal surgery.This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking University People's Hospital. The subjects were all critically ill patients who underwent major abdominal surgery between January 2011 and December 2013. Clinical and laboratory parameters during the perioperative period were investigated. Backward stepwise regression analysis was performed to evaluate MINS relative to the rate of weaning failure. Age, hypertension, chronic renal disease, left ventricular ejection fraction before surgery, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, pleural effusion, pneumonia, acute kidney injury, duration of mechanical ventilation before weaning and the level of albumin after surgery were treated as independent variables.This study included 381 patients, of whom 274 were successfully weaned. MINS was observed in 42.0% of the patients. The MINS incidence was significantly higher in patients who failed to be weaned compared to patients who were successfully weaned (56.1% versus 36.5%; P<0.001. Independent predictive factors of weaning failure were MINS, age, lower left ventricular ejection fraction before surgery and lower serum albumin level after surgery. The MINS odds ratio was 4.098 (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 15.6; P = 0.04. The patients who were successfully weaned had shorter hospital stay lengths and a higher survival rate than those who failed to be weaned.MINS is a risk factor for weaning failure from mechanical ventilation in critical patients who have undergone major abdominal surgery, independent of age, lower left ventricular ejection fraction before surgery and lower serum albumin levels after

  12. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac and major abdominal surgery are associated with granulocytosis in peripheral blood. The purpose of the present study was to describe the granulocyte and monocyte oxidative burst and the expression of adhesion molecules following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and abdominal...... during cardiopulmonary bypass was observed. The percentage of CD11a-positive granulocytes increased from 30% pre-operatively to 75% following cardiopulmonary bypass, while CD44-positive granulocytes increased from 5% to 13%. Despite the extent of the changes, these were not significant. The oxidative...... to an increased per-operative oxidative burst activity, and the induction of adhesion molecules on granulocytes associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass and surgery. In conclusion, open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a rapid and pronounced activation of leukocytes which may play...

  13. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male...... at day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body.......05). Plasma renin and aldosterone remained unchanged in both study groups. CONCLUSION: Body weight, plasma volume and intracellular volume is preserved during GH treatment in catabolic patients and ECV is increased. From a therapeutic point of view these effects may be desirable under conditions of surgical...

  14. Growth hormone treatment improves body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J; Jensen, M B; Frandsen, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male...... at day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body.......05). Plasma renin and aldosterone remained unchanged in both study groups. CONCLUSION: Body weight, plasma volume and intracellular volume is preserved during GH treatment in catabolic patients and ECV is increased. From a therapeutic point of view these effects may be desirable under conditions of surgical...

  15. Complications of bariatric surgery: Presentation and emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassir, Radwan; Debs, Tarek; Blanc, Pierre; Gugenheim, Jean; Ben Amor, Imed; Boutet, Claire; Tiffet, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The epidemic in obesity has led to an increase in number of so called bariatric procedures. Doctors are less comfortable managing an obese patient after bariatric surgery. Peri-operative mortality is less than 1%. The specific feature in the obese patient is that the classical signs of peritoneal irritation are never present as there is no abdominal wall and therefore no guarding or rigidity. Simple post-operative tachycardia in obese patients should be taken seriously as it is a WARNING SIGNAL. The most common complication after surgery is peritonitis due to anastomotic fistula formation. This occurs typically as an early complication within the first 10 days post-operatively and has an incidence of 1-6% after gastric bypass and 3-7% after sleeve gastrectomy. Post-operative malnutrition is extremely rare after restrictive surgery (ring, sleeve gastrectomy) although may occur after malabsorbative surgery (bypass, biliary pancreatic shunt) and is due to the restriction and change in absorption. Prophylactic cholecystectomy is not routinely carried out during the same procedure as the bypass. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis after bariatric surgery is a diagnosis which should be considered in the presence of any postoperative abdominal pain. Initially a first etiological assessment is performed (measurement of antithrombin III and of protein C and protein S, testing for activated protein C resistance). If the least doubt is present, a medical or surgical consultation should be requested with a specialist practitioner in the management of obese patients as death rates increase with delayed diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-operative risk scores for the prediction of outcome in elderly people who require emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bates Tom

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision on whether to operate on a sick elderly person with an intra-abdominal emergency is one of the most difficult in general surgery. A predictive risk-score would be of great value in this situation. Methods A Medline search was performed to identify those predictive risk-scores relevant to sick elderly patients in whom emergency surgery might be life-saving. Results Many of the risk scores for surgical patients include the operative findings or require tests which are not available in the acute situation. Most of the relevant studies include younger patients and elective surgery. The Glasgow Aneurysm Score and Hardman Index are specific to ruptured aortic aneurysm while the Boey Score and the Hacetteppe Score are specific to perforated peptic ulcer. The Reiss Index and Fitness Score can be used pre-operatively if the elements of the score can be completed in time. The ASA score, which includes a significant element of subjective clinical judgement, can be augmented with factors such as age and urgency of surgery but no test has a negative predictive value sufficient to recommend against surgical intervention without clinical input. Conclusion Risk scores may be helpful in sick elderly patients needing emergency abdominal surgery but an experienced clinical opinion is still essential.

  17. Reported provision of analgesia to patients with acute abdominal pain in Canadian paediatric emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonai, Naveen; Cowie, Allyson; Davidson, Chloe; Benidir, Andréanne; Thompson, Graham C; Boisclair, Philippe; Harman, Stuart; Miller, Michael; Butter, Andreana; Lim, Rod; Ali, Samina

    2016-09-01

    Evidence exists that analgesics are underutilized, delayed, and insufficiently dosed for emergency department (ED) patients with acute abdominal pain. For physicians practicing in a Canadian paediatric ED setting, we (1) explored theoretical practice variation in the provision of analgesia to children with acute abdominal pain; (2) identified reasons for withholding analgesia; and (3) evaluated the relationship between providing analgesia and surgical consultation. Physician members of Paediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC) were prospectively surveyed and presented with three scenarios of undifferentiated acute abdominal pain to assess management. A modified Dillman's Tailored Design method was used to distribute the survey from June to July 2014. Overall response rate was 74.5% (149/200); 51.7% of respondents were female and mean age was 44 (SD 8.4) years. The reported rates of providing analgesia for case scenarios representative of renal colic, appendicitis, and intussusception, were 100%, 92.1%, and 83.4%, respectively, while rates of providing intravenous opioids were 85.2%, 58.6%, and 12.4%, respectively. In all 60 responses where the respondent indicated they would obtain a surgical consultation, analgesia would be provided. In the 35 responses where analgesia would be withheld, 21 (60%) believed pain was not severe enough, while 5 (14.3%) indicated it would obscure a surgical condition. Pediatric emergency physicians self-reported rates of providing analgesia for acute abdominal pain scenarios were higher than previously reported, and appeared unrelated to request for surgical consultation. However, an unwillingness to provide opioid analgesia, belief that analgesia can obscure a surgical condition, and failure to take self-reported pain at face value remain, suggesting that the need exists for further knowledge translation efforts.

  18. Computed tomography prospective study of pleural-pulmonary changes after abdominal surgery : assessment of associated risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Luis Antonio; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Postoperative pleural-pulmonary changes (PPC) are very common following elective abdominal surgery, resolving without clinical manifestations in most patients. The incidence and risk factors associated are unknown. Objective: to determine the incidence of PPC and possible association with risk factors using computerized tomography (CT). Material and method: thirty seven patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery were prospectively analyzed using CT performed in the preoperative period and 48 hours after surgery. The PPC was scored from 0 to III. The risk factors evaluated were: age, sex, obesity, smoking history, alcoholism, comorbid conditions, cancer, ASA classification, duration of surgery, surgical incision type and number of days of hospitalization. Results: Pleura effusion was detected by CT in 70.3% (26/37) of the patients and pulmonary atelectasis in 75.5% (28/37). Grade I and II PPC was found in 59.5% (22/37) of the patients and grade III in 21.6% (8/37). Two (5.4%) of these patients developed serious pulmonary complications whereas one patient died. Surgery due to cancer, class ASA >2, longitudinal incision and > 15 cm showed statistical significance and were associated with pleural effusion. The hospitalization was over 2.4 longer for patients with PPC. Conclusion: PPC is frequently seen in patients submitted to abdominal surgery. The use of the CT for the detection of pulmonary atelectasis and pleural effusion proved to be effective. Most cases of PPC are self-limited, resolving without symptoms. (author)

  19. Late Onset of CSF Rhinorrhea in a Postoperative Transsphenoidal Surgery Patient Following Robotic-Assisted Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin T. Dowdy MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak is the most commonly encountered perioperative complication in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions. Direct closure with a combination of autologous fat, local bone, and/or synthetic grafts remains the standard of care for leaks encountered at the time of surgery as well as postoperatively. The development of the vascularized nasoseptal flap as a closure technique has increased the surgeon’s capacity to correct even larger openings in the dura of the sella as well as widely exposed anterior skull base defects. Yet these advances in the technical nuances for management of post-transsphenoidal CSF leak are useless without the ability to recognize a CSF leak by physical examination, clinical history, biochemical testing, or radiographic assessment. Here, we report a case of a patient who developed a CSF leak 28 years after transsphenoidal surgery, precipitated by a robotic-assisted hysterectomy during which increased intra-abdominal pressure and steep Trendelenberg positioning were both factors. Given the remote nature of the patient’s transsphenoidal surgery and relative paucity of data regarding such a complication, the condition went unrecognized for several months. We review the available literature regarding risk and pathophysiology of CSF leak following abdominal surgery and propose the need for increased vigilance in identification of such occurrences with the increasing acceptance and popularity of minimally invasive abdominal and pelvic surgeries as standards in the field.

  20. Robotic Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR: is it possible to offer minimally invasive surgery for abdominal wall complex defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA VITÓRIA FRANÇA DO AMARAL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the preliminary national experience and the early results of the use of robotic surgery to perform the posterior separation of abdominal wall components by the Transversus Abdominis Release (TAR technique for the correction of complex defects of the abdominal wall. We performed the procedures between 04/2/2015 and 06/15/2015 and the follow-up time was up to six months, with a minimum of two months. The mean surgical time was five hours and 40 minutes. Two patients required laparoscopic re-intervention, since one developed hernia by peritoneal migration of the mesh and one had mesh extrusion. The procedure proved to be technically feasible, with a still long surgical time. Considering the potential advantages of robotic surgery and those related to TAR and the results obtained when these two techniques are associated, we conclude that they seem to be a good option for the correction of complex abdominal wall defects.

  1. Intra-operative remifentanil might influence pain levels in the immediate postoperative period after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, EG; Duedahl, Tina H; Rømsing, Janne

    2005-01-01

    Remifentanil, a widely used analgesic agent in anaesthesia, has a rapid onset and short duration of action. In clinical settings, this requires an appropriate pain strategy to prevent unacceptable pain in the post-operative period. The aim of this study was to investigate whether remifentanil had...... any impact on post-operative pain and opioid consumption after major abdominal surgery....

  2. Development of a patient-reported outcome measure of recovery after abdominal surgery: a hypothesized conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Roshni; Figueiredo, Sabrina M; Balvardi, Saba; Nauche, Bénédicte; Landry, Tara; Lee, Lawrence; Mayo, Nancy E; Feldman, Liane S; Fiore, Julio F

    2018-05-17

    We initiated a research program to develop a novel patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to assess postoperative recovery from the perspective of abdominal surgery patients. In light of FDA recommendations, the first stage of our program aimed to, based on previous literature and expert input, develop a hypothesized conceptual framework portraying the health domains that are potentially relevant to the process of recovery after abdominal surgery. This study was conducted in three phases: (1) systematic review to identify PROMs with measurement properties appraised in the context of recovery after abdominal surgery, (2) content analysis to categorize the health domains covered by the PROMs according to the ICF, and (3) two-round Delphi study to gain expert input regarding which of these health domains are relevant to the process of recovery. Participants were experts in perioperative care identified through two major surgical societies (35 invited). The systematic review identified 19 PROMs covering 66 ICF domains. 23 experts (66%) participated in the Delphi process. After Round 2, experts agreed that 22 health domains (8 body functions, 14 activities and participation) are potentially relevant to the process of recovery after abdominal surgery. These domains were organized into a diagram, representing our hypothesized conceptual framework. This hypothesized conceptual framework is an important first step in our research program and will be further refined based on in-depth qualitative interviews with patients. The sound methodological approach used to derive this framework may be valuable for studies aimed to develop PROMs according to FDA standards.

  3. Changing trend in emergency surgery for perforated duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurteyik, E.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate changes in the emergency surgery of the duodenal ulcer. Subjects and Methods: Hospital records of 523 surgically treated patients, with duodenal ulcer perforation, during the period of 25 years 91975-1999) in the same surgical department, was retrospectively analysed. Changing aspects of emergency surgery of peptic ulcer disease, in the recent period, were determined in respect to number of operations per year and in the choice of operative methods. Results: The average number of patients and emergency operations per year was 21. No significant change was observed during the study period. Elective operations gradually decreased in the last ten years, and none was performed in the last 4 years. On the other hand, 226 emergency interventions for duodenal ulcer perforation were performed in the last ten years and 84 interventions in the last 4 years. Definitive anti-ulcer surgery was performed in 42% of patients between 1985 and 1994. Simple closure of the perforation plus treatment with proton pump inhibitors and with anti-Helicobacter pylori medication was the method in 80% during the last year. Conclusion: Emergency surgery for perforated duodenal ulcer preserves its steady rate despite disappearance of elective operations after tremendous progress in medical control of peptic ulcer disease. There is an obvious return from definitive anti-ulcer surgery to simple closure of the perforation followed by antisecretory and antibacterial medications in the recent years. (author)

  4. Assessment of emergency general surgery care based on formally developed quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Angela; Nathens, Avery; Peitzman, Andrew; Bode, Allison; Dorlac, Gina; Dorlac, Warren; Miller, Preston; Sadeghi, Mahsa; Wasserman, Deena D; Bilimoria, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Emergency general surgery outcomes vary widely across the United States. The utilization of quality indicators can reduce variation and assist providers in administering care aligned with established recommendations. Previous quality indicators have not focused on emergency general surgery patients. We identified indicators of high-quality emergency general surgery care and assessed patient- and hospital-level compliance with these indicators. We utilized a modified Delphi technique (RAND Appropriateness Methodology) to develop quality indicators. Through 2 rankings, an expert panel ranked potential quality indicators for validity. We then examined historic compliance with select quality indicators after 4 nonelective procedures (cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, small bowel resection) at 4 academic centers. Of 25 indicators rated as valid, 13 addressed patient-level quality and 12 addressed hospital-level quality. Adherence with 18 indicators was assessed. Compliance with performing a cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis within 72 hours of symptom onset ranged from 45% to 76%. Compliance with surgery start times within 3 hours from the decision to operate for uncontained perforated viscus ranged from 20% to 100%. Compliance with exploration of patients with small bowel obstructions with ischemia/impending perforation within 3 hours of the decision to operate was 0% to 88%. For 3 quality indicators (auditing 30-day unplanned readmissions/operations for patients previously managed nonoperatively, monitoring time to source control for intra-abdominal infections, and having protocols for bypass/transfer), none of the hospitals were compliant. Developing indicators for providers to assess their performance provides a foundation for specific initiatives. Adherence to quality indicators may improve the quality of emergency general surgery care provided for which current outcomes are potentially modifiable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Proposed protocol for realization of abdominal CT in patients admitted to the emergency room for trauma in HSJD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Cascante, Lizbeth

    2013-01-01

    A protocol is established for computed tomography in trauma patients treated in emergency of Hospital San Juan de Dios. A literature review is conducted on abdominal CT protocols in specialized databases. The criteria, scanning, parameters and delay time are established for realization of abdominal CT in patients with traumatic emergencies in HSJD. Taking the thickness of the sections, the thickness of the sections in reconstruction, the quantities of contrast and the speed of injection in patients, have been standardized for the realization of abdominal CT in HSJD. Computed tomography should be preferably performed of routine in portal phase and the late from 5 minutes in patients with abdominal trauma, contributing in this phase as much information regarding the extent of abdominal injury [es

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life, Cachexia and Overall Survival After Major Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K

    2017-03-01

    Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life

  7. Evidence or eminence in abdominal surgery: Recent improvements in perioperative care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelman, Josefin; Nygren, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Repeated surveys from Europe, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand have shown that adherence to an evidence-based perioperative care protocol, such as Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS), has been generally low. It is of great importance to support the implementation of the ERAS protocol as it has been shown to improve outcomes after a number of surgical procedures, including major abdominal surgery. However, despite an increasing awareness of the importance of structured perioperative management, the implementation of this complex protocol has been slow. Barriers to implementation involve both patient- and staff-related factors as well as practice-related issues and resources. To support efficient and successful implementation, further educational and structural measures have to be made on a national or regional level to improve the standard of general health care. Besides postoperative morbidity, biological and physiological variables have been quite commonly reported in previous ERAS studies. Little information, however, has been obtained on cost-effectiveness, long-term outcomes, quality of life and patient-related outcomes, and these issues remain important areas of research for future studies. PMID:25469030

  8. Do Scoring Systems Help in Predicting Survival Following Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, Marcel; Goldsmith, Paul; Martinez, Marcos; Barandiaran, Jesus; Grover, Kartikae; El-Barghouti, Naif; Perry, Eugene P

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to assess the value of the Hardman Index and the Glasgow Aneurysm Score in predicting postoperative mortality in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA), and to assess the correlation between the two. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients admitted with rAAA were identified from a hospital database. Hospital records were reviewed and a retrospective Hardman Index and Glasgow Aneurysm Score was calculated. Poor postoperative prognosis was considered at a Glasgow Aneurysm Score > 95 or a Hardman Index ≥ 3. RESULTS A total of 96 patients with a median age of 77.5 years (interquartile range, 71–83 years) and a male:female ratio of 2:1 were identified. Of these, 37 patients were not offered surgery and this was associated with 100% mortality. Of the 59 operated patients, 36 (61%) patients died postoperatively. Operated patients had a median Glasgow Aneurysm Score of 91 (interquartile range, 77–101) and a Hardman Index of 2 (interquartile range, 1–2). In this group, a Glasgow Aneurysm Score > 95 or a Hardman Index ≥ 3 was not associated with mortality (P = 0.10 and P = 0.79, respectively). Correlation between the scoring systems was poor (+0.42 τb). CONCLUSIONS The scoring systems assessed did not help predict the outcome of rAAA surgery, and correlated poorly with each other. They do not aid clinical judgement. PMID:19102824

  9. A modified Delphi method toward multidisciplinary consensus on functional convalescence recommendations after abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Daphne C R; van der Meij, Eva; Bouwsma, Esther V A; Vonk Noordegraaf, Antonie; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J H J; van Baal, W Marchien; Huirne, Judith A F; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based information on the resumption of daily activities following uncomplicated abdominal surgery is scarce and not yet standardized in medical guidelines. As a consequence, convalescence recommendations are generally not provided after surgery, leading to patients' insecurity, needlessly delayed recovery and prolonged sick leave. The aim of this study was to generate consensus-based multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations, including advice on return to work, applicable for both patients and physicians. Using a modified Delphi method among a multidisciplinary panel of 13 experts consisting of surgeons, occupational physicians and general practitioners, detailed recommendations were developed for graded resumption of 34 activities after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic and open appendectomy, laparoscopic and open colectomy and laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair. A sample of occupational physicians, general practitioners and surgeons assessed the recommendations on feasibility in daily practice. The response of this group of care providers was discussed with the experts in the final Delphi questionnaire round. Out of initially 56 activities, the expert panel selected 34 relevant activities for which convalescence recommendations were developed. After four Delphi rounds, consensus was reached for all of the 34 activities for all the surgical procedures. A sample of occupational physicians, general practitioners and surgeons regarded the recommendations as feasible in daily practice. Multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations regarding uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy (laparoscopic, open), colectomy (laparoscopic, open) and inguinal hernia repair (laparoscopic, open) were developed by a modified Delphi procedure. Further research is required to evaluate whether these recommendations are realistic and effective in daily practice.

  10. Endoscopic transmural management of abdominal fluid collection following gastrointestinal, bariatric, and hepato-bilio-pancreatic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Fuks, David; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Pourcher, Guillaume; Perniceni, Thierry; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Tuszynski, Thierry; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno; Gayet, Brice

    2018-05-01

    Post-operative collections are a recognized source of morbidity after abdominal surgery. Percutaneous drainage is currently considered the standard treatment but not all collections are accessible using this method. Since the adoption of EUS, endoscopic transmural drainage has become an attractive option in the management of such complications. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy, safety and modalities of endoscopic transmural drainage in the treatment of post-operative collections. Data of all patients referred to our dedicated multidisciplinary facility from 2014 to 2017 for endoscopic drainage of symptomatic post-operative collections after failure of percutaneous drainage or when it was deemed impossible, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two patients (17 males and 15 females) with a median age of 53 years old (range 31-74) were included. Collections resulted from pancreatic (n = 10), colorectal (n = 6), bariatric (n  = 5), and other type of surgery (n  = 11). Collection size was less than 5 cm in diameter in 10 (31%), between 5 and 10 cm in 17 (53%) ,and more than 10 cm in 5 (16%) patients. The median time from surgery to endoscopic drainage was 38 days (range 6-360). Eight (25%) patients underwent endoscopic guided drainage whereas 24 (75%) patients underwent EUS-guided drainage. Technical success was 100% and clinical success was achieved in 30 (93.4%) after a mean follow-up of 13.5 months (1.2-24.8). Overall complication was 12.5% including four patients who bled following trans-gastric drainage treated with conservative therapy. The present series suggests that endoscopic transmural drainage represents an interesting alternative in the treatment of post-operative collection when percutaneous drainage is not possible or fails.

  11. Percutaneous Transhepatic Drainage of Inaccessible Abdominal Abscesses Following Abdominal Surgery Under Real-Time CT-Fluoroscopic Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakado, Koichiro; Takaki, Haruyuki; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Kashima, Masataka; Uraki, Junji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Takeda, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and clinical utility of transhepatic drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses retrospectively under real-time computed tomographic (CT) guidance. For abdominal abscesses, 12 consecutive patients received percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Abscesses were considered inaccessible using the usual access route because they were surrounded by the liver and other organs. The maximum diameters of abscesses were 4.6-9.5 cm (mean, 6.7 ± 1.4 cm). An 8-Fr catheter was advanced into the abscess cavity through the liver parenchyma using real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance. Safety, feasibility, procedure time, and clinical utility were evaluated. Drainage catheters were placed with no complications in abscess cavities through the liver parenchyma in all patients. The mean procedure time was 18.8 ± 9.2 min (range, 12-41 min). All abscesses were drained. They shrank immediately after catheter placement. In conclusions, this transhepatic approach under real-time CT fluoroscopic guidance is a safe, feasible, and useful technique for use of drainage of inaccessible abdominal abscesses.

  12. Unplanned emergency department consultations and readmissions within 30 and 90 days of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra, María P; Ramón, José M; Martínez-Serrano, Andrés; Serra, Carmen; Goday, Albert; Trillo, Lourdes; Lanzarini, Enrique; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis

    2018-04-01

    Hospital readmission is used as a measure of quality healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, causes, and risk factors related to emergency consultations and readmissions within 30 and 90 days in patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Retrospective study of 429 patients operated on from January 2004 to July 2015 from a prospectively maintained database and electronic medical records. Demographic data, type of intervention, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and records of emergency visits and readmissions were analyzed. Within the first 90 days postoperative, a total of 117 (27%) patients consulted the Emergency Department and 24 (6%) were readmitted. The most common reasons for emergency consultation were noninfectious problems related to the surgical wound (n=40, 34%) and abdominal pain (n=28, 24%), which was also the first cause of readmission (n=9, 37%). Postoperative complications, reintervention, associated surgery in the same operation and depression were risk factors for emergency consultation within the first 90 days of the postoperative period. Despite the high number of patients who visit the Emergency Department in the first 90 days of the postoperative period, few require readmission and none surgical reoperation. It is important to know the reasons for emergency consultation to establish preventive measures and improve the quality of care. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Abdominal ultrasound referred by the Emergency department – Can sonographer findings help guide timely patient management?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Michal; Bloesch, Justin; Lombardo, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare sonographer findings with radiologists' reports regarding the level of agreement, ability to answer the clinical question, and the use of hedging (descriptive words that do not commit to a definitive diagnosis) in abdominal ultrasound cases referred by the Emergency department. Other criteria compared included caveats of image quality and requests for further investigations. Methods: Abdominal ultrasound examinations referred by the Emergency department at a large regional tertiary hospital were retrospectively reviewed and sonographer findings compared with radiologists' reports. A consultant Intensivist scored all examinations into one of four categories according to the level of diagnostic agreement between the sonographer and associated radiologists. The same rater also identified where hedging terminology was used, whether the clinical question posed was answered and when further requests for investigations (including imaging) were made. The proportion of scores between sonographers and radiologists for each outcome variable were analysed using Fisher Exact tests. Results: Eighty-six cases were identified for this study. Of those, 73 (84.9%) were in complete agreement. In 12 cases (14.0%) a minor discrepancy was reported and only one case (1.1%) was scored as moderately discrepant between sonographers findings and radiologists' reports. There were no significant differences in the use of hedging, ability to answer the clinical question, requests for further investigations or interpretation of image quality. Conclusion: Sonographer findings for cases of abdominal ultrasound referred by the Emergency department have a high level of agreement with radiologists' reports and could form the basis for acute patient care when radiologists' reports are unavailable

  14. Emergency department assessment of abdominal pain: clinical indicator tests for detecting peritonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Scott; Watt, Martin

    2005-12-01

    Peritonism is a finding that leads to a more cautious approach in the emergency department management of abdominal pain. This study examined whether peritonism assessment using inspiration, expiration and cough tests was associated with the patient's clinical management. This prospective observational study evaluated consecutive patients presenting directly to the emergency department for 3 months from June 2000 with abdominal pain. Triage initial observations of blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and temperature were recorded. The examining emergency physician recorded each patient's response and pain score to the individual peritonism tests and scored it as positive if there was an indication of it being a painful manoeuvre. The results were blinded from the receiving specialty if subsequent referral was required. Sixty-seven patients had peritonism tests performed. No individual test was more painful than the others with similar values in pain scores. In all, 70% (7/10) were admitted when all three tests were positive, compared with 21% (12/57) when two or less of the tests scored positive (P=0.004, Fisher's exact test). Admission was not associated with any individual test or combination of tests, or any other variable. The peritonism tests were not associated with any other physiological observation or measurement. These peritonism tests represent a simple investigation, and are significantly associated with admission when all three tests are positive. They seem to be a clinical predictor of cases in which continuing assessment was required, and may be useful as a departmental 'safety net' in the management of abdominal pain.

  15. Frailty as a predictor of mortality in the elderly emergency general surgery patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeteyn, Jens; Evans, Louis A; De Cleyn, Siem; Fauconnier, Sigrid; Damen, Caroline; Hewitt, Jonathan; Ceelen, Wim

    2017-12-01

    The number of surgical procedures performed in elderly and frail patients has greatly increased in the last decades. However, there is little research in the elderly emergency general surgery patient. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of frailty in the emergency general surgery population in Belgium. Secondly, we examined the length of hospital stay, readmission rate and mortality at 30 and 90 days. We conducted a prospective observational study at Ghent University Hospital. All patients older than 65 admitted to a general surgery ward from the emergency department were eligible for inclusion. Primary endpoint was mortality at 30 days. Secondary outcomes were mortality at 90 days, readmissions and length of stay. Cross-sectional observations were performed using the Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney U-test, or one-way ANOVA. We performed a COX multivariable analysis to identify independent variables associated with mortality at 30 and 90 days as well as the readmission risk. Data were collected from 98 patients in a four-month period. 23.5% of patients were deemed frail. 79% of all patients underwent abdominal surgery. Univariate analyses showed that polypharmacy, multimorbidity, a history of falls, hearing impairment and urinary incontinence were statistically significantly different between the non-frail and the group. Frail patients showed a higher incidence for mortality within 30 days (9% versus 1.3% (p = .053)). There were no differences between the two groups for mortality at 90 days, readmission, length of stay and operation. Frailty was a predictor for mortality at 90 days (p= .025) (hazard ratio (HR) 10.83 (95%CI 1.34-87.4)). Operation (p= .084) (HR 0.16 (95%CI 0.16-1.29)) and the presence of chronic cardiac failure (p= .049) (HR 0.38 (95%CI 0.14-0.99)) were protective for mortality at 90 days. Frailty is a significant predictor for mortality for elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal/general surgery. Level II therapeutic

  16. Indications for surgery in acute pancreatitis on the basis of abdominal CT in the early stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Keishoku; Nakasaku, Osamu; Kim, Jung-hyo; Hatakeyama, Gen

    1986-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis clinically manifests various degrees of severity. In the present study, we performed a retrospective study on 39 cases of acute pancreatitis and examined the indications for surgery and infection as an aggravating factor in acute pancreatitis on the basis of CT in the early stage (about 48 hours after onset). CT in the early stage of acute pancreatitis permits objective determination of the extent of lesion enlargement. The cases could be classified into three grades: severe (CT score ≥ 6; surgical therapy), moderate (CT score = 5, 4; medical therapy possible), and mild (CT score ≤ 3; medical therapy) as determined by CT. Emergency surgery was performed in seven of 10 patients in whom pancreatitis was judged to be severe on the basis of CT and clinical findings. Of the seven, four had infection in the early stage (within 48 hours after onset). Three of the four had MOF complications and died. Two of the three patients without infection were relieved. The extent of inflammatory lesions of severe pancreatitis was severe by CT, and the CT scores were especially high in cases with infection. Infection in the early stage of acute pancreatitis was thus thought to be an serious aggravating factor. It was concluded, therefore, that, in the early stage, CT was very useful as a helpful guide to early judgement and an indicator for emergency surgery. (author)

  17. Sarcopenia is a predictor of outcomes in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Karvellas, Constantine J; Baracos, Vickie; Williams, David C; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2014-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, the number of very elderly patients (age ≥80 years) undergoing emergency operations is increasing. Evaluating patient-specific risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality in the acute care surgery setting is crucial to improving outcomes. We hypothesize that sarcopenia, a severe depletion of skeletal muscles, is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. A total of 170 patients older than the age of 80 underwent emergency surgery between 2008 and 2010 at a tertiary care facility; 100 of these patients had abdominal computed tomography images within 30 days of the operation that were adequate for the assessment of sarcopenia. The impact of sarcopenia on the operative outcomes was evaluated using both univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean patient age was 84 years, with an in-hospital mortality of 18%. Sarcopenia was present in 73% of patients. More sarcopenic patients had postoperative complications (45% sarcopenic versus 15% nonsarcopenic, P = .005) and more died in hospital (23 vs 4%, P = .037). There were no differences in duration of stay or requirement for intensive care unit postoperatively. After we controlled for confounding factors, increasing skeletal muscle index (per incremental cm(2)/m(2)) was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio ∼0.834, 95% confidence interval 0.731-0.952, P = .007) in multivariate analysis. Sarcopenia was independently predictive of greater complication rates, discharge disposition, and in-hospital mortality in the very elderly emergency surgery population. Using sarcopenia as an objective tool to identify high-risk patients would be beneficial in developing tailored preventative strategies and potentially resource allocation in the future. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. US Emergency Department Trends in Imaging for Pediatric Nontraumatic Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Lauren M; Goyal, Monika K; Badolato, Gia M; Chamberlain, James M; Cohen, Joanna S

    2017-10-01

    To describe national emergency department (ED) trends in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound imaging for the evaluation of pediatric nontraumatic abdominal pain from 2007 through 2014. We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to measure trends in CT and ultrasound use among children with nontraumatic abdominal pain. We performed multivariable logistic regression to measure the strength of the association of ED type (pediatric versus general ED) with CT and ultrasound use adjusting for potential confounding variables. Of an estimated 21.1 million ED visits for nontraumatic abdominal pain, 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.2%-16.0%) had CT imaging only, 10.9% (95% CI, 9.7%-12.1%) had ultrasound imaging only, and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4%-2.4%) received both CT and ultrasound. The overall use of CT and ultrasound did not significantly change over the study period ( P trend .63 and .90, respectively). CT use was lower among children treated in pediatric EDs compared with general EDs (adjusted odds ratio 0.34; 95% CI, 0.17-0.69). Conversely, ultrasound use was higher among children treated in pediatric EDs compared with general EDs (adjusted odds ratio 2.14; 95% CI, 1.29-3.55). CT imaging for pediatric patients with nontraumatic abdominal pain has plateaued since 2007 after the steady increase seen in the preceding 9 years. Among this population, an increased likelihood of CT imaging was demonstrated in general EDs compared with pediatric EDs, in which there was a higher likelihood of ultrasound imaging. Dissemination of pediatric-focused radiology protocols to general EDs may help optimize radiation exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Regional anesthesia as an alternative to general anesthesia for abdominal surgery in patients with severe pulmonary impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Jeannie F; Litwack, Robert; Davis, Kevin; Miller, Thomas A

    2004-11-01

    It is known that smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience a higher rate of pulmonary-related complications following abdominal surgery. The impact of anesthetic technique (regional [RA] versus general [GA] versus combination of both) on the complication rate has not been established. This study examined the outcomes of abdominal surgery performed using RA (epidural or continuous spinal) as the sole anesthetic technique in patients with severe pulmonary impairment (SPI). We reviewed a series of 8 general surgery cases performed using RA alone (T4-T6 sensory level) in patients with SPI, as evidenced by an forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) less than 50% predicted and/or home oxygen requirement. One patient also received postoperative epidural analgesia. FEV(1) ranged from 0.3 to 1.84 L; 3 patients required home oxygen therapy, and 5 of the 8 were American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class 4. Operations included segmental colectomy (n = 2), open cholecystectomy (n = 1), incisional herniorrhaphy (n = 1), and laparoscopic herniorrhaphy (n = 4). Intraoperative conditions were adequate with RA alone for successful completion of the procedure in all cases. All patients recovered uneventfully except for 1 who developed postoperative pneumonia that resolved with standard therapy. Length of stay was less than 24 hours for 5 of 8 patients. Mortality was 0%. Abdominal surgery can be safely performed using RA alone in selected high-risk patients, making this option an attractive alternative to GA for those with severe pulmonary impairment.

  20. Improving outcomes of emergency bowel surgery using nela model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Zafar, H.

    2018-01-01

    To find outcomes of emergency bowel surgery and review the processes involved in the care of these patients on the same template used in National Emergency Laparotomy Audit (NELA). Study Design:An audit. Place and Duration of Study:Surgery Department, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from December 2013 to November 2014. Methodology:Patients undergone emergency bowel surgery during the review period were included. Demographic data, type of admission, ASA grade, urgency of surgery, P-POSSUM score, indication of surgery, length of stay and outcome was recorded. Data was then compared with the data published by NELA team in their first report. P-value for categorical variables was calculated using Chi-square tests. Results:Although the patients were younger with nearly same spectrum of disease, the mortality rate was significantly more than reported in NELA (24% versus 11%, p=0.004). Comparison showed that care at AKUH was significantly lacking in terms of proper preoperative risk assessment and documentation, case booking to operating room timing, intraoperative goal directed fluid therapy using cardiac output monitoring, postoperative intensive care for highest risk patients and review of elderly patients by MCOP specialist. Conclusion:This study helped in understanding the deficiencies in the care of patients undergoing emergency bowel surgery and alarmingly poor outcomes in a very systematic manner. In view of results of this study, it is planned to do interventions in the deficient areas to improve care given to these patients and their outcomes with the limited resources of a developing country. (author)

  1. Understanding the "Weekend Effect" for Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Richard S; Go, Derek E; Dhar, Vikrom K; Kim, Young; Hanseman, Dennis J; Wima, Koffi; Shah, Shimul A

    2018-02-01

    Several studies have identified a "weekend effect" for surgical outcomes, but definitions vary and the cause is unclear. Our aim was to better characterize the weekend effect for emergency general surgery using mortality as a primary endpoint. Using data from the University HealthSystem Consortium from 2009 to 2013, we identified urgent/emergent hospital admissions for seven procedures representing 80% of the national burden of emergency general surgery. Patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared between cases that were performed on weekdays vs weekends. Hospitals varied widely in the proportion of procedures performed on the weekend. Of the procedures examined, four had higher mortality for weekend cases (laparotomy, lysis of adhesions, partial colectomy, and small bowel resection; p < 0.01), while three did not (appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and peptic ulcer disease repair). Among the four procedures with increased weekend mortality, patients undergoing weekend procedures also had increased severity of illness and shorter time from admission to surgery (p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient characteristics demonstrated independently higher mortality on weekends for these same four procedures (p < 0.01). For the first time, we have identified specific emergency general surgery procedures that incur higher mortality when performed on weekends. This may be due to acute changes in patient status that require weekend surgery or indications for urgent procedures (ischemia, obstruction) compared to those without a weekend mortality difference (infection). Hospitals that perform weekend surgery must acknowledge and identify ways to manage this increased risk.

  2. Reporting individual surgeon outcomes does not lead to risk aversion in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratzis, A; Thatcher, A; Bath, M F; Sidloff, D A; Bown, M J; Shakespeare, J; Sayers, R D; Imray, C

    2017-02-01

    INTRODUCTION Reporting surgeons' outcomes has recently been introduced in the UK. This has the potential to result in surgeons becoming risk averse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether reporting outcomes for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery impacts on the number and risk profile (level of fitness) of patients offered elective treatment. METHODS Publically available National Vascular Registry data were used to compare the number of AAAs treated in those centres across the UK that reported outcomes for the periods 2008-2012, 2009-2013 and 2010-2014. Furthermore, the number and characteristics of patients referred for consideration of elective AAA repair at a single tertiary unit were analysed yearly between 2010 and 2014. Clinic, casualty and theatre event codes were searched to obtain all AAAs treated. The results of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) were assessed. RESULTS For the 85 centres that reported outcomes in all three five-year periods, the median number of AAAs treated per unit increased between the periods 2008-2012 and 2010-2014 from 192 to 214 per year (p=0.006). In the single centre cohort study, the proportion of patients offered elective AAA repair increased from 74% in 2009-2010 to 81% in 2013-2014, with a maximum of 84% in 2012-2013. The age, aneurysm size and CPET results (anaerobic threshold levels) for those eventually offered elective treatment did not differ significantly between 2010 and 2014. CONCLUSIONS The results do not support the assumption that reporting individual surgeon outcomes is associated with a risk averse strategy regarding patient selection in aneurysm surgery at present.

  3. Effect of Dex medetomidine on Neuromuscular Blockade in Patients Undergoing Complex Major Abdominal or Pelvic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Awady, G.A.; Abdelhalim, J.M.K.; Azer, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Dex medetomidine is a highly selective α2 agonist with anesthetic, analgesic and sympatholytic properties. Its neuromuscular effects in humans are unknown. This study evaluates the effect of dex medetomidine on neuromuscular block and hemodynamics during thiopental/ isoflurane anesthesia for patients with complex abdominal or pelvic surgery. Patients and methods: During thiopental/isoflurane anesthesia, the rocuronium infusion rate was adjusted in 20 complex surgery patients to maintain a stable first response (T1) in the train of four sequence of 50% ± 3 of the pre-rocuronium value. Dex medetomidine was then administered by infusion pump, targeting a plasma dex medetomidine concentration of 0.6 ng/dL for 45 min. The evoked mechanical responses of the adductor pollicis responses (T1 response and T4/T1 ratio), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured during the dex medetomidine infusion using repeated measures analysis of variance. Plasma levels ranged from 0.73 to 1.38 ng/mL. Results: T1 values decreased during the infusion from 55(ρ2 to 38±9 ((ρ< 0.05). T4/Tl values did not change during the infusion. Dex medetomidine increased SBP (ρ< 0.001) and decreased HR ((ρ< 0.05) (10 min median values) during the infusion compared with values before the infusion. This study demonstrated that dex medetomidine decreased T1, increased SBP and decreased HR during thiopental/isoflurane anesthesia. Conclusion: We conclude that dex medetomidine induced direct vasoconstriction may alter pharmacokinetics of rocuronium, therefore increasing plasma rocuronium concentration. Although these effects were statistically significant, further studies should be held for understanding and characterizing the peripheral vasoconstrictive effects of a2 agonists that allow better management and determination of drug dosing regimens

  4. Rigor mortis and livor mortis in a living patient: A fatal case of acute total occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta following renal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høyer Christian Bjerre

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman underwent a nephrectomy on the right side for renal cancer. Postoperatively she developed abdominal and lower back pain, which was treated with an injection of analgesics in an epidural catheter. The following morning it was discovered that the patient had cold legs with pallor and no palpable femoral pulse. Rigor mortis and livor mortis were diagnosed in both legs, even though the patient was still alive and awake. Doppler ultrasound examination revealed the absence of blood flow in the lower part of the abdominal aorta and distally. A cross disciplinary conference including specialists in urology, orthopaedics, vascular surgery, anaesthesiology, internal medicine, and intensive care concluded that no lifesaving treatment was possible, and the patient died the following day. A forensic autopsy revealed severe atherosclerosis with thrombosis and dissection of the abdominal aorta. This case clearly demonstrates that a vascular emergency should be considered when patients complain about pain in the lower back, abdomen or limbs. Clinicians should be especially aware of symptoms of tissue death that can be masked by epidural analgesia.

  5. Port site endometrioma: a rare cause of abdominal wall pain following laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zohaib A; Husain, Fahd; Siddiqui, Zain; Siddiqui, Midhat

    2017-06-18

    Endometriomas are a rare cause of abdominal wall pain. We report a case of a port site endometrioma presenting with an umbilical swelling. The patient underwent a laparoscopy for pelvic endometriosis 6 months previously and presented with a swelling around her umbilical port site scar associated with cyclical pain during menses. Ultrasound scan reported a well-defined lesion in the umbilicus and MRI scanning excluded other pathology. As she was symptomatic, she underwent an exploration of the scar and excision of the endometrioma with resolution of her symptoms. Precautions should be taken to reduce the risk of endometrial seeding during laparoscopic surgery. All tissues should be removed in an appropriate retrieval bag and the pneumoperitoneum should be deflated completely before removing ports to reduce the chimney effect of tissue being forced through the port site. The diagnosis should be considered in all women of reproductive age presenting with a painful port site scar. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Positive correlation of employment and psychological well-being for veterans with major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, David J; Wendel, Christopher S; Skeps, Raymond; Rawl, Susan M; Grant, Marcia; Schmidt, C Max; Ko, Clifford Y; Krouse, Robert S

    2010-11-01

    Intestinal stomas (ostomies) have been associated negatively with multiple aspects of health-related quality of life. This article examines the relationship between employment status and psychological well-being (PWB) in veterans who underwent major bowel procedures with or without ostomy. Veterans from 3 Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers were surveyed using the City of Hope ostomy-specific questionnaire and the Short Form 36 item Veteran's version (SF-36V). Response rate was 48% (511 of 1,063). Employment and PWB relationship was assessed using multiple regression with age, income, SF-36V physical component summary (PCS), and employment status as independent variables. Employed veterans reported higher PWB compared with unemployed veterans (P = .003). Full-time workers also reported higher PWB than part-time or unemployed workers (P = .001). Ostomy was not an independent predictor of PWB. Employment among veterans after major abdominal surgery may have intrinsic value for PWB. Patients should be encouraged to return to work, or do volunteer work after recovery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with coronary artery disease. Simultaneous or two staged operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Takashi; Mori, Takanobu; Masuda, Mikio; Kishi, Daijirou; Suzuki, Takashi; Takaba, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) was evaluated by noninvasive examination in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. A simultaneous operation or a 2-staged operation was performed depending on the seriousness of the condition when both diseases were combined. A total of 36 patients underwent elective repair of AAA between 1996 and 2001. Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed only in patients with suspected CAD by dipyridamole myocardial scintigraphy. Significant CAD was found in 8 patients. Simultaneous operation was performed in 4 patients, and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) was performed in all cases of simultaneous operation. In 4 patients receiving 2-staged operations, 1 standard coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 1 OPCAB and 2 percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasties (PTCA) were performed prior to AAA surgery. Twenty-eight patients underwent only AAA operation. Though there were no incidents of perioperative myocardial infarction or cardiac related deaths in this group, 2 patients died due to other causes (hemorrhage and duodenal perforation). In the 8 patients associated with CAD, 1 patient died of myonephrotic metabolic syndrome (MNMS) after simultaneous operation. The other 7 patients revived their social function soon of the discharge. Dipyridamole cardiac scintigraphy was considered to be an effective examination for evaluation of CAD in AAA patients. There was no need to perform CAG in all AAA patients. The policy of choosing simultaneous operation or 2-staged operation according to the seriousness of the 2 diseases seemed to be appropriate. (author)

  8. Aminophylline partially prevents the decrease of body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jung Ah; Jung, Hong Soo; Joo, Jin Deok; In, Jang Hyeok; Jeon, Yeon Soo; Chun, Ga Young; Choi, Jin Woo

    2014-08-01

    Aminophylline can elicit thermogenesis in rats or increase metabolic rate during cold stress in lambs. We tested the hypothesis that aminophylline would reduce the change in core body temperature during laparoscopic abdominal surgery requiring pneumoperitoneum. Fifty patients were randomly divided into an aminophylline group (n=25) and a saline control group (n=25). Esophageal temperature, index finger temperature, and hemodynamic variables, such as mean blood pressure and heart rate, were measured every 15 min during sevoflurane anesthesia. In the aminophylline group, esophageal temperatures at T45 (36.1±0.38 vs. 35.7±0.29, P=0.024), T60 (36.0±0.39 vs. 35.6±0.28, P=0.053), T75 (35.9±0.34 vs. 35.5±0.28, P=0.025), T90 (35.8±0.35 vs. 35.3±0.33, P=0.011), and T105 (35.8±0.36 vs. 35.1±0.53, P=0.017) and index finger temperatures at T15 (35.8±0.46 vs. 34.9±0.33, Ptemperature through a thermogenic effect, despite reduced peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction.

  9. [Cefamandole as prophylactic A.B. in abdominal surgery. Comparative study of cefamandole versus clindamycin/tobramycin (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarchy, J

    1980-01-01

    A prospective, randomized and controlled study of prophylactic A.B. was made in 100 patients prior to abdominal surgery. Fifty patients received 3 x 2 g of cefamandole I.V. within 24 hrs, the first dose being given at the time of anesthetic induction. Postoperative infections occurred in 2% of this group. Fifty patients received the association Clindamycin-Tobramycin (clindamycin 600 mg - tobramycin 80 mg/8 hrs) for 24 hrs, the first dose also at the induction of anesthesia. The complication rate in this group was 18%. The difference between those 2 groups is statistically significant (p less than 0.01). Cefamandole used as a prophylactic antibiotic in abdominal surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative wound infections when compared to the association clindamycin-tobramycin.

  10. Macula-Sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: Is emergent surgery necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mahmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the macula is a significant factor in determining final visual outcomes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD and should be considered in the timing of surgical repair. Several studies have shown that macula-involving RRDs attain similar visual and anatomic outcomes when surgery is performed within seven days as compared to emergent surgery (within 24 hours. In contrast, surgery prior to macular detachment in macula-sparing RRDs generally yields the best visual outcomes. In the case of macula-sparing RRDs, it is not clear how long the macula may remain attached, therefore, standard practice dictates emergent surgery. Timing of presentation, examination findings, case complexity, co-existing medical conditions, surgeon expertise, and timing and quality of access to operating facilities and staff, however, should all be considered in determining whether a macula-sparing RRD requires immediate intervention or if equivalent visual and possibly better overall outcomes can be achieved with scheduled surgery within an appropriate time frame.

  11. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZAKI, JIRO; MOTOHASHI, GYO; NISHIDA, KIYOTAKA; TABUCHI, TAKANOBU; UBUKATA, HIDEYUKI; TABUCHI, TAKAFUMI

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the...

  12. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2014-05-02

    General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial ('PROVAR') is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012).

  13. Efficiency of bupivacaine and association with dexmedetomidine in transversus abdominis plane block ultrasound guided in postoperative pain of abdominal surgery

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    Recep Aksu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine used in tranversus abdominis plane (TAP block on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Methods Patients submitted to lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. After anesthesia induction, ultrasound guided TAP block was performed. TAP block was obtained with 21 mL 0.9% saline in Group C (n = 31, 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 1 mL saline in Group B (n = 31, and 20 mL 0.5% bupivacaine + 1 mL dexmedetomidine (100 µg in Group BD (n = 31. Results Visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD compared to Group C, at all time points (p 0.05. Conclusions The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine on TAP block decreased postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption; it also increased patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dexmedetomidine did not have any effect on nausea and vomiting score and antiemetic requirement.

  14. [Efficiency of bupivacaine and association with dexmedetomidine in transversus abdominis plane block ultrasound guided in postoperative pain of abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Recep; Patmano, Gülçin; Biçer, Cihangir; Emek, Ertan; Çoruh, Aliye Esmaoğlu

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine added to bupivacaine used in tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block on postoperative pain and patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Patients submitted to lower abdominal surgery were enrolled in the study. After anesthesia induction, ultrasound guided TAP block was performed. TAP block was obtained with 21mL 0.9% saline in Group C (n=31), 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL saline in Group B (n=31), and 20mL 0.5% bupivacaine+1mL dexmedetomidine (100μg) in Group BD (n=31). Visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD compared to Group C, at all time points (pconsumption was lower in Group BD compared to other groups and lower in group B than in the controls (p0.05). The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine on TAP block decreased postoperative pain scores and morphine consumption; it also increased patient satisfaction in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery. Dexmedetomidine did not have any effect on nausea and vomiting score and antiemetic requirement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment on the pain degree as well as stress hormone and mediator secretion after abdominal surgery

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    Ying Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment on the pain degree as well as stress hormone and mediator secretion after abdominal surgery. Methods: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery in our hospital between May 2015 and March 2017 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, intervention group received flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment combined with routine intravenous anesthesia, and the control group only accepted conventional intravenous anesthesia. The levels of pain neurotransmitters and cytokines, stress hormones and mediators in serum were detected before operation as well as 12 h and 24 h after operation. Results: 12 h and 24 h after operation, serum NPY, SP, Glu, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL- 10, ACTH, Cor, Ins, NE and E levels of both groups of patients were significantly higher than those before operation while SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 levels were significantly lower than those before operation, and serum NPY, SP, Glu, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, ACTH, Cor, Ins, NE and E levels of intervention group 12 h and 24 h after operation were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD, GHS-Px and HO-1 levels were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen axetil pretreatment can reduce the pain degree and stress response after abdominal surgery.

  16. Outcome of intraoperative goal-directed therapy using Vigileo/FloTrac in high-risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Elgendy

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The applied protocol for intraoperative GDT provided significant reduction of PO morbidities, ICU and hospital LOS but couldn‘t significantly reduce mortality rates in high risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries.

  17. Diagnostic errors related to acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura; Park, Elizabeth; Shlamovitz, Gil; Suliburk, James; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic errors in the emergency department (ED) are harmful and costly. We reviewed a selected high-risk cohort of patients presenting to the ED with abdominal pain to evaluate for possible diagnostic errors and associated process breakdowns. We conducted a retrospective chart review of ED patients >18 years at an urban academic hospital. A computerised 'trigger' algorithm identified patients possibly at high risk for diagnostic errors to facilitate selective record reviews. The trigger determined patients to be at high risk because they: (1) presented to the ED with abdominal pain, and were discharged home and (2) had a return ED visit within 10 days that led to a hospitalisation. Diagnostic errors were defined as missed opportunities to make a correct or timely diagnosis based on the evidence available during the first ED visit, regardless of patient harm, and included errors that involved both ED and non-ED providers. Errors were determined by two independent record reviewers followed by team consensus in cases of disagreement. Diagnostic errors occurred in 35 of 100 high-risk cases. Over two-thirds had breakdowns involving the patient-provider encounter (most commonly history-taking or ordering additional tests) and/or follow-up and tracking of diagnostic information (most commonly follow-up of abnormal test results). The most frequently missed diagnoses were gallbladder pathology (n=10) and urinary infections (n=5). Diagnostic process breakdowns in ED patients with abdominal pain most commonly involved history-taking, ordering insufficient tests in the patient-provider encounter and problems with follow-up of abnormal test results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Ankle Fracture Surgery on a Pregnant Patient Complicated by Intraoperative Emergency Caesarian Section

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    Ran Schwarzkopf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy who sustained an ankle fracture dislocation that could not be adequately closed reduced. After discussions with the patient, her obstetrician, and the anesthesiologists, she was indicated for surgical fixation. A heart tone monitor was used to assess fetal health during the procedure. During surgical incision, the fetus went into distress, and an emergency caesarian section was performed. After delivery of the infant and abdominal closer, surgery was completed. Due to a cohesive team effort, both the patient and her infant had excellent outcomes. There are many important considerations in the surgical management of the pregnant patient with traumatic orthopaedic injuries. Of especial importance to the orthopaedic surgeon is the impact of patient positioning on uteroplacental blood flow. This report discusses factors that should be taken into account by any orthopaedist who plans to operate on a pregnant patient.

  19. The effects of body mass index on complications and mortality after emergency abdominal operations: The obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Elizabeth R; Dilektasli, Evren; Haltmeier, Tobias; Beale, Elizabeth; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2017-11-01

    Recent literature suggests that obesity is protective in critically illness. This study addresses the effect of BMI on outcomes after emergency abdominal surgery (EAS). Retrospective, ACS-NSQIP analysis. All patients that underwent EAS were included. The study population was divided into five groups based on BMI; regression models were used to evaluate the role of obesity in morbidity and mortality. 101,078 patients underwent EAS; morbidity and mortality were 19.5% and 4.5%, respectively. Adjusted mortality was higher in underweight patients (AOR 1.92), but significantly lower in all obesity groups (AOR's 0.73, 0.66, 0.70, 0.70 respectively). Underweight and class III obesity was associated with increased complications (AOR 1.47 and 1.30), while mild obesity was protective (AOR 0.92). Underweight patients undergoing EAS have increased morbidity and mortality. Although class III obesity is associated with increased morbidity, overweight and class I obesity were protective. All grades of obesity may be protective against mortality after EAS relative to normal weight patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of subcostal transversus abdominis plane blocks with epidural analgesia following upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraj, G; Kelkar, A; Jeyapalan, I; Graff-Baker, P; Williams, O; Darbar, A; Maheshwaran, A; Powell, R

    2011-06-01

    Subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) catheters have been reported to be an effective method of providing analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. We compared their analgesic efficacy with that of epidural analgesia after major upper abdominal surgery in a randomised controlled trial. Adult patients undergoing elective open hepatobiliary or renal surgery were randomly allocated to receive subcostal TAP catheters (n=29) or epidural analgesia (n=33), in addition to a standard postoperative analgesic regimen comprising of regular paracetamol and tramadol as required. The TAP group patients received bilateral subcostal TAP catheters and 1 mg.kg(-1) bupivacaine 0.375% bilaterally every 8 h. The epidural group patients received an infusion of bupivacaine 0.125% with fentanyl 2 μg.ml(-1) . The primary outcome measure was visual analogue pain scores during coughing at 8, 24, 48 and 72 h after surgery. We found no significant differences in median (IQR [range]) visual analogue scores during coughing at 8 h between the TAP group (4.0 (2.3-6.0 [0-7.5])) and epidural group (4.0 (2.5-5.3) [0-8.5])) and at 72 h (2.0 (0.8-4.0 [0-5]) and 2.5 (1.0-5.0 [0-6]), respectively). Tramadol consumption was significantly greater in the TAP group (p=0.002). Subcostal TAP catheter boluses may be an effective alternative to epidural infusions for providing postoperative analgesia after upper abdominal surgery. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF INTRATHECAL DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND FENTANYL AS ADJUVANTS TO BUPIVACAINE FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Various adjuvants have been used with local anesthetics in spinal anesthesia to improve the quality of block and to provide prolonged postoperative analgesia. Dexmedetomidine, the new highly selective α2 - agonist drug, is now being used as a neuraxial adju vant. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine. METHOD OLOGY: Fifty patients classified in American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I and II scheduled for lower abdominal surgeries were included in this prospective cohort study at Amala Institute of Medical Sciences. Patients received either 15 mg hyperba ric bupivacaine plus 25 μg fentanyl (group 1, n = 25 or 15 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine plus 5 μg dexmedetomidine (group 2, n = 25 intrathecally . RESULTS : Patients in dexmedetomidine group (2 had a significantly longer duration of motor and sensory block t han patients in fentanyl group . (1 The mean time regression of motor block to reach Bromage 0 was 17 6 . 2± 5.71 min in d exmeditomid ine group and 16 6 . 36 ± 5.97 min in fentanyl group (P<0.05. Duration of analgesia was 2 39.52 ± 9.05 min in D exmed i tomidine gro up and 189.96 ± 5.35 min in fentanyl group ( p< 0.05. A significant decrease in heart rate was noted in dexmedetomidine group. CONCLUSION : Intrathecal dexmedetomidine is associated with prolonged duration of analgesia and motor block along with significant dec rease in heart rate.

  2. Outcome after open surgery repair in endovascular-suitable patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenzien, Felix; Matia, Ivan; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Freitas, Bruno; Moche, Michael; Schmelzle, Moritz; Jonas, Sven; Fellmer, Peter T

    2013-11-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been suggested in several studies to be superior to open surgery repair (OSR) for the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs), but this finding might be affected by selection bias based on aneurysm morphology and patient characteristics. We tested rAAA anatomy according to EVAR suitability in patients undergoing OSR to assess the impact on mortality. This retrospective analysis reports on 83 patients with rAAAs treated between November 2002 and July 2013. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated based on EVAR suitability and were determined by blinded independent reviewers. CT scans were lacking due to acquisition in an external institution with no availability (n = 9) or solely ultrasound evaluations (n = 8). In addition patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed. All patients who underwent OSR and who had available preoperative CT scans were included in the study (n = 66). In summary, 42 % of the patients (28/66; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 30.5 - 54.4) were considered eligible for EVAR according to pre-operative CT scans and 58 % of the patients (38/66; 95 % CI, 45.6 - 69.5) were categorized as unsuitable for endovascular repair. Patients suitable for EVAR had a significantly lower prevalence of in-hospital deaths (25 % [7/28]; 95 % CI, 9 - 41) in contrast to patients unsuitable for EVAR (53 % [20/38]; 95 % CI, 36.8 - 68.5; p = 0.02). EVAR-suitable patients had a highly significant mortality reduction undergoing OSR. Thus, the present study proposes that EVAR suitability is a positive predictor for survival after open repair of rAAA.

  3. Functional abdominal pain syndrome in morbidly obese patients following laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidy, Mohammad; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Raygan, Fahimeh; Ariyazand, Yazdan; Pishgahroudsari, Mohadeseh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2014-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGBP) is one of the most common bariatric surgeries, which is being performed using various techniques like gastrojejunostomy by hand swen, linear or circular stapler. Abdominal pain is a common complaint following laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure (LGBP), which has different aetiologies, such as overeating, adhesion, internal herniation, bile reflux and many more. In this study LGBP was performed in an ante-colic ante-gastric pattern in a double loop manner and the prevalence and distribution of pain in morbidly obese patients undergoing LGBP was assessed. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and frequency of post LGBP pain in morbidly obese patients. This study was performed on 190 morbidly obese patients referred to Hazrat Rasoul Hospital in Tehran. After LGBP, pain was measured in the following intervals: 24 hours, one week and one month after the operation. Before the operation onset, 2 mg Keflin and 5000 IU subcutaneous heparin were administered as prophylaxis. LGBP was performed using five ports including: one 11 mm port was placed 15-20 cm far from the xiphoid, one 12-mm port in mid-clavicular line at the level of camera port, one 5-mm port in subcostal area in ante-axillary region in the left, another 5-mm port in the right mid-clavicular area and a 5-mm port in sub-xyphoid. All operations were done by the same team. Staple was used for all anastomoses and hand sewn technique to close the staple insertion site. The mesenteric defect was left open and no effort was made to repair it. The results of this study showed that 99.94 % of the patients had complains of pain in the first 24 hours of post operation, about 60% after one week and 29.5 % still had pain after one month. In addition, left upper quadrant (LUQ) was found to be the most prevalent site for the pain in 53.7% of the patients in the first 24 hours, 59.6% after one week and 16.8% after one month (except for obscure pain) with a significance

  4. Enhanced Recovery after Emergency Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduraru, Mihai; Ponchietti, Luca; Casas, Isidro Martinez; Svenningsen, Peter; Zago, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the current scientific evidence for the applicability, safety and effectiveness of pathways of enhanced recovery after emergency surgery (ERAS). We undertook a search using PubMed and Cochrane databases for ERAS protocols in emergency cases. The search generated 65 titles; after eliminating the papers not meeting search criteria, we selected 4 cohort studies and 1 randomized clinical trial (RCT). Data extracted for analysis consisted of: patient age, type of surgery performed, ERAS elements implemented, surgical outcomes in terms of postoperative complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS) and readmission rate. The number of ERAS items applied was good, ranging from 11 to 18 of the 20 recommended by the ERAS Society. The implementation resulted in fewer postoperative complications. LOS for ES patients was shorter when compared to conventional care. Mortality, specifically reported in three studies, was equal or lower with ERAS. Readmission rates varied widely and were generally higher for the intervention group but without statistical significance. The studies reviewed agreed that ERAS in emergency surgery (ES) was feasible and safe with generally better outcomes. Lower compliance with some of the ERAS items shows the need for the protocol to be adapted to ES patients. More evidence is clearly required as to what can improve outcomes and how this can be formulated into an effective care pathway for the heterogeneous ES patient.

  5. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Emergency general surgery: definition and estimated burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafi, Shahid; Aboutanos, Michel B; Agarwal, Suresh; Brown, Carlos V R; Crandall, Marie; Feliciano, David V; Guillamondegui, Oscar; Haider, Adil; Inaba, Kenji; Osler, Turner M; Ross, Steven; Rozycki, Grace S; Tominaga, Gail T

    2013-04-01

    Acute care surgery encompasses trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery (EGS). While the first two components are well defined, the scope of EGS practice remains unclear. This article describes the work of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma to define EGS. A total of 621 unique International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. (ICD-9) diagnosis codes were identified using billing data (calendar year 2011) from seven large academic medical centers that practice EGS. A modified Delphi methodology was used by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Committee on Severity Assessment and Patient Outcomes to review these codes and achieve consensus on the definition of primary EGS diagnosis codes. National Inpatient Sample data from 2009 were used to develop a national estimate of EGS burden of disease. Several unique ICD-9 codes were identified as primary EGS diagnoses. These encompass a wide spectrum of general surgery practice, including upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary and pancreatic disease, soft tissue infections, and hernias. National Inpatient Sample estimates revealed over 4 million inpatient encounters nationally in 2009 for EGS diseases. This article provides the first list of ICD-9 diagnoses codes that define the scope of EGS based on current clinical practices. These findings have wide implications for EGS workforce training, access to care, and research.

  7. Use and Effectiveness of Peri-Operative Cefotetan versus Cefazolin Plus Metronidazole for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Abdominal Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danan, Eleanor; Smith, Janessa; Kruer, Rachel M; Avdic, Edina; Lipsett, Pamela; Curless, Melanie S; Jarrell, Andrew S

    2018-04-24

    Current practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery recommend a cephamycin or cefazolin plus metronidazole for various abdominal surgeries. In February 2016, cephamycin drug shortages resulted in a change in The Johns Hopkins Hospital's (JHH) recommendation for peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal surgeries from cefotetan to cefazolin plus metronidazole. The primary objective of this study was to quantify the percentage of abdominal surgeries adherent to JHH peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. A sub-group analysis investigated whether prophylaxis with cefazolin plus metronidazole was associated with a lower rate of surgical site infections (SSIs) versus cefotetan. This retrospective cohort study included adult inpatients who underwent an abdominal surgery at JHH in September 2015 (Study Period I: cefotetan) or February to March 2016 (Study Period II: cefazolin plus metronidazole). Two hundred abdominal surgery cases were included in the primary analysis. A subset of 156 surgical cases were included in the sub-group analysis. The overall adherence rate to JHH guidelines was 75% in Study Period I versus 17% in Study Period II (p operative administration time (87% vs. 23%, p site infections occurred in 14% (12/83) of surgeries with cefotetan versus 8.2% (6/73) with cefazolin plus metronidazole for prophylaxis (p = 0.19). Adherence to an institution-specific peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis guideline for abdominal surgeries was limited primarily by the longer infusion time required for pre-operative metronidazole. A higher percentage of SSIs occurred among abdominal surgeries with cefotetan versus cefazolin plus metronidazole for prophylaxis.

  8. Anesthesia through an intraosseous line using an 18-gauge intravenous needle for emergency pediatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Riyadh Khudeir; Hartmans, Sharon; Gausche-Hill, Marianne

    2013-09-01

    To describe the success and complication rate of intraosseous (IO) access for delivery of anesthesia with the use of an 18-gauge (G) intravenous (IV) needle. Prospective study. Children's Welfare Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. 300 critically ill infants and toddlers, age 3 weeks to 16 months, requiring emergency surgery for intra-abdominal or pelvic conditions, in whom peripheral or central access was not obtainable. Patients presented for surgery between 2007 and 2010. In 26 patients, the IO catheter was established when peripheral access was not obtained at the outset of surgery; in 4 patients standard peripheral vascular access failed during the surgical procedure and IO access was obtained. An 18-G IV needle was placed into the proximal tibia and attached to an extension set with a 3-way stopcock to deliver anesthesia. For 26 critically ill children and 4 other children, IV access failed during delivery of anesthesia; vascular access was successfully obtained within minutes in all 30 infants (100%) using the intraosseous route. Ninety percent (27/30) of patients awoke immediately postoperatively in good condition; 10% (3/30) went to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for further care due to their critical preoperative condition. Complications associated with use of the IO route were considered minor (3/30 pts [10%]) and included extravasation of fluid in two cases and cellulitis in one. The IO route provided for rapid delivery of anesthesia, induction, and maintenance in this series of critically ill infants undergoing emergency surgery when other vascular access routes failed. Few complications were noted. Intraosseous access was achieved through a simple technique using an 18-gauge IV needle. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disparities in access to emergency general surgery care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jasmine A; Shen, Connie; Ayturk, Didem; Kiefe, Catarina I; Santry, Heena P

    2018-02-01

    As fewer surgeons take emergency general surgery call and hospitals decrease emergency services, a crisis in access looms in the United States. We examined national emergency general surgery capacity and county-level determinants of access to emergency general surgery care with special attention to disparities. To identify potential emergency general surgery hospitals, we queried the database of the American Hospital Association for "acute care general hospital," with "surgical services," and "emergency department," and ≥1 "operating room." Internet search and direct contact confirmed emergency general surgery services that covered the emergency room 7 days a week, 24 hours a day. Geographic and population-level emergency general surgery access was derived from Geographic Information Systems and US Census. Of the 6,356 hospitals in the 2013 American Hospital Association database, only 2,811 were emergency general surgery hospitals. Counties with greater percentages of black, Hispanic, uninsured, and low-education individuals and rural counties disproportionately lacked access to emergency general surgery care. For example, counties above the 75th percentile of African American population (10.2%) had >80% odds of not having an emergency general surgery hospital compared with counties below the 25th percentile of African American population (0.6%). Gaps in access to emergency general surgery services exist across the United States, disproportionately affecting underserved, rural communities. Policy initiatives need to increase emergency general surgery capacity nationwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Yuya, E-mail: r06118@hotmail.co.jp; Nishimura, Jun-ichi, E-mail: jun-ichi-n@nifty.com; Hase, Soichiro, E-mail: haseman@hotmail.co.jp; Yamasaki, Motoshige, E-mail: genyamasaki@gmail.com [Kawasaki Saiwai Hospital, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  11. Intra-operative wound irrigation to reduce surgical site infections after abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Tara C; Loos, Martin; Haller, Bernhard; Mihaljevic, André L; Nitsche, Ulrich; Wilhelm, Dirk; Friess, Helmut; Kleeff, Jörg; Bader, Franz G

    2015-02-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) remains to be one of the most frequent infectious complications following abdominal surgery. Prophylactic intra-operative wound irrigation (IOWI) before skin closure has been proposed to reduce bacterial wound contamination and the risk of SSI. However, current recommendations on its use are conflicting especially concerning antibiotic and antiseptic solutions because of their potential tissue toxicity and enhancement of bacterial drug resistances. To analyze the existing evidence for the effect of IOWI with topical antibiotics, povidone-iodine (PVP-I) solutions or saline on the incidence of SSI following open abdominal surgery, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out according to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration. Forty-one RCTs reporting primary data of over 9000 patients were analyzed. Meta-analysis on the effect of IOWI with any solution compared to no irrigation revealed a significant benefit in the reduction of SSI rates (OR = 0.54, 95 % confidence Interval (CI) [0.42; 0.69], p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses showed that this effect was strongest in colorectal surgery and that IOWI with antibiotic solutions had a stronger effect than irrigation with PVP-I or saline. However, all of the included trials were at considerable risk of bias according to the quality assessment. These results suggest that IOWI before skin closure represents a pragmatic and economical approach to reduce postoperative SSI after abdominal surgery and that antibiotic solutions seem to be more effective than PVP-I solutions or simple saline, and it might be worth to re-evaluate their use for specific indications.

  12. Analgesic effect of bupivacaine eluting porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) in ferrets undergoing acute abdominal hernia defect surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brenda M; Ko, Jeff C; Hall, Paul J; Saunders, Alan T; Lantz, Gary C

    2011-05-15

    Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is used as a biological implant for abdominal wall hernia repair to facilitate wound healing and augment local tissue strength. This prospective, randomized, blinded study evaluated local pain control provided by bupivacaine adsorbed to SIS for repair of acutely created abdominal wall full thickness muscle/fascial defects in ferrets. Eighteen healthy ferrets were randomly and equally assigned to three groups: (1) SIS with bupivacaine subjected to surgery, (2) SIS with no bupivacaine subjected to surgery, and (3) anesthesia only control group. Ferrets in groups 1 and 2 were anesthetized with butorphanol and sevoflurane for the surgery. Control ferrets were anesthetized in the same fashion for the same duration without surgery. Behavior and pain were evaluated in all ferrets by behavioral observation, algometer, and palpometer measurements, and heart and respiratory rates each obtained before surgery and at various intervals for 96 h after surgery. When pain reached a predetermined threshold, buprenorphine was used as a rescue analgesic. The serum and combined tissue concentrations of bupivacaine were analyzed. Overall, the palpometer testing was better tolerated in the bupivacaine treated SIS group than by the untreated SIS group (P = 0.04). There was an observed physiologically significant difference in algometer and other palpometer readings as well as heart and respiratory rates. All ferrets in the untreated SIS group were rescued while 33% of the SIS-bupivacaine groups were rescued (P pain relief over 2-4 days with no clinical adverse effects observed in the ferrets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute mesenteric ischemia: guidelines of the World Society of Emergency Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Miklosh; Kashuk, Jeffry; Moore, Ernest E; Kluger, Yoram; Biffl, Walter; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Rubinstein, Chen; Balogh, Zsolt J; Civil, Ian; Coccolini, Federico; Leppaniemi, Ari; Peitzman, Andrew; Ansaloni, Luca; Sugrue, Michael; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Fraga, Gustavo P; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is typically defined as a group of diseases characterized by an interruption of the blood supply to varying portions of the small intestine, leading to ischemia and secondary inflammatory changes. If untreated, this process will eventuate in life threatening intestinal necrosis. The incidence is low, estimated at 0.09-0.2% of all acute surgical admissions. Therefore, although the entity is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, diligence is always required because if untreated, mortality has consistently been reported in the range of 50%. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervention are the cornerstones of modern treatment and are essential to reduce the high mortality associated with this entity. The advent of endovascular approaches in parallel with modern imaging techniques may provide new options. Thus, we believe that a current position paper from World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) is warranted, in order to put forth the most recent and practical recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of AMI. This review will address the concepts of AMI with the aim of focusing on specific areas where early diagnosis and management hold the strongest potential for improving outcomes in this disease process. Some of the key points include the prompt use of CT angiography to establish the diagnosis, evaluation of the potential for revascularization to re-establish blood flow to ischemic bowel, resection of necrotic intestine, and use of damage control techniques when appropriate to allow for re-assessment of bowel viability prior to definitive anastomosis and abdominal closure.

  14. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute pancreatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procacci, Carlo; Mansueto, Giancarlo; D' Onofrio, Mirko; Gasparini, Anna; Ferrara, Rosa Maria [Department of Radiology, University Hospital ' ' G.B. Rossi' ' , Piazza L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Falconi, Massimo [Department of Surgery, University Hospital ' ' G.B. Rossi' ' , Piazza L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    Pancreatic emergency, unrelated to traumatic events, can occur as a consequence of the more significant pancreatic pathologies (acute and chronic pancreatitis, tumors) or of the interventional or surgical treatment carried out as therapy for the above-mentioned lesions. Acute pancreatic conditions are represented by pancreatic infections, the involvement of organs, structures, and adjacent spaces within the pancreatic disease, and, lastly, vascular complications. Acute pancreatic conditions are common in pancreatic diseases and can be catastrophic; even if there is a gamut in the severity of clinical presentation, each can be potentially life threatening. Immediate radiological detection of the lesions together with a correct therapeutic percutaneous radiological approach whenever an interventional procedure is preferable to surgery or, when performed before surgery, whenever it can optimize its results, is of fundamental importance in the management of these patients. This article focuses on the essential role of radiology and the integration of imaging and intervention in acute pancreatic conditions. (orig.)

  15. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute pancreatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procacci, Carlo; Mansueto, Giancarlo; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Gasparini, Anna; Ferrara, Rosa Maria; Falconi, Massimo

    2002-01-01

    Pancreatic emergency, unrelated to traumatic events, can occur as a consequence of the more significant pancreatic pathologies (acute and chronic pancreatitis, tumors) or of the interventional or surgical treatment carried out as therapy for the above-mentioned lesions. Acute pancreatic conditions are represented by pancreatic infections, the involvement of organs, structures, and adjacent spaces within the pancreatic disease, and, lastly, vascular complications. Acute pancreatic conditions are common in pancreatic diseases and can be catastrophic; even if there is a gamut in the severity of clinical presentation, each can be potentially life threatening. Immediate radiological detection of the lesions together with a correct therapeutic percutaneous radiological approach whenever an interventional procedure is preferable to surgery or, when performed before surgery, whenever it can optimize its results, is of fundamental importance in the management of these patients. This article focuses on the essential role of radiology and the integration of imaging and intervention in acute pancreatic conditions. (orig.)

  16. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, D; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides...... studied 17 nonpalpable testes in 10 patients 1 year and 7 months to 13(1/2) years old. Results of testicular biopsies of 13 intra-abdominal testes taken at stages 1 and 2 of surgery were available for histological comparison. RESULTS: Median number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section...... of the biopsies taken at stage 2 was slightly lower (0.03) compared to the median number at stage 1 (0.06) of the operation but this difference was not significant (p = 0.2031). CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the spermatogonia may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels, although the number...

  17. Is case triaging a useful tool for emergency surgeries? A review of 106 trauma surgery cases at a level 1 trauma center in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sharfuddin; Nicol, Andrew John; Moydien, Mahammed Riyaad; Navsaria, Pradeep Harkison; Montoya-Pelaez, Luis Felipe

    2018-01-01

    The optimal timing for emergency surgical interventions and implementation of protocols for trauma surgery is insufficient in the literature. The Groote Schuur emergency surgery triage (GSEST) system, based on Cape Triaging Score (CTS), is followed at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH) for triaging emergency surgical cases including trauma cases. The study aimed to look at the effect of delay in surgery after scheduling based on the GSEST system has an impact on outcome in terms of postoperative complications and death. Prospective audit of patients presenting to GSH trauma center following penetrating or blunt chest, abdominal, neck and peripheral vascular trauma who underwent surgery over a 4-month period was performed. Post-operative complications were graded according to Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications. One-hundred six patients underwent surgery during the study period. One-hundred two (96.2%) cases were related to penetrating trauma. Stab wounds comprised 71 (67%) and gunshot wounds (GSW) 31 (29.2%) cases. Of the 106 cases, 6, 47, 40, and 13 patients were booked as red, orange, yellow, and green, respectively. The median delay for green, yellow, and orange cases was within the expected time. The red patients took unexpectedly longer (median delay 48 min, IQR 35-60 min). Thirty-one (29.3%) patients developed postoperative complications. Among the booked red, orange, yellow, and green cases, postoperative complications developed in 3, 18, 9, and 1 cases, respectively. Only two (1.9%) postoperative deaths were documented during the study period. There was no statistically significant association between operative triage and post-operative complications ( p  = 0.074). Surgical case categorization has been shown to be useful in prioritizing emergency trauma surgical cases in a resource constraint high-volume trauma center.

  18. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice; Sebbane, Mustapha; Molinari, Nicolas; Riou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10 -6 ) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10 -6 ) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  19. Systematic unenhanced CT for acute abdominal symptoms in the elderly patients improves both emergency department diagnosis and prompt clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Pages-Bouic, Emma; Curros-Doyon, Fernanda; Taourel, Patrice [CHU Lapeyronie, Department of Medical Imaging, Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Sebbane, Mustapha [Department of Emergency Medicine, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Molinari, Nicolas [Department of Medical Information and Statistics, CHU Montpellier (France); Riou, Bruno [GH Pitie-Salpetriere, APHP, Department of Emergency Medicine and Surgery, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    To assess the added-value of systematic unenhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) on emergency department (ED) diagnosis and management accuracy compared to current practice, in elderly patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal symptoms. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. This prospective study included 401 consecutive patients 75 years of age or older, admitted to the ED with acute abdominal symptoms, and investigated by early systematic unenhanced abdominal CT scan. ED diagnosis and intended management before CT, after unenhanced CT, and after contrast CT if requested, were recorded. Diagnosis and management accuracies were evaluated and compared before CT (clinical strategy) and for two conditional strategies (current practice and systematic unenhanced CT). An expert clinical panel assigned a final diagnosis and management after a 3-month follow-up. Systematic unenhanced CT significantly improved the accurate diagnosis (76.8% to 85%, p=1.1 x 10{sup -6}) and management (88.5% to 95.8%, p=2.6 x 10{sup -6}) rates compared to current practice. It allowed diagnosing 30.3% of acute unsuspected pathologies, 3.4% of which were unexpected surgical procedure requirement. Systematic unenhanced abdominal CT improves ED diagnosis accuracy and appropriate management in elderly patients presenting with acute abdominal symptoms compared to current practice. (orig.)

  20. Distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery: an imaging, clinical, and laboratory-based scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnannt, Ralph; Fischer, Michael A; Baechler, Thomas; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Karlo, Christoph; Seifert, Burkhardt; Lesurtel, Mickael; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Mortality from abdominal abscesses ranges from 30% in treated cases up to 80% to 100% in patients with undrained or nonoperated abscesses. Various computed tomographic (CT) imaging features have been suggested to indicate infection of postoperative abdominal fluid collections; however, features are nonspecific and substantial overlap between infected and noninfected collections exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a scoring system on the basis of CT imaging findings as well as laboratory and clinical parameters for distinguishing infected from noninfected abdominal fluid collections after surgery. The score developmental cohort included 100 consecutive patients (69 men, 31 women; mean age, 58 ± 17 years) who underwent portal-venous phase CT within 24 hours before CT-guided intervention of postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Imaging features included attenuation (Hounsfield unit [HU]), volume, wall enhancement and thickness, fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas of fluid collections. Laboratory and clinical parameters included diabetes, intake of immunosuppressive drugs, body temperature, C-reactive protein, and leukocyte blood cell count. The score was validated in a separate cohort of 30 consecutive patients (17 men, 13 women; mean age, 51 ± 15 years) with postoperative abdominal fluid collections. Microbiologic analysis from fluid samples served as the standard of reference. Diabetes, body temperature, C-reactive protein, attenuation of the fluid collection (in HUs), wall enhancement and thickness of the wall, adjacent fat stranding, as well as entrapped gas within the fluid collection were significantly different between infected and noninfected collections (P collection (in HUs), as well as entrapped gas as significant independent predictors of infection (P collection, ≥ 20 HU: 4 points; entrapped gas: 3 points). The model was well calibrated (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, P = 0.36). In the validation cohort, scores of 2 or lower

  1. Acute care surgery: defining mortality in emergency general surgery in the state of Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Mayur; Tesoriero, Ronald; Bruns, Brandon R; Klyushnenkova, Elena N; Chen, Hegang; Diaz, Jose J

    2015-04-01

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) is a major component of acute care surgery, however, limited data exist on mortality with respect to trauma center (TC) designation. We hypothesized that mortality would be lower for EGS patients treated at a TC vs non-TC (NTC). A retrospective review of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission database from 2009 to 2013 was performed. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma EGS ICD-9 codes were used to identify EGS patients. Data collected included demographics, TC designation, emergency department admissions, and All Patients Refined Severity of Illness (APR_SOI). Trauma center designation was used as a marker of a formal acute care surgery program. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age. There were 817,942 EGS encounters. Mean ± SD age of patients was 60.1 ± 18.7 years, 46.5% were males; 71.1% of encounters were at NTCs; and 75.8% were emergency department admissions. Overall mortality was 4.05%. Mortality was calculated based on TC designation controlling for age across APR_SOI strata. Multivariable logistic regression analysis did not show statistically significant differences in mortality between hospital levels for minor APR_SOI. For moderate APR_SOI, mortality was significantly lower for TCs compared with NTCs (p surgery patients treated at TCs had lower mortality for moderate APR_SOI, but increased mortality for extreme APR_SOI when compared with NTCs. Additional investigation is required to better evaluate this unexpected finding. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of race and ethnicity with management of abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tiffani J; Weaver, Matthew D; Borrero, Sonya; Davis, Esa M; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2013-10-01

    To determine if race/ethnicity-based differences exist in the management of pediatric abdominal pain in emergency departments (EDs). Secondary analysis of data from the 2006-2009 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey regarding 2298 visits by patients ≤ 21 years old who presented to EDs with abdominal pain. Main outcomes were documentation of pain score and receipt of any analgesics, analgesics for severe pain (defined as ≥ 7 on a 10-point scale), and narcotic analgesics. Secondary outcomes included diagnostic tests obtained, length of stay (LOS), 72-hour return visits, and admission. Of patient visits, 70.1% were female, 52.6% were from non-Hispanic white, 23.5% were from non-Hispanic black, 20.6% were from Hispanic, and 3.3% were from "other" racial/ethnic groups; patients' mean age was 14.5 years. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for confounders revealed that non-Hispanic black patients were less likely to receive any analgesic (odds ratio [OR]: 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.87) or a narcotic analgesic (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.18-0.81) than non-Hispanic white patients (referent group). This finding was also true for non-Hispanic black and "other" race/ethnicity patients with severe pain (ORs [95% CI]: 0.43 [0.22-0.87] and 0.02 [0.00-0.19], respectively). Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic patients were more likely to have a prolonged LOS than non-Hispanic white patients (ORs [95% CI]: 1.68 [1.13-2.51] and 1.64 [1.09-2.47], respectively). No significant race/ethnicity-based disparities were identified in documentation of pain score, use of diagnostic procedures, 72-hour return visits, or hospital admissions. Race/ethnicity-based disparities exist in ED analgesic use and LOS for pediatric abdominal pain. Recognizing these disparities may help investigators eliminate inequalities in care.

  3. Comparison of Preemptive Effects of Celecoxib and Ibuprofen on Postoperative Pain in Addicted Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery

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    A. Farhanchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Pain is a common postoperative complaint, and the use of analgesics before surgical trauma can effectively prevent peripheral and central sensitization. We aimed to compare the preemptive effects of ibuprofen and celecoxib on post-operative pain after lower abdominal surgery in addicted patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, after obtaining informed consent, 114 addicted patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery were randomly divided into three groups of 38. The first group was given a 200 mg dose of oral celecoxib, 400 mg of ibuprofen was orally administered to patients in the second group, and the third group was given redsop hcrats as placebo by a nurse who prepared these drugs in the form of capsules. Postoperative pain was assessed by using a 10-cm ruler as the visual analogue scale at intervals of 1 and 6 hours after surgery. Postoperative opioid consumption was recorded in those periods. The obtained data were analyzed using the appropriate statistical tests in SPSS software. Results: Mean pain scores at 1 hour after surgery were not significantly different across the three groups, whereas at 6 hours after surgery, pain scores were significantly lower in the ibuprofen and celecoxib groups in comparison to the placebo group (P=0.001 and P=0.005, respectively. Postoperative nausea and vomiting was not significantly different among the three groups. Conclusion: Despite the significant difference in mean pain scores among the study groups, the opioid consumption doses were not significantly different among the groups. Thus, the preemptive prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in addicted patient does not have any noticeable effects.

  4. Optimizing Prophylactic CPAP in Patients Without Obstructive Sleep Apnoea for High-Risk Abdominal Surgeries: A Meta-regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Shah, Dipal; Sinha, Ashish; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Trikha, Anjan; Goudra, Basavana Gouda

    2016-04-01

    Prophylactic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can prevent pulmonary adverse events following upper abdominal surgeries. The present meta-regression evaluates and quantifies the effect of degree/duration of (CPAP) on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary events. Medical databases were searched for randomized controlled trials involving adult patients, comparing the outcome in those receiving prophylactic postoperative CPAP versus no CPAP, undergoing high-risk abdominal surgeries. Our meta-analysis evaluated the relationship between the postoperative pulmonary complications and the use of CPAP. Furthermore, meta-regression was used to quantify the effect of cumulative duration and degree of CPAP on the measured outcomes. Seventy-three potentially relevant studies were identified, of which 11 had appropriate data, allowing us to compare a total of 362 and 363 patients in CPAP and control groups, respectively. Qualitatively, Odds ratio for CPAP showed protective effect for pneumonia [0.39 (0.19-0.78)], atelectasis [0.51 (0.32-0.80)] and pulmonary complications [0.37 (0.24-0.56)] with zero heterogeneity. For prevention of pulmonary complications, odds ratio was better for continuous than intermittent CPAP. Meta-regression demonstrated a positive correlation between the degree of CPAP and the incidence of pneumonia with a regression coefficient of +0.61 (95 % CI 0.02-1.21, P = 0.048, τ (2) = 0.078, r (2) = 7.87 %). Overall, adverse effects were similar with or without the use of CPAP. Prophylactic postoperative use of continuous CPAP significantly reduces the incidence of postoperative pneumonia, atelectasis and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgeries. Quantitatively, increasing the CPAP levels does not necessarily enhance the protective effect against pneumonia. Instead, protective effect diminishes with increasing degree of CPAP.

  5. Increased ICU resource needs for an academic emergency general surgery service*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Matthew E; Galvagno, Samuel M; Rock, Peter; Narayan, Mayur; Shah, Paulesh; Spencer, Heather; Hong, Caron; Diaz, Jose J

    2014-04-01

    ICU needs of nontrauma emergency general surgery patients are poorly described. This study was designed to compare ICU utilization of emergency general surgery patients admitted to an acute care emergency surgery service with other general surgery patients. Our hypothesis is that tertiary care emergency general surgery patients utilize more ICU resources than other general surgical patients. Retrospective database review. Academic, tertiary care, nontrauma surgical ICU. All patients admitted to the surgical ICU over age 18 between March 2004 and June 2012. None. Six thousand ninety-eight patients were evaluated: 1,053 acute care emergency surgery, 1,964 general surgery, 1,491 transplant surgery, 995 facial surgery/otolaryngology, and 595 neurosurgery. Acute care emergency surgery patients had statistically significantly longer ICU lengths of stay than other groups: acute care emergency surgery (13.5 ± 17.4 d) versus general surgery (8.7 ± 12.9), transplant (7.8 ± 11.6), oral-maxillofacial surgery (5.5 ± 4.2), and neurosurgery (4.47 ± 9.8) (all psurgery patients: acute care emergency surgery 73.4% versus general surgery 64.9%, transplant 63.3%, oral-maxillofacial surgery 58.4%, and neurosurgery 53.1% (all p surgery patients: acute care emergency surgery 10.8% versus general surgery 4.3%, transplant 6.6%, oral-maxillofacial surgery 0%, and neurosurgery 0.5% (all p surgery patients were more likely interhospital transfers for tertiary care services than general surgery or transplant (24.5% vs 15.5% and 8.3% respectively, p surgery (13.7% vs 6.7% and 3.5%, all p surgery and general surgery, whereas transplant had fewer. Emergency general surgery patients have increased ICU needs in terms of length of stay, ventilator usage, and continuous renal replacement therapy usage compared with other services, perhaps due to the higher percentage of transfers and emergent surgery required. These patients represent a distinct population. Understanding their resource needs

  6. Emergency surgery pre-operative delays - realities and economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D P; Beecher, S; McLaughlin, R

    2014-12-01

    A key principle of acute surgical service provision is the establishment of a distinct patient flow process and an emergency theatre. Time-to-theatre (TTT) is a key performance indicator of theatre efficiency. The combined impacts of an aging population, increasing demands and complexity associated with centralisation of emergency and oncology services has placed pressure on emergency theatre access. We examined our institution's experience with running a designated emergency theatre for acute surgical patients. A retrospective review of an electronic prospectively maintained database was performed between 1/1/12 and 31/12/13. A cost analysis was conducted to assess the economic impact of delayed TTT, with every 24hr delay incurring the cost of an additional overnight bed. Delays and the economic effects were assessed only after the first 24 h as an in-patient had elapsed. In total, 7041 procedures were performed. Overall mean TTT was 26 h, 2 min. There were significant differences between different age groups, with those aged under 16 year and over 65 having mean TTT at 6 h, 34 min (95% C.I. 0.51-2.15, p 65 years age group had a mean TTT of 23 h, 41 min which was significantly longer than the overall mean TTT Vascular and urological emergencies are significantly disadvantaged in competition with other services for a shared emergency theatre. The economic impact of delayed TTT was calculated at €7,116,000, or €9880/day of additional costs generated from delayed TTT over a 24 month period. One third of patients waited longer than 24 h for emergency surgery, with the elderly disproportionately represented in this group. Aside from the clinical risks of delayed and out of hours surgery, such practices incur significant additional costs. New strategies must be devised to ensure efficient access to emergency theatres, investment in such services is likely to be financially and clinically beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier

  7. A CLINICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC EFFECT OF TRAMADOL AND PENTAZOCINE IN POST - OPERATIVE PATIENTS FOLLOWING UPPER ABDOMINAL SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The post - operative pain can be treated by various approaches. Aim of this randomised prospective study was to compare two drugs (Tramadol and Pentazocine . 100 adult patients of both sexes of ASA status 1 & 2 posted for elective upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, where Group 1 received Tramadol intravenously and Group 2 received Pentazocine intravenously as post - opera tive pain management. The efficacy of the analgesic effect of intravenous Tramadol & Pentazocine was compared during post - operative pain management. It was observed that Tramadol has got more potent analgesic action compared to equianalgesic dose of Pentaz ocine.

  8. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  9. Does Intraoperative Systematic Bacterial Sampling During Complete Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) with Hyperthermic Intraoperative Peritoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) Influence Postoperative Treatment? A New Predictive Factor for Postoperative Abdominal Infectious Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazza, Marie; Schwarz, Lilian; Coget, Julien; Frebourg, Noelle; Wood, Gregory; Huet, Emmanuel; Bridoux, Valérie; Veber, Benoit; Tuech, Jean-Jacques

    2016-12-01

    Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an emerging curative treatment option for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. It has a long-term survival benefit but is associated with high rates of morbidity, ranging from 12 % to 65 %, mainly due to infectious complications. We sought to evaluate the clinical relevance of routine intraoperative bacteriological sampling following CRS/HIPEC. Between November 2010 and December 2014, every patients receiving CRS/HIPEC were included. Three samples were routinely collected from standardized locations for intraperitoneal rinsing liquid bacteriological analysis (RLBA) after completion of HIPEC. The clinical and surgical features, bacteriological results, and short-term outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. The overall mortality and morbidity rates were 5 and 45 %, respectively. Among the 75 included patients, 40 % (n = 30) had at least one positive bacterial culture. Risk factors for a positive culture were colorectal resection (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 3.072, 95 % CI 1.843-8.004; p = 0.009) and blood loss >1000 mL (HR = 4.272, 95 % CI 1.080-18.141; p = 0.031). Among 26 (35 %) patients with abdominal infectious complications, 13 (17 %) experienced isolated complications. A positive RLBA result was independently associated with abdominal infectious complications (HR = 5.108, 95 % CI 1.220-16.336; p = 0.024) and isolated abdominal infectious complications (HR = 4.199, 95 % CI 1.064-15.961; p = 0.04). Forty percent of the RLBA samples obtained following CRS/HIPEC tested positive for bacteria. Bacterial sampling of rinsing liquid should be systematically performed. An aggressive and immediate antibiotic strategy needs to be evaluated.

  10. Wound edge protectors in open abdominal surgery to reduce surgical site infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L Mihaljevic

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections remain one of the most frequent complications following abdominal surgery and cause substantial costs, morbidity and mortality.To assess the effectiveness of wound edge protectors in open abdominal surgery in reducing surgical site infections.A systematic literature search was conducted according to a prespecified review protocol in a variety of data-bases combined with hand-searches for randomized controlled trials on wound edge protectors in patients undergoing laparotomy. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of included trials was conducted.We identified 16 randomized controlled trials including 3695 patients investigating wound edge protectors published between 1972 and 2014. Critical appraisal uncovered a number of methodological flaws, predominantly in the older trials. Wound edge protectors significantly reduced the rate of surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.65; 95%CI, 0.51-0.83; p = 0.0007; I2 = 52%. The results were robust in a number of sensitivity analyses. A similar effect size was found in the subgroup of patients undergoing colorectal surgery (risk ratio 0.65; 95%CI, 0.44-0.97; p = 0.04; I2 = 56%. Of the two common types of wound protectors double ring devices were found to exhibit a greater protective effect (risk ratio 0.29; 95%CI, 0.15-0.55 than single-ring devices (risk ratio 0.71; 95%CI, 0.54-0.92, but this might largely be due to the lower quality of available data for double-ring devices. Exploratory subgroup analyses for the degree of contamination showed a larger protective effect in contaminated cases (0.44; 95%CI, 0.28-0.67; p = 0.0002, I2 = 23% than in clean-contaminated surgeries (0.72, 95%CI, 0.57-0.91; p = 0.005; I2 = 46% and a strong effect on the reduction of superficial surgical site infections (risk ratio 0.45; 95%CI, 0.24-0.82; p = 0.001; I2 = 72%.Wound edge protectors significantly reduce the rate of surgical site infections in open abdominal surgery. Further trials are needed to

  11. Emergency Backwards Whipple for Bleeding: Formidable and Definitive Surgery

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    Cristian Lupascu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. During the past decades, the safety of pancreatoduodenectomy has improved, with low mortality and reduced morbidity, particularly in centers with extensive experience. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy is an uncommon event, for treatment of pancreaticoduodenal trauma, bleeding, or perforation. We herein present a single center experience concerning nontrauma emergency pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreaticoduodenal bleeding. Methods. From January 2007 to December 2015, from a population of 134 PD (70 males and 64 females, mean age 62.2, range 34–82, 5 patients (3.7%; 2 males and 3 females, mean age 64, range 57–70 underwent one-stage emergency pancreatoduodenectomy for uncontrollable nontrauma pancreaticoduodenal bleeding in our tertiary center. Results. All the 5 patients underwent a backwards Whipple with a morbidity of 60% and a mortality of 20% (1/5. The other 4 patients were recovered and discharged with a median postoperative length of stay of 17 days (range 14–23. Conclusion. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy is a definitive life-saving procedure allowing for a rapid control of bleeding when other less invasive approaches (transcatheter arterial embolization or interventional endoscopy are exhausted, unavailable, or unsafe. It should be particularly considered in neoplastic disease and tailored by surgeons with a high level of experience in pancreatic surgery.

  12. Emergency Backwards Whipple for Bleeding: Formidable and Definitive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupascu, Cristian; Trofin, Ana; Zabara, Mihai; Vornicu, Alexandra; Cadar, Ramona; Vlad, Nutu; Apopei, Oana; Grigorean, Valentin; Lupascu-Ursulescu, Corina

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, the safety of pancreatoduodenectomy has improved, with low mortality and reduced morbidity, particularly in centers with extensive experience. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy is an uncommon event, for treatment of pancreaticoduodenal trauma, bleeding, or perforation. We herein present a single center experience concerning nontrauma emergency pancreatoduodenectomy for pancreaticoduodenal bleeding. From January 2007 to December 2015, from a population of 134 PD (70 males and 64 females, mean age 62.2, range 34-82), 5 patients (3.7%; 2 males and 3 females, mean age 64, range 57-70) underwent one-stage emergency pancreatoduodenectomy for uncontrollable nontrauma pancreaticoduodenal bleeding in our tertiary center. All the 5 patients underwent a backwards Whipple with a morbidity of 60% and a mortality of 20% (1/5). The other 4 patients were recovered and discharged with a median postoperative length of stay of 17 days (range 14-23). Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy is a definitive life-saving procedure allowing for a rapid control of bleeding when other less invasive approaches (transcatheter arterial embolization or interventional endoscopy) are exhausted, unavailable, or unsafe. It should be particularly considered in neoplastic disease and tailored by surgeons with a high level of experience in pancreatic surgery.

  13. Management of novel oral anticoagulants in emergency and trauma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Gomes, Ana-Catarina; Hague, Adam; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    The compelling safety, efficacy and predictable effect of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) is driving a rapid expansion in their therapeutic indications. Management of the increasing number of patients on those new agents in the setting of emergency or trauma surgery can be challenging and the absence of specific reversal agents has been a matter of concern. This review summarises the key principles that underpin the management of those patients with a particular emphasis on the recent development of specific antidotes. As of 2015, a new line of antidotes, specific for these drugs, are at different stages of their development with their release imminent. However, as NOACs are innately reversible due to their short half-life, the use of reversal agents will probably be restricted to a few exceptional cases. Post-marketing surveillance will be paramount to better clarify the role of these promising drugs. Management of patients on NOACs in the context of emergency or trauma surgery relies on best supportive care in combination with the blood products and/or specific antidotes as required. Familiarity with the new reversal agents is essential but further evidence on their indications, safety and efficacy as well as consensus guidelines are warranted prior to widespread adoption. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Emergency surgery on mentally impaired patients: standard in consenting

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    Mihai Paduraru

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency surgery is often performed on the elderly and susceptible patients with significant comorbidities; as a consequence, the risk of death or severe complications are high. Consent for surgery is a fundamental part of medical practice, in line with legal obligations and ethical principles. Obtaining consent for emergency services (for surgical patients with chronic or acute mental incapacity, due to surgical pathology is particularly challenging, and meeting the standards requires an up-to-date understanding of legislation, professional body guidelines, and ethical or cultural aspects. The guidance related to consent requires physicians and other medical staff to work with patients according to the process of ‘supported decision-making’. Despite principles and guidelines that have been exhaustively established, the system is sometimes vulnerable in actual clinical practice. The combination of an ‘emergency’ setting and a patient without mental ‘capacity’ is a challenge between patient-centered and ‘paternalistic’ approaches, involving legislation and guidelines on ‘best interests’ of the patient.

  15. Management of Complications Following Emergency and Elective Surgery for Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Christoph; Kreis, Martin E

    2015-04-01

    The clinical spectrum of sigmoid diverticulitis (SD) varies from asymptomatic diverticulosis to symptomatic disease with potentially fatal complications. Sigmoid colectomy with restoration of continuity has been the prevailing modality for treating acute and recurrent SD, and is often performed as a laparoscopy-assisted procedure. For elective sigmoid colectomy, the postoperative morbidity rate is 15-20% whereas morbidity rates reach up to 30% in patients who undergo emergency surgery for perforated SD. Some of the more common and serious surgical complications after sigmoid colectomy are anastomotic leaks and peritonitis, wound infections, small bowel obstruction, postoperative bleeding, and injuries to the urinary tract structures. Regarding the management of complications, it makes no difference whether the complication is a result of an emergency or an elective procedure. The present work gives an overview of the management of complications in the surgical treatment of SD based on the current literature. To achieve successful management, early diagnosis is mandatory in cases of deviation from the normal postoperative course. If diagnostic procedures fail to deliver a correlate for the clinical situation of the patient, re-laparotomy or re-laparoscopy still remain among the most important diagnostic and/or therapeutic principles in visceral surgery when a patient's clinical status deteriorates. The ability to recognize and successfully manage complications is a crucial part of the surgical treatment of diverticular disease and should be mastered by any surgeon qualified in this field.

  16. Evaluation of chest and abdominal injuries in trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of poursina teaching hospital, guilan, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Hossein; Kazemnezhad-Leili, Ehsan; Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Darzi, Ali Asghar; Davoudi-Kiakalayeh, Ali; Dehnadi-Moghaddam, Anoush; Kouchakinejad-Eramsadati, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Trauma, especially chest and abdominal trauma are increasing due to the growing number of vehicles on the roads, which leads to an increased incidence of road accidents. Urbanization, industrialization and additional problems are the other associated factors which accelerate this phenomenon. A better understanding of the etiology and pattern of such injuries can help to improve the management and ultimate the outcomes of these patients. This study aimed to evaluate the patients with chest and abdominal trauma hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital, Guilan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the data of all chest and abdominal trauma patients hospitalized in the surgery ward of Poursina teaching hospital were collected from March 2011 to March 2012. Information about age, gender, injured areas, type of injury (penetrating or blunt), etiology of the injury, accident location (urban or rural) and patients' discharge outcomes were collected by a questionnaire. In total, 211 patients with a mean age of 34.1 ± 1.68 years was entered into the study. The most common cause of trauma was traffic accidents (51.7%). Among patients with chest trauma, 45 cases (35.4%) had penetrating injuries and 82 cases (64.6%) blunt lesions. The prevalence of chest injuries was 35.5% and rib fractures 26.5%. In chest injuries, the prevalence of hemothorax was 65.3%, pneumothorax 2.7%, lung contusion 4% and emphysema 1.3%, respectively. There were 24 cases (27.9%) with abdominal trauma which had penetrating lesions and 62 cases (72.1%) with blunt lesions. The most common lesions in patients with penetrating abdominal injuries were spleen (24.2%) and liver (12.1%) lesions. The outcomes of the patients were as follow: 95.7% recovery and 4.3% death. The majority of deaths were observed among road traffic victims (77.7%). Considering the fact that road-related accidents are quite predictable and controllable; therefore, the quality promotion of traumatic patients' care

  17. The CT frequencies of various non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis patients and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergün, Tarkan; Lakadamyal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency of non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD)) patients and in the general population as diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: The abdominal CT findings of ESRD patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain during the years 2001–2010 have been retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three HD (14 females, 19 males, mean age: 62 ± 10.5) and 22 PD patients (12 females, 10 males, mean age: 59 ± 9.4) with acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been included into the study. In addition, 127 individuals (68 females, 59 males, mean age: 40.7 ± 12.8) with normal renal functions who presented with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain diagnosed with an acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been prospectively evaluated during the years 2009–2010. Results: While the most frequent etiology in PD patients was peritonitis (45.4%), acute pancreatitis (13.6%) and perforation (18.1), and in HD patients it was nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (18.1%) and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding (21.2%). The basic causes of acute abdomen in the general population were ureteral stone (34.6%) and appendicitis (18.1%). Conclusions: The causes of acute abdominal pain in ESRD patients is significantly different when compared to the general population. And within this special patient population the etiology of acute abdomen differs depending on the renal replacement therapy modality they are receiving. Thus, the causes of acute abdomen in PD patients are mostly peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and perforation, while being mostly nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding in patients receiving HD therapy.

  18. Not All Abdomens Are the Same: A Comparison of Damage Control Surgery for Intra-abdominal Sepsis versus Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason W; Nash, Nick; Procter, Levi; Benns, Matthew; Franklin, Glen A; Miller, Keith; Harbrecht, Brian G; Bernard, Andrew C

    2016-05-01

    Damage control surgery (DCS) was developed to manage exsanguinating trauma patients, but is increasingly applied to the management of peritoneal sepsis and abdominal catastrophes. Few manuscripts compare the outcomes of these surgeries on disparate patient populations. A multi-institutional three group propensity score matched case cohort study comparing penetrating trauma (PT-DCS), blunt trauma (BT-DCS), and intraperitoneal sepsis (IPS-DCS) was performed comparing patients treated with DSC between 2008 and 2013. Propensity scoring was performed using demographic and presenting physiologic data. Four hundred and twelve patients were treated with DCS across two institutions. Propensity matching for age, gender, and initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 80 identified 80 patients per group for comparison. Rate of primary fascial closure was lowest in the IPS-DCS group, and highest in the penetrating trauma DCS group. Intra-abdominal complication rates were highest in the IPS-DCS group. IPS-DCS had increased time to definitive closure compared with the other two groups (RR 1.8; 1.3-2.2; P eight days were more than twice the risk of death at 90 days across all groups. (RR 2.15; 1.2-3.5; P managed via DCS.

  19. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Stephen J; Yow, Heng; Saedon, Mahmud; Shakespeare, Joanna; Hill, Christopher E; Watson, Duncan; Marshall, Colette; Mahmood, Asif; Higman, Daniel; Imray, Christopher He

    2013-05-19

    In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction.A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison.Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT 11 ml/kg/min was associated with reduced perioperative mortality (open cases only), LOS, survival and inpatient costs (open and endovascular repair) for elective infra-renal AAA surgery.

  20. Computed tomography prospective study of pleural-pulmonary changes after abdominal surgery : assessment of associated risk factors; Estudo prospectivo por tomografia computadorizada das alteracoes pleuro-pulmonares apos cirurgia abdominal: avaliacao dos fatores de risco associados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luis Antonio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas]. E-mail: luizrossimd@uol.com.br; Bromberg, Sansom Henrique [Instituto de Assistencia Medica ao Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (IAMSPE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Gastroenterologia Cirurgica

    2005-07-01

    Postoperative pleural-pulmonary changes (PPC) are very common following elective abdominal surgery, resolving without clinical manifestations in most patients. The incidence and risk factors associated are unknown. Objective: to determine the incidence of PPC and possible association with risk factors using computerized tomography (CT). Material and method: thirty seven patients submitted to elective abdominal surgery were prospectively analyzed using CT performed in the preoperative period and 48 hours after surgery. The PPC was scored from 0 to III. The risk factors evaluated were: age, sex, obesity, smoking history, alcoholism, comorbid conditions, cancer, ASA classification, duration of surgery, surgical incision type and number of days of hospitalization. Results: Pleura effusion was detected by CT in 70.3% (26/37) of the patients and pulmonary atelectasis in 75.5% (28/37). Grade I and II PPC was found in 59.5% (22/37) of the patients and grade III in 21.6% (8/37). Two (5.4%) of these patients developed serious pulmonary complications whereas one patient died. Surgery due to cancer, class ASA >2, longitudinal incision and > 15 cm showed statistical significance and were associated with pleural effusion. The hospitalization was over 2.4 longer for patients with PPC. Conclusion: PPC is frequently seen in patients submitted to abdominal surgery. The use of the CT for the detection of pulmonary atelectasis and pleural effusion proved to be effective. Most cases of PPC are self-limited, resolving without symptoms. (author)

  1. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow and Liver Function during Closed Abdominal Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy following Cytoreduction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Dupont

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP during closed abdominal hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC leads to major haemodynamic changes and potential organ dysfunction. We investigated these effects on hepatic blood flow (HBF and liver function in patients undergoing HIPEC following cytoreductive surgery and fluid management guided by dynamic preload indices. Methods. In this prospective observational clinical study including 15 consecutive patients, we evaluated HBF by transesophageal echocardiography and liver function by determination of the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR. Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance by ranks and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed for statistical analysis. Results. During HIPEC, HBF was markedly reduced, resulting in the loss of any pulsatile Doppler flow signal in all but one patient. The ICG-PDR, expressed as median (interquartile 25–75, decreased from 23 (20–30 %/min to 18 (12.5–19 %/min (p<0.001. Despite a generous crystalloid infusion rate (27 (22–35 ml/kg/h, cardiac index decreased during the increased IAP period, inferior vena cava diameter decreased, stroke volume variation and pulse pressure variation increased, lung compliance dropped, and there was an augmentation in plateau pressure. All changes were significant (p<0.001 and reversed to baseline values post HIPEC. Conclusion. Despite optimizing intravenous fluids during closed abdominal HIPEC, we observed a marked decrease in HBF and liver function. Both effects were transient and limited to the period of HIPEC but could influence the choice between closed or open abdominal cavity procedure for HIPEC and should be considered in similar clinical situations of increased IAP.

  2. Preoperative physiotherapy for the prevention of respiratory complications after upper abdominal surgery: pragmatic, double blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Browning, Laura; Reeve, Julie; Anderson, Lesley; Hill, Cat; Robertson, Iain K; Story, David; Denehy, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the efficacy of a single preoperative physiotherapy session to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) after upper abdominal surgery. Design Prospective, pragmatic, multicentre, patient and assessor blinded, parallel group, randomised placebo controlled superiority trial. Setting Multidisciplinary preadmission clinics at three tertiary public hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. Participants 441 adults aged 18 years or older who were within six weeks of elective major open upper abdominal surgery were randomly assigned through concealed allocation to receive either an information booklet (n=219; control) or preoperative physiotherapy (n=222; intervention) and followed for 12 months. 432 completed the trial. Interventions Preoperatively, participants received an information booklet (control) or an additional 30 minute physiotherapy education and breathing exercise training session (intervention). Education focused on PPCs and their prevention through early ambulation and self directed breathing exercises to be initiated immediately on regaining consciousness after surgery. Postoperatively, all participants received standardised early ambulation, and no additional respiratory physiotherapy was provided. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a PPC within 14 postoperative hospital days assessed daily using the Melbourne group score. Secondary outcomes were hospital acquired pneumonia, length of hospital stay, utilisation of intensive care unit services, and hospital costs. Patient reported health related quality of life, physical function, and post-discharge complications were measured at six weeks, and all cause mortality was measured to 12 months. Results The incidence of PPCs within 14 postoperative hospital days, including hospital acquired pneumonia, was halved (adjusted hazard ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.30 to 0.75, P=0.001) in the intervention group compared with the control group, with an absolute

  3. The pharmacokinetics of cefazolin in patients undergoing elective & semi-elective abdominal aortic aneurysm open repair surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Michael S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infections are common, so effective antibiotic concentrations at the sites of infection are required. Surgery can lead to physiological changes influencing the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics. The aim of the study is to evaluate contemporary peri-operative prophylactic dosing of cefazolin by determining plasma and subcutaneous interstitial fluid concentrations in patients undergoing elective of semi-elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA open repair surgery. Methods/Design This is an observational pharmacokinetic study of patients undergoing AAA open repair surgery at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. All patients will be administered 2-g cefazolin by intravenous injection within 30-minutes of the procedure. Participants will have samples from blood and urine, collected at different intervals. Patients will also have a microdialysis catheter inserted into subcutaneous tissue to measure interstitial fluid penetration by cefazolin. Participants will be administered indocyanine green and sodium bromide as well as have cardiac output monitoring performed and tetrapolar bioimpedance to determine physiological changes occurring during surgery. Analysis of samples will be performed using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis will be performed using non-linear mixed effects modeling to determine individual and population pharmacokinetic parameters and the effect of peri-operative physiological changes on cefazolin disposition. Discussion The study will describe cefazolin levels in plasma and the interstitial fluid of tissues during AAA open repair surgery. The effect of physiological changes to the patient mediated by surgery will also be determined. The results of this study will guide clinicians and pharmacists to effectively dose cefazolin in order to maximize the concentration of antibiotics in the tissues which are the most common site of surgical site infections.

  4. Systematic review of learning curves for minimally invasive abdominal surgery: a review of the methodology of data collection, depiction of outcomes, and statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Iliana J; Cook, Jonathan; Sirimanna, Pramudith; Feldman, Liane S; Darzi, Ara; Aggarwal, Rajesh

    2014-07-01

    To determine how minimally invasive surgical learning curves are assessed and define an ideal framework for this assessment. Learning curves have implications for training and adoption of new procedures and devices. In 2000, a review of the learning curve literature was done by Ramsay et al and it called for improved reporting and statistical evaluation of learning curves. Since then, a body of literature is emerging on learning curves but the presentation and analysis vary. A systematic search was performed of MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library from 1985 to August 2012. The inclusion criteria are minimally invasive abdominal surgery formally analyzing the learning curve and English language. 592 (11.1%) of the identified studies met the selection criteria. Time is the most commonly used proxy for the learning curve (508, 86%). Intraoperative outcomes were used in 316 (53%) of the articles, postoperative outcomes in 306 (52%), technical skills in 102 (17%), and patient-oriented outcomes in 38 (6%) articles. Over time, there was evidence of an increase in the relative amount of laparoscopic and robotic studies (P statistical evidence of a change in the complexity of analysis (P = 0.121). Assessment of learning curves is needed to inform surgical training and evaluate new clinical procedures. An ideal analysis would account for the degree of complexity of individual cases and the inherent differences between surgeons. There is no single proxy that best represents the success of surgery, and hence multiple outcomes should be collected.

  5. Preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine, ropivacaine, ketamine, and naloxone treatment for postoperative pain management in upper abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hou-Chuan; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Wong, Chih-Shung; Yeh, Chun-Chang; Wu, Zhi-Fu

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that preincisional epidural morphine, bupivacaine, and ketamine combined with epidural anesthesia (EA) and general anesthesia (GA) provided pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery. Recent studies reported that ultralow-dose naloxone enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine in rats. This study investigated the benefits of preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine + ropivacaine + ketamine + naloxone (M + R + K + N) treatment for achieving postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. Eighty American Society of Anesthesiology I-II patients scheduled for major upper abdominal surgery were allocated to four groups in a randomized, single-blinded study. All patients received combined GA and EA with a continuous epidural infusion of 2% lidocaine (6-8 mL/h) 30 minutes after pain regimen. After GA induction, in Group I, an epidural pain control regimen (total 10 mL) was administered using 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg; M + R); in Group II, 1% lidocaine 8 (mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + ketamine (20 mg; M + R + K); in Group III, 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + naloxone (2 μg; M + R + N); and in Group IV, 1% lidocaine (8 mL) + morphine (2 mg) + ropivacaine (20 mg) + ketamine (20 mg) + naloxone (2 μg; M + R + K + N), respectively. All patients received patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) with different pain regimens to control subsequent postoperative pain for 3 days following surgery. During the 3-day period following surgery, PCEA consumption (mL), numerical rating scale (NRS) score while cough/moving, and analgesic-related adverse effects were recorded. Total PCEA consumption for the 3-day observation period was 161.5±17.8 mL, 103.2±21.7 mL, 152.4±25.6 mL, and 74.1±16.9 mL for Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. (p pain management than preincisional

  6. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  7. Preoperative biological therapy and short-term outcomes of abdominal surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Matti; Xu, Wei; Dinani, Amreen; Steinhart, A Hillary; Croitoru, Kenneth; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; McLeod, Robin S; Greenberg, Gordon R; Cohen, Zane; Silverberg, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Previous investigations of short-term outcomes after preoperative exposure to biological therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were conflicting. The authors aimed to assess postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent abdominal surgery with recent exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. A retrospective case-control study with detailed matching was performed for subjects with IBD with and without exposure to biologics within 180 days of abdominal surgery. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the groups. 473 procedures were reviewed consisting of 195 patients with exposure to biologics and 278 matched controls. There were no significant differences in most postoperative outcomes such as: length of stay, fever (≥ 38.5°C), urinary tract infection, pneumonia, bacteraemia, readmission, reoperations and mortality. On univariate analysis, procedures on biologics had more wound infections compared with controls (19% vs 11%; p=0.008), but this was not significant in multivariate analysis. Concomitant therapy with biologics and thiopurines was associated with increased frequencies of urinary tract infections (p=0.0007) and wound infections (p=0.0045). Operations performed ≤ 14 days from last biologic dose had similar rates of infections and other outcomes when compared with those performed within 15-30 days or 31-180 days. Patients with detectable preoperative infliximab levels had similar rates of wound infection compared with those with undetectable levels (3/10 vs 0/9; p=0.21). Preoperative treatment with TNF-α antagonists in patients with IBD is not associated with most early postoperative complications. A shorter time interval from last biological dose is not associated with increased postoperative complications. In most cases, surgery should not be delayed, and appropriate biological therapy may be continued perioperatively.

  8. Venous Thromboembolism Prevention in Emergency General Surgery: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick B; Vogt, Kelly N; Lau, Brandyn D; Aboagye, Jonathan; Parry, Neil G; Streiff, Michael B; Haut, Elliott R

    2018-05-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in US hospitals, and approximately 2.5% of emergency general surgery (EGS) patients will be diagnosed with a VTE event. Emergency general surgery patients are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality because of the nature of acute surgical conditions and the challenges related to prophylaxis. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Collected Reviews were searched from January 1, 1990, through December 31, 2015. Nearly all operatively and nonoperatively treated EGS patients have a moderate to high risk of developing a VTE, and individual risk should be assessed at admission. Pharmacologic prophylaxis in the form of unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin should be considered unless an absolute contraindication, such as bleeding, exists. Patients should receive the first dose at admission to the hospital, and administration should continue until discharge without missed doses. Certain patient populations, such as those with malignant tumors, may benefit from prolonged VTE prophylaxis after discharge. Mechanical prophylaxis should be considered in all patients, particularly if pharmacologic prophylaxis is contraindicated. Studies that specifically target improved adherence with VTE prophylaxis in EGS patients suggest that efficacy and quality improvement initiatives should be undertaken from a system and institutional perspective. Operatively and nonoperatively treated EGS patients are at a comparatively high risk of VTE. Despite gaps in existing literature with respect to this increasing patient population, successful best practices can be applied. Best practices include assessment of VTE risk, optimal prophylaxis, and physician, nurse, and patient education regarding the use of mechanical and pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis and institutional policies.

  9. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimally Invasive, Organ-preserving Surgery for Large Submucosal Tumors in the Abdominal Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Eiji; Tanida, Takashi; Kamei, Aya; Takahashi, Kodai

    2017-06-01

    Surgical resection of submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the abdominal esophagus is not standardized. Enucleation may be a minimally invasive option, whereas its oncological validity is not very clear. Moreover, how to treat the esophageal wall defect after enucleation and necessity of additional antireflux procedure are also undetermined. In 13 patients with a SMT originating the abdominal esophagus laparoscopic enucleation was performed with preserving the integrity of submucosa. When the muscular layer defect was esophagus was dissected posteriorly or the myotomy was not closed. Tumors were resected en-bloc without rupture in all cases. In 5 patients myotomy was closed, whereas in the remaining 8 it was left open. In 11 patients fundoplication was added (Toupet in 5 and Dor in 6). The patients developed neither regurgitation nor stenosis postoperatively. The histopathologic findings revealed leiomyoma in 9 patients, whereas the other 4 were miscellaneous. The average tumor size was 5.5 cm (range, 2.8 to 8.8). Microscopically surgical margin was negative in all cases. Laparoscopic enucleation of SMTs in the abdominal esophagus seems to be safe, reproducible operation enabling preservation of function of the lower esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Even when the muscular defect is not approximated additional fundoplication can minimize the risk of postoperative reflux disease.

  11. Ranking Hospitals Based on Colon Surgery and Abdominal Hysterectomy Surgical Site Infection Outcomes: Impact of Limiting Surveillance to the Operative Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoe, Deborah S; Avery, Taliser R; Platt, Richard; Kleinman, Ken; Huang, Susan S

    2018-03-16

    Hospital-specific surgical site infection (SSI) performance following colon surgery and abdominal hysterectomies can impact hospitals' relative rankings around quality metrics used to determine financial penalties. Current SSI surveillance largely focuses on SSI detected at the operative hospital. Retrospective cohort study to assess the impact on hospitals' relative SSI performance rankings when SSI detected at non-operative hospitals are included. We utilized data from a California statewide hospital registry to assess for evidence of SSI following colon surgery or abdominal hysterectomies performed 3/1/2011-11/30/2013 using previously validated claims-based SSI surveillance methods. Risk-adjusted hospital-specific rankings based on SSI detected at operative hospitals versus any California hospital were generated. Among 60,059 colon surgeries at 285 hospitals and 64,918 abdominal hysterectomies at 270 hospitals, 5,921 (9.9%) colon surgeries and 1,481 (2.3%) abdominal hysterectomies received a diagnosis code for SSI within the 30 days following surgery. 7.2% of colon surgery and 13.4% of abdominal hysterectomy SSI would have been missed by operative hospital surveillance alone. The proportion of individual hospital's SSI detected during hospitalizations at other hospitals varied widely. Including non-operative hospital SSI resulted in improved relative ranking of 11 (3.9%) colon surgery and 13 (4.8%) hysterectomy hospitals so that they were no longer in the worst performing quartile, mainly among hospitals with relatively high surgical volumes. Standard SSI surveillance that mainly focuses on infections detected at the operative hospital causes varying degrees of SSI under-estimation, leading to inaccurate assignment or avoidance of financial penalties for approximately one in eleven to sixteen hospitals.

  12. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy  for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management can contribute  to high mortality and morbidity. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy plays a limited but important role in managing serious trauma to proximal pancreas and duodenum. Author presents a case where isolated injury to head of pancreas required emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. After a bizarre road accident, a middle aged male underwent emergency laparotomy for intraperitoneal bleeding and during exploration a deep transverse laceration with ampullary disruption was found in the head of the organ. Duodenum in all its part was intact and there was no other injury. The nature and site of injury made emergency pancreatoduodenectomy the only viable option. Leaking pancreatojejunostomy enhances infective complications that lead to late mortality. To circumvent this problem there is enthusiasm for staged surgery with resection and tube pancreatostomy in first stage, leaving the difficult anastomosis for a later date, However, if the patient is haemodynamically stable and operated reasonably early, one stage pancreatoduodenectomy gives good result and avoids repeating surgery with inherent problems and reduces hospital stay. For successful management of pancreatic trauma it is essential to make early diagnosis of duct disruption, with sound application of operative skill and judgement by treating surgeon.

  13. A rare diagnosis of abdominal pain presentation in the emergency department: Idiopathic omental bleeding: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yen-Hung; Liu, Kuan-Ting; Wen, Chun-Kai

    2017-12-01

    Idiopathic omental bleeding is a rare cause of acute abdomen, with only a few reported cases. It usually presents with abdominal pain and may be life-threatening. As it rarely occurs, it may not be considered initially during patient presentation. A 35-year-old male came to our emergency department with abdominal pain present for around 5 to 6 hours. The patient complained of left upper quadrant abdominal pain after eating breakfast. The only associated symptom was 3 episodes of vomiting up food. Physical examination revealed mild left upper quadrant abdominal tenderness without muscle guarding or rebounding pain. Blood examination showed leukocytosis with neutrophil predominance and C reactive protein elevation. The pain was persistent and relief was not obtained by medication. Computed tomography showed a large lobular-contour homogenous slightly hyperdense lesion without enhancement along the greater curvature of the stomach in the lesser sac. A surgeon was consulted and laparotomy was suggested. Hematoma was found at Morrison pouch, subsplenic fossa, and lesser sac under operation. Laparotomy and ligation for hemostasis. The patient was discharged with stable condition after 7 days of hospitalization. This diagnosis should be considered in patients presenting with epigastric pain and vomiting after eating while in the emergency department because this disease might be life-threatening. This case highlights 2 important learning points. First, idiopathic omental bleeding could occur after eating in patients without underlying disease or trauma history, and this disease should be taken into consideration when acute abdomen occurs. Second, emergent laparotomy is indicated if the cause of acute abdomen is not clear. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computer-assisted operational planning for pediatric abdominal surgery. 3D-visualized MRI with volume rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.; Holland-Cunz, S.; Waag, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    Exact surgical planning is necessary for complex operations of pathological changes in anatomical structures of the pediatric abdomen. 3D visualization and computer-assisted operational planning based on CT data are being increasingly used for difficult operations in adults. To minimize radiation exposure and for better soft tissue contrast, sonography and MRI are the preferred diagnostic methods in pediatric patients. Because of manifold difficulties 3D visualization of these MRI data has not been realized so far, even though the field of embryonal malformations and tumors could benefit from this. A newly developed and modified raycasting-based powerful 3D volume rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.2) for the planning of pediatric abdominal surgery is presented. With the help of specifically developed algorithms, a useful surgical planning system is demonstrated. Thanks to the easy handling and high-quality visualization with enormous gain of information, the presented system is now an established part of routine surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  15. [Computer-assisted operational planning for pediatric abdominal surgery. 3D-visualized MRI with volume rendering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, P; Tröger, J; Holland-Cunz, S; Waag, K L; Schenk, J P

    2006-08-01

    Exact surgical planning is necessary for complex operations of pathological changes in anatomical structures of the pediatric abdomen. 3D visualization and computer-assisted operational planning based on CT data are being increasingly used for difficult operations in adults. To minimize radiation exposure and for better soft tissue contrast, sonography and MRI are the preferred diagnostic methods in pediatric patients. Because of manifold difficulties 3D visualization of these MRI data has not been realized so far, even though the field of embryonal malformations and tumors could benefit from this.A newly developed and modified raycasting-based powerful 3D volume rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.2) for the planning of pediatric abdominal surgery is presented. With the help of specifically developed algorithms, a useful surgical planning system is demonstrated. Thanks to the easy handling and high-quality visualization with enormous gain of information, the presented system is now an established part of routine surgical planning.

  16. [Pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment of reperfusion syndrome in the surgery of abdominal aorta aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukharev, I I; Guch, A A; Medvedskyĭ, E B; Kostylev, M V; Kornitskaia, A I; Gindich, L A; Dominiak, A B; Vlaĭkov, G G

    1999-01-01

    The peroxidal oxidation of the lipids state was studied up, as well as of the whole blood neutrophils functional activity, hemodynamics and microcirculation of lower extremities in surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta aneurysm. The main significance in the reperfusional syndrome pathophysiology, caused by temporary overcompression of aorta, has the neutrophils activation, their interrelationship with the endothelium cells and the activity lowering of the tissue antioxidant system, manifestated by vascular spasm, which is mostly expressed in the patients with stenotic affection of the lower extremities arteries. Positive effect was noted in application of preparation corvitin, which has antioxidant action.

  17. "Candy cane syndrome:" an underappreciated cause of abdominal pain and nausea after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaie, Amir H; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Wen, Yuxiang; Alshehri, Mohammed; Abbas, Mujjahid; Khaitan, Leena

    2017-09-01

    "Candy cane" syndrome (a blind afferent Roux limb at the gastrojejunostomy) has been implicated as a cause of abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis after Roux-n-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) but remains poorly described. To report that "candy cane" syndrome is real and can be treated effectively with revisional bariatric surgery SETTING: All patients underwent "candy cane" resection at University Hospitals of Cleveland. All patients who underwent resection of the "candy cane" between January 2011 and July 2015 were included. All had preoperative workup to identify "candy cane" syndrome. Demographic data; pre-, peri-, and postoperative symptoms; data regarding hospitalization; and postoperative weight loss were assessed through retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed using Student's t test and χ 2 analysis where appropriate. Nineteen patients had resection of the "candy cane" (94% female, mean age 50±11 yr), within 3 to 11 years after initial RYGB. Primary presenting symptoms were epigastric abdominal pain (68%) and nausea/vomiting (32%), particularly with fibrous foods and meats. On upper gastrointestinal study and endoscopy, the afferent blind limb was the most direct outlet from the gastrojejunostomy. Only patients with these preoperative findings were deemed to have "candy cane" syndrome. Eighteen (94%) cases were completed laparoscopically. Length of the "candy cane" ranged from 3 to 22 cm. Median length of stay was 1 day. After resection, 18 (94%) patients had complete resolution of their symptoms (Psyndrome is a real phenomenon that can be managed safely with excellent outcomes with resection of the blind afferent limb. A thorough diagnostic workup is paramount to proper identification of this syndrome. Surgeons should minimize the size of the blind afferent loop left at the time of initial RYGB. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Two Different Transfusion Strategies on Patient Immune Response during Major Abdominal Surgery: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiani Theodoraki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is associated with well-known risks. We investigated the difference between a restrictive versus a liberal transfusion strategy on the immune response, as expressed by the production of inflammatory mediators, in patients subjected to major abdominal surgery procedures. Fifty-eight patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were randomized preoperatively to either a restrictive transfusion protocol or a liberal transfusion protocol (with transfusion if hemoglobin dropped below 7.7 g dL−1 or 9.9 g dL−1, respectively. In a subgroup of 20 patients randomly selected from the original allocation groups, blood was sampled for measurement of IL-6, IL-10, and TNFα. Postoperative levels of IL-10 were higher in the liberal transfusion group on the first postoperative day (49.82±29.07 vs. 15.83±13.22 pg mL−1, P<0.05. Peak postoperative IL-10 levels correlated with the units of blood transfused as well as the mean duration of storage and the storage time of the oldest unit transfused (r2=0.38, P=0.032, r2=0.52, P=0.007, and r2=0.68, P<0.001, respectively. IL-10 levels were elevated in patients with a more liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy. The strength of the association between anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transfusion variables indicates that IL-10 may be an important factor in transfusion-associated immunomodulation. This trial is registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02020525.

  19. Comparison of electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in midline abdominal surgery - A double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Lalgudi Dorairajan; Balaji, Nitesh; Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Kate, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    To compare the electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in patients undergoing abdominal surgery using a midline incision with respect to incision time, blood loss during incision, postoperative incision site pain and wound infection. Patients undergoing midline abdominal surgery were randomized into electrocautery and scalpel groups. The incision dimensions, incision time and blood loss during incision were noted intraoperatively. Postoperative pain and wound infection were recorded on every postoperative day for one week. 41 patients in each of the two groups were analyzed. Gender and age distribution was similar in both the groups. The mean incision time per unit wound area in the electrocautery group and scalpel group was 9.40 ± 3.37 s/cm(2) and 9.07 ± 3.40 s/cm(2) (p = 0.87) respectively. The mean blood loss per unit wound area was significantly lower in the electrocautery group at 6.46 ± 3.94 ml when compared to that of 23.40 ± 15.28 ml in the scalpel group (p= electrocautery and scalpel groups (14.63% vs. 12.19%; p = 0.347). With a comparable Postoperative incision site pain, wound infection rate and significantly lower blood loss with the equal time taken for the incision, electrocautery can be considered safe and effective in making skin incision in midline laparotomy compared to scalpel incision. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized comparison of intraoperative PerfecTemp and forced-air warming during open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Cameron; Bernstein, Ethan; Reddy, Desigen; Ali, Madi; Paul, James; Yang, Dongsheng; Sessler, Daniel I

    2011-11-01

    The PerfecTemp is an underbody resistive warming system that combines servocontrolled underbody warming with viscoelastic foam pressure relief. Clinical efficacy of the system has yet to be formally evaluated. We therefore tested the hypothesis that intraoperative distal esophageal (core) temperatures with the PerfecTemp (underbody resistive) warming system are noninferior to upper-body forced-air warming in patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Adults scheduled for elective major open abdominal surgery (liver, pancreas, gynecological, and colorectal surgery) under general anesthesia were enrolled at 2 centers. Patients were randomly assigned to underbody resistive or forced-air warming. Resistive heating started when patients were transferred to the operating room table; forced-air warming started after patients were draped. The primary outcome was noninferiority of intraoperative time-weighted average core temperature, adjusted for baseline characteristics and using a buffer of 0.5°C. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to underbody resistive heating and 34 to forced-air warming. Baseline and surgical characteristics were generally similar. We had sufficient evidence (P=0.018) to conclude that underbody resistive warming is not worse than (i.e., noninferior to) upper-body forced-air warming in the time-weighted average intraoperative temperature, with a mean difference of -0.12°C [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 0.14]. Core temperatures at the end of surgery averaged 36.3°C [95% CI 36 to 36.5] in the resistive warming patients and 36.6°C [95% CI 36.4 to 36.8] in those assigned to forced-air warming for a mean difference of -0.34°C [95% CI -0.69 to 0.01]. Mean intraoperative time-weighted average core temperatures were no different, and significantly noninferior, with underbody resistive heating in comparison with upper-body forced-air warming. Underbody resistive heating may be an alternative to forced

  1. Comparison of multi-modal early oral nutrition for the tolerance of oral nutrition with conventional care after major abdominal surgery: a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Li; Li, Wei-Ming; Li, Shu-Min; Cen, Yun-Yun; Xu, Qing-Wen; Li, Yi-Jun; Sun, Yan-Bo; Qi, Yu-Xing; Lin, Yue-Ying; Yang, Ting; Lu, Qi-Ping; Xu, Peng-Yuan

    2017-02-10

    Early oral nutrition (EON) has been shown to improve recovery of gastrointestinal function, length of stay and mortality after abdominal surgery; however, early oral nutrition often fails during the first week after surgery. Here, a multi-modal early oral nutrition program is introduced to promote recovery of gastrointestinal function and tolerance of oral nutrition. Consecutive patients scheduled for abdominal surgery were randomized to the multimodal EON group or a group receiving conventional care. The primary endpoint was the time of first defecation. The secondary endpoints were outcomes and the cost-effectiveness ratio in treating infectious complications. The rate of infectious-free patients was regarded as the index of effectiveness. One hundred seven patients were randomly assigned to groups. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, the success rate of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery in the multimodal EON group was 44 (83.0%) versus 31 (57.4%) in the conventional care group (P = 0.004). Time to first defecation, time to flatus, recovery time of bowel sounds, and prolonged postoperative ileus were all less in the multimodal EON group (P oral nutrition group (P oral nutrition program was an effective way to improve tolerance of oral nutrition during the first week after surgery, decrease the length of stay and improve cost-effectiveness after abdominal surgery. Registration number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004395 . Registered 15 March 2014.

  2. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmes, S.N.T.; Severgnini, P.; Jaber, S.; Canet, J.; Wrigge, H.; Hiesmayr, M.; Tschernko, E.M.; Hollmann, M.W.; Binnekade, J.M.; Hedenstierna, G.; Putensen, C.; Gama de Abreu, M.; Pelosi, P.; Schultz, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia > 2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure

  3. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein to rule out infectious complications after major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gans, Sarah L.; Atema, Jasper J.; van Dieren, Susan; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious complications occur frequently after major abdominal surgery and have a major influence on patient outcome and hospital costs. A marker that can rule out postoperative infectious complications (PICs) could aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge. C-reactive protein

  4. Postoperative analgesia with intramuscular morphine at fixed rate versus epidural morphine or sufentanil and bupivacaine in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, AA; Veen, A; Fidler, [No Value; Gielen, MJM; Hennis, PJ

    1998-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy and side effects of postoperative analgesia with three different pain regimens in 90 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: epidural morphine (EM) or sufentanil (ES), both combined with bupivacaine, or IM

  5. Use of National Burden to Define Operative Emergency General Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W; Olufajo, Olubode A; Brat, Gabriel A; Rose, John A; Zogg, Cheryl K; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali; Havens, Joaquim M

    2016-06-15

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) represents 11% of surgical admissions and 50% of surgical mortality in the United States. However, there is currently no established definition of the EGS procedures. To define a set of procedures accounting for at least 80% of the national burden of operative EGS. A retrospective review was conducted using data from the 2008-2011 National Inpatient Sample. Adults (age, ≥18 years) with primary EGS diagnoses consistent with the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma definition, admitted urgently or emergently, who underwent an operative procedure within 2 days of admission were included in the analyses. Procedures were ranked to account for national mortality and complication burden. Among ranked procedures, contributions to total EGS frequency, mortality, and hospital costs were assessed. The data query and analysis were performed between November 15, 2015, and February 16, 2016. Overall procedure frequency, in-hospital mortality, major complications, and inpatient costs calculated per 3-digit International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes. The study identified 421 476 patient encounters associated with operative EGS, weighted to represent 2.1 million nationally over the 4-year study period. The overall mortality rate was 1.23% (95% CI, 1.18%-1.28%), the complication rate was 15.0% (95% CI, 14.6%-15.3%), and mean cost per admission was $13 241 (95% CI, $12 957-$13 525). After ranking the 35 procedure groups by contribution to EGS mortality and morbidity burden, a final set of 7 operative EGS procedures were identified, which collectively accounted for 80.0% of procedures, 80.3% of deaths, 78.9% of complications, and 80.2% of inpatient costs nationwide. These 7 procedures included partial colectomy, small-bowel resection, cholecystectomy, operative management of peptic ulcer disease, lysis of peritoneal adhesions, appendectomy, and laparotomy. Only 7 procedures account

  6. Proceedings of resources for optimal care of acute care and emergency surgery consensus summit Donegal Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugrue, M.; Maier, R.; Moore, E. E.; Boermeester, M.; Catena, F.; Coccolini, F.; Leppaniemi, A.; Peitzman, A.; Velmahos, G.; Ansaloni, L.; Abu-Zidan, F.; Balfe, P.; Bendinelli, C.; Biffl, W.; Bowyer, M.; DeMoya, M.; de Waele, J.; di Saverio, S.; Drake, A.; Fraga, G. P.; Hallal, A.; Henry, C.; Hodgetts, T.; Hsee, L.; Huddart, S.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Kluger, Y.; Lawler, L.; Malangoni, M. A.; Malbrain, M.; MacMahon, P.; Mealy, K.; O'Kane, M.; Loughlin, P.; Paduraru, M.; Pearce, L.; Pereira, B. M.; Priyantha, A.; Sartelli, M.; Soreide, K.; Steele, C.; Thomas, S.; Vincent, J. L.; Woods, L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opportunities to improve emergency surgery outcomes exist through guided better practice and reduced variability. Few attempts have been made to define optimal care in emergency surgery, and few clinically derived key performance indicators (KPIs) have been published. A summit was

  7. Effects of music therapy under general anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahloul, Mohamed; Mhamdi, Salah; Nakhli, Mohamed Said; Sfeyhi, Ahmed Nadhir; Azzaza, Mohamed; Chaouch, Ajmi; Naija, Walid

    2017-12-01

    Music therapy, an innovative approach that has proven effectiveness in many medical conditions, seems beneficial also in managing surgical patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effects, under general anesthesia, on perioperative patient satisfaction, stress, pain, and awareness. This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind study conducted in the operating theatre of visceral surgery at Sahloul Teaching Hospital over a period of 4 months. Patients aged more than 18 undergoing a scheduled surgery under general anesthesia were included. Patients undergoing urgent surgery or presenting hearing or cognitive disorders were excluded. Before induction, patients wore headphones linked to an MP3 player. They were randomly allocated into 2 groups: Group M (with music during surgery) and group C (without music). Hemodynamic parameters, quality of arousal, pain experienced, patient's satisfaction, and awareness incidence during anesthesia were recorded. One hundred and forty patients were included and allocated into 2 groups that were comparable in demographic characteristics, surgical intervention type and anesthesia duration. Comparison of these two groups regarding the hemodynamic profile found more stability in group M for systolic arterial blood pressure. A calm recovery was more often noted in group M (77.1% versus 44%, p Music therapy is a non-pharmacological, inexpensive, and non-invasive technique that can significantly enhance patient satisfaction and decrease patients' embarrassing experiences related to perioperative stress, pain, and awareness.

  8. Effect of epidural blockade and oxygen therapy on changes in subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, U; Erichsen, C J

    1994-01-01

    The effect of oxygen therapy (37% by face mask) and epidural local anesthetic blockade (9 ml 0.5% bupivacaine at Th9-11 level) on wound oxygenation was evaluated in eight otherwise healthy patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. The patients were monitored continuously for subcutaneous...... without epidural blockade and 15 (10-20) min with blockade (P surgery....

  9. Mast cell degranulation during abdominal surgery initiates postoperative ileus in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Wouter J.; The, Frans O.; van der Coelen, Dennis; Bennink, Roelof J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Deventer, Sander J.; van den Wijngaard, René M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Inflammation of the intestinal muscularis following manipulation during surgery plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus. Here, we evaluate the role of mast cell activation in the recruitment of infiltrates in a murine model. Methods: Twenty-four hours after

  10. General surgery 2.0: the emergence of acute care surgery in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S. Morad; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Ball, Chad G.; Pagliarello, Joe; Razek, Tarek; Parry, Neil; Widder, Sandy; Minor, Sam; Buczkowski, Andrzej; MacPherson, Cailan; Johner, Amanda; Jenkin, Dan; Wood, Leanne; McLoughlin, Karen; Anderson, Ian; Davey, Doug; Zabolotny, Brent; Saadia, Roger; Bracken, John; Nathens, Avery; Ahmed, Najma; Panton, Ormond; Warnock, Garth L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, there has been a groundswell of support in Canada for the development of organized, focused and multidisciplinary approaches to caring for acutely ill general surgical patients. Newly forged acute care surgery (ACS) services are beginning to provide prompt, evidence-based and goal-directed care to acutely ill general surgical patients who often present with a diverse range of complex pathologies and little or no pre- or postoperative planning. Through a team-based structure with attention to processes of care and information sharing, ACS services are well positioned to improve outcomes, while finding and developing efficiencies and reducing costs of surgical and emergency health care delivery. The ACS model also offers enhanced opportunities for surgical education for students, residents and practicing surgeons, and it will provide avenues to strengthen clinical and academic bonds between the community and academic surgical centres. In the near future, cooperation of ACS services from community and academic hospitals across the country will lead to the formation of systems of acute surgical care whose development will be informed by rigorous data collection and research and evidence-based quality-improvement initiatives. In an era of increasing subspecialization, ACS is a strong unifying force in general surgery and a platform for collective advocacy for an important patient population. PMID:20334738

  11. Somatoform abdominal pain in surgery: is SD worthy of surgical attention? Case reports and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abd Elwahab, Sami Medani

    2012-08-01

    Somatoform disorders (SD) or medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are a group of disorders that represent a group of symptoms that cannot be explained by an organic or physical pathology. These disorders are widely prevalent, and, if unrecognised, SD may lead medical professionals to embark on tests or procedures which may inflict unnecessary iatrogenic complications. Despite the high prevalence, they are only poorly included in medical training curricula, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this article, we review the literature and present two cases. The first one presented with a recurrent acute abdomen had an unnecessary CT abdomen. The second case had laparoscopy for acute right-sided abdominal pain which turned out to be normal, and was readmitted again after a short period with acute urine retention which resolved spontaneously following discussion with the patient and family. Both cases were referred for psychiatric assessment and their family doctors were informed.

  12. Intraperitoneal microdialysis in the postoperative surveillance of infants undergoing surgery for congenital abdominal wall defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Jakobsen, Marianne S

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the safety and clinical implication of intraperitoneal microdialysis (MD) in newborns operated on for congenital abdominal wall defect. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 13 infants underwent intraperitoneal microdialysis (9 with gastroschisis and 4 with omphalocele). MD...... samples were collected every four hours and the concentrations of lactate, glycerol, glucose and pyruvate were measured. The results of MD were compared between the group of infants with gastroschisis and the group with omphalocele. The duration of parenteral nutrition and tube feeding were compared...... of infants with gastroschisis compared with the group of infants with omphalocele. The median values were 6.19mmol/l and 2.19mmol/l, respectively (P=0.006). The results from MD in the six infants in the gastroschisis group who underwent secondary closure after Silo treatment were similar to those who...

  13. How Do We Value Postoperative Recovery?: A Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Patient-reported Outcomes After Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Julio F; Figueiredo, Sabrina; Balvardi, Saba; Lee, Lawrence; Nauche, Bénédicte; Landry, Tara; Mayo, Nancy E; Feldman, Liane S

    2018-04-01

    To appraise the level of evidence supporting the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in the context of postoperative recovery after abdominal surgery. There is growing interest in using PROMs to support value-based care in abdominal surgery; however, to draw valid conclusions regarding patient-reported outcomes data, PROMs with robust measurement properties are required. Eight databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science) were searched for studies focused on the measurement properties of PROMs in the context of recovery after abdominal surgery. The methodological quality of individual studies was evaluated using the consensus-based COSMIN checklist. Evidence supporting the measurement properties of each PROM was synthetized according to standardized criteria and compared against the International Society of Quality of Life Research minimum standards for the selection of PROMs for outcomes research. We identified 35 studies evaluating 22 PROMs [12 focused on nonspecific surgical populations (55%), 4 focused on abdominal surgery (18%), and 6 generic PROMs (27%)]. The great majority of the studies (74%) received only poor or fair quality ratings. Measurement properties of PROMs were predominantly supported by limited or unknown evidence. None of the PROMs fulfilled International Society of Quality of Life Research's minimum standards, hindering specific recommendations. There is very limited evidence supporting the measurement properties of existing PROMs used in the context of recovery after abdominal surgery. This precludes the use of these PROMs to support value-based surgical care. Further research is required to bridge this major knowledge gap. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42014014349.

  14. Epidemiological approach to emergent cranial surgery of cranial traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülagü Kaptan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: In this study, we aim to define the emergent cranial surgery of cranial trauma cases in terms of the reason of occurance, diagnosis, prognostic factors and results. Methods: 153 cases hospitalized in our clinic during a four year period were statistically analysed in accordance with trauma etiology, age, gender, application GCS (Glascow Coma Score mortality rate, location and established patology.

    Results: 76% (116 of the 153 cases were male. The most frequent etiological reasons were, in descending order, traffic accident 52% (n = 80, fall 34% (n = 53, direct trauma to the head 14(n =20. 45% (n = 69 were diagnosed epidural haematomas, 26% (n = 40 were diagnosed depression fractures and 3% (n = 5 were diagnosed intracerebral haematomas. A meaningful statistical difference was found in the comparison of the diagnosis regarding gender (p=0,012 age group (p=0,0282 and GCS (p=0,0001.

    Conclusions: In order to prevent cranial traumas, studies aimed at minimizing traffic accidents should be undertaken. The most essential action after the accident has occured is triage, and this is of great importance in order to establish communication among the health institutions.

  15. Encountering Meckel's diverticulum in emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. In children with intestinal ascariasis, the diverticulum remains asymptomatic or rarely the Ascaris lumbricoides may lead to its complications in the presence of massive intestinal roundworm load. Given that preoperative diagnosis is seldom carried out, when Meckel's diverticulum is found at laparotomy for obstructive intestinal complications of roundworm, the diverticulum should be removed as complications may occur at any time. The aim of this study was to describe the findings of concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum who had surgical intervention in symptomatic intestinal ascariasis in children. Methods A retrospective case review study of 14 children who had surgical intervention for symptomatic intestinal ascariasis having the presence of concomitant Meckel's diverticulum was done. The study was done at SMHS Hospital Srinagar, Kashmir. Results A total of the 14 children who had ascaridial intestinal obstruction with concomitant presence of Meckel's diverticulum were studied. Age of children ranged from 4-12 years, male:female ratio was 1.8:1. Nine patients had asymptomatic Meckel's diverticulum, whereas 5 patients with symptomatic signs were found in the course of emergency surgery for ascaridial intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Meckel's diverticulum in intestinal ascariasis may pursue silent course or may be accompanied with complications of the diverticulitis, perforation or the gangrene. Incidental finding of the Meckel's diverticulum in the intestinal ascariasis should have removal.

  16. Abdominal CT predictors of fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Afghani, Elham [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Gastroenterology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Singh, Vikesh K. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Division of Gastroenterology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Pathology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ali, Sumera; Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Andersen, Dana K. [National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); Makary, Martin A. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Department of Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zaheer, Atif [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Pancreatitis Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-05-01

    To determine which abdominal CT findings predict severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pre-operative abdominal CTs of 66 patients (mean age 52 ± 12 years, 53 % males) with painful CP who underwent the Whipple procedure (n = 32), Frey procedure (n = 32) or pancreatic head biopsy (n = 2), between 1/2003-3/2014, were evaluated. CT was evaluated for parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calculi, main pancreatic duct dilation (>5 mm), main pancreatic duct stricture, and abnormal side branch(es). The surgical histopathology was graded for fibrosis. CT findings were evaluated as predictors of severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief using regression and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) analysis. Thirty-eight (58 %) patients had severe fibrosis. Parenchymal calcification(s) were an independent predictor of severe fibrosis (p = 0.03), and post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1-year (p = 0.04). Presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications had higher predictive accuracy for severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s) (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). The predictive accuracy of >10 versus 1-10 parenchymal calcifications increased after adjusting for all other CT findings (AUC 0.89 vs. 0.63, p = 0.01). Parenchymal calcification(s) independently predict severe fibrosis and are significantly associated with post-operative pain relief in CP. The presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications is a better predictor of severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s). (orig.)

  17. Abdominal CT predictors of fibrosis in patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Amitasha; Afghani, Elham; Singh, Vikesh K.; Cruise, Michael; Matsukuma, Karen; Ali, Sumera; Raman, Siva P.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Makary, Martin A.; Zaheer, Atif

    2015-01-01

    To determine which abdominal CT findings predict severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Pre-operative abdominal CTs of 66 patients (mean age 52 ± 12 years, 53 % males) with painful CP who underwent the Whipple procedure (n = 32), Frey procedure (n = 32) or pancreatic head biopsy (n = 2), between 1/2003-3/2014, were evaluated. CT was evaluated for parenchymal calcifications, intraductal calculi, main pancreatic duct dilation (>5 mm), main pancreatic duct stricture, and abnormal side branch(es). The surgical histopathology was graded for fibrosis. CT findings were evaluated as predictors of severe fibrosis and post-operative pain relief using regression and area under receiver operating curve (AUC) analysis. Thirty-eight (58 %) patients had severe fibrosis. Parenchymal calcification(s) were an independent predictor of severe fibrosis (p = 0.03), and post-operative pain relief over a mean follow-up of 1-year (p = 0.04). Presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications had higher predictive accuracy for severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s) (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.59, p = 0.003). The predictive accuracy of >10 versus 1-10 parenchymal calcifications increased after adjusting for all other CT findings (AUC 0.89 vs. 0.63, p = 0.01). Parenchymal calcification(s) independently predict severe fibrosis and are significantly associated with post-operative pain relief in CP. The presence of >10 parenchymal calcifications is a better predictor of severe fibrosis than 1-10 parenchymal calcification(s). (orig.)

  18. Current status and future options for trauma and emergency surgery in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloğlu, Korhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin

    2008-01-01

    The number of trauma victims in Turkey is expected to increase as a consequence of the increasing vehicular traffic, potential for earthquakes, and risk of terrorist attacks. The Turkish Association for Trauma and Emergency Surgery monitors trauma cases, publishes a quarterly journal, organizes trauma courses and seminars for various health personnel nationwide. It is also extending efforts to improve in-hospital care by establishing trauma and emergency surgery fellowships and trauma and emergency surgery centers nationwide, which is run by General Surgeons currently. Turkey faces the same dilemma as the rest of the developed world regarding the future of trauma surgeons in the current era of nonoperative trauma management. We suggest that the field of trauma and emergency surgery be redefined to include emergency general surgery and cavitary trauma.

  19. Evaluation of Preemptive Use of Analgesia of The Skin, Before and After Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kashefi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perioperative pain is prevalent and poorly treated. Apart from that it makes the recovery from surgery unpleasent, pain often remains as a residual side effect of surgery, even though the tissue healing is complete. An essential observation is that tissue injury and the resulting nociceptor barrage initiates a cascade of events that can indelibly alter pain perception. Preemptive analgesia is the concept of initiating analgesic therapy before the onset of the noxious stimulus so as to prevent the nociceptor barrage and its consequences. However, anticipated clinical potency of preemptive analgesia, though has firmly grounded in the neurobiology of pain, has not been yet realized. As data accumulates, it has become clear that clinical studies emulating those from the laboratory and designed around a relatively narrow definition of preemptive analgesia have been largely unsupportive of its use. Nevertheless, preemptive analgesic interventions that recognize the intensity, duration, and somatotopic extent of major surgery can help reduce perioperative pain and its longer-term sequelae. surgeons spend a lot of time treating the pain of lower abdominal surgery. Methods: A total number of 48 consecutive patients who were going to undergo elective lower abdominal surgery. Were randomly assigned in two groups of 24 each. In one group the patients received an injection of 0.5 % bupivacaine in the planned skin for incision just before lower abdominal surgery, and in the other group, they received an equal amount of 0.5% bupivacaine after the surgery had been done. Pain was objectified by a numerical visual pain score, in the 24 hours following the lower abdominal surgery. Results: There were no differences in postoperative pain scores on the visual analog scale (VAS: In groups 1and 2, VAS at hour 4 were 6.37±1.13 versus 6.29±1.19; At hour 8 were 5.54 ± 1.17 versus 5.37±1.09; and at hour 12 were 4.5 ± 1.31 versus 4.45 ± 1

  20. Are You Ready for Emergency Medical Services in Your Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Office?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Clive; Ragan, Michael R

    2018-05-01

    Efficient responses to emergencies in the oral and maxillofacial surgery office require preparation, communication, and thorough documentation of the event and response. The concept of team anesthesia is showcased with these efforts. Emergency medical services training and response times vary greatly. The oral and maxillofacial surgery office should be prepared to manage the patient for at least 15 minutes after making the call to 911. Patient outcomes are optimized when providers work together to manage and transport the patient. Oral and maxillofacial surgery offices should develop and rehearse emergency plans and coordinate these protocols with local Emergency medical services teams. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous abdominal surgery in patients with the metabolic syndrome and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Mylytsya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to discuss the possibility and appropriateness of simultaneous operations in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and obesity (O. Material and methods. The analysis of 50 simultaneous operations in patients with MS and O was performed. Gender, age, medical history and clinical-laboratory features were explored. Duration of operations, the number of complications, length of hospital stay were analyzed. Results and discussion. Body mass index ranged from 33 kg/m2 to 51 kg/m2. Skin and fat flaps weight ranged from 3 to 12 kg. Weight loss of patients in one week after surgery ranged from 5 to 14 kg. There were no complications in the early and late postoperative period. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism showed no significant differences in pre- and post-operative period. Nevertheless simultaneous abdominoplasty as corrective surgery reduces weight, improves the self-perception of body image, physical and mental components of quality of life. Conclusion. The introduction of simultaneous operations will contribute: - for state: to increase and maintain the reproductive potential of the nation, to save the hospital beds, to save finances, to reduce the incidence of metabolic forms of cancer pathology; - for the patient: performing one operation instead of two ones, allowing to go through preoperative stress, anesthesia, postoperative period and the rehabilitation period once; during one operation to solve two-three issues; during surgical treatment of main disease to prevent oncological, cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, etc. Of course, the widespread adoption of the program of simultaneous gynecology, surgery requires the dissemination of knowledge and techniques refinement. simultaneous surgery; metabolic syndrome; obesity

  2. The Effect of Structured Preadmission Preoperative Teaching on Patient Outcomes After Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, gastric surgery, ventral hernlorrhaphy, bowel resection without ostomy , laparotomy). 3.) Patients with the following...materials I hope will be helpful to you in the study you are planning. I think most of these measures are far more elaborate than what you need, but they...and patterns Eliminative aids used at home Ostomies Diaphioresis Other excretions ACTIVITY AND REST Usual activitieS Ability to perform ADL Tolerance

  3. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein to rule out infectious complications after major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Sarah L; Atema, Jasper J; van Dieren, Susan; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Boermeester, Marja A

    2015-07-01

    Infectious complications occur frequently after major abdominal surgery and have a major influence on patient outcome and hospital costs. A marker that can rule out postoperative infectious complications (PICs) could aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a widely available, fast, and cheap marker that might be of value in detecting PIC. Present meta-analysis evaluates the diagnostic value of CRP to rule out PIC following major abdominal surgery, aiding patient selection for early discharge. A systematic literature search of Medline, PubMed, and Cochrane was performed identifying all prospective studies evaluating the diagnostic value of CRP after abdominal surgery. Meta-analysis was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Twenty-two studies were included for qualitative analysis of which 16 studies were eligible for meta-analysis, representing 2215 patients. Most studies analyzed the value of CRP in colorectal surgery (eight studies). The pooled negative predictive value (NPV) improved each day after surgery up to 90% at postoperative day (POD) 3 for a pooled CRP cutoff of 159 mg/L (range 92-200). Maximum predictive values for PICs were reached on POD 5 for a pooled CRP cutoff of 114 mg/L (range 48-150): a pooled sensitivity of 86% (95% confidence interval (CI) 79-91%), specificity of 86% (95% CI 75-92%), and a positive predictive value of 64% (95% CI 49-77%). The pooled sensitivity and specificity were significantly higher on POD 5 than on other PODs (p < 0.001). Infectious complications after major abdominal surgery are very unlikely in patients with a CRP below 159 mg/L on POD 3. This can aid patient selection for safe and early hospital discharge and prevent overuse of imaging.

  4. Risk Assessment of Abdominal Wall Thickness Measured on Pre-Operative Computerized Tomography for Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongyoo, Assanee; Chatthamrak, Putipan; Sriussadaporn, Ekkapak; Limpavitayaporn, Palin; Mingmalairak, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    The surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of abdominal operation. It relates to increased hospital stay, increased healthcare cost, and decreased patient's quality of life. Obesity, usually defined by BMI, is known as one of the risks of SSI. However, the thickness of subcutaneous layers of abdominal wall might be an important local factor affecting the rate of SSI after the abdominal operations. The objective of this study is to assess the importance of the abdominal wall thickness on incisional SSI rate. The subjects of the present study were patients who had undergone major abdominal operations at Thammasat University Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014, and had been investigated with CT scans before their operations. The demographic data and clinical information of these patients were recorded. The thickness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue from skin down to the most superficial layer of abdominal wall muscle at the surgical site was measured on CT images. The wound infectious complication was reviewed and categorized as superficial and deep incisional SSIfollowing the definition from Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. The significance ofeach potentialfactors on SSI rates was determined separately with student t-test for quantitative data and χ2-test for categorical data. Then all factors, which had p operative CTscans. Post-operative SSI was 25.2% (35/139), superficial and deep types in 27 and 8 patients, respectively. The comparison of abdominal wall thickness between patients with and without infection was significantly different (20.0 ± 8.4 mm and 16.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively). When the thickness at 20 mm was used as the cut-off value, 43 of 139 patients had abdominal wall thickness ≥ 20 mm. The incidence of SSI of the thickness ±20 mm group was 37.2% (16/43) and of the less thickness group was 19.8% (19/96), with p operation. However, only abdominal wall thickness and wound classification were still significant

  5. Intensity-Modulated Whole Abdominal Radiotherapy After Surgery and Carboplatin/Taxane Chemotherapy for Advanced Ovarian Cancer: Phase I Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Sterzing, Florian; Jensen, Alexandra D.; Dinkel, Julien; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Schubert, Kai; Eichbaum, Michael H.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Results: Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. Conclusions: The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

  6. Intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy after surgery and carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer: phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet, Nathalie; Sterzing, Florian; Jensen, Alexandra D; Dinkel, Julien; Herfarth, Klaus K; Schubert, Kai; Eichbaum, Michael H; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    To assess the feasibility and toxicity of consolidative intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy (WAR) after surgery and chemotherapy in high-risk patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Ten patients with optimally debulked ovarian cancer International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IIIc were treated in a Phase I study with intensity-modulated WAR up to a total dose of 30 Gy in 1.5-Gy fractions as consolidation therapy after adjuvant carboplatin/taxane chemotherapy. Treatment was delivered using intensity-modulated radiotherapy in a step-and-shoot technique (n = 3) or a helical tomotherapy technique (n = 7). The planning target volume included the entire peritoneal cavity and the pelvic and para-aortal node regions. Organs at risk were kidneys, liver, heart, vertebral bodies, and pelvic bones. Intensity-modulated WAR resulted in an excellent coverage of the planning target volume and an effective sparing of the organs at risk. The treatment was well tolerated, and no severe Grade 4 acute side effects occurred. Common Toxicity Criteria Grade III toxicities were as follows: diarrhea (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 1), and leukopenia (n = 3). Radiotherapy could be completed by all the patients without any toxicity-related interruption. Median follow-up was 23 months, and 4 patients had tumor recurrence (intraperitoneal progression, n = 3; hepatic metastasis, n = 1). Small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions occurred in 3 patients. The results of this Phase I study showed for the first time, to our knowledge, the clinical feasibility of intensity-modulated whole abdominal radiotherapy, which could offer a new therapeutic option for consolidation treatment of advanced ovarian carcinoma after adjuvant chemotherapy in selected subgroups of patients. We initiated a Phase II study to further evaluate the toxicity of this intensive multimodal treatment.

  7. Comparison of streamlined liner of the pharynx airway (SLIPA TM with the laryngeal mask airway Proseal TM for lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries in paralyzed, anesthetized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abualhassan Abdellatif

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Supraglottic airway devices have been used as an alternative to tracheal intubation during laparoscopic surgery. Aims: The study was designed to compare the efficacy of Streamlined Liner of the Pharynx Airway (SLIPA for positive pressure ventilation and postoperative complications with the Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSeal (PLMA for patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopies under general anesthesia with controlled ventilation. Settings and Design: Prospective, crossover randomized controlled trial performed on patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries. Methods: A total of 120 patients undergoing lower abdominal laparoscopic surgeries were randomly allocated into two equal groups; PLMA and SLIPA groups. Number of intubation attempts, insertion time, ease of insertion, and fiberoptic bronchoscopic view were recorded. Lung mechanics data were collected 5 minutes after securing the airway, then after abdominal insufflation. Blood traces and regurgitation were checked for; postoperative sore throat and other complications were recorded. Statistical Analysis: Arithmetic mean and standard deviation values were calculated and statistical analyses were performed for each group. Independent sample t-test was used to compare continuous variables exhibiting normal distribution, and Chi-squared test for noncontinuous variables. P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Insertion time, first insertion success rate, and ease of insertion were comparable in both groups. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic view was significantly better and epiglottic downfolding was significantly lower in SLIPA group. Sealing pressure and lung mechanics were similar. Gastric distension was not observed in both groups. Postoperative sore throat was significantly higher in PACU in PLMA group. Blood traces on the device were significantly more in SLIPA group. Conclusions: SLIPA can be used as a useful alternative to PLMA in patients undergoing lower

  8. Individualised perioperative open-lung approach versus standard protective ventilation in abdominal surgery (iPROVE): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Carlos; Soro, Marina; Unzueta, Carmen; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Canet, Jaume; Librero, Julián; Pozo, Natividad; Peiró, Salvador; Llombart, Alicia; León, Irene; India, Inmaculada; Aldecoa, Cesar; Díaz-Cambronero, Oscar; Pestaña, David; Redondo, Francisco J; Garutti, Ignacio; Balust, Jaume; García, Jose I; Ibáñez, Maite; Granell, Manuel; Rodríguez, Aurelio; Gallego, Lucía; de la Matta, Manuel; Gonzalez, Rafael; Brunelli, Andrea; García, Javier; Rovira, Lucas; Barrios, Francisco; Torres, Vicente; Hernández, Samuel; Gracia, Estefanía; Giné, Marta; García, María; García, Nuria; Miguel, Lisset; Sánchez, Sergio; Piñeiro, Patricia; Pujol, Roger; García-Del-Valle, Santiago; Valdivia, José; Hernández, María J; Padrón, Oto; Colás, Ana; Puig, Jaume; Azparren, Gonzalo; Tusman, Gerardo; Villar, Jesús; Belda, Javier

    2018-03-01

    The effects of individualised perioperative lung-protective ventilation (based on the open-lung approach [OLA]) on postoperative complications is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of intraoperative and postoperative ventilatory management in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, compared with standard protective ventilation. We did this prospective, multicentre, randomised controlled trial in 21 teaching hospitals in Spain. We enrolled patients who were aged 18 years or older, were scheduled to have abdominal surgery with an expected time of longer than 2 h, had intermediate-to-high-risk of developing postoperative pulmonary complications, and who had a body-mass index less than 35 kg/m 2 . Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) online to receive one of four lung-protective ventilation strategies using low tidal volume plus positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): open-lung approach (OLA)-iCPAP (individualised intraoperative ventilation [individualised PEEP after a lung recruitment manoeuvre] plus individualised postoperative continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP]), OLA-CPAP (intraoperative individualised ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), STD-CPAP (standard intraoperative ventilation plus postoperative CPAP), or STD-O 2 (standard intraoperative ventilation plus standard postoperative oxygen therapy). Patients were masked to treatment allocation. Investigators were not masked in the operating and postoperative rooms; after 24 h, data were given to a second investigator who was masked to allocations. The primary outcome was a composite of pulmonary and systemic complications during the first 7 postoperative days. We did the primary analysis using the modified intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02158923. Between Jan 2, 2015, and May 18, 2016, we enrolled 1012 eligible patients. Data were available for 967 patients, whom we included in the final analysis. Risk of pulmonary and systemic

  9. Impact of Different Ventilation Strategies on Driving Pressure, Mechanical Power, and Biological Markers During Open Abdominal Surgery in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Lígia de A; Samary, Cynthia S; Oliveira, Milena V; Santos, Cintia L; Huhle, Robert; Capelozzi, Vera L; Morales, Marcelo M; Schultz, Marcus J; Abreu, Marcelo G; Pelosi, Paolo; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2017-10-01

    Intraoperative mechanical ventilation may yield lung injury. To date, there is no consensus regarding the best ventilator strategy for abdominal surgery. We aimed to investigate the impact of the mechanical ventilation strategies used in 2 recent trials (Intraoperative Protective Ventilation [IMPROVE] trial and Protective Ventilation using High versus Low PEEP [PROVHILO] trial) on driving pressure (ΔPRS), mechanical power, and lung damage in a model of open abdominal surgery. Thirty-five Wistar rats were used, of which 28 were anesthetized, and a laparotomy was performed with standardized bowel manipulation. Postoperatively, animals (n = 7/group) were randomly assigned to 4 hours of ventilation with: (1) tidal volume (VT) = 7 mL/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 1 cm H2O without recruitment maneuvers (RMs) (low VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking the low-VT/low-PEEP strategy of PROVHILO; (2) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 3 cm H2O with RMs before laparotomy and hourly thereafter (low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+), mimicking the protective ventilation strategy of IMPROVE; (3) VT = 7 mL/kg and PEEP = 6 cm H2O with RMs only before laparotomy (low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+), mimicking the strategy used after intubation and before extubation in PROVHILO; or (4) VT = 14 mL/kg and PEEP = 1 cm H2O without RMs (high VT/low PEEP/RM-), mimicking conventional ventilation used in IMPROVE. Seven rats were not tracheotomized, operated, or mechanically ventilated, and constituted the healthy nonoperated and nonventilated controls. Low VT/moderate PEEP/4 RM+ and low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+, compared to low VT/low PEEP/RM- and high VT/low PEEP/RM-, resulted in lower ΔPRS (7.1 ± 0.8 and 10.2 ± 2.1 cm H2O vs 13.9 ± 0.9 and 16.9 ± 0.8 cm H2O, respectively; Pmechanical power (63 ± 7 and 79 ± 20 J/min vs 110 ± 10 and 120 ± 20 J/min, respectively; P = .007). Low VT/high PEEP/1 RM+ was associated with less alveolar collapse than low VT/low PEEP/RM- (P = .03). E-cadherin expression was higher in

  10. Disturbances in the circadian pattern of activity and sleep after laparoscopic versus open abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Ismail; Bisgaard, Thue; Burgdorf, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on the circadian variation in bodily functions and sleep are important for understanding the pathophysiological processes in the postoperative period. We aimed to investigate changes in the circadian variation in activity after minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic...... scale (sleep quality, general well-being and pain) and fatigue was measured by a ten-point fatigue scale. The activity levels of the patients were monitored by actigraphy (a wrist-worn device measuring patient activity). Measures of circadian activity level [interday stability (IS), intraday variability...

  11. Long-term safety of left renal vein division and ligation to expedite complex abdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Russell H; Lepore, Michael R; Showalter, David P; Nair, Deepak G; Lanoue, Julien B

    2009-09-01

    Left renal vein division and ligation (LRVDAL) is performed to facilitate complex abdominal aortic surgery. Surgeons restore continuity of the vein due to concern that ligation could cause renal compromise or hematuria. However, we report the short and long-term safety of left renal vein division and ligation. Between 1992 and 2007, we divided the left renal vein in 56 patients (40 males, 16 females) ages 57 to 84 (average 74-years-old) who were treated for aortic occlusive disease (9) or abdominal aortic aneurysm (47). Patients requiring concomitant renal artery reconstruction were excluded from this review. Suprarenal cross-clamp was used in 51 patients with temporary vessel-loop control of the renal arteries. Creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were measured pre-, post-, and long-term after surgery. Outpatient records of all patients that had survived more than 12 months were also reviewed in order to evaluate the late effects on renal function or symptoms possibly related to LRVDAL. Median procedure duration was 157 (61-375) minutes. Median cross-clamp time was 16 (10-45) minutes. Median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stays were 2 (1-11) days and 7 (4-58) days, respectively. There were no deaths. There were no complications directly related to renal vein ligation. Hematuria, seen in 2 patients, was a result of traumatic insertion of a Foley catheter. Median pre-op and discharge Cr levels were 1.1 mg/dL (0.7-2.4 mg/dL) and 1.1 mg/dL (0.6-2.1 mg/dL), respectively (P 2.0 mg/dL remained unchanged post-op. Only 2 patients with a Cr of 2.0 mg/dL and both returned to normal by day 3 post-op. Thirty-six patients have been followed for more than a year (median 34.5 months, maximum 144 months) and Cr has remained stable in all but 2 patients. These 2 patients, both with a pre-op Cr of 1.5 mg/dL, subsequently developed Cr levels of 2.1 mg/dL and 2.4 mg/dL but maintained baseline Cr levels for 25 and 34 months, respectively, before

  12. Intra-abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer detected by radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardi, A.; Workman, M.; Mojzisik, C.; Hinkle, G.; Nieroda, C.; Martin, E.W. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1986, 32 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have undergone second-look radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS system). The primary tumor was located in the right and transverse colon in 11 patients, left and sigmoid colon in 16, and rectum in five. The carcinoembryonic antigen level was elevated in 30 patients (94%); all patients underwent a computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis. The overall sensitivity of the computed tomographic scan was 41% (abdomen other than liver, 27%; liver, 58%; and pelvis, 22%). The RIGS system identified recurrent tumor in 81% of the patients. The most common site of metastasis was the liver (41%), independent of the primary location. Local/regional recurrences alone accounted for 40% of all recurrences. In six patients (18%), recurrent tumor was found only with the RIGS system. The RIGS system is more dependable in localizing clinically obscure metastases than other methods, and carcinoembryonic antigen testing remains the most accurate preoperative method to indicate suspected recurrences

  13. Emergency general surgery in Rwandan district hospitals: a cross-sectional study of spectrum, management, and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpirimbanyi, Christophe; Nyirimodoka, Alexandre; Lin, Yihan; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Odhiambo, Jackline; Nkurunziza, Theoneste; Havens, Joaquim M; Omondi, Jack; Rwamasirabo, Emile; Ntirenganya, Faustin; Toma, Gabriel; Mubiligi, Joel; Bayitondere, Scheilla; Riviello, Robert

    2017-12-01

    Management of emergency general surgical conditions remains a challenge in rural sub-Saharan Africa due to issues such as insufficient human capacity and infrastructure. This study describes the burden of emergency general surgical conditions and the ability to provide care for these conditions at three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. This retrospective cross-sectional study included all patients presenting to Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals between January 1st 2015 and December 31st 2015 with emergency general surgical conditions, defined as non-traumatic, non-obstetric acute care surgical conditions. We describe patient demographics, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes. In 2015, 356 patients presented with emergency general surgical conditions. The majority were male (57.2%) and adults aged 15-60 years (54.5%). The most common diagnostic group was soft tissue infections (71.6%), followed by acute abdominal conditions (14.3%). The median length of symptoms prior to diagnosis differed significantly by diagnosis type (p operated on at the district hospital, either by a general surgeon or general practitioner. Patients were more likely to receive surgery if they presented to a hospital with a general surgeon compared to a hospital with only general practitioners (75% vs 43%, p operation in a hospital with a general surgeon as opposed to a general practitioner. This provides evidence to support increasing the surgical workforce in district hospitals in order to increase surgical availability for patients.

  14. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  15. Study on value of Extended-Focused Abdominal Scan For Trauma (e-FAST performed by non-radiologist emergency care doctors in Management of Trauma at Emergency Trauma Centre, Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya,Galle, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seneviratne RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of ultrasound in the hands of emergency physicians and medical officers who are non-radiologistsin assessing Trauma patients at Emergency Trauma Centre(ETC at Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya, Galle, Sri Lanka Methodology We performed an observational study on Trauma patients admitted to Emergency Department at Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya from 1.12.2014 to 31.12.2014 who fulfilled indications for e-FAST using a specially designed performa. Accuracy of eFAST was tested by comparing the original with subsequent imaging, clinical decision by surgeons, findings at surgery or more than one of the above. Results 69 patients fulfilled the entry criteria.Nineteen of the scans were performed by consultants while rest was done by senior medical officers. All of them were trained in eFAST. Of the 20 scans which were positive there were four pneumothoraxes and one haemothorax. 15 scans which were positive for intraperitoneal free fluid were later. Out of 49 Patients who had negative scans 47 did not require surgery or any interventions. Other two required laparotomy later. Sensitivity and specificity ofeFast was 90.4% and 97.9% respectively. Positive predictive value was 95.0% while Negative predictive value was at 95.9% . Conclusions eFAST is a rapidand reliable alternative in detecting free intra-abdominal fluid as well as pneumotorax and haemothorax. It is a safe decision making tool which can be used with confidence and accuracy after brief training and experience by non radiologists which will reduce morbidity and mortality in trauma patients of Sri Lanka.

  16. Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staehr Anne K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2 may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC. Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n = 15 or 80% oxygen (n = 20 during and for 2 h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2 was measured every 30 min during anesthesia and 90 min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2 h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P = 0.25. At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.10. The median FRC was 1993 mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875 mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615 mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633 mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.70. Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936.

  17. Intra-operative tissue oxygen tension is increased by local insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 during open abdominal surgery in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean K Marshall

    Full Text Available Maintenance of high tissue oxygenation (PtO2 is recommended during surgery because PtO2 is highly predictive of surgical site infection and colonic anastomotic leakage. However, surgical site perfusion is often sub-optimal, creating an obstructive hurdle for traditional, systemically applied therapies to maintain or increase surgical site PtO2. This research tested the hypothesis that insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity would increase sub-peritoneal PtO2 during open abdominal surgery.15 Wistar rats underwent laparotomy under general anesthesia. Three sets of randomized cross-over experiments were conducted in which the abdominal cavity was subjected to alternating exposure to 1 humidified-warm CO2 & ambient air; 2 humidified-warm CO2 & dry-cold CO2; and 3 dry-cold CO2 & ambient air. Sub-peritoneal PtO2 and tissue temperature were measured with a polarographic oxygen probe.Upon insufflation of humidified-warm CO2, PtO2 increased by 29.8 mmHg (SD 13.3; p<0.001, or 96.6% (SD 51.9, and tissue temperature by 3.0°C (SD 1.7 p<0.001, in comparison with exposure to ambient air. Smaller, but significant, increases in PtO2 were seen in experiments 2 and 3. Tissue temperature decreased upon exposure to dry-cold CO2 compared with ambient air (-1.4°C, SD 0.5, p = 0.001.In a rat model, insufflation of humidified-warm CO2 into the abdominal cavity during open abdominal surgery causes an immediate and potentially clinically significant increase in PtO2. The effect is an additive result of the delivery of CO2 and avoidance of evaporative cooling via the delivery of the CO2 gas humidified at body temperature.

  18. 30-Day, 90-day and 1-year mortality after emergency colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Watt, S K; Tolstrup, M-B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Emergency surgery is an independent risk factor in colonic surgery resulting in high 30-day mortality. The primary aim of this study was to report 30-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality rates after emergency colonic surgery, and to report factors associated with 30-day, 90-day and 1-year...... mortality. Second, the aim was to report 30-day postoperative complications and their relation to in-hospital mortality. METHODS: All patients undergoing acute colonic surgery in the period from May 2009 to April 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark, were identified. Perioperative data...... postoperative deaths. CONCLUSION: Mortality and complication rates after emergency colonic surgery are high and associated with patient related risk factors that cannot be modified, but also treatment related outcomes that are modifiable. An increased focus on medical and other preventive measures should...

  19. Removal of an intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor by repetitive debulking surgery: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Jiro; Motohashi, Gyo; Nishida, Kiyotaka; Tabuchi, Takanobu; Ubukata, Hideyuki; Tabuchi, Takafumi

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, a case of recurrent desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is presented, which was successfully treated by repetitive debulking surgery. In May 2010, a 39-year-old male, with a history of surgical resection of intra-abdominal DSRCT, visited the Ibaraki Medical Center, Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Ami, Japan) with severe lower abdominal discomfort. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a small number of nodules in the abdominal cavity. The recurrent DSRCT was diagnosed and removed via lower anterior resection; however, complete resection was impossible due to multiple peritoneal metastases. One year later, the patient developed pain in the right groin due to the growth of metastasized tumor cells in the groin lymph nodes. The affected lymph nodes were removed utilizing an extra-peritoneal approach. At the time of writing, the patient continues to survive without any symptoms 60 months since the initial surgery. In conclusion, surgical debulking is a significant procedure for relieving patient symptoms as well as improving the survival time of patients with metastatic and recurrent DSRCT.

  20. Efeitos de duas técnicas de incentivo respiratório na mobilidade toracoabdominal após cirurgia abdominal alta Effects of two respiratory incentive techniques on chest wall mobility after upper abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elaine Trevisan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cirurgia abdominal alta está associada a um risco elevado de complicações pulmonares que podem ser reduzidas pelo uso criterioso de manobras terapêuticas visando a expansão pulmonar. O objetivo foi comparar duas técnicas de incentivo respiratório na recuperação da dinâmica toracoabdominal em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia abdominal alta. O grupo de estudo experimental foi constituído por 16 pacientes internados na Clínica Cirúrgica do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o grupo 1 foi constituído por dez pacientes que usaram o dispositivo Voldyne e o grupo 2, por seis pacientes submetidos ao padrão ventilatório com inspiração fracionada em três tempos. A expansibilidade toracoabdominal foi avaliada por cirtometria antes da cirurgia e no 1º, 3º¸ e 5º dias do pós-operatório (PO. Observou-se redução significativa dos valores de cirtometria no 1º PO que, gradualmente, foram sendo recuperados, não mais havendo diferença significativa no 5o PO em relação aos valores pré-operatórios em ambos os grupos. O grupo 1 obteve significativamente melhores índices de recuperação da mobilidade toracoabdominal do que o grupo 2. Também o tempo de recuperação do grupo 1 atingiu médias mais elevadas durante todo o período de PO investigado. Embora ambas as técnicas utilizadas fossem efetivas, o incentivo inspiratório por meio do Voldyne mostrou melhores resultados na recuperação da expansibilidade pulmonar após cirurgia abdominal alta.Upper abdominal surgery is associated to increased risk of pulmonary complications, which may be lessened by judicious use of therapeutic maneuvers aimed at lung expansion. The purpose here was to compare two respiratory incentive techniques on recovery of thoracic-abdominal dynamics in patients having undergone upper abdominal surgery. Sixteen patients in such condition were randomly divided into group 1 (n=10, who did respiratory training

  1. Anesthesia for major abdominal surgery in patients in poor physical condition. The combination of surface anesthesia with bilateral intercostal nerve block

    OpenAIRE

    Safar, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An anesthetic technique for major abdominal surgery is described, which consists of liqht general anesthesia, combined with bilateral intercostal nerveblock from T6 to T11 blocks are performed just behind the midaxillary line on the unconscious patient. This technique proved to be particulary valuable for patients in very poor conditions, with is in agreement with previous experiences of other authors. The technique is easy to leam, and when some proficiency is acquired, the patient can be re...

  2. Value of a step-up diagnosis plan: CRP and CT-scan to diagnose and manage postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Straatman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative complications frequently follow major abdominal surgery and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment of complications is associated with improved patient outcome. In this study we assessed the value of a step-up diagnosis plan by C-reactive protein and CT-scan (computed tomography-scan imaging for detection of postoperative complications following major abdominal surgery. An observational cohort study was conducted of 399 consecutive patients undergoing major abdominal surgery between January 2009 and January 2011. Indication for operation, type of surgery, postoperative morbidity, complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and mortality were recorded. Clinical parameters were recorded until 14 days postoperatively or until discharge. Regular C-reactive protein (CPR measurements in peripheral blood and on indication -enhanced CT-scans were performed. Eighty-three out of 399 (20.6 % patients developed a major complication in the postoperative course after a median of seven days (IQR 4-9 days. One hundred and thirty two patients received additional examination consisting of enhanced CT-scan imaging, and treatment by surgical reintervention or intensive care observation. CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with postoperative complications. On the second postoperative day CRP levels were on average 197.4 mg/L in the uncomplicated group, 220.9 mg/L in patients with a minor complication and 280.1 mg/L in patients with major complications (p < 0,001. CT-scan imaging showed a sensitivity of 91.7 % and specificity of 100 % in diagnosis of major complications. Based on clinical deterioration and the increase of CRP, an additional enhanced CT-scan offered clear discrimination between patients with major abdominal complications and uncomplicated patients. Adequate treatment could then be accomplished.

  3. Differences in emergency colorectal surgery in Medicaid and uninsured patients by hospital safety net status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Dahman, Bassam; Sabik, Lindsay M

    2015-02-01

    We examined whether safety net hospitals reduce the likelihood of emergency colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery in uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients. If these patients have better access to care through safety net providers, they should be less likely to undergo emergency resection relative to similar patients at non- safety net hospitals. Using population-based data, we estimated the relationship between safety net hospitals, patient insurance status, and emergency CRC surgery. We extracted inpatient admission data from the Virginia Health Information discharge database and matched them to the Virginia Cancer Registry for patients aged 21 to 64 years who underwent a CRC resection between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2005 (n = 5488). We differentiated between medically defined emergencies and those that originated in the emergency department (ED). For each definition of emergency surgery, we estimated the linear probability models of the effects of being treated at a safety net hospital on the probability of having an emergency resection. Safety net hospitals reduce emergency surgeries among uninsured and Medicaid CRC patients. When defining an emergency resection as those that involved an ED visit, these patients were 15 to 20 percentage points less likely to have an emergency resection when treated in a safety net hospital. Our results suggest that these hospitals provide a benefit, most likely through the access they afford to timely and appropriate care, to uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients relative to hospitals without a safety net mission.

  4. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Severgnini, Paolo; Jaber, Samir; Canet, Jaume; Wrigge, Hermann; Hiesmayr, Michael; Tschernko, Edda M; Hollmann, Markus W; Binnekade, Jan M; Hedenstierna, Göran; Putensen, Christian; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2011-05-06

    Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO") trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH(2)O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy) or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH(2)O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy). The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574.

  5. Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedenstierna Göran

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery. Methods The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO" trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH2O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH2O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy. The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication. Discussion The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574

  6. Navigation in head and neck oncological surgery: an emerging concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, P; Mastronicola, R; Cortese, S; Phulpin, B; Sergeant, C; Guillemin, F; Eluecque, H; Perrot, C; Dolivet, G

    2011-01-01

    Navigation surgery, initially applied in rhinology, neurosurgery and orthopaedic cases, has been developed over the last twenty years. Surgery based on computed tomography data has become increasingly important in the head and neck region. The technique for hardware fusion between RMI and computed tomography is also becoming more useful. We use such device since 2006 in head and neck carcinologic situation. Navigation allows control of the resection in order to avoid and protect the precise anatomical structures (vessels and nerves). It also guides biopsy and radiofrequency. Therefore, quality of life is much more increased and morbidity is decreased for these patients who undergo major and mutilating head and neck surgery. Here we report the results of 33 navigation procedures performed for 31 patients in our institution.

  7. Mortality following emergency groin hernia surgery in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Bay-Nielsen, M; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    The mortality following emergency groin hernia repair in Denmark is more than twice as high (7%) as in comparable countries. This article describes in detail the population that died following emergency herniotomy in order to identify aspects of care that may improve outcome.......The mortality following emergency groin hernia repair in Denmark is more than twice as high (7%) as in comparable countries. This article describes in detail the population that died following emergency herniotomy in order to identify aspects of care that may improve outcome....

  8. Physiotherapy education and training prior to upper abdominal surgery is memorable and has high treatment fidelity: a nested mixed-methods randomised-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Ianthe; El-Ansary, Doa; Zalucki, Nadia; Robertson, Iain K; Browning, Laura; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Denehy, Linda

    2018-06-01

    To (1) assess memorability and treatment fidelity of pre-operative physiotherapy education prior to elective upper abdominal surgery and, (2) to explore patient opinions on pre-operative education. Mixed-methods analysis of a convenience sample within a larger parallel-group, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Tertiary Australian hospital. Twenty-nine patients having upper abdominal surgery attending pre-admission clinic within six-weeks of surgery. The control group received an information booklet about preventing pulmonary complications with early ambulation and breathing exercises. The experimental group received an additional face-to-face 30-minute physiotherapy education and training session on pulmonary complications, early ambulation, and breathing exercises. Primary outcome was proportion of participants who remembered the taught breathing exercises following surgery. Secondary outcomes were recall of information sub-items and attainment of early ambulation goals. These were measured using standardised scoring of a semi-scripted digitally-recorded interview on the 5th postoperative day, and the attainment of early ambulation goals over the first two postoperative days. Experimental group participants were six-times more likely to remember the breathing exercises (95%CI 1.7 to 22) and 11-times more likely (95%CI 1.6 to 70) to report physiotherapy as the most memorable part of pre-admission clinic. Participants reported physiotherapy education content to be detailed, interesting, and of high value. Some participants reported not reading the booklet and professed a preference for face-to-face information delivery. Face-to-face pre-operative physiotherapy education and training prior to upper abdominal surgery is memorable and has high treatment fidelity. ACTRN-12613000664741. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Logistics and outcome in urgent and emergency colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elshove-Bolk, J.; Ellensen, V. S.; Baatrup, G.

    2010-01-01

    died were less likely to be operated by a subspecialized colorectal surgeon (17%. vs 30%, P = 0.001). The anaesthesiologist was a resident in most of the cases (> 75%) for both those who survived and those who died. Surgery performed out-of-office hours was common in both groups, although the patients...

  10. Multiple intestinal perforations as a primary manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis in a HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Sarrami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal tuberculosis (TB is the sixth commonest extra-pulmonary TB form after lymphatic, genitourinary, bone and joint, miliary and meningeal tuberculosis. Perforation is a serious and uncommon complication of abdominal tuberculosis which can occur even during the treatment. A 30-year-old man was admitted with a three-day history of abdominal pain who had emergency surgery for multiple perforations of the distal ileum.

  11. Comparison of intrathecal clonidine and magnesium sulphate used as an adjuvant with hyperbaric bupivacaine in lower abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Khandelwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Use of various adjuvants to spinal anaesthesia is a well-known modality to provide intra- and post-operative analgesia. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the analgesic efficacy of clonidine and magnesium when used as an additive to intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Methods: Ninety patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status grade I or II, scheduled for lower abdominal surgery under spinal anaesthesia, were randomly allocated into three groups. Group B received 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1 mL of normal saline, Group C received 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1 mL (30 μg of clonidine and Group M received 3 mL of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 1 mL (50 mg magnesium sulphate. The primary outcome variable was duration of analgesia and secondary outcome variables included onset and duration of sensory and motor block, sedation level and adverse effects. Data were analysed with ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results: The time to first rescue analgesia was significantly (P < 0.01 longer in the Group C (330.7 ± 47.7 min than both Groups. Group M (246.3 ± 55.9 min showed significantly prolonged analgesia than Group B (134.4 ± 17.9 min. Group C and Group M showed significantly prolonged duration of both sensory and motor block compared to Group B. Conclusion: Intrathecal clonidine added to bupivacaine prolongs the duration of post-operative analgesia, and hastens the onset and prolongs the duration of sensory and motor block compared to magnesium or controls.

  12. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert G

    2015-05-06

    The infusion of large amounts of Ringer's lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer's lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid treatment with 9 ml/kg of either 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (Voluven) or Ringer's lactate, just after induction of anaesthesia; this was followed by a second-line infusion with 12 ml/kg of either starch or Ringer's lactate over 1 hour. Further therapy was managed at the discretion of the attending anaesthetist. Outcome data consisted of postoperative gastrointestinal recovery time, complications and length of hospital stay. The order of the infusions had no impact on the outcome. Both the administration of ≥ 2 L of Ringer's lactate and the development of a surgical complication were associated with a longer time period of paralytic ileus and food intolerance (two-way ANOVA, P food intolerance time amounted to 2 days each. The infusion of ≥ 1 L of hydroxyethyl starch did not adversely affect gastrointestinal recovery. Ringer's lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolonged the gastrointestinal recovery time in patients undergoing laparoscopic cancer surgery. Surgical complications prolonged the hospital stay.

  13. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Chae

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing has been embraced by early adopters to produce medical imaging-guided 3D printed biomodels that facilitate various aspects of clinical practice. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. With increasing accessibility, investigators are now able to convert standard imaging data into Computer Aided Design (CAD files using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography (SLA, multijet modeling (MJM, selective laser sintering (SLS, binder jet technique (BJT, and fused deposition modeling (FDM. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without out-sourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. In this review the existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice, spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative aesthetics, are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, patient and surgical trainee education, and the development of intraoperative guidance tools and patient-specific prosthetics in everyday surgical practice.

  14. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  15. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  16. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embrac...

  17. Comparison of Flow and Volume Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Tolerance in Open Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amaravadi Sampath; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Pazhyaottayil, Zulfeequer Chundaanveetil; Ramakrishna, Anand; Krishnakumar, Shyam Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgical procedures in abdominal area lead to changes in pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics and impaired physical capacity leading to postoperative pulmonary complications, which can affect up to 80% of upper abdominal surgery. Aim To evaluate the effects of flow and volume incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and exercise tolerance in patients undergoing open abdominal surgery. Materials and Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a hospital of Mangalore city in Southern India. Thirty-seven males and thirteen females who were undergoing abdominal surgeries were included and allocated into flow and volume incentive spirometry groups by block randomization. All subjects underwent evaluations of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Preoperative and postoperative measurements were taken up to day 5 for both groups. Exercise tolerance measured by Six- Minute Walk Test during preoperative period and measured again at the time of discharge for both groups. Pulmonary function was analysed by post-hoc analysis and carried out using Bonferroni’s ‘t’-test. Exercise tolerance was analysed by Paired ‘T’-test. Results Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) was found to be significantly decreased in 1st, 2nd and 3rd postoperative day when compared with preoperative day. On 4th and 5th postoperative day the pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and PEFR) was found to be better preserved in both flow and volume incentive spirometry groups. The Six-Minute Walk Test showed a statistically significant improvement in pulmonary function on the day of discharge than in the preoperative period. In terms of distance covered, the volume- incentive spirometry group showed a greater statistically significant improvement from the preoperative period to the time of discharge than was exhibited by the flow incentive spirometry group

  18. The effect of morphine added to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia following lower abdominal cancer surgery, a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sherif, Fatma Adel; Mohamed, Sahar Abdel-Baky; Kamal, Shereen Mamdouh

    2017-06-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block used for management of surgical abdominal pain by injecting local anesthetics into the plane between the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles. We aimed to explore the effect of adding morphine to bupivacaine in ultrasound guided TAP-block in patients undergoing lower abdominal cancer surgery. Randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Clinical trial identifier: NCT02566096. Academic medical center. Sixty patients were enrolled in this study after ethical committee approval. Patients divided into 2 groups (30 each): Bupivacaine group (GB): given ultrasound guided TAP-block 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine diluted in 20ml saline; Morphine group (GM): given ultrasound guided TAP-block with 20ml 0.5% bupivacaine+10mg morphine sulphate diluted in 20ml saline. Patients were observed for total morphine consumption, time for first request of rescue analgesia, sedation scores, hemodynamics and side effects for 24h postoperatively. Morphine added to bupivacaine in TAP block compared to bupivacaine alone reduced total morphine consumption (5.33±1.28mg) (10.70±3.09mg) respectively (p0.05). Addition of morphine to bupivacaine in TAP block is effective method for pain management in patients undergoing major abdominal cancer surgery without serious side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between preoperative nutritional state and adverse outcome following abdominal and thoracic surgery in children: Results from the NSQIP database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Abdullah; Afshar, Kourosh; Bedford, Julie; Hintz, Graeme; Skarsgard, Erik D

    2018-05-01

    Anthropometric measurements can be used to define pediatric malnutrition. Our study aims to: (1) characterize the preoperative nutritional status of children undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery, and (2) describe the associations between WHO-defined acute (stunting) and chronic (wasting) undernutrition (Z-scores +2) with 30-day postoperative outcomes. We queried the Pediatric NSQIP Participant Use File and extracted data on patients' age 29days to 18years who underwent abdominal or thoracic procedures. Normalized anthropometric measures were calculated, including weight-for-height for nutritional outlier status as an independent predictor of postoperative outcome. 23,714 children (88% ≥2y) were evaluated. 4272 (18%) were obese, while 2640 (11.1%) and 904 (3.8%) were stunted and wasted, respectively, after controlling for gender, ASA/procedure/wound classification, preoperative steroid use, need for preoperative nutritional support, and obese children had higher odds of SSIs (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.1-1.5, p=0.001), while stunted children were at increased risk of any 30-day postoperative complication (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.0-1.3, p=0.036). Children who are stunted or obese are at increased risk of adverse outcome after abdominal or thoracic surgery. III. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extended upper abdominal resections as part of debulking surgery at the time of tertiary cytoreduction for relapsed ovarian cancer; case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Bacalbașa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer remains one of the most aggressive gynecologic malignancies with high capacity to recur even in cases submitted to surgery with curative intent. However, even in these cases the best therapeutic option in order to achieve a good control of the disease remains radical surgery. We present the case of a 65-year-old patient diagnosed submitted to surgery for stage IIIC ovarian cancer five years before. At two years follow up she was diagnosed with an isolated recurrence at the level of the hepatic pedicle which was successfully removed. At 18 months follow up she was diagnosed with a large recurrence in the left superior abdominal quadrant and a liver metastasis which were resected. At 18 months follow up she is free of recurrent disease.

  1. Improving time to surgery for hip fracture patients. Impact of the introduction of an emergency theatre

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    French-O’Carroll, F

    2017-01-01

    Hip fractures are a major cause of morbidity and mortality1. Surgery performed on the day of or after admission is associated with improved outcome2,3. An audit cycle was performed examining time to surgery for hip fracture patients. Our initial audit identified lack of theatre space as one factor delaying surgery. A dedicated daytime emergency theatre was subsequently opened and a re-audit was performed to assess its impact on time to surgery. Following the opening of the theatre, the proportion of patients with a delay to hip fracture surgery greater than 36 hours was reduced from 49% to 26% with lack of theatre space accounting for 23% (3 of 13) of delayed cases versus 28.6% (9 of 32) previously. 44% of hip fracture surgeries were performed in the emergency theatre during daytime hours, whilst in-hospital mortality rose from 4.6% to 6%. We conclude that access to an emergency theatre during daytime hours reduced inappropriate delays to hip fracture surgery.

  2. Core muscle size assessed by perioperative abdominal CT scan is related to mortality, postoperative complications, and hospitalization after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Rune; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Risk stratification of patients prior to surgery is important for reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The frailty concept has been put forward as a good predictor of surgical outcomes. Sarcopenia (depletion of muscle mass) can be used to measure frailty. We aimed to syste......PURPOSE: Risk stratification of patients prior to surgery is important for reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The frailty concept has been put forward as a good predictor of surgical outcomes. Sarcopenia (depletion of muscle mass) can be used to measure frailty. We aimed...

  3. Dexmedetomidine does not reduce emergence agitation in adults following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, S Y; Kim, J E; Park, C; Shin, M J; Shim, Y H

    2014-09-01

    Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery are at high risk of developing emergence agitation. We hypothesised that a single-dose of dexmedetomidine would reduce emergence agitation in adults with nasotracheal intubation after orthognathic surgery. Seventy adults (20-45 years old) undergoing orthognathic surgery were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients received intravenous dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg (dex group) or normal saline (control group) for 10 min at the end of surgery. Remifentanil was infused at 0.02 μg/kg/min during emergence in both groups. The severity of emergence agitation was assessed with the Richmond agitation-sedation scale. Cough, haemodynamic and respiratory profiles, pain, and time to eye opening were evaluated. The incidence of emergence agitation was not different between dex group and control group (38% vs. 47%, P = 0.45). However, severe cough during emergence was reduced in the dex group (P = 0.04). Tachycardia during emergence and recovery phases was attenuated in the dex group. The verbal numeric rating of pain was lower in the dex group. There were no differences in respiratory rate between the two groups. Time to eye opening was prolonged in the dex group. The addition of a single dose of dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) to low-dose remifentanil infusion did not attenuate emergence agitation in intubated patients after orthognathic surgery compared with low-dose remifentanil infusion alone. However, single-dose dexmedetomidine suppressed coughing, haemodynamic changes, and pain during emergence and recovery phases, without respiratory depression. Delayed awakening might be associated with this treatment. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  5. Outcomes following major emergency gastric surgery: the importance of specialist surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, O A; McGlone, E R; Mercer, S J; Somers, S S; Toh, S K C

    2015-01-01

    The increasing subspecialisation of general surgeons in their elective work may result in problems for the provision of expert care for emergency cases. There is very little evidence of the impact of subspecialism on outcomes following emergency major upper gastrointestinal surgery. This prospective study investigated whether elective subspecialism of general surgeon is associated with a difference in outcome following major emergency gastric surgery. Between February 1994 and June 2010, the data from all emergency major gastric procedures (defined as patients who underwent laparotomy within 12 hours of referral to the surgical service for bleeding gastroduodenal ulcer and/or undergoing major gastric resection) was prospectively recorded. The sub-specialty interest of operating surgeon was noted and related to post-operative outcomes. Over the study period, a total of 63 major gastric procedures were performed of which 23 (37%) were performed by specialist upper gastrointestinal (UGI) consultants. Surgery performed by a specialist UGI surgeon was associated with a significantly lower surgical complication (4% vs. 28% of cases; p=0.04) and in-patient mortality rate (22% vs. 50%; p=0.03). Major emergency gastric surgery has significantly better clinical outcomes when performed by a specialist UGI surgeon. These results have important implications for provision of an emergency general surgical service. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  6. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  7. Comparison of Epidural Analgesia with Transversus Abdominis Plane Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Relief in Patients Undergoing Lower Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Sadasivan Shankar; Bavishi, Harshit; Mohan, Chadalavada Venkataram; Kaur, Navdeep

    2017-01-01

    Anesthesiologists play an important role in postoperative pain management. For analgesia after lower abdominal surgery, epidural analgesia and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block are suitable options. The study aims to compare the analgesic efficacy of both techniques. Seventy-two patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to postoperatively receive lumbar epidural catheter (Group E) or ultrasound-guided TAP block (Group T) through intravenous cannulas placed bilaterally. Group E received 10 ml 0.125% bupivacaine stat and 10 ml 8 th hourly for 48 h. Group T received 20 ml 0.125% bupivacaine bilaterally stat and 20 ml bilaterally 8 th hourly for 48 h. Pain at rest and on coughing, total paracetamol and tramadol consumption were recorded. Analgesia at rest was comparable between the groups in the first 16 h. At 24 and 48 h, Group E had significantly better analgesia at rest ( P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively). Patients in Group E had significantly higher number of patients with nil or mild pain on coughing at all times. Paracetamol consumption was comparable in both groups, but tramadol consumption was significantly higher in Group T at the end of 48 h ( P = 0.001). For lower abdominal surgeries, analgesia provided by intermittent boluses of 0.125% is comparable for first 16 h between epidural and TAP catheters. However, the quality of analgesia provided by the epidural catheter is superior to that provided by TAP catheters beyond that both at rest and on coughing with reduced opioid consumption.

  8. Predictive Value of C-Reactive Protein for Major Complications after Major Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Pooled-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Straatman

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and treatment of complications after major abdominal surgery can decrease associated morbidity and mortality. Postoperative CRP levels have shown a strong correlation with complications. Aim of this systematic review and pooled-analysis was to assess postoperative values of CRP as a marker for major complications and construct a prediction model.A systematic review was performed for CRP levels as a predictor for complications after major abdominal surgery (MAS. Raw data was obtained from seven studies, including 1427 patients. A logit regression model assessed the probability of major complications as a function of CRP levels on the third postoperative day. Two practical cut-offs are proposed: an optimal cut-off for safe discharge in a fast track protocol and another for early identification of patients with increased risk for major complications.A prediction model was calculated for major complications as a function of CRP levels on the third postoperative day. Based on the model several cut-offs for CRP are proposed. For instance, a two cut-off system may be applied, consisting of a safe discharge criterion with CRP levels below 75 mg/L, with a negative predictive value of 97.2%. A second cut-off is set at 215 mg/L (probability 20% and serves as a predictor of complications, indicating additional CT-scan imaging.The present study provides insight in the interpretation of CRP levels after major abdominal surgery, proposing a prediction model for major complications as a function of CRP on postoperative day 3. Cut-offs for CRP may be implemented for safe early-discharge in a fast-track protocol and, secondly as a threshold for additional examinations, such as CT-scan imaging, even in absence of clinical signs, to confirm or exclude major complications. The prediction model allows for setting a cut-off at the discretion of individual surgeons or surgical departments.

  9. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute biliary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menu, Yves; Vuillerme, Marie-Pierre [Department of Radiology, Hopital Beaujon, 92118 Clichy Cedex (France)

    2002-10-01

    Imaging is the standard method for the evaluation of emergency bile ducts and gallbladder diseases. Imaging may help to treat the patient also. In acute cholecystitis, association of clinical and sonographic data is accurate for the diagnosis, even when the patient is examined by a junior radiologist. Computed tomography may be required for those patients with unusual presentation such as emphysematous cholecystitis, perforation, or abscess. Acalculous cholecystitis is a challenging problem. It sometimes requires percutaneous cholecystostomy for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In patients with acute cholangitis, sonography remains the first step for imaging, but its diagnostic accuracy is disappointing. This is related to low sensitivity, despite a high specificity. Computed tomography carries a slightly better sensitivity, and again a high specificity but overall accuracy is not sufficient. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and endosonography are the best methods for the detection. Both have advantages and limitations, including cost and availability, but endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography remains necessary for therapeutic purposes, especially stone extraction. In conclusion, emergency radiologists should be able to put the patient through multiple imaging modalities in order to make a prompt diagnosis with no delay, and be aware of the therapeutic options, including cooperation between radiologist, endoscopist, and surgeon. (orig.)

  10. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in acute biliary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menu, Yves; Vuillerme, Marie-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Imaging is the standard method for the evaluation of emergency bile ducts and gallbladder diseases. Imaging may help to treat the patient also. In acute cholecystitis, association of clinical and sonographic data is accurate for the diagnosis, even when the patient is examined by a junior radiologist. Computed tomography may be required for those patients with unusual presentation such as emphysematous cholecystitis, perforation, or abscess. Acalculous cholecystitis is a challenging problem. It sometimes requires percutaneous cholecystostomy for diagnosis or treatment purposes. In patients with acute cholangitis, sonography remains the first step for imaging, but its diagnostic accuracy is disappointing. This is related to low sensitivity, despite a high specificity. Computed tomography carries a slightly better sensitivity, and again a high specificity but overall accuracy is not sufficient. Magnetic resonance cholangiography and endosonography are the best methods for the detection. Both have advantages and limitations, including cost and availability, but endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography remains necessary for therapeutic purposes, especially stone extraction. In conclusion, emergency radiologists should be able to put the patient through multiple imaging modalities in order to make a prompt diagnosis with no delay, and be aware of the therapeutic options, including cooperation between radiologist, endoscopist, and surgeon. (orig.)

  11. Abdominal pain – learning when not to intervene!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Tachamo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Epiploic appendagitis (EA is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain. It is a benign condition but may mimic other serious causes of acute abdomen such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and gynecological emergency in severe cases. Knowledge of this condition in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain can save unnecessary hospital admission, antibiotics, and surgery. In this article, we present the case of a 43-year-old female who presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was diagnosed with EA with computed tomography of abdomen with contrast and was managed conservatively with good outcome.

  12. The emergence of radiofrequency identification tags: applications in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaitzberg, S D

    2006-08-01

    Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a wireless method of automatic identification. Currently, RFID tags are emerging into our environment in many aspects of our lives. Applications are being developed in a variety of fields, including health care. Aspects of surgical care will lend themselves to this approach. This technology could provide large amounts of data that not only carry the promise of improving health care, but also may have an impact on personal aspects of our daily lives. Each of us must become familiar with the risks and benefits of RFID use.

  13. Increased risk environment for emergency general surgery in the context of regionalization and specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, S; O'Leary, D P; McLaughlin, R

    2015-09-01

    The pressures on tertiary hospitals with increased volume and complexity related to regionalization and specialization has impacted upon availability of operating theatres with consequent displacement of emergencies to high risk out of hours settings. A retrospective review of an electronic emergency theatre list prospectively maintained database was performed over a two year period. Data gathered included type of operation performed, Time to Theatre (TTT), operation start time and length of stay (LOS). Of 7041 emergency operations 25% were performed out of hours. 2949 patient had general surgical emergency procedures with 910 (30%) performed out of hours. 53% of all emergency laparotomies and 54% of appendicectomies were out of hours. 57% of cases operated on out of hours had been awaiting surgery during the day. Mean TTT was shorter for those admitted at the weekend compared to those admitted during the week (15.6 vs 24.9 h) (p emergency surgery is performed out of hours in a way unfavorable to good clinical outcomes. It is of concern that more than half of the most life threating procedures involving laparotomy, take place out of hours. Regionalization needs to be accompanied by infrastructure planning to accommodate emergency surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geographic Diffusion and Implementation of Acute Care Surgery: An Uneven Solution to the National Emergency General Surgery Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jasmine A; Ingraham, Angela M; Daniel, Vijaya T; Ayturk, Didem; Kiefe, Catarina I; Santry, Heena P

    2018-02-01

    Owing to lack of adequate emergency care infrastructure and decline in general surgery workforce, the United States faces a crisis in access to emergency general surgery (EGS) care. Acute care surgery (ACS), an organized system of trauma, general surgery, and critical care, is a proposed solution; however, ACS diffusion remains poorly understood. To investigate geographic diffusion of ACS models of care and characterize the communities in which ACS implementation is lagging. A national survey on EGS practices was developed, tested, and administered at all 2811 US acute care hospitals providing EGS to adults between August 2015 and October 2015. Surgeons responsible for EGS coverage at these hospitals were approached. If these surgeons failed to respond to the initial survey implementation, secondary surgeons or chief medical officers at hospitals with only 1 general surgeon were approached. Survey responses on ACS implementation were linked with geocoded hospital data and national census data to determine geographic diffusion of and access to ACS. We measured the distribution of hospitals with ACS models of care vs those without over time (diffusion) and by US counties characterized by sociodemographic characteristics of county residents (access). Survey response rate was 60% (n = 1690); 272 responding hospitals had implemented ACS by 2015, steadily increasing from 34 in 2001 to 125 in 2010. Acute care surgery implementation has not been uniform. Rural regions have limited ACS access, with hospitals in counties with greater than the 75th percentile population having 5.4 times higher odds (95% CI, 1.66-7.35) of implementing ACS than hospitals in counties with less than 25th percentile population. Communities with greater percentages of adults without a college degree also have limited ACS access (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.81-6.48). However, incorporating EGS into ACS models may be a potential equalizer for poor, black, and Hispanic communities. Understanding and

  15. Use of a Combination of Regional and General Anesthesia during Emergency Thoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kh. Sharipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to elaborate multimodal anesthetic regimens and to evaluate their efficiency during emergency thoracic surgeries for varying injuries. Subjects and methods. A total of 116 patients emergently admitted to the Republican Research Center for Emergency Medical Care for chest traumatic injuries were examined and divided into 3 groups according to the mode of anesthesia. Results. Perioperative multimodal anesthetic regimens for emergency thoracic surgery, which involved all components of the pathogenesis of pain, were elaborated. Conclusion. The combination of regional and general anesthesia contributes to the smooth course of an intra operative period with minimal hemodynamic stress and it is cost effective in decreasing the use of narcotic anal gesics in the intraoperative period. 

  16. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilbao, J.I.; Torres, E.; Martinez-Cuesta, A. [Department of Radiology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Avda Pio XII, s/n, Apt. 192, 31080 Pamplona (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    Radiologist and radiological techniques play a crucial role in imaging and interventional procedures in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. They are involved in emergency situations that may lead to the death of the patient. Therefore correct diagnosis and treatment are absolutely decisive. We have a great potential in tools of diagnosis, with angiography serving not only as the gold standard for diagnosis even offering a potentially effective treatment for various pathologies. Nevertheless, other techniques have developed greatly during the past decade, including in standard protocols for the management of vascular pathologies such as those discussed here. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging and their applications in the vascular field such as in as Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography provide sensitivity as high as that of angiography for detecting vascular-dependent lesions and for evaluating and excluding other causes of acute or chronic abdomen disorders. This contribution evaluates clinical aspects, various imaging techniques, and interventional effectiveness related to gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. (orig.)

  17. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging and intervention in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilbao, J.I.; Torres, E.; Martinez-Cuesta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Radiologist and radiological techniques play a crucial role in imaging and interventional procedures in gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. They are involved in emergency situations that may lead to the death of the patient. Therefore correct diagnosis and treatment are absolutely decisive. We have a great potential in tools of diagnosis, with angiography serving not only as the gold standard for diagnosis even offering a potentially effective treatment for various pathologies. Nevertheless, other techniques have developed greatly during the past decade, including in standard protocols for the management of vascular pathologies such as those discussed here. Ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging and their applications in the vascular field such as in as Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography provide sensitivity as high as that of angiography for detecting vascular-dependent lesions and for evaluating and excluding other causes of acute or chronic abdomen disorders. This contribution evaluates clinical aspects, various imaging techniques, and interventional effectiveness related to gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ischemia. (orig.)

  18. [Common abdominal emergency cases a the end of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozsos, I

    1998-06-21

    Despite the marked decline in mortality of acute appendicitis over the past 50 years, the rate of perforation and negative appendectomy remains unchanged. The most effective means of controlling human suffering and economic cost associated with appendicitis is the identification and correction of factors responsible for perforation. Negative appendectomy rates have been relatively stable over the decades. Progress in diagnosis and diagnostic imaging still has not provided a foolproof non-invasive test to rule out the presence of appendicitis accurately. Clinical assessment determines the treatment and the clinical observation should be done by the surgeon. The use of H2-receptor antagonists has not reduced emergency admission of patients with duodenal ulcer. Mortality associated with perforated peptic ulcer remains high in spite of advances in surgical management. The patients with acute obstructed cholecystitis usually reach the surgeon with more advanced stage of the disease which results in increased morbidity and subsequently increased cost for undergoing cholecystectomy. If the patient develops severe diffuse peritonitis, the mortality could reach 30%. This is in spite of aggressive surgical treatment, potent antibiotics, modern intensive care and diagnostic procedures. To improve the results, more advanced treatment to avoid the development of peritonitis and more effective antibiotics to control the inflammation will be needed.

  19. Outcome of burr hole surgery in the emergency room for severe acute subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young-Soo; Hironaka, Yasuhiro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Asai, Hideki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Nishio, Kenji; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    We have performed burr hole surgery in the emergency room for severe acute subdural hematoma from April 2007 in twenty five patients. All patients were deep comatose and showed cerebral herniation sign with bilateral pupillary abnormalities. Burr hole surgeries were performed as soon as possible after CT evaluation. Continually decomporresive craiectomies were followed if clinical improvements were achieved and mild baribiturate-moderate hypothermia combined (MB-MH) therapy was induced postoperatively in some cases. The mean average was 65.6 years (range 16-93). The causes of head injuries were traffic accident in 9, fall down in 13 and unknown in 3. The mean Glasgow coma scale (GCS) on admission was 4.4 (range 3-9). The mean time interval from arrival to burr hole surgery was 33.5 minutes (range 21-50 minutes). Decompressive craniectomy was indicated in 14 cases and MB-MH therapy was induced in 13 cases. The overall clinical outcome consisted of good recovery in 3, moderate disability in 2, severe disability in 3, persistent vegetative state in 3 and death in 14. Favorable results can be expected even in patients with serious acute subdural hematoma. Emergent burr hole surgery was effective to decrease intracranial pressure rapidly and to save time. So active burr hole surgery in the emergency room is strongly recommended to all cases of severe acute subdural hematoma. (author)

  20. Medical emergencies in the dental surgery. Part 1: Preparation of the office and basic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, Stanley F

    2015-12-01

    Medical emergencies can and do happen in the dental surgery. In the 20- to 30-year practice lifetime of the typical dentist, he/she will encounter between five and seven emergency situations. Being prepared in advance of the emergency increases the likelihood of a successful outcome. PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: To prepare members of the dental office staff to be able to promptly recognize and efficiently manage those medical emergency situations that can occur in the dental office environment. Preparation of the dental office to promptly recognize and efficiently manage medical emergencies is predicated on successful implementation of the following four steps: basic life support for ALL members of the dental office staff; creation of a dental office emergency team; activation of emergency medial services (EMS) when indicated; and basic emergency drugs and equipment. The basic emergency algorithm (P->C->A->B->D) is designed for implementation in all emergency situations. Prompt implementation of the basic emergency management protocol can significantly increase the likelihood of a successful result when medical emergencies occur in the dental office environment.

  1. Emerging risks and outcomes of blood transfusion in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh

    2004-01-01

    Prior to 1900, blood transfusions were fraught with danger and often caused more complications than the underlying disease. Discovery of the ABO compatibility system in the early twentieth century opened the modern era of blood transfusion, yet ABO incompatibility-as a result of clerical error-remains a significant threat to the recipient today. The risk of disease transmission now includes new and emerging agents, such as Trepanosoma cruzii and West Nile Virus (WNV), as well as other existing pathogens. Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) presents a further risk to recipient patients. Confounding these problems are shortages of safe blood and the accelerated rise in the cost of blood due to increased testing. Outcome data on transfusion therapy have not always been favorable, particularly in the areas of postoperative infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multiple organ failure (MOF), and mortality. Such data have generated extensive efforts to determine association versus underlying cause of post-transfusion complications. In addition, unprecedented global initiatives to minimize the use of allogeneic blood are on the way. Options may include, but are not limited to, the use of "blood substitutes," although validation of such products is still required. In the meantime, blood product conservation techniques should become part of routine transfusion medicine.

  2. Emergency canine surgery in a deployed forward surgical team: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitler, Alan L; Jeanette, Joseph P; McGraw, Andrew L; Butera, Jennifer R; Vanfosson, Christopher A; Seery, Jason M

    2011-04-01

    Forward surgical teams (FSTs) perform a variety of non-doctrinal functions. During their deployment to Afghanistan, the 541st FST (Airborne) performed emergency surgery on a German shepherd military working dog (MWD). Retrospective examination of a case of veterinary surgery in a deployed FST. A 5 1/2-year-old German shepherd MWD presented with extreme lethargy, tachycardia, excessive drooling, and a firm, distended abdomen. These conditions resulted from gastric dilatation with volvulus. Since evacuation to a veterinarian was untenable, emergency laparotomy was performed in the FST. The gastric dilatation with volvulus was treated by detorsion and gastropexy, and the canine patient fully recovered. Canine surgery can be safely performed in an FST. Based on the number of MWDs deployed throughout the theater, FSTs may be called upon to care for them in the absence of available veterinary care.

  3. Early inflammatory response following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: A comparison between endovascular procedure and conventional, open surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA represents a pathological enlargment of infrarenal portion of aorta for over 50% of its lumen. The only treatment of AAA is a surgical reconstruction of the affected segment. Until the late XX century, surgical reconstruction implied explicit, open repair (OR of AAA, which was accompanied by a significant morbidity and mortality of the treated patients. Development of endovascular repair of (EVAR AAA, especially in the last decade, offered another possibility of surgical reconstruction of AAA. The preliminary results of world studies show that complications of such a procedure, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients, are significantly lower than with OR of AAA. The aim of this paper was to present results of comparative clinical prospective study of early inflammatory response after reconstruction of AAA between endovascular and open, conventional surgical technique. Methods. A comparative clinical prospective study included 39 patients, electively operated on for AAA within the period of December 2008 - February 2010, divided into two groups. The group I counted 21 (54% of the patients, 58-87 years old (mean 74.3 years, who had been submited to EVAR by the use of excluder stent graft. The group II consisted of 18 (46% of the patients, 49-82 (mean 66.8 years, operated on using OR technique. All of the treated patients in both groups had AAA larager than 50 mm. The study did not include patients who have been treated as urgent cases, due to the rupture or with simptomatic AAA. Clinical, biochemical and inflamatory parameters in early postoperative period were analyzed, in direct postoperative course (number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, serum circulating levels of cytokine - interleukine (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10. Parameters were monitored on the zero, first, second, third and seventh postoperative days. The study was approved by the Ethics Commitee of the Military Medical Academy. Results

  4. A-Part Gel, an adhesion prophylaxis for abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled phase I-II safety study [NCT00646412].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Reinhold; Baumann, Petra; Schmoor, Claudia; Odermatt, Erich K; Wente, Moritz N; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2015-01-01

    Intra-abdominal surgical intervention can cause the development of intra-peritoneal adhesions. To reduce this problem, different agents have been tested to minimize abdominal adhesions; however, the optimal adhesion prophylaxis has not been found so far. Therefore, the A-Part(®) Gel was developed as a barrier to diminish postsurgical adhesions; the aim of this randomized controlled study was a first evaluation of its safety and efficacy. In this prospective, controlled, randomized, patient-blinded, monocenter phase I-II study, 62 patients received either the hydrogel A-Part-Gel(®) as an anti-adhesive barrier or were untreated after primary elective median laparotomy. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of peritonitis and/or wound healing impairment 28 ± 10 days postoperatively. As secondary endpoints anastomotic leakage until 28 days after surgery, adverse events and adhesions were assessed until 3 months postoperatively. A lower rate of wound healing impairment and/or peritonitis was observed in the A-Part Gel(®) group compared to the control group: (6.5 vs. 13.8 %). The difference between the two groups was -7.3%, 90 % confidence interval [-20.1, 5.4 %]. Both treatment groups showed similar frequency of anastomotic leakage but incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events were slightly lower in the A-Part Gel(®) group compared to the control. Adhesion rates were comparable in both groups. A-Part Gel(®) is safe as an adhesion prophylaxis after abdominal wall surgery but no reduction of postoperative peritoneal adhesion could be found in comparison to the control group. This may at least in part be due to the small sample size as well as to the incomplete coverage of the incision due to the used application. NCT00646412.

  5. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as an abscess in the abdominal wall in an elderly patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Massuqueto Andrade Gomes de Souza

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdomen; however, the classic clinical signs are not often present, and it has unusual presentations. Thus, its diagnosis can be challenging. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We describe the case of an elderly man who presented with right abdominal wall abscess with spontaneous drainage in the emergency department. Since we suspected a subjacent abdominal pathology, we performed surgery, and intraoperatively, we observed that the Appendix tip had invaded the abdominal wall. Discussion: This patient had a challenging diagnostic process and surgical visualization of the appendicular tip invading the abdominal wall was an important characteristic in proving the cause of the abdominal wall abscess. Conclusion: The onset of an abdominal wall abscess without a known cause needs to be thoroughly investigated, with consideration of a subjacent abdominal cause and appendicitis necessitatis. Keywords: Appendicitis, Abdominal abscess, Appendicitis necessitatis, Case report

  6. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, Dina; Visfeldt, J

    1999-01-01

    Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides adequate...

  7. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  8. Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections Observational European study (CIAO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartelli Massimo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated intra-abdominal infections are frequently associated with poor prognoses and high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite advances in diagnosis, surgery, and antimicrobial therapy, mortality rates associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections remain exceedingly high. In order to describe the clinical, microbiological, and management-related profiles of both community-acquired and healthcare-acquired complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES, in collaboration with the Surgical Infections Society of Europe (SIS-E and other prominent European surgical societies, has designed the CIAO study. The CIAO study is a multicenter, observational study and will be carried out in various surgical departments throughout Europe. The study will include patients undergoing surgery or interventional drainage for complicated IAI.

  9. Changes in adhesion molecule expression and oxidative burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass compared with abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Nielsen, C H; Tønnesen, E

    1998-01-01

    surgery. The ability to respond with an oxidative burst was measured by means of flow cytometry using 123-dihydrorhodamine. The adhesion molecules CD11a/CD18, CD11c/CD18, CD44 were measured using monoclonal antibodies. Blood samples from eight patients undergoing open-heart surgery were taken before...... to an increased per-operative oxidative burst activity, and the induction of adhesion molecules on granulocytes associated with the cardiopulmonary bypass and surgery. In conclusion, open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a rapid and pronounced activation of leukocytes which may play...

  10. Emergency medicine physicians' and pediatricians' use of computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Paul Francis

    2014-05-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding emergency department (ED) provider type and computed tomography (CT) scan use in the evaluation of pediatric patients with abdominal pain without trauma. The purpose of this retrospective single community hospital study was to determine if there was a difference in CT use between emergency medicine physicians (EMPs) and pediatricians (PEDs) in all patients younger than 18 years with abdominal pain without trauma who presented to the ED during the study period. The study included 165 patients. EMPs saw 83 patients and used CT in 31 compared with PEDs who saw 82 patients and used CT in 12 (P = .002). EMPs used CT significantly more frequently than PEDs in the designated sample. Economic pressures may cause changes in ED provider type in community and rural hospitals and this study shows that ED provider type may affect medical decision making, including CT use.

  11. Self-expandable metallic stent as a bridge to elective surgery versus emergency surgery for acute malignant colorectal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Xiong; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Hai-yan; Chang, Wen-Ju; Chang, Xiu-juan; Yi, Tuo; Shi, Qiang; Chen, Jing-Wen; Feng, Qing-Yang; Zhu, De-Xiang; Wei, Ye; Zhong, Yun-Shi; Xu, Jian-Min

    2016-03-01

    The efficacy and safety of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) as a bridge for patients with acute malignant colorectal obstructions (AMCOs) are still controversial. We conducted this study to evaluate the outcomes of patients with AMCOs treated by different strategies. From January 2010 to March 2014, a total of 171 patients with AMCOs from Zhongshan Hospital were retrospectively enrolled in this study. One hundred twenty patients successfully received stent placement followed by one-stage laparoscopic or open resection in the stent group, and 51 patients received emergency operations in the emergency group. The operation duration and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the stent group (114.51 ± 28.65 vs. 160.39 ± 58.94 min, P stent group also had significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss and the incidence of postoperative complications compared with the emergency group (61.00 ± 43.70 vs. 121.18 ± 85.90 ml, P stent group was significantly longer than that in the emergency group (53 vs. 41 months, P = 0.034). In subgroup analysis of stent group, the stent laparoscopy group had significantly decreased postoperative complications (P = 0.025), and similar long-term survival (P = 0.81). Stent placement as a bridge to surgery is a safe and feasible procedure and provides significant advantages in terms of short-term outcomes and favorable prognoses for patients with AMCOs. Laparoscopic surgery could be considered as an optimal treatment after stent placement.

  12. The Effect of Preemptive Lornoxicam, Paracetamol and Paracetamol Lornoxicam Combinations on the Quality of Patient-Controlled Analgesia After Abdominal Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Coskun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We investigated total fentanyl dose, its side effects and the quality of Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA using preemptive paracetamol, lornoxicam and their combination after abdominal surgery. Material and Method: After approval of the Hospital Ethic Committee of Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey, The study included 120 ASA I or II, patients aged between 18 to 70 years, scheduled to undergo elective abdominal surgery (midline incision surgery. Patients were randomly divided into four groups. In all cases, anesthesia was induced with 2mg/kg propofol and 0.6mg/kg rocuronium. Anesthesia was maintained by using 1-1.5% sevoflurane in 60% 40% nitrous oxide - O2. Group control (Group C, n=30: received intravenous (i.v. fentanyl through Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA Group Lornoxicam (Group L, n=30: a one-time 8mg dose of i.v. lornoxicam was added, which was completed approximately 30 minutes before intubation.; Group paracetamol (Group P, n=30: received 1g i.v. paracetamol before intubation, followed by every 6 hours for a total of four times. Group lornoxicam and paracetamol (Group PL, n=30: received 8mg i.v. lornoxicam before intubation, and 1g i.v. paracetamol before intubation every 6 hours for a total of 4 times. During the postoperative 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours, visual analogue scale (VAS, sedation, and nausea-vomiting scores, patient satisfaction, incidence of side effects and total amount of fentanyl used were recorded. Results: Total postoperative fentanyl consumption was significantly higher in GC than of the other groups. At 2, 8, 12, 24. hours, fentanyl consumption was found to be significantly lower in GL than that in GC. In GPL, fentanyl consumption was significantly lower than in GC at all time points. Discussion: We observed that preemptive 8 mg lornoxicam decreased PCA fentanyl consumption but a combination of lornoxicam and paracetamol was not superior to lornoxicam alone.

  13. Protocol for a single-centre, randomised controlled study of a preoperative rehabilitation bundle in the frail and elderly undergoing abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hairil Rizal; Lien, Victoria Peixin; Ong, Hwee Kuan; Er, Pei Ling; Hao, Ying; Khan, Shariq Ali; Liu, Christopher Weiyang

    2017-08-04

    Frail patients have decreased physiological reserves and consequently, they are unable to recover as quickly from surgery. Frailty, as an entity, is a risk factor of increased morbidity and mortality. It is also associated with a longer time to discharge. This trial is undertaken to determine if a novel prehabilitation protocol (10-day bundle of interventions-physiotherapy, nutritional supplementation and cognitive training) can reduce the postoperative length of stay of frail patients who are undergoing elective abdominal surgery, compared with standard care. This is a prospective, single-centre, randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. 62 patients who are frail and undergoing elective abdominal surgery will be recruited and randomised to receive either a novel prehabilitation protocol or standard care. Participants will receive telephone reminders preoperatively to encourage protocol compliance. Data will be collected for up to 30 days postoperatively. The primary outcome of the trial will be the postoperative length of stay and the secondary outcomes are the postoperative complications and functional recovery during the hospital admission. This study has been approved by the Singapore General Hospital Institutional Review Board (CIRB Ref: 2016/2584). The study is also listed on ClinicalTrials.gov (Trial number: NCT02921932). All participants will sign an informed consent form before randomisation and translators will be made available to non-English speaking patients. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals as well as national and international conferences. The data collected will also be made available in a public data repository. NCT02921932 (ClinicalTrials.gov). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath and transversus abdominis plane blocks for perioperative analgesia in upper abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abdelsalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regional anesthetic techniques can be used to alleviate postoperative pain in patients undergoing major upper abdominal surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of bilateral ultrasound (US-guided rectus sheath (RS and transversus abdominis plane (TAP blocks for better perioperative analgesia. Patients and Methods: It is a prospective, observer-blinded, randomized clinical study. 40 eligible patients undergoing elective liver resection or Whipple procedure were included. All patients received a standardized anesthetic technique. Group 1 (n = 20 received preincisional US-guided bilateral RS and TAP blocks using 20 ml volume of bupivacaine 0.25% for each, and group 2 (n = 20 received local wound infiltration at end of surgery with 40 ml of bupivacaine 0.25%. A standardized postoperative analgesic regimen composed of intravenous paracetamol and a morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA. The use of intraoperative fentanyl and recovery room morphine boluses, PCA-administered morphine, pain scores as well as number of patients′ experienced postoperative nausea and vomiting in the ward at 6 and 24 h were recorded. Results: Group 1 patients received a significantly lower cumulative intraoperative fentanyl, significantly lesser boluses of morphine in postanesthesia care unit, as well, significantly lower cumulative 24 h postoperative morphine dosage than the group 2 patients. Pain visual analog scale scores were significantly lower at both 6 and 24 h postoperatively in TAP group when compared with the no-TAP group. There were no complications related to the TAP block procedures. No signs or symptoms of local anesthetic systemic toxicity were detected. Conclusion: The combination of bilateral US-guided RS and TAP blocks provides excellent perioperative analgesia for major upper abdominal surgery.

  15. Biologic treatment or immunomodulation is not associated with postoperative anastomotic complications in abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Andersen, Jens; Bisgaard, Thue

    2012-01-01

    There are concerns that biologic treatments or immunomodulation may negatively influence anastomotic healing. This study investigates the relationship between these treatments and anastomotic complications after surgery for Crohn's disease.......There are concerns that biologic treatments or immunomodulation may negatively influence anastomotic healing. This study investigates the relationship between these treatments and anastomotic complications after surgery for Crohn's disease....

  16. Abdominal tuberculosis: clinical presentation and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Saddique, M.; Iqbal, P.

    2007-01-01

    To study the clinical presentation and outcome of cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis. Fifty four patients of Abdominal Tuberculosis were seen during the study period. Four patients were lost to follow-up, which were excluded. Detailed information of all the patients including age, sex, symptoms, signs, investigations and management was recorded, analyzed and compared with local and international data. Out of the 50 patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis, 31 were females and 19 males. Their ages ranged from 17 to 63 years, with a mean age of 25.1 years. Thirty five cases were admitted through Emergency and 15 through Outpatients departments. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom found in 44 (88%) patients followed by vomiting in 33 (66%). Abdominal tenderness was seen in 22 (44%) patients, while 16 (32%) patients had rigidity and other features of peritonitis. Surgery was performed in all these patients, limited right hemicolectomy in 17 (34%), segmental resection and anastomosis in 12 (24%), ileostomy and strictureplasty in six (12%) each, repair of perforation in five (10%) and adhesiolysis in four (8%) patients. Overall mortality was 8% due to septicaemia and multiorgan failure. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a significant clinical entity with lethal complications in neglected cases. It affects a younger age group and is more common in females. Clinical features are rather non-specific but vague ill health, low grade fever, weight loss and anorexia may help to diagnose the case. (author)

  17. A comparative study of short- and medium-term outcomes comparing emergent surgery and stenting as a bridge to surgery in patients with acute malignant colonic obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, Dara O

    2013-04-01

    The use of self-expanding metal stents as a bridge to surgery in the setting of malignant colorectal obstruction has been advocated as an acceptable alternative to emergency surgery. However, concerns about the safety of stenting have been raised following recent randomized studies.

  18. Bariatric Surgery for Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes: an Emerging Therapeutic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, M A; Inge, T H

    2017-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a growing public health problem in youth, but conventional treatments are often insufficient to treat this disease and its comorbidities. We review evidence supporting an emerging role for bariatric surgery as a treatment for adolescent T2D. Paralleling what has been seen in adult patients, bariatric surgery dramatically improves glycemic control in patients with T2D. In fact, remission of T2D has been observed in as many as 95-100% of adolescents with diabetes after bariatric surgery, particularly vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. This striking outcome may be due to both weight-dependent- and weight-independent factors, and recent studies suggest that T2D-related comorbidities may also improve after surgery. Bariatric surgery including RYGB and VSG is a powerful therapeutic option for obese adolescents with T2D. Benefits must be weighed against risk for postoperative complications such as nutritional deficiencies, but earlier surgical intervention might lead to more complete metabolic remission in obese patients with T2D.

  19. Assessment of intraoperative oxygenation function and trauma degree of PCV-VG and VCV mode for elderly patients with laparoscopic abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the intraoperative oxygenation function and trauma degree of pressurecontrolled ventilation-volume guaranteed (PCV-VG and volume-controlled ventilation (VCV mode for elderly patients with laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methods: 60 elderly patients with laparoscopic abdominal surgery were selected for study and randomly divided into two groups (n=30, group A received ventilation in accordance with sequential VCV-PCV-VG mode, group B received ventilation in accordance with the sequential PCV-VG-VCV mode, and the respiratory function parameters and arterial blood gas parameters and serum damage indexes were determined before the start of pneumoperitoneum (T0, 1 h after the start of the first ventilation mode after the start of pneumoperitoneum (T1, 1 h after the switch of ventilation mode (T2 and after the end of pneumoperitoneum (T3. Results: At T1, Ppeak, mean airway pressure (Pmean and plateau airway pressure (Pplant of group A were significantly higher than those of group B (P<0.05, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 was significantly lower than that of group B (P<0.05, and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 were not significantly different from those of group B; at T2 and T3, Ppeak, Pmean and Pplant of group A were significantly lower than those of group B (P<0.05, PaO2 were significantly lower than those of group B (P<0.05, and SpO2 and PaCO2 were not significantly different from those of group B. At T1, serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (sRAGE, KL-6 (krebs. von den Iungen-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA content of group A were significantly higher than those of group B (P<0.05; at T3, serum sRAGE, KL-6, TNF-α and MDA content of group A were significantly lower than those of group B (P<0.05. Conclusions: PCV-VG mode for elderly patients with laparoscopic abdominal surgery can reduce airway pressure, improve lung compliance and

  20. Creation of an emergency surgery service concentrates resident training in general surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hesham M; Gale, Stephen C; Tinti, Meredith S; Shiroff, Adam M; Macias, Aitor C; Rhodes, Stancie C; Defreese, Marissa A; Gracias, Vicente H

    2012-09-01

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) is increasingly being provided by academic trauma surgeons in an acute care surgery model. Our tertiary care hospital recently changed from a model where all staff surgeons (private, subspecialty academic, and trauma academic) were assigned EGS call to one in which an emergency surgery service (ESS), staffed by academic trauma faculty, cares for all EGS patients. In the previous model, many surgeries were "not covered" by residents because of work-hour restrictions, conflicting needs, or private surgeon preference. The ESS was separate from the trauma service. We hypothesize that by creating a separate ESS, residents can accumulate needed and concentrated operative experience in a well-supervised academic environment. A prospectively accrued EGS database was retrospectively queried for the 18-month period: July 2010 to June 2011. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) databases were queried for operative numbers for our residency program and for national resident data for 2 years before and after creating the ESS. The ACGME operative requirements were tabulated from online sources. ACGME requirements were compared with surgical cases performed. During the 18-month period, 816 ESS operations were performed. Of these, 307 (38%) were laparoscopy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and appendectomy were most common (138 and 145, respectively) plus 24 additional laparoscopic surgeries. Each resident performed, on average, 34 basic laparoscopic cases during their 2-month rotation, which is 56% of their ACGME basic laparoscopic requirement. A diverse mixture of 70 other general surgical operations was recorded for the remaining 509 surgical cases, including reoperative surgery, complex laparoscopy, multispecialty procedures, and seldom-performed operations such as surgery for perforated ulcer disease. Before the ESS, the classes of 2008 and 2009 reported that only 48% and 50% of cases were performed at the main academic

  1. Late Onset of CSF Rhinorrhea in a Postoperative Transsphenoidal Surgery Patient Following Robotic-Assisted Abdominal Hysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Dowdy, Justin T.; Moody, Marcus W.; Cifarelli, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is the most commonly encountered perioperative complication in transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions. Direct closure with a combination of autologous fat, local bone, and/or synthetic grafts remains the standard of care for leaks encountered at the time of surgery as well as postoperatively. The development of the vascularized nasoseptal flap as a closure technique has increased the surgeon’s capacity to correct even larger openings in the dura of the se...

  2. Emergency surgery due to complications during molecular targeted therapy in advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, P.; Nowecki, Z. I.; Dziewirski, W.; Ruka, W.; Siedlecki, J. A.; Grzesiakowska, U.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency and results of disease/treatment-related emergency operations during molecular targeted therapy of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Methods. We analyzed emergency operations in patients with metastatic/inoperable GISTs treated with 1 st -line imatinib - IM (group I: 232 patients; median follow-up time 31 months) and 2 nd -line sunitinib - SU (group II: 43 patients; median follow-up 13 months; 35 patients in trial A6181036) enrolled into the Polish Clinical GIST Registry. Results. In group I 3 patients (1.3%) underwent emergency surgery due to disease/treatment related complications: one due to bleeding from a ruptured liver tumor (1 month after IM onset) and two due to bowel perforation on the tumor with subsequent intraperitoneal abscess (both 2 months after IM onset). IM was restarted 5-8 days after surgery and no complications in wound healing were observed. In group II 4 patients (9.5%) underwent emergency operations due to disease/treatment related complications: three due to bowel perforations on the tumor (2 days, 20 days and 10 months after SU onset; 1 subsequent death) and one due to intraperitoneal bleeding from ruptured, necrotic tumor (3.5 months after SU start). SU was restarted 12-18 days after surgery and no complications in wound healing were observed. Conclusions. Emergency operations associated with disease or therapy during imatinib treatment of advanced GISTs are rare. The frequency of emergency operations during sunitinib therapy is considered to be higher than during first line therapy with imatinib which may be associated with more advanced and more resistant disease or to the direct mechanism of sunitinib action, i.e. combining cytotoxic and antiangiogenic activity and thus leading to dramatic tumor response. Molecular targeted therapy in GISTs should always be conducted in cooperation with an experienced surgeon. (authors)

  3. Process mapping as a framework for performance improvement in emergency general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGirolamo, Kristin; D'Souza, Karan; Hall, William; Joos, Emilie; Garraway, Naisan; Sing, Chad Kim; McLaughlin, Patrick; Hameed, Morad

    2018-02-01

    Emergency general surgery conditions are often thought of as being too acute for the development of standardized approaches to quality improvement. However, process mapping, a concept that has been applied extensively in manufacturing quality improvement, is now being used in health care. The objective of this study was to create process maps for small bowel obstruction in an effort to identify potential areas for quality improvement. We used the American College of Surgeons Emergency General Surgery Quality Improvement Program pilot database to identify patients who received nonoperative or operative management of small bowel obstruction between March 2015 and March 2016. This database, patient charts and electronic health records were used to create process maps from the time of presentation to discharge. Eighty-eight patients with small bowel obstruction (33 operative; 55 nonoperative) were identified. Patients who received surgery had a complication rate of 32%. The processes of care from the time of presentation to the time of follow-up were highly elaborate and variable in terms of duration; however, the sequences of care were found to be consistent. We used data visualization strategies to identify bottlenecks in care, and they showed substantial variability in terms of operating room access. Variability in the operative care of small bowel obstruction is high and represents an important improvement opportunity in general surgery. Process mapping can identify common themes, even in acute care, and suggest specific performance improvement measures.

  4. Surgery of the elderly in emergency room mode. Is there a place for laparoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Zacharz, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    An important yet difficult problem is qualification for surgery in elderly patients. With age the risk of comorbidities increases - multi-disease syndrome. Elderly patients suffer from frailty syndrome. Many body functions become impaired. All these factors make the elderly patient a major challenge for surgical treatment. Analysis of the possibility of developing the indications and contraindications and the criteria for surgical treatment of the elderly based on our own cases. Discussion whether there is a place for laparoscopy during surgery of the elderly in emergency room (ER) mode. The analysis was performed based on seven cases involving surgical treatment of elderly patients who were admitted to the hospital in emergency room mode. The patients were hospitalized in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Clinic in Olsztyn in 2016. Surgical treatment of elderly patients should be planned with multidisciplinary teams. Geriatric surgery centers should be developed to minimize the risk of overzealous treatment and potential complications. Laparoscopy should always be considered in the case of ER procedures or diagnostics. Elderly patients should not be treated as typical adults, but as a separate group of patients requiring special treatment. Due to the existing additional disease in the elderly, the frailty syndrome, any surgical intervention should be minimally invasive. The discussion about therapy should be conducted by a team of specialists from a variety of medical fields.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of contrast enhanced ultrasound in patients with blunt abdominal trauma presenting to the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Hong, Yucai; Liu, Ning; Chen, Yuhao

    2017-06-30

    We aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in evaluating blunt abdominal trauma for patients presenting to the emergency department. Electronic search of Scopus and Pubmed was performed from inception to September 2016. Human studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of CEUS in identifying abdominal solid organ injuries were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS tool. A total of 10 studies were included in the study and 9 of them were included for meta-analysis. The log(DOR) values ranged from 3.80 (95% CI: 2.81-4.79) to 8.52 (95% CI: 4.58-12.47) in component studies. The combined log(DOR) was 6.56 (95% CI: 5.66-7.45). The Cochran's Q was 11.265 (p = 0.793 with 16 degrees of freedom), and the Higgins' I 2 was 0%. The CEUS had a sensitivity of 0.981 (95% CI: 0.868-0.950) and a false positive rate of 0.018 (95% CI: 0.010-0.032) for identifying parenchymal injuries, with an AUC of 0.984. CEUS performed at emergency department had good diagnostic accuracy in identifying abdominal solid organ injuries. CEUS can be recommended in monitoring solid organ injuries, especially for patients managed with non-operative strategy.

  6. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  7. Differential analgesic effects of low-dose epidural morphine and morphine-bupivacaine at rest and during mobilization after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J; Hansen, B L

    1992-01-01

    In a double-blind, randomized study, epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) combined with low-dose bupivacaine (10 mg/h) were compared with epidural infusions of low-dose morphine (0.2 mg/h) alone for postoperative analgesia at rest and during mobilization and cough in 24 patients after...... elective major abdominal surgery. All patients in addition received systemic piroxicam (20 mg daily). No significant differences were observed between the groups at any assessment of pain at rest (P greater than 0.05), whereas pain in the morphine/bupivacaine group was significantly reduced during...... mobilization from the supine into the sitting position 12 and 30 h after surgical incision and during cough 8, 12, and 30 h after surgical incision (P less than 0.05). We conclude, that low-dose epidural bupivacaine potentiates postoperative low-dose epidural morphine analgesia during mobilization and cough...

  8. 1950-nm diode laser-assisted microanastomoses (LAMA): an innovative surgical tool for hand surgery emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Schoofs, Michel; Vogt, Peter; Casoli, Vincent; Mordon, Serge

    2015-05-01

    Based on previous observations, the 1950-nm diode laser seems to be an ideal wavelength for laser microvascular anastomoses. The data presented here, part of a larger ongoing study, assess its use in emergency hand surgery. Between 2011 and 2014, 11 patients were operated on for hand trauma with laser-assisted microanastomoses (LAMA) and prospectively analysed. LAMA was performed with a 1950-nm diode laser after placement of equidistant stitches. For vessel size laser parameters were used: spot size 400 μm, five spots for each wall, power 125 mW, and arterial/venous fluence 100/90 J/cm(2) (spot duration 1/0.9 s). Mean operating time for arterial and venous microanastomoses was 7.3 ± 1.4 and 8.7 ± 1.0 min, respectively. Three anastomoses required a secondary laser application. Arterial and venous patency rates were 100 % at the time of surgery. The success rate for the 11 procedures assessed clinically and with the Doppler was 100 %. The technique is compared to the current literature. The 1950-nm LAMA is a reliable tool with excellent results in emergency hand surgery. The system is very compact and transportable for utilization in the emergency operating room.

  9. The value of intra-abdominal pressure monitoring through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypertension after abdominal closure (8%) and only one of ... Ann Pediatr. Surg 13:69–73 c 2017 Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Annals of ... intra-abdominal hypertension ..... measurements as a guide in the closure of abdominal wall defects.

  10. Testing the generalizability of national reimbursement rates with respect to local setting: the costs of abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Løvstad Christensen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Søren Løvstad Christensen1, Mette Kjoelby1,2, Lars Ehlers31Health Technology Assessment and Health Services Research, Centre for Public Health, Central Denmark Region, Denmark; 2School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Denmark; 3Health Economics and Management, Aalborg University, DenmarkObjective: The purpose of this study is to investigate if the Danish national diagnosis-related group (DRG tariffs for surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA were good estimates of the actual costs in two local hospitals in the Central Region of Denmark.Methods: We collected clinical data for 178 AAA patients operated at Skejby Hospital and Viborg Hospital in the period 2005–2006 from the Danish National Vascular Registry and economic data from the administrative systems in the hospitals. We used bootstrap methods to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the mean costs of surgery for ruptured AAA, nonruptured AAA and AAA where the patient died within 30 days by applying a cost-trimming rule that the Danish National Board of Health uses in calculating national DRG tariffs.Results: The national DRG tariff lies within the calculated Danish Krone (DKK CIs (CI ruptured AAA, 98,178–195,327 [€13,196–€26,254]; CI nonruptured AAA, 79,039–98,178 [€10,624–€13,196]; CI dead, 42,023–111,685 [€5,648–€15,011], and thus national DRG tariffs could be a good estimate for the actual costs in the local hospitals.Conclusion: The bootstrap method is useful for testing the generalizability of national DRG tariffs as estimates of local surgical costs.Keywords: bootstrap method, costs, DRG, abdominal aortic aneurysm

  11. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of levobupivacaine, levobupivacaine and clonidine, and levobupivacaine and dexmedetomidine in wound infiltration technique for abdominal surgeries: A prospective randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Jyothi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to evaluate the postoperative analgesic efficacy of levobupivacaine (L alone and its combination with clonidine (C or dexmedetomidine (D in wound infiltration technique for abdominal surgeries. Materials and Methods: After ethical committee approval, a double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted on 90 patients (power of study 80%, physical status American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II, aged 18–60 years scheduled for abdominal surgeries over 1 year duration. A standard general anesthetic technique was used. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups, by computer-generated random number table. Patients received wound infiltration during wound closure. Group L received 29 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine plus 1 ml 0.9% normal saline, Group LC received 29 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine with 1 ml (3 mcg/kg clonidine, and Group LD received 29 ml of 0.25% levobupivacaine with 1 ml (2 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine. Postoperative rescue analgesia was provided with injection tramadol. Statistical analysis for duration of analgesia was determined by one-way analysis of variance and side effects by Chi-square test. Results: The total duration of analgesia in LD group was 23.4 h, when compared to LC group 20.9 h and L group 11.65 h (P = 0.0001 with excellent to good quality of analgesia in adjuvant group (P < 0.001 and incidence of minimal side effects such as sedation, nausea, and vomiting. Conclusion: Clonidine and dexmedetomidine were the effective adjuvants to levobupivacaine for single shot wound infiltration analgesic technique; however, dexmedetomidine was found to be superior to clonidine.

  12. COMPARISON OF ROPIVACAINE (0.75% AND BUPIVACAINE (0.5% FOR EPIDURAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS POSTED FOR ELECTIVE LOWER ABDOMINAL AND EXTREMITY SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional anaesthesia is becoming one of the most useful and versatile procedures in modern anesthesiology. Bupivacaine is a long acting amide local anaesthetic which is widely used since years, but it is associated with a many side effects like Central Nervous System (CNS toxicity and cardio toxicity. Ropivacaine is a newly introduced long acting amide local anaesthetic drug in India which has been developed as a possible alternative to Bupivacaine. It has a lower lipophilicity than bupivacaine and hence associated with a decreased potential f or CNS and cardiotoxicity. AIMS : The aim of the study was to compare the time of onset of sensory block and duration of sensory and motor blockade, duration of analgesia of epidural anaesthesia produced by bupivacaine 0.5% and ropivacaine 0.75% for lower a bdominal & limb surgery. METHODS : A prospective randomised study 60 patients, aged between 18 - 60 years, ASA 1 and 2, undergoing various lower abdominal & limb surgeries were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 30 each. Group B received 15ml of 0.5% bupivacai ne and group R received 15 ml of 0.75% bupivacaine epidurally. The time of onset of sensory, intensity of motor block, duration of sensory and motor block and hemodynamic changes were assessed. RESULTS : The time of onset and duration of sensory block was comparable for both the drugs. Bupivacaine 0.5% produced more intensity and longer duration of motor block than ropivacaine 0.75%. Both the drugs were comparable with respect to hemodynamic changes. CONC LUSION : Epidural ropivacaine 0.75% can be safely used as a possible alternative to bupivacaine 0.5% in lower abdominal and extremity procedures

  13. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathi, Ramon; Sage, Michael; Slavotinek, John; Hanieh, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    A case of an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is reported to illustrate this known but rare complication. In the setting of a VP shunt, the frequency of abdominal CSF pseudocyst formation is approximately 3.2%, often being precipitated by a recent inflammatory or infective process or recent surgery. Larger pseudocysts tend to be sterile, whereas smaller pseudocysts are more often infected. Ultrasound and CTeach have characteristic findings Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  14. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Surgical Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, affect ... timely surgical intervention is crucial. Key words: .... On the second postoperative day, he was noted to be restless ... Although surgery is very effective in managing ACS.

  15. [Intra-anesthetic arterial hypotension in elderly patients during emergency surgery: what are the risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubacar Ba, El Hadji; Leye, Papa Alassane; Traoré, Mamadou Mour; Ndiaye, Pape Ibrahima; Gaye, Ibrahima; Bah, Mamadou Diawo; Fall, Mamadou Lamine; Diouf, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Emergency anesthesia in elderly patients aged 65 years and older is complex. The occurrence of intraoperative incidents and arterial hypotension is conditioned by patients' initial health status and by the quality of intraoperative management. This study aimed to determine the incidence of intra-anesthetic arterial hypotension in elderly patients during emergency surgery and to assess the involvement of certain factors in its occurrence: age, sex, patient's history, ASA class, anesthetic technique. We conducted a retrospective descriptive and analytical study in the Emergency Surgery Department at the Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital from 1 March 2014 to 28 February 2015. We collected data from 210 patients out of 224 elderly patients aged 65 years and older undergoing emergency anesthesias (10.93%). Data of 101 men and 109 women were included in the analysis, of whom 64.3% had at least one defect. Patients' preoperative status was assessed using American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) classification: 71% of patients were ASA class 1 and 2 and 29% were ASA class 3 and 4. Locoregional anesthesia was the most practiced anesthetic technique (56.7%). 28 patients (13.33%) had intra-anesthetic arterial hypotension, of whom 16 under general anesthesia and 12 under locoregional anesthesia. It was more frequent in patients with high ASA class and a little less frequent in patients with PAH and underlying heart disease. Arterial hypotension in elderly patients during emergency surgery exposes the subject to the risk of not negligible intraoperative hypotension, especially in patients with high ASA class. Prevention is based on adequate preoperative assessment and anesthetic management.

  16. Assessing the prevalence and clinical relevance of positive abdominal and pelvic CT findings in senior patients presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabousi, Abdullah; Patlas, Michael N; Meshki, Malek; Monteiro, Sandra; Katz, Douglas S

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the prevalence and clinical relevance of positive abdominal and pelvic CT findings for patients 65 years of age and older, when compared with all other scanned adult Emergency Department (ED) patients, at a single tertiary care hospital. Our hypothesis was that there is an increased prevalence and clinical relevance of positive abdominal/pelvic CT findings in senior patients. A research ethics board-approved retrospective review of all adult patients who underwent an emergency CT of the abdomen and pelvis for acute nontraumatic abdominal and/or pelvic signs and symptoms was performed. Two thousand one hundred two patients between October 1, 2011, and September 30, 2013, were reviewed. Six hundred thirty-one patients were included in the 65 group (209 men and 253 women; mean age 77.6, age range 65-99). Overall, there were more positive CT findings for patients 65 group (257 positive cases, 55.6 %), which was a statistically significant difference (p 65 group, there were no statistically significant differences in the clinical/surgical relevance of the positive CT findings between the two groups. The findings of our retrospective study therefore refute our hypothesis that there is an increased prevalence of positive abdominal CT findings in patients >65. This may be related to ED physicians at our institution being more hesitant to order CT examinations for the younger population, presumably due to radiation concerns. However, older patients in our series were more likely to present with complicated appendicitis, and a lower threshold for ordering CT examinations of the abdomen and pelvis in this patient population should therefore be considered.

  17. Computed tomography and nonoperative treatment for blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shinsuke; Ishi, Takashi; Kamachi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine if computed tomography (CT) could reliably assist physical examination in the initial assessment of blunt abdominal trauma, and also to examine how various abdominal injuries were managed with the guidance of CT. A total of 255 patients underwent emergency abdominal CT following blunt abdominal trauma over a period of seven years. One hundred and fifty two patients had abnormal CT scans, including 58 hepatic, 36 renal, 25 splenic and 9 pancreatic injuries as well as 67 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 21 patients with free abdominal air. A comparative study on the detection of pneumoperitoneum revealed CT to be far superior to plain radiography. One hundred and three patients had normal CT scans, all of whom were managed nonoperatively, except for three false-negative cases and two nontherapeutic cases. The patients with injury to the parenchymal organs were given nonoperative treatment if they had stable vital signs and no evidence of associated injuries demanding immediate surgery and the majority of these patients were managed well nonoperatively. CT was thus found to be a useful adjunct in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, since in a rapid and noninvasive fashion, CT accurately defined the extent of parenchymal organ injury and also disclosed any other abdominal injuries. (author)

  18. Computed tomography and nonoperative treatment for blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shinsuke; Ishi, Takashi; Kamachi, Masahiro [Saiseikai Shiga Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Takahashi, Toshio

    1990-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine if computed tomography (CT) could reliably assist physical examination in the initial assessment of blunt abdominal trauma, and also to examine how various abdominal injuries were managed with the guidance of CT. A total of 255 patients underwent emergency abdominal CT following blunt abdominal trauma over a period of seven years. One hundred and fifty two patients had abnormal CT scans, including 58 hepatic, 36 renal, 25 splenic and 9 pancreatic injuries as well as 67 patients with intra-abdominal hemorrhage and 21 patients with free abdominal air. A comparative study on the detection of pneumoperitoneum revealed CT to be far superior to plain radiography. One hundred and three patients had normal CT scans, all of whom were managed nonoperatively, except for three false-negative cases and two nontherapeutic cases. The patients with injury to the parenchymal organs were given nonoperative treatment if they had stable vital signs and no evidence of associated injuries demanding immediate surgery and the majority of these patients were managed well nonoperatively. CT was thus found to be a useful adjunct in the management of victims of blunt abdominal trauma, since in a rapid and noninvasive fashion, CT accurately defined the extent of parenchymal organ injury and also disclosed any other abdominal injuries. (author).

  19. Differential changes in free and total insulin-like growth factor I after major, elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, Christian; Frystyk, Jan; Ørskov, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Major surgery is accompanied by extensive proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Proteolysis of IGFBP-3 is generally believed to increase IGF bioavailability due to a diminished affinity of the IGFBP-3 fragments for IGFs. We have investigated 18 patients...... undergoing elective ileo-anal J-pouch surgery. Patients were randomized to treatment with GH (12 IU/day; n = 9) or placebo (n = 9) from 2 days before to 7 days after operation. Free IGF-I and IGF-II were measured by ultrafiltration of serum, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity was determined by a [125I...

  20. Clinical assessment of peripheral perfusion to predict postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery early: A prospective observational study in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Genderen (Michel); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J. de Jonge (Jeroen); R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); J. Bakker (Jan); J. van Bommel (Jasper)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Altered peripheral perfusion is strongly associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. We wanted to determine whether repeated assessments of peripheral perfusion during the days following surgery could help to early identify patients that are more likely to

  1. Prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients receiving CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriphuwanun V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Visith Siriphuwanun,1 Yodying Punjasawadwong,1 Worawut Lapisatepun,1 Somrat Charuluxananan,2 Ketchada Uerpairojkit2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for death and survival with or without complications in cardiac arrest patients who received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR within 24 hours of receiving anesthesia for emergency surgery. Patients and methods: A retrospective cohort study approved by the Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital Ethical Committee. Data used were taken from records of 751 cardiac arrest patients who received their first CPR within 24 hours of anesthesia for emergency surgery between January 1, 2003 and October 31, 2011. The reviewed data included patient characteristics, surgical procedures, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA physical status classification, anesthesia information, the timing of cardiac arrest, CPR details, and outcomes at 24 hours after CPR. Univariate and polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to determine prognostic factors associated with the outcome variable. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The outcomes at 24 hours were death (638/751, 85.0%, survival with complications (73/751, 9.7%, and survival without complications (40/751, 5.3%. The prognostic factors associated with death were: age between 13–34 years (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.03–9.19; ASA physical status three and higher (OR =6.60, 95% CI =2.17–20.13; precardiopulmonary comorbidity (OR =3.28, 95% CI =1.09–9.90; the condition of patients who were on mechanical ventilation prior to receiving anesthesia (OR =4.11, 95% CI =1.17–14.38; surgery in the upper abdominal site (OR =14.64, 95% CI =2.83–75.82; shock prior to cardiac arrest (OR =6.24, 95% CI =2.53–15

  2. TextWithSurgeryPatients - A Research Hypothesis in Enhancing Education and Physical Assessment for Abdominal Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Medical surgical nurses may not have the time or resources to provide effective pre- and post-operative instructions for patients in today's healthcare system. And, making timely physical assessments following discharge from the hospital is not always straightforward. Therefore, the risk for readmission associated with post-surgical complications is a concern. At present, mobile healthcare technologies and patient care are precipitously evolving and may serve as a resource to enhance communication between the healthcare provider and patient. A mobile telephone text message (short message service [SMS]) intervention for abdominal surgical patients may foster effective education (communication) and timely self-reported physical assessment in the home environment hence preventing deleterious outcomes. The aim of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using a SMS intervention via smart phones to improve health outcomes via timely communication, reach large numbers of at-risk surgical patients and, establish and sustain uniform protocols in a cost-efficient manner.

  3. The Different Volume Effects of Small-Bowel Toxicity During Pelvic Irradiation Between Gynecologic Patients With and Without Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Study With Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, E.-Y.; Sung, C.-C.; Ko, S.-F.; Wang, C.-J.; Yang, Kuender D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of abdominal surgery on the volume effects of small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From May 2003 through November 2006, 80 gynecologic patients without (Group I) or with (Group II) prior abdominal surgery were analyzed. We used a computed tomography (CT) planning system to measure the small-bowel volume and dosimetry. We acquired the range of small-bowel volume in 10% (V10) to 100% (V100) of dose, at 10% intervals. The onset and grade of diarrhea during whole-pelvic irradiation were recorded as small-bowel toxicity up to 39.6 Gy in 22 fractions. Results: The volume effect of Grade 2-3 diarrhea existed from V10 to V100 in Group I patients and from V60 to V100 in Group II patients on univariate analyses. The V40 of Group I and the V100 of Group II achieved most statistical significance. The mean V40 was 281 ± 27 cm 3 and 489 ± 34 cm 3 (p 3 and 132 ± 19 cm 3 (p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses revealed that V40 (p = 0.001) and V100 (p = 0.027) were independent factors for the development of Grade 2-3 diarrhea in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Gynecologic patients without and with abdominal surgery have different volume effects on small-bowel toxicity during whole-pelvic irradiation. Low-dose volume can be used as a predictive index of Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients without abdominal surgery. Full-dose volume is more important than low-dose volume for Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in patients with abdominal surgery

  4. Nutritional risk in major abdominal surgery: NURIMAS Liver (DRKS00010923 – protocol of a prospective observational trial to evaluate the prognostic value of different nutritional scores in hepatic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Probst

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition is commonly known as a risk factor in surgical procedures. The nutritional status seems particularly relevant to the clinical outcome of patients undergoing hepatic resection. Thus, identifying affected individuals and taking preventive therapeutic actions before surgery is an important task. However, there are only very few studies, that investigate which existing nutritional assessment score (NAS is suited best to predict the postoperative outcome in liver surgery. Objective: Nutritional Risk in Major Abdominal Surgery (NURIMAS Liver is a prospective observational trial that analyses the predictive value of 12 different NAS for postoperative morbidity and mortality after liver resection. Methods: After admission to the surgical department of the University Hospital in Heidelberg or the municipal hospital of Karlsruhe, all patients scheduled for elective liver resection will be screened for eligibility. Participants will fill in a questionnaire and undergo a physical examination in order to evaluate nutritional status according to Nutritional Risk Index, Nutritional Risk Screening Score, Subjective Global Assessment, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Imperial Nutritional Screening System, Imperial Nutritional Screening System II, Nutritional Risk Classification and the ESPEN malnutrition criteria. Postoperative morbidity and mortality will be tracked prospectively throughout the postoperative course. The association of malnutrition according to each score and occurrence of at least one major complication will be analysed using both chi-squared tests and a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Already established risk factors in liver surgery will be added as covariates. Discussion: NURIMAS Liver is a bicentric, prospective observational trial. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of clinical nutritional assessment

  5. Abdominal wall hernias: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rosas, George de Queiroz; Mota, Marcos Alexandre; Akisue, Sandra R. Tsukada; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo.

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are a common clinical problem Clinical diagnosis of abdominal hernias can sometimes be challenging, particularly in obese patients or patients with previous abdominal surgery. CT scan of the abdomen allows visualization of hernias and their contents and the differentiation from other masses of the abdominal wall such as tumors, hematomas and abscesses. Moreover, CT may identify complications such as incarceration, bowel obstruction, volvulus and strangulation. This study illustrates the CT scan findings observed in different types of abdominal wall hernias. (author)

  6. Outcomes of hospitalized patients undergoing emergency general surgery remote from admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharoky, Catherine E; Bailey, Elizabeth A; Sellers, Morgan M; Kaufman, Elinore J; Sinnamon, Andrew J; Wirtalla, Christopher J; Holena, Daniel N; Kelz, Rachel R

    2017-09-01

    Emergency general surgery during hospitalization has not been well characterized. We examined emergency operations remote from admission to identify predictors of postoperative 30-day mortality, postoperative duration of stay >30 days, and complications. Patients >18 years in The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (2011-2014) who had 1 of 7 emergency operations between hospital day 3-18 were included. Patients with operations >95th percentile after admission (>18 days; n = 581) were excluded. Exploratory laparotomy only (with no secondary procedure) represented either nontherapeutic or decompressive laparotomy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of study outcomes. Of 10,093 patients with emergency operations, most were elderly (median 66 years old [interquartile ratio: 53-77 years]), white, and female. Postoperative 30-day mortality was 12.6% (n = 1,275). Almost half the cohort (40.1%) had a complication. A small subset (6.8%) had postoperative duration of stay >30 days. Postoperative mortality after exploratory laparotomy only was particularly high (>40%). In multivariable analysis, an operation on hospital day 11-18 compared with day 3-6 was associated with death (odds ratio 1.6 [1.3-2.0]), postoperative duration of stay >30 days (odds ratio 2.0 [1.6-2.6]), and complications (odds ratio 1.5 [1.3-1.8]). Exploratory laparotomy only also was associated with death (odds ratio 5.4 [2.8-10.4]). Emergency general surgery performed during a hospitalization is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A longer hospital course before an emergency operation is a predictor of poor outcomes, as is undergoing exploratory laparotomy only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Emergency assessment of patients with acute abdominal pain using low-dose CT with iterative reconstruction: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Becker, Minerva; Becker, Christoph D.; Zaidi, Habib; Platon, Alexandra [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Radiology, Geneva (Switzerland); Halfon Poletti, Alice; Rutschmann, Olivier T. [University Hospital of Geneva, Department of Community, Primary Care and Emergency Medicine, Geneva (Switzerland); Perneger, Thomas [University Hospital of Geneva, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-08-15

    To determine if radiation dose delivered by contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for acute abdominal pain can be reduced to the dose administered in abdominal radiography (<2.5 mSv) using low-dose CT (LDCT) with iterative reconstruction algorithms. One hundred and fifty-one consecutive patients requiring CECT for acute abdominal pain were included, and their body mass index (BMI) was calculated. CECT was immediately followed by LDCT. LDCT series was processed using 1) 40% iterative reconstruction algorithm blended with filtered back projection (LDCT-IR-FBP) and 2) model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (LDCT-MBIR). LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR images were reviewed independently by two board-certified radiologists (Raters 1 and 2). Abdominal pathology was revealed on CECT in 120 (79%) patients. In those with BMI <30, accuracies for correct diagnosis by Rater 1 with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR, when compared to CECT, were 95.4% (104/109) and 99% (108/109), respectively, and 92.7% (101/109) and 100% (109/109) for Rater 2. In patients with BMI ≥30, accuracies with LDCT-IR-FBP and LDCT-MBIR were 88.1% (37/42) and 90.5% (38/42) for Rater 1 and 78.6% (33/42) and 92.9% (39/42) for Rater 2. The radiation dose delivered by CT to non-obese patients with acute abdominal pain can be safely reduced to levels close to standard radiography using LDCT-MBIR. (orig.)

  8. [Pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium after elective ambulatory surgery: etiology, risk factors and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gololobov, Alik; Todris, Liat; Berman, Yakov; Rosenberg-Gilad, Zipi; Schlaeffer, Pnina; Kenett, Ron; Ben-Jacob, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-04-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a common problem among children and adults recovering from general anesthesia after surgery. Its symptoms include psychomotor agitation, hallucinations, and aggressive behavior. The phenomenon, which is most probably an adverse effect of general anesthesia agents, harms the recovery process and endangers the physical safety of patients and their health. Ranging between 10% and 80%, the exact prevalence of ED is unknown, and the risk factors of the phenomenon are unclear. The aim of the current retrospective study was to determine the prevalence rate of ED in 3947 children recovering from general anesthesia after short elective ambulatory surgery, and to map the influence of various risk factors on this phenomenon. Data were collected using electronic medical records. ED severity was assessed using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium Scale. Results showed the prevalence of ED among children. ED was significantly correlated with patients' age, type of surgery and premedication. ED was not correlated with severity of pain, type of anesthesia or with patients' sex.

  9. Analysis of 230 cases of emergent surgery for obstructing colon cancer--lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslar, Ahmet Kessaf; Ozdemir, Süleyman; Mahmoudi, Hatim; Kuzu, Mehmet Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to identify prognostic factors affecting clinical outcomes in emergent primary resection. A retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data of 230 consecutive emergent patients between August 1994 and January 2005 were evaluated in this study. Sixty-nine patients applied with right colon obstruction and 161 patients with left. Resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in 128 patients and resection and stoma in 102 patients. The patients were divided into two cohorts: patients who developed poor outcome within 30 days after surgery and those who did not. Major morbidity or mortality were reported in 60 (26.1%) patients. Analysis revealed that the most important prognostic factors for poor outcome were American Anesthesiology Association (ASA) grade ≥3, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score ≥11, age >60 years, presence of peritonitis, and surgery during on-call hours. Age >60 years and on-call surgery were determinant factors in right-sided obstructions, whereas ASA grade ≥3, APACHE II score ≥11, and presence of peritonitis were determinant factors in left-sided obstructions. All these factors but the timing of the operation emphasize the pivotal role of the patient's physiological condition on admission. Accurate preoperative evaluation might predict the clinical outcome and help in establishing the most appropriate treatment.

  10. Emergency pediatric surgery: Comparing the economic burden in specialized versus nonspecialized children's centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasnovsky, Charlotte L; Lumpkins, Kimberly; Diaz, Jose J; Chun, Jeannie Y

    2018-05-01

    The American College of Surgeons has developed a verification program for children's surgery centers. Highly specialized hospitals may be verified as Level I, while those with fewer dedicated resources as Level II or Level III, respectively. We hypothesized that more specialized children's centers would utilize more resources. We performed a retrospective study of the Maryland Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC) database from 2009 to 2013. We assessed total charge, length of stay (LOS), and charge per day for all inpatients with an emergency pediatric surgery diagnosis, controlling for severity of illness (SOI). Using published resources, we assigned theoretical level designations to each hospital. Two hospitals would qualify as Level 1 hospitals, with 4593 total emergency pediatric surgery admissions (38.5%) over the five-year study period. Charges were significantly higher for children treated at Level I hospitals (all P<0.0001). Across all SOI, children at Level I hospitals had significantly longer LOS (all P<0.0001). Hospitals defined as Level II and Level III provided the majority of care and were able to do so with shorter hospitalizations and lower charges, regardless of SOI. As care shifts towards specialized centers, this charge differential may have significant impact on future health care costs. Level III Cost Effectiveness Study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Current and emerging basic science concepts in bone biology: implications in craniofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J; Mesa, John; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research in bone biology has brought cutting-edge technologies into everyday use in craniofacial surgery. Nonetheless, when osseous defects of the craniomaxillofacial skeleton are encountered, autogenous bone grafting remains the criterion standard for reconstruction. Accordingly, the core principles of bone graft physiology continue to be of paramount importance. Bone grafts, however, are not a panacea; donor site morbidity and operative risk are among the limitations of autologous bone graft harvest. Bone graft survival is impaired when irradiation, contamination, and impaired vascularity are encountered. Although the dura can induce calvarial ossification in children younger than 2 years, the repair of critical-size defects in the pediatric population may be hindered by inadequate bone graft donor volume. The novel and emerging field of bone tissue engineering holds great promise as a limitless source of autogenous bone. Three core constituents of bone tissue engineering have been established: scaffolds, signals, and cells. Blood supply is the sine qua non of these components, which are used both individually and concertedly in regenerative craniofacial surgery. The discerning craniofacial surgeon must determine the proper use for these bone graft alternatives, while understanding their concomitant risks. This article presents a review of contemporary and emerging concepts in bone biology and their implications in craniofacial surgery. Current practices, areas of controversy, and near-term future applications are emphasized.

  12. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankareddi Vijaya Lakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma is an emergency and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to study incidence, demographic profile, epidemiological factors, mechanism of trauma, treatment modalities, associated injuries, postoperative complications and morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 72 patients of blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted in government general hospital between May 2013 to April 2015 in Department of General Surgery, Government General Hospital, Guntur, with in a span of 24 months were studied. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcome were studied. RESULTS Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-30 years. Spleen was the commonest organ involved and most common procedure performed was splenectomy. Most common extra-abdominal injury was rib fractures. Wound infection was the commonest complication. CONCLUSION Initial resuscitative measures, thorough clinical examination and correct diagnosis forms the vital part of the management. FAST is more useful in blunt abdominal trauma patients who are unstable. X-ray revealed 100% accuracy in hollow viscous perforation in blunt abdominal trauma patients. CT abdomen is more useful in stable patients. Definitive indication for laparotomy was haemodynamic instability and peritonitis. Associated injuries influenced morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save many lives.

  13. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun; Song, Mi Kyong

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi Kyong [Yonsei University, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. (orig.)

  15. Recurrent sigmoid volvulus - early resection may obviate later emergency surgery and reduce morbidity and mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, J O

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Acute sigmoid volvulus is a well recognised cause of acute large bowel obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed our unit\\'s experience with non-operative and operative management of this condition. A total of 27 patients were treated for acute sigmoid volvulus between 1996 and 2006. In total, there were 62 separate hospital admissions. RESULTS: Eleven patients were managed with colonoscopic decompression alone. The overall mortality rate for non-operative management was 36.4% (4 of 11 patients). Fifteen patients had operative management (five semi-elective following decompression, 10 emergency). There was no mortality in the semi-elective cohort and one in the emergency surgery group. The overall mortality for surgery was 6% (1 of 15). Five of the seven patients managed with colonoscopic decompression alone who survived were subsequently re-admitted with sigmoid volvulus (a 71.4% recurrence rate). The six deaths in our overall series each occurred in patients with established gangrene of the bowel. With early surgical intervention before the onset of gangrene, however, good outcomes may be achieved, even in patients apparently unsuitable for elective surgery. Eight of the 15 operatively managed patients were considered to be ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade 4. There was no postoperative mortality in this group. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rate of recurrence of sigmoid volvulus after initial successful non-operative management and the attendant risks of mortality from gangrenous bowel developing with a subsequent volvulus, it is our contention that all patients should be considered for definitive surgery after initial colonoscopic decompression, irrespective of the ASA score.

  16. Patients Presenting to the Emergency Unit with Gynaecological Lower Abdominal Pain, with and without Pathological Clinical Findings - Service Utilisation, Pain History, Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentopf, F; Wowro, E; Möckel, M; Kentenich, H; David, M

    2016-09-01

    Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. Results: Over one third of cases did not constitute actual medical emergencies on objective criteria, with investigations yielding "no pathological findings". Parameters were identified that more often lead to hospital admission, e.g. palpation of a mass/resistance or at least one pathological ultrasound finding. In addition, it was found that symptoms of longer duration (average 8 days), and not only acute LAP, were also often experienced by patients as emergencies. Conclusion: A diagnosis of "no pathological findings", which was common in our study, suggests a subjective experience of an emergency from the patient's point of view, although the possibility of unrecognised pathology has to be borne in mind. Apart from functional disorders, the origins of symptoms may include psychosomatic causes and psychosocial problems, which cannot be further defined in the emergency care setting. Also, the phenomenon of increased utilisation of emergency services parallel to the assumed opening hours of routine outpatient care facilities must be seen in a critical light.

  17. Perioperative factors predicting poor outcome in elderly patients following emergency general surgery: a multivariate regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Mackenzie C.; Merani, Shaheed; Tauh, Keerit; Khadaroo, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults (≥ 65 yr) are the fastest growing population and are presenting in increasing numbers for acute surgical care. Emergency surgery is frequently life threatening for older patients. Our objective was to identify predictors of mortality and poor outcome among elderly patients undergoing emergency general surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients aged 65–80 years undergoing emergency general surgery between 2009 and 2010 at a tertiary care centre. Demographics, comorbidities, in-hospital complications, mortality and disposition characteristics of patients were collected. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify covariate-adjusted predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge of patients home. Results Our analysis included 257 patients with a mean age of 72 years; 52% were men. In-hospital mortality was 12%. Mortality was associated with patients who had higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (odds ratio [OR] 3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–10.33, p = 0.008) and in-hospital complications (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.32–2.83, p = 0.001). Nearly two-thirds of patients discharged home were younger (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.85–0.99, p = 0.036), had lower ASA class (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.27–0.74, p = 0.002) and fewer in-hospital complications (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53–0.90, p = 0.007). Conclusion American Society of Anesthesiologists class and in-hospital complications are perioperative predictors of mortality and disposition in the older surgical population. Understanding the predictors of poor outcome and the importance of preventing in-hospital complications in older patients will have important clinical utility in terms of preoperative counselling, improving health care and discharging patients home. PMID:26204143

  18. Emergency general surgery in a low-middle income health care setting: Determinants of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Latif, Asad; Zogg, Cheryl K; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Riviello, Robert; Halim, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Zia; Haider, Adil H; Zafar, Hasnain

    2016-02-01

    Emergency general surgery (EGS) has emerged as an important component of frontline operative care. Efforts in high-income settings have described its burden but have yet to consider low- and middle-income health care settings in which emergent conditions represent a high proportion of operative need. The objective of this study was to describe the disease spectrum of EGS conditions and associated factors among patients presenting in a low-middle income context. March 2009-April 2014 discharge data from a university teaching hospital in South Asia were obtained for patients (≥16 years) with primary International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes consistent with an EGS condition as defined by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and occurrence of ≥1 major complication(s). Multivariable analyses were performed, adjusting for differences in demographic and case-mix factors. A total of 13,893 discharge records corresponded to EGS conditions. Average age was 47.2 years (±16.8, standard deviation), with a male preponderance (59.9%). The majority presented with admitting diagnoses of biliary disease (20.2%), followed by soft-tissue disorders (15.7%), hernias (14.9%), and colorectal disease (14.3%). Rates of death and complications were 2.7% and 6.6%, respectively; increasing age was an independent predictor of both. Patients in need of resuscitation (n = 225) had the greatest rates of mortality (72.9%) and complications (94.2%). This study takes an important step toward quantifying outcomes and complications of EGS, providing one of the first assessments of EGS conditions using American Association for the Surgery of Trauma definitions in a low-middle income health care setting. Further efforts in varied settings are needed to promote representative benchmarking worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Geriatric emergency general surgery: Survival and outcomes in a low-middle income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Haider, Adil H; Riviello, Robert; Zogg, Cheryl K; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Latif, Asad; Rios Diaz, Arturo J; Rehman, Zia; Zafar, Hasnain

    2015-08-01

    Geriatric patients remain largely unstudied in low-middle income health care settings. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology and outcomes of older versus younger adults with emergency general surgical conditions in South Asia. Discharge data from March 2009 to April 2014 were obtained for all adult patients (≥16 years) with an International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes consistent with an emergency general surgery condition as defined by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. Multivariable regression analyses compared patients >65 years of age with patients ≤65 years for differences in all-cause mortality, major complications, and duration of hospital stay. Models were adjusted for potential confounding owing to patient demographic and clinical case-mix data with propensity scores. We included 13,893 patients; patients >65 years constituted 15% (n = 2,123) of the cohort. Relative to younger patients, older adults were more likely to present with a number of emergency general surgery conditions, including gastrointestinal bleeding (odds ratio OR [95% CI], 2.63[1.99-3.46]), resuscitation (2.17 [1.67-2.80]), and peptic ulcer disease (2.09 [1.40-3.10]). They had an 89% greater risk-adjusted odds (1.89 [1.55-2.29]) of complications and a 63% greater odds (1.63 [1.21-2.20]) of mortality. Restricted to patients undergoing operative interventions, older adults had 95% greater odds (1.95 [1.29-2.94]) of complications and 117% greater odds (2.17 [1.62-2.91]) of mortality. Understanding unique needs of geriatric patients is critical to enhancing the management and prioritization of appropriate care in developing settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanta Kumar Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management ...

  1. Emergency readmissions to paediatric surgery and urology: The impact of inappropriate coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraully, R; Henderson, K; Davies, B

    2016-04-01

    Introduction In England, emergency readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge after an elective admission are not reimbursed if they do not meet Payment by Results (PbR) exclusion criteria. However, coding errors could inappropriately penalise hospitals. We aimed to assess the accuracy of coding for emergency readmissions. Methods Emergency readmissions attributed to paediatric surgery and urology between September 2012 and August 2014 to our tertiary referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Payment by Results (PbR) coding data were obtained from the hospital's Family Health Directorate. Clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records. All readmissions were categorised as appropriately coded (postoperative or nonoperative) or inappropriately coded (planned surgical readmission, unrelated surgical admission, unrelated medical admission or coding error). Results Over the 24-month period, 241 patients were coded as 30-day readmissions, with 143 (59%) meeting the PbR exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 98 (41%) patients, 24 (25%) were inappropriately coded as emergency readmissions. These readmissions resulted in 352 extra bed days, of which 117 (33%) were attributable to inappropriately coded cases. Conclusions One-quarter of non-excluded emergency readmissions were inappropriately coded, accounting for one-third of additional bed days. As a stay on a paediatric ward costs up to £500 a day, the potential cost to our institution due to inappropriate readmission coding was over £50,000. Diagnoses and the reason for admission for each care episode should be accurately documented and coded, and readmission data should be reviewed at a senior clinician level.

  2. Social media in plastic surgery practices: emerging trends in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Chad K; Said, Hakim; Prucz, Roni; Rodrich, Rod J; Mathes, David W

    2011-05-01

    Social media is a common term for web-based applications that offer a way to disseminate information to a targeted audience in real time. In the current market, many businesses are utilizing it to communicate with clients. Although the field of plastic surgery is constantly changing in response to innovative technologies introduced into the specialty, the utilization of social media in plastic surgery practices is currently unclear. The authors evaluate the current attitudes and practices of aesthetic surgeons to emerging social media technology and compare these to attitudes about more traditional modes of communication. A 19-question web-based survey was disseminated by e-mail to all board-certified or board-eligible American plastic surgeons (n = 4817). Respondents were asked to answer questions on three topics: (1) their use of social media in their personal and professional lives, (2) their various forms of practice marketing, and (3) their demographic information. There were 1000 responses (20.8%). Results showed that 28.2% of respondents used social media in their practice, while 46.7% used it in their personal life. Most plastic surgeons managed their social media themselves or through a staff member. The majority of respondents who used social media in their practice claimed that their efforts were directed toward patient referrals. The typical plastic surgery practice that used social media was a solo practice in a large city with a focus on cosmetic surgery. Local competition of plastic surgeons did not correlate with social media use. Most plastic surgeons (88%) advertised, but the form of marketing varied. The most common forms included websites, print, and search engine optimization, but other modalities, such as television, radio, and billboards, were still utilized. Social media represents a new avenue that many plastic surgeons are utilizing, although with trepidation. As social media becomes commonplace in society, its role in plastic surgery

  3. Perioperative hyperoxia - Long-term impact on cardiovascular complications after abdominal surgery, a post hoc analysis of the PROXI trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnes, Siv; Gogenur, Ismail; Sondergaard, Edith Smed

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased long-term mortality was found in patients exposed to perioperative hyperoxia in the PROXI trial, where patients undergoing laparotomy were randomised to 80% versus 30% oxygen during and after surgery. This post hoc follow-up study assessed the impact of perioperative hyperoxia...... included myocardial infarction, other heart disease, and acute coronary syndrome or death. Data were analysed in the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The primary outcome, acute coronary syndrome, occurred in 2.5% versus 1.3% in the 80% versus 30% oxygen group; HR 2.15 (95% CI 0.96-4.84). Patients...